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Sample records for additional language eal

  1. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  2. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  3. Raising Standards for Pupils Who Have English as an Additional Language (EAL) through Monitoring and Evaluation of Provision in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to further knowledge and understand how monitoring and evaluation of pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL) is undertaken in primary schools. This is a comparative study across primary schools using qualitative approaches to help gain insight into current good practice and identify future needs in EAL.…

  4. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-03-18

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective.

  5. Development of semantic processes for academic language in foundation phase EAL learners.

    PubMed

    Meirim, Giselle; Jordaan, Heila; Kallenbach, Amy; Rijhumal, Meera

    2010-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that language competence is central to educational success, primarily because literacy is inherently a language-based activity. Vocabulary knowledge specifically plays an important role in the acquisition of reading comprehension skills. Language in education practice in South Africa is currently highly controversial, as the implementation of home language or bilingual instruction policies has not been achieved in many schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of language skills in foundation phase English Additional Language (EAL) learners attending schools where English is the language of learning and teaching. A 3-year longitudinal investigation of the acquisition of some of the processes underlying language for academic purposes was undertaken using the semantics subtests of the Developmental Evaluation of Language Variation Criterion Referenced Edition (Seymour, Roeper & De Villiers, 2003). The results indicated that the majority of EAL learners improved with increased exposure to English in the academic environment and by the time they were in grade 3, were performing at a higher level than English First Language learners in grade 2. However, the effects of this protracted period of development on literacy attainment should be investigated. The significant individual variation in the learners' performance has implications for assessment and instruction of EAL learners and for the collaborative role of teachers and speech language therapists in the education system.

  6. Procedure for implementation of temperature-dependent mechanical property capability in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Robinson, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is presented to allow the use of temperature dependent mechanical properties in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) System for solid structural elements. This is accomplished by including a modular runstream in the main EAL runstream. The procedure is applicable for models with multiple materials and with anisotropic properties, and can easily be incorporated into an existing EAL runstream. The procedure (which is applicable for EAL elastic solid elements) is described in detail, followed by a description of the validation of the routine. A listing of the EAL runstream used to validate the procedure is included in the Appendix.

  7. EAL Assessment: What Do Australian Teachers Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Chris; Michell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Assessing English as a second or an additional language (ESL/ EAL) learners in schools is a particularly challenging area for most teachers. With so many students requiring systematic and regular EAL support, all teachers need access to appropriate and useful assessment tools and advice, but most assessment systems are imposed on teachers, rather…

  8. Documentation for a Structural Optimization Procedure Developed Using the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Carl J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a structural optimization procedure developed for use with the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) finite element analysis system. The procedure is written primarily in the EAL command language. Three external processors which are written in FORTRAN generate equivalent stiffnesses and evaluate stress and local buckling constraints for the sections. Several built-up structural sections were coded into the design procedures. These structural sections were selected for use in aircraft design, but are suitable for other applications. Sensitivity calculations use the semi-analytic method, and an extensive effort has been made to increase the execution speed and reduce the storage requirements. There is also an approximate sensitivity update method included which can significantly reduce computational time. The optimization is performed by an implementation of the MINOS V5.4 linear programming routine in a sequential liner programming procedure.

  9. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  10. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  11. English as an Additional Language, Policy and the Teaching and Learning of English in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the ways in which social policy and social concerns have impacted upon and shaped provision for students who consider English as an additional language (EAL). It provides an overview of practice and provision in relation to EAL learners in the context of state-funded education in England over the last 60 years in order to…

  12. Scholarly Writers Who Use English as an Additional Language: What Can Goffman's "Stigma" Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins by highlighting the disadvantage that EAL (English as an Additional Language) writers experience in international publishing. It then explores Goffman's (1959, 1968) ideas on stigma and illustrates how, subject to certain caveats, what he has to say provides important insights into understanding the situation of EAL scholars.…

  13. Multimodal Representations of Identity in the English-as-an-Additional-Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajee, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the multimodal engagement of English-as-an-additional-language (EAL) students in a classroom in Johannesburg. Within a social semiotic framework, and using constructions of design and identity to understand the students' multimodal engagement, the paper argues that multimodal representations offer EAL students from…

  14. East Asian International Student Experiences as Learners of English as an Additional Language: Implications for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.; Marshall, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the school counselling literature, little focus is placed on international students who are learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL) and on school counselling support related to their language acquisition. Using the Critical Incident Technique, we analyzed transcripts of 21 international EAL students from China, Japan, and Korea who…

  15. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  16. Developing EAL Learners' Intercultural Sensitivity through a Digital Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galante, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture are informally integrated in many English as an Additional Language (EAL) programs, but cultural discussions are often regarded from the perspective of a particular dominant culture. Although this integration is crucial for the development of communicative competence, practical applications are still challenging as language…

  17. Communicative Literacy Pedagogy: Engaging EAL Students in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms reading comprehension is essential for students to access all areas of the curriculum. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, research has identified the need to combine literacy strategies with second language principles to scaffold students' comprehension of text. To illustrate…

  18. Factors influencing the performance of English as an Additional Language nursing students: instructors' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKiel, Elaine; Hwang, Jihye

    2009-09-01

    The increasing number of immigrants in Canada has led to more nursing students for whom English is an additional language (EAL). Limited language skills, cultural differences, and a lack of support can pose special challenges for these students and the instructors who teach them. Using a qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews with fourteen EAL nursing students and two focus group interviews with nine instructors were conducted. In this paper, the instructors' perspectives are presented. Data acquired from the instructors suggest that the challenges experienced by EAL students and instructors reside in a lack of awareness and support at the institutional and structural levels rather than solely on capacities of individual EAL students or instructors. From this study, identification of supportive activities for nurse educators and education sector decision makers emerged.

  19. Static and dynamic structural-sensitivity derivative calculations in the finite-element-based Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Adelman, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of static and dynamic structural-sensitivity derivative calculations in a general purpose, finite-element computer program denoted the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) System is described. Derivatives are calculated with respect to structural parameters, specifically, member sectional properties including thicknesses, cross-sectional areas, and moments of inertia. Derivatives are obtained for displacements, stresses, vibration frequencies and mode shapes, and buckling loads and mode shapes. Three methods for calculating derivatives are implemented (analytical, semianalytical, and finite differences), and comparisons of computer time and accuracy are made. Results are presented for four examples: a swept wing, a box beam, a stiffened cylinder with a cutout, and a space radiometer-antenna truss.

  20. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  1. English as an Additional Language--A Genealogy of Language-in-Education Policies and Reflections on Research Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2016-01-01

    The school population in England is linguistically diverse; according to official data, over one million pupils do not speak English as their first language. All teachers are expected to support English as an additional language (EAL) development as part of their professional responsibility. At the same time, there has been little specific…

  2. Making Connections. Literacy and EAL from a Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonesuch, Kate, Ed.

    This book is designed for instructors and tutors working with female learners in literacy and English-as-an-additional language (EAL). It consists of a series of papers that explore some of the links among feminism, literacy, violence, and a women-centered curriculum while simultaneously presenting suggested activities, readings, and discussions…

  3. Language Specialists' Views on the Academic Language and Learning Abilities of English as an Additional Language Postgraduate Coursework Students: Towards an Adjunct Tutorial Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Humphreys, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    As in other Anglophone nations, a large percentage of Australia's postgraduate international students come from English as an additional language (EAL) backgrounds, and many require development of their academic language and learning (ALL) capabilities to successfully navigate a higher degree. This paper investigates those capabilities through the…

  4. Emergent Identity and Dilemmatic Spaces: Pre-Service Teachers' Engagement with EAL Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Integrationist policies that promote the mainstreaming of English language learners are well established in many English-speaking countries. This has led to the embedding of English as an additional language (EAL) methodology in teacher education, and also to the notion of collaboration between English language teachers and content area teachers.…

  5. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  6. High-Challenge Teaching for Senior English as an Additional Language Learners in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer; Jetnikoff, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This paper will present a brief overview of the recent shifts within English and EAL/D (English as an additional language/dialect) curriculum documents and their focus on critical literacy, using the Queensland context as a case in point. The English syllabus landscape in Queensland has continued to morph in recent years. From 2002 to 2009,…

  7. The Early Identification of Dyslexia: Children with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.; Smith, Chris D.; Connors, Liz

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dyslexia should be identified early for interventions to have maximum effect. However, when children speak English as an additional language (EAL), diagnosis is more complex and there is concern that these children tend to be under-identified. This paper reports a longitudinal study following the development of…

  8. Developing Independent Listening Skills for English as an Additional Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Michelle; Velautham, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project to develop online, self-access listening resources mirroring the authentic academic contexts experienced by graduate university students. Current listening materials for English as an Additional Language (EAL) students mainly use Standard American English or Standard British pronunciation, and far…

  9. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  10. Measuring Productive Elements of Multi-Word Phrase Vocabulary Knowledge among Children with English as an Additional or Only Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sara A.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a critical role in language and reading development for children, particularly those learning English as an additional language (EAL) (Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Previous research on vocabulary has mainly focused on measuring individual words without considering multi-word phrase knowledge, despite evidence that these items occur…

  11. Nursing education challenges: students with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Starr, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Nurse educators are challenged by students who did not learn Standard American English as a primary language. It is not only language that makes these students stand out-cultural beliefs, values and practices need to be appreciated as well. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current qualitative literature on challenges faced in nursing education for students with English as an additional language. Ten qualitative studies regarding educational issues of nursing students with EAL were included in the synthesis. The study was conducted using the ethnographic metasynthesis model of Noblit and Hare. Two major reciprocal translations of educational issues emerged: challenges and reinforcements. Challenges included language, academics, resources, and culture. Reinforcements included resources, academics, and culture. The results may be used by nurse educators for developing interventions to help culturally diverse students succeed. Interventions are directed toward issues surrounding language and culture.

  12. Preservice EAL Teaching as Emotional Experiences: Practicum Experience in an Australian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Minh Hue

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on activity theory, this qualitative case study examines the emotional experiences of Maria, a preservice teacher of English as an additional language (EAL) during the practicum in an Australian secondary school setting and the factors shaping these emotions. Data included interviews with the preservice teacher before and after the…

  13. Applied Linguistics Project: Student-Led Computer Assisted Research in High School EAL/EAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Linguistics Project (ALP) started at the International School of Prague (ISP) in 2013. Every year, Grade 9 English as an Additional Language (EAL) students identify an area of learning in need of improvement and design a research method followed by data collection and analysis using basic computer software tools or online corpora.…

  14. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Relationships with Children Who Speak English as an Additional Language in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Hargreaves, David J.; Maxwell, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated ten early childhood teachers' perceptions of their relationships with 120 children (mean age = 4 years 3 months), of whom 41 children spoke English as an additional language (EAL: mean age = 4 years 2 months). The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was employed to elicit teachers' perceptions of their relationships in…

  16. "When They First Come in What Do You Do?" English as an Additional Language and Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajkler, Wasyl; Hall, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA), responsible for teacher training in England, requires all trainees to be prepared for the teaching of English as an additional language (EAL). This study investigated newly qualified teachers' (NQTs) continuing training needs in relation to the standards set by the TDA. One hundred and thirty…

  17. "You Get to Be Yourself": Visual Arts Programs, Identity Construction and Learners of English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielgosz, Meg; Molyneux, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Students learning English as an additional language (EAL) in Australian schools frequently struggle with the cultural and linguistic demands of the classroom while concurrently grappling with issues of identity and belonging. This article reports on an investigation of the role primary school visual arts programs, distinct programs with a…

  18. Building a Career in English: Users of English as an Additional Language in Academia in the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how a group of 30 multilingual academics, all users of English as an additional language (EAL) working at a private university in Oman, acquired discourse community membership in their disciplines through publishing in English, and the strategies they use to sustain the level of literacy needed to disseminate their research…

  19. Literacy in the Early Years and English as an Additional Language: The Case of a British International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englezou, Eliana; Fragkouli, Elpiniki

    2014-01-01

    The study upon which this article is based investigates teachers' literacy development methods used in nursery and reception classrooms of a British international school, and focuses specifically on children having English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from teaching observations and from interviews with teachers present the techniques…

  20. Teachers' Awareness and Use of Scales to Map the Progress of Children Who Speak English as an Additional Language or Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele; Adoniou, Misty; Ngoc, Doan Ba

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Teacher Resource, the educational needs and outcomes of refugee and immigrant children have been placed on the national mainstream teaching agenda. This new national resource sits alongside a plethora of other resources, known as scales and standards, which have been…

  1. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.

  2. Teaching Additional Languages. Educational Practices Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Elliot L.; Tan, Lihua; Walberg, Herbert J.

    This booklet describes key principles of and research on teaching additional languages. The 10 chapters focus on the following: (1) "Comprehensible Input" (learners need exposure to meaningful, understandable language); (2) "Language Opportunities" (classroom activities should let students use natural and meaningful language with their…

  3. Multilingualism as Legitimate Shared Repertoires in School Communities of Practice: Students' and Teachers' Discursive Constructions of Languages in Two Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongcan; Evans, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a 12-month project within a broader research programme that looks at a group of East European students with English as an Additional Language (EAL) in England. The data are derived from interviews with the students and teachers in two schools. The findings show that EAL students had a keen interest in English.…

  4. PATRAN 2.5/EAL interface guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldhaus, Winifred S.

    1994-01-01

    The PATRAN/EA interface guide describes two programs, EALPAT and PATEAL. EALPAT reads an EAL LO1 file and translates the model and results into a PATRAN 2.5 neutral file, element results file, and nodal results file. An EAL model can be color coded in PATRAN, and geometry, loads, boundary conditions, section and material properties, rigid masses, springs, and beam orientations can be plotted and debugged. EAL results can be brought into PATRAN as element or nodal quantities and displayed as deformed plots, animated shapes, color coded elements, or color filled contour plots. PATEAL converts a PATRAN 2.5 data base into an EAL runstream. Geometry, including all element types, alternate coordinate systems, material properties, section properties, loads and boundary conditions are all converted. EALPAT and PATEAL can also be used together with the PATNAS translator from PDA Engineering to convert an EAL runstream to an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data file.

  5. Design sensitivity analysis using EAL. Part 1: Conventional design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dopker, B.; Choi, Kyung K.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical implementation of design sensitivity analysis of builtup structures is presented, using the versatility and convenience of an existing finite element structural analysis code and its database management system. The finite element code used in the implemenatation presented is the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL), which is based on a hybrid method of analysis. It was shown that design sensitivity computations can be carried out using the database management system of EAL, without writing a separate program and a separate database. Conventional (sizing) design parameters such as cross-sectional area of beams or thickness of plates and plane elastic solid components are considered. Compliance, displacement, and stress functionals are considered as performance criteria. The method presented is being extended to implement shape design sensitivity analysis using a domain method and a design component method.

  6. Catering for EAL/D Students' Language Needs in Mainstream Classes: Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives and Practices in One Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobinson, Toni J.; Buchori, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the complexity of English language related experiences and interactions of a small group of teachers in an Australian, Early Childhood (EC), mainstream setting with children four to eight years old. It draws on data collected from a qualitative case study which investigated four teachers' perspectives and anxieties…

  7. Bilingual Education in a Community Language: Lessons from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul; Scull, Janet; Aliani, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Provision for students learning English as an additional language (EAL) frequently overlooks the linguistic resources these children bring to the classroom. This is despite international research that highlights the facilitative links between support of the home language and the acquisition of new languages. This article reports on a longitudinal…

  8. Internet Tools for Language Learning: University Students Taking Control of Their Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Many excellent corpus-based language learning resources (e.g., concordancers) have been freely available on the Internet for some time. Google assisted language learning (GALL) is also gaining increasing acceptance. These tools are a potential resource for English as an additional language (EAL) university students who want to independently…

  9. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  10. "Everybody Is Just Fumbling along": An Investigation of Views Regarding EAL Training and Support Provisions in a Rural Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research conducted in a rural area of England that has experienced a rise in the number of pupils who speak a language other than English as their first language. The research was motivated by a concern that EAL teacher training provisions in such areas are insubstantial. The data source for the study comes from…

  11. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  12. How Much Is Enough? Involving Occupational Experts in Setting Standards on a Specific-Purpose Language Test for Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, John; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how to establish the minimum required level of professionally relevant oral communication ability in the medium of English for health practitioners with English as an additional language (EAL) to gain admission to practice in jurisdictions where English is the dominant language. A theoretical concern is the construct of…

  13. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  14. Learning Additional Languages as Hierarchical Probabilistic Inference: Insights From First Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/Ln) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/Ln learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/Ln acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/Ln learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.

  15. Evaluation of Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALS) for Dams Managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    heat. They also provide a protective barrier to oxidation, thereby reducing corrosion . Additionally, they can provide insulation, transmit chemical...5 5 4 4 4 5 Hydrolytic Stability 1 1 3 4 4 5 Corrosion Protection Properties 1 1 3 4 4 5 Seal Material Compatibility 3 2 3 4 4 4 Paint & Lacquer...reactions with water), and corrosion protection properties. In focusing on these, we see that — with some exceptions — EALs tend to outperform mineral

  16. Meaning and Function of Dummy Auxiliaries in Adult Acquisition of Dutch as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…

  17. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  18. The developmental acquisition of English grammar as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Quinn, C

    2001-01-01

    The results are presented here of an investigation into the development of receptive and expressive English grammar when this is acquired as a second language. A cross-sectional survey using standardised assessments was conducted. 103 children were randomly selected from three local primary schools. These children were aged between 5 and 11 years and were acquiring English sequentially. Data relating to the receptive and expressive grammar of English as a second language was collected from each child. Analysis of this data revealed preliminary developmental patterns that appear to be specific to the sequential acquisition of English grammar. This data confirms the importance of not using data pertaining to the acquisition of first language English for English that is acquired as a second language.

  19. On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

  20. Evaluation of a Videoconferencing Pilot Project: Training for Volunteer Literacy Tutors for Speakers of English as an Additional Language (EAL). An iCCAN Pilot Project in Collaboration with the Rural Routes Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Courtney; Eaton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: iCCAN (Innovative Communities Connecting and Networking) is a not-for-profit provincial network of videoconferencing sites creating unprecedented learning opportunities and greater access to training and professional development for all Albertans, regardless of where they live. Led by a partnership of Community Learning Network,…

  1. The degenerate EAL-GGDEF domain protein Filp functions as a cyclic di-GMP receptor and specifically interacts with the PilZ-domain protein PXO_02715 to regulate virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fenghuan; Tian, Fang; Li, Xiaotong; Fan, Susu; Chen, Huamin; Wu, Maosen; Yang, Ching-Hong; He, Chenyang

    2014-06-01

    Degenerate GGDEF and EAL domain proteins represent major types of cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) receptors in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we characterized a FimX-like protein (Filp) which possesses both GGDEF and EAL domains in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice. Both in silico analysis and enzyme assays indicated that the GGDEF and EAL domains of Filp were degenerate and enzymatically inactive. However, Filp bound to c-di-GMP efficiently within the EAL domain, where Q(477), E(653), and F(654) residues were crucial for the binding. Deletion of the filp gene in X. oryzae pv. oryzae resulted in attenuated virulence in rice and reduced type III secretion system (T3SS) gene expression. Complementation analysis with different truncated proteins indicated that REC, PAS, and EAL domains but not the GGDEF domain were required for the full activity of Filp in vivo. In addition, a PilZ-domain protein (PXO_02715) was identified as a Filp interactor by yeast two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Deletion of the PXO_02715 gene demonstrated changes in bacterial virulence and T3SS gene expression similar to Δfilp. Moreover, both mutants were impaired in their ability to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants. Thus, we concluded that Filp was a novel c-di-GMP receptor of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, and its function to regulate bacterial virulence expression might be via the interaction with PXO_02715.

  2. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  3. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  4. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.

  5. Production optimization of cyanophycinase ChpEal from Pseudomonas alcaligenes DIP1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes DIP1 produces an extracellular cyanophycinase (CphEal). The corresponding gene (cphEal) was identified from subclones of a genomic DNA gene library by heterologously expressing the functionally active enzyme in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (1260 base pairs) was determined indicating a theoretical mass of 43.6 kDa (mature CphEal) plus a leader peptide of 2,6 kDa which corresponds well to the apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa as revealed by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited a high sequence identity of 91% with the extracellular cyanophycinase from P. anguilliseptica strain BI and carried an N-terminal Sec secretion signal peptide. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of cphE revealed a putative catalytic triad consisting of the serine motif GXSXG plus a histidine and a glutamate residue, suggesting a catalytic mechanism similar to serine-type proteases. The cyanophycinase (CphEal) was heterologously produced in two different E. coli strains (Top10 and BL21(DE3)) from two plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-4 and pET-23a(+)). The signal peptide of CphEal was cleaved in E. coli, suggesting active export of the protein at least to the periplasm. Substantial enzyme activity was also present in the culture supernatants. The extracellular cyanophycinase activities in E. coli were higher than activities in the wild type P. alcaligenes DIP1 in complex LB medium. Highest extracellular enzyme production was achieved with E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing CphEal from pBBR1MCS-4. Using M9 minimal medium was less effective, but the relatively low cost of mineral salt media makes these results important for the industrial-scale production of dipeptides from cyanophycin. PMID:22060187

  6. Production optimization of cyanophycinase ChpEal from Pseudomonas alcaligenes DIP1.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Kalkandzhiev, Dimitar; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-11-07

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes DIP1 produces an extracellular cyanophycinase (CphEal). The corresponding gene (cphEal) was identified from subclones of a genomic DNA gene library by heterologously expressing the functionally active enzyme in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (1260 base pairs) was determined indicating a theoretical mass of 43.6 kDa (mature CphEal) plus a leader peptide of 2,6 kDa which corresponds well to the apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa as revealed by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited a high sequence identity of 91% with the extracellular cyanophycinase from P. anguilliseptica strain BI and carried an N-terminal Sec secretion signal peptide. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of cphE revealed a putative catalytic triad consisting of the serine motif GXSXG plus a histidine and a glutamate residue, suggesting a catalytic mechanism similar to serine-type proteases. The cyanophycinase (CphEal) was heterologously produced in two different E. coli strains (Top10 and BL21(DE3)) from two plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-4 and pET-23a(+)). The signal peptide of CphEal was cleaved in E. coli, suggesting active export of the protein at least to the periplasm. Substantial enzyme activity was also present in the culture supernatants. The extracellular cyanophycinase activities in E. coli were higher than activities in the wild type P. alcaligenes DIP1 in complex LB medium. Highest extracellular enzyme production was achieved with E. coli BL21(DE3) expressing CphEal from pBBR1MCS-4. Using M9 minimal medium was less effective, but the relatively low cost of mineral salt media makes these results important for the industrial-scale production of dipeptides from cyanophycin.

  7. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  8. The Teaching and Learning of English as an Additional Language in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withey, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The article seeks to investigate the methods of teaching and learning English as an additional language in primary education, and to identify the most appropriate and effective means of achieving this. The study tracks a cohort of children from reception to Year 2. Data collection draws on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative…

  9. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  10. Mutual Apprenticeship in the Learning and Teaching of an Additional Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study in the learning and teaching of Zulu as an additional language. It involved the organic development of a mutually supportive relationship between two lecturers from separate disciplines who assumed multiple identities in order to more effectively collaborate in the revision and development of two graduate courses.…

  11. Reconceptualising "Identity Slippage": Additional Language Learning and (L2) Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…

  12. Additional Language Education and Language Development Goals: The Example of Gaelic (Learners) Education in Highland Council, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Lindsay Milligan

    2014-01-01

    Language shift is the process whereby one language becomes increasingly lesser used in place of the use of another language. In Scotland, language shift is occurring for Gaelic, as English takes its place for a variety of functions in the home and wider community. Extensive literature has argued the important role that education can play in the…

  13. Language and Content "Integration": The Affordances of Additional Languages as a Tool within a Single Curriculum Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    "Language across the curriculum" has been pivotal in establishing a knowledge base on the role of language for accessing opportunities afforded by the curriculum. Yet, the ubiquity of language "within" all facets of human activity--not least of all the more abstract domains of thinking and relating with others--can easily…

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  16. The iconicity of picture communication symbols for children with English additional language and mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Dada, Shakila; Huguet, Alice; Bornman, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the iconicity of 16 Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) presented on a themed bed-making communication overlay for South African children with English as an additional language and mild intellectual disability. The survey involved 30 participants. The results indicated that, overall, the 16 symbols were relatively iconic to the participants. The authors suggest that the iconicity of picture symbols could be manipulated, enhanced, and influenced by contextual effects (other PCS used simultaneously on the communication overlay). In addition, selection of non-target PCS for target PCS were discussed in terms of postulated differences in terms of distinctiveness. Potential clinical implications and limitations of the study, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed.

  17. Dimerisation induced formation of the active site and the identification of three metal sites in EAL-phosphodiesterases.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Dom; Horrell, Sam; Hutchin, Andrew; Phippen, Curtis W; Strange, Richard W; Cai, Yuming; Wagner, Armin; Webb, Jeremy S; Tews, Ivo; Walsh, Martin A

    2017-02-10

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key regulator of bacterial motility and virulence. As high levels of c-di-GMP are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, c-di-GMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been identified as key targets to aid development of novel strategies to treat chronic infection by exploiting biofilm dispersal. We have studied the EAL signature motif-containing phosphodiesterase domains from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins PA3825 (PA3825(EAL)) and PA1727 (MucR(EAL)). Different dimerisation interfaces allow us to identify interface independent principles of enzyme regulation. Unlike previously characterised two-metal binding EAL-phosphodiesterases, PA3825(EAL) in complex with pGpG provides a model for a third metal site. The third metal is positioned to stabilise the negative charge of the 5'-phosphate, and thus three metals could be required for catalysis in analogy to other nucleases. This newly uncovered variation in metal coordination may provide a further level of bacterial PDE regulation.

  18. Double threshold in bi- and multilingual contexts: preconditions for higher academic attainment in English as an additional language

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages. PMID:24926277

  19. Double threshold in bi- and multilingual contexts: preconditions for higher academic attainment in English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages.

  20. Enriching Kindergarten Learners' English by Using Language Portfolio and Additional Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorba, Mehmet Galip; Tosun, Sezen

    2011-01-01

    Though pre-school education is not compulsory in Turkey, having foreign language education in kindergarten has been an upward trend lately. Besides, as there has been an increasing demand on language education in kindergartens, a large number of kindergartens have begun to give English language education so as to meet the demand. However, most of…

  1. Association of retinal vasculitis (Eales' disease) and Meniere-like vestibulocochlear symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fehrmann, Astrid

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to present a previously unknown association of visual loss and Meniere-like vestibuloauditory symptoms in Eales' disease (idiopathic retinal vasculitis) and to give a survey of other conditions affecting both the retina and inner ear. A 32-year-old man diagnosed with Eales' disease presented with recurrent deteriorations of visual acuity and simultaneous recurrent vestibuloauditory symptoms strongly reminiscent of Meniere's disease. Both the recurrent low frequency hearing losses and the losses of visual acuity could be restituted repeatedly by high dose i.v. corticosteroids. A literature review reveals that in a number of other retinopathic diseases associated with Meniere-like symptoms, microvasculopathy is also the pathomechanism. A common pathogenetic cause, e.g., autoimmune-mediated microvasculitis of retinal periphlebitis and vestibulocochlear symptoms, in this case is suggested. The presented case adds new evidence to microvasculopathy being a pathogenetic factor in Meniere's disease. In cases of coincidence of vestibulocochlear symptoms and retinal perivasculitis, a therapeutic attempt with high-dose corticosteroids is advisable.

  2. Conglomeration or Chameleon? Teachers' Representations of Language in the Assessment of Learners with English as an Additional Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sheena; Rea-Dickins, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    Investigates teacher representations of language in relation to assessment contexts. Analyzes not only what is represented in teachers' use of metalanguage, but also how it is presented--in terms of expression, voice, and source. The analysis is based on interviews with teachers, transcripts of lessons, and classroom-based assessments, formal…

  3. Supporting Pupils with EAL and Their Teachers in Ireland: The Need for a Co-Ordinated Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Lelia; Francis, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a Language Support Service in 1999, all newcomer children with limited English skills arriving in schools in Ireland are entitled to two years of additional English language support. This is provided mainly by designated Language Support Teachers (LSTs). During the peak of the Celtic Tiger, there was a sharp growth in…

  4. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  5. Enhancing the Curriculum through the Addition of Rich and Diverse Language Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anen, Judith

    The primary goal of this practicum was to provide opportunities for rich and diverse language activities designed to enhance the kindergarten curriculum. New instructional guidelines were designed that encouraged daily classroom time devoted to language development activities. These activities replaced all formal isolated skill instruction.…

  6. The Additive Effect of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2003-01-01

    Looks at the general effects of bilingualism on cognitive development and highlights the specific effects of bilingualism on third language acquisition. Examines effects of bilingualism on cognitive development, metalinguistic awareness, and communicative skills, then focuses on the specific effects of bilingualism on third language proficiency by…

  7. The Linguistic Landscape as an Additional Source of Input in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the role that the linguistic landscape, in the sense of all the written language in the public space, can have in second language acquisition (SLA). The linguistic landscape has symbolic and informative functions and it is multimodal, because it combines visual and printed texts, and multilingual, because it uses several…

  8. Dimerisation induced formation of the active site and the identification of three metal sites in EAL-phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Dom; Horrell, Sam; Hutchin, Andrew; Phippen, Curtis W.; Strange, Richard W.; Cai, Yuming; Wagner, Armin; Webb, Jeremy S.; Tews, Ivo; Walsh, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key regulator of bacterial motility and virulence. As high levels of c-di-GMP are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, c-di-GMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been identified as key targets to aid development of novel strategies to treat chronic infection by exploiting biofilm dispersal. We have studied the EAL signature motif-containing phosphodiesterase domains from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins PA3825 (PA3825EAL) and PA1727 (MucREAL). Different dimerisation interfaces allow us to identify interface independent principles of enzyme regulation. Unlike previously characterised two-metal binding EAL-phosphodiesterases, PA3825EAL in complex with pGpG provides a model for a third metal site. The third metal is positioned to stabilise the negative charge of the 5′-phosphate, and thus three metals could be required for catalysis in analogy to other nucleases. This newly uncovered variation in metal coordination may provide a further level of bacterial PDE regulation. PMID:28186120

  9. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  10. Cultural Dimensions of Feedback at an Australian University: A Study of International Students with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard; Miller, Julia

    2015-01-01

    International students with English as an additional language face transitional challenges when entering a new academic culture. One such challenge involves optimising feedback to help foster their academic development, bearing in mind that feedback is not a culturally neutral entity (Nazif, A., Biswas, D., & Hilbig, R. (2004-2005). Towards an…

  11. Crystal Structures of YkuI and Its Complex with Second Messenger Cyclic Di-GMP Suggest Catalytic Mechanism of Phosphodiester Bond Cleavage by EAL Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Minasov, George; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Miller, Darcie J.; Baslé, Arnaud; Massa, Claudia; Collart, Frank R.; Schirmer, Tilman; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger that is involved in the regulation of cell surface-associated traits and the persistence of infections. Omnipresent GGDEF and EAL domains, which occur in various combinations with regulatory domains, catalyze c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation, respectively. The crystal structure of full-length YkuI from Bacillus subtilis, composed of an EAL domain and a C-terminal PAS-like domain, has been determined in its native form and in complex with c-di-GMP and Ca2+. The EAL domain exhibits a triose-phosphate isomerase-barrel fold with one antiparallel β-strand. The complex with c-di-GMP-Ca2+ defines the active site of the putative phosphodiesterase located at the C-terminal end of the β-barrel. The EAL motif is part of the active site with Glu-33 of the motif being involved in cation coordination. The structure of the complex allows the proposal of a phosphodiesterase mechanism, in which the divalent cation and the general base Glu-209 activate a catalytic water molecule for nucleophilic in-line attack on the phosphorus. The C-terminal domain closely resembles the PAS-fold. Its pocket-like structure could accommodate a yet unknown ligand. YkuI forms a tight dimer via EAL-EAL and trans EAL-PAS-like domain association. The possible regulatory significance of the EAL-EAL interface and a mechanism for signal transduction between sensory and catalytic domains of c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases are discussed. PMID:19244251

  12. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  13. Cognitive and Language Development in an Additive-Bilingual Program: Report after Four Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The fourth phase of a longitudinal study focusing on the cognitive and language development of children in a primary-grade Spanish immersion program (SIP) is reported. Subjects were the remaining 13 members of an SIP cohort beginning in 1987, 15 members of a standard program comparison classroom, 18 members of another class in the 1987 SIP cohort,…

  14. Korean-Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Additive Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang; Park, Jae

    2012-01-01

    China's diversity of minority groups, marked by many languages and cultures, has led to much push and pull experience between homogenising forces and indigenous cultures. This is apparent in its bilingual education programme for ethnic minorities, among which Korean diaspora communities are to be counted. Korean-Chinese people in China have been…

  15. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  16. Students Who Are Deaf with Additional Disabilities: Does Educational Label Impact Language Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Bauer, Anne; Embury, Dusty Columbia

    2015-01-01

    With a high rate of additional learning needs in children with permanent hearing loss, this study sought to understand their educational and support needs. School information on 62 children with varying degrees of hearing loss attending an urban public school during a 5-year period was analysed to understand types and amounts of services over…

  17. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  18. How Much Language Do They Need? The Dilemma English-Medium Universities Face When Enrolling English as an Additional Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Randow, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Although international and domestic students applying to English-medium universities may well meet the minimum language entry requirement, recent research indicates that this level of language proficiency often does not provide students with the means to cope effectively with their academic studies (Barthel, 2007; Elder, 2003; Read & Hayes,…

  19. Using Peer Feedback in a Master's Programme: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poverjuc, Oxana; Brooks, Val; Wray, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the findings of a longitudinal case study, which investigated the writing experiences of five students who spoke English as an additional language (EAL). The major interest was in examining what it was like to be an EAL writer and what changes occurred in EAL students' perceptions of academic writing and of themselves as…

  20. Phenotype overlap in Xylella fastidiosa is controlled by the cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase Eal in response to antibiotic exposure and diffusible signal factor-mediated cell-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Alessandra A; Ionescu, Michael; Baccari, Clelia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-06-01

    Eal is an EAL domain protein in Xylella fastidiosa homologous to one involved in resistance to tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins are implicated in the hydrolysis of the secondary messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (cyclic di-GMP). Cell density-dependent communication mediated by a Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) also modulates cyclic di-GMP levels in X. fastidiosa, thereby controlling the expression of virulence genes and genes involved in insect transmission. The possible linkage of Eal to both extrinsic factors such as antibiotics and intrinsic factors such as quorum sensing, and whether both affect virulence, was thus addressed. Expression of eal was induced by subinhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, and an eal deletion mutant was more susceptible to this antibiotic than the wild-type strain and exhibited phenotypes similar to those of an rpfF deletion mutant blocked in DSF production, such as hypermotility, reduced biofilm formation, and hypervirulence to grape. Consistent with that, the rpfF mutant was more susceptible than the wild-type strain to tobramycin. Therefore, we propose that cell-cell communication and antibiotic stress can apparently lead to similar modulations of cyclic di-GMP in X. fastidiosa, resulting in similar phenotypes. However, the effect of cell density is dominant compared to that of antibiotic stress, since eal is suppressed by RpfF, which may prevent inappropriate behavioral changes in response to antibiotic stress when DSF accumulates.

  1. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  2. Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students Who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…

  3. In-Service Professional Development in an Online Environment: What Are South Australian English as an Additional Language or Dialect Teachers' Views?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues concerning in-service English as an additional language or dialect teachers' views on professional development (PD) in an online environment. On the basis of the data collected via a questionnaire survey and a series of interviews, this study finds that intrinsic and extrinsic incentives compel or impede teachers…

  4. Buckling loads of stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized with emphasis placed on the shear buckling analyses. The PASCO buckling analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared stiffener solution, which treats a stiffened panel as an orthotropic plate. Buckling results are then presented for seven stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and are very accurate. These finite element solutions together with the PASCO results for pure longitudinal compression provide benchmark calculations to evaluate other analysis procedures.

  5. Disambiguating with Bourdieu: Unravelling Policy from Practice in the Teaching of Children with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of Bourdieusian analysis for examining how policy and practice interact in the teaching of English and therefore in the development of children's language and literacy, in particular how. Bourdieusian analysis uncovers the ways in which teachers' practice has been influenced unconsciously by centralised shaping of the…

  6. Teaching English as an Additional Language in the Global Classroom: A Transnational Study in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Gail; Bhatti, Ghazala

    2015-01-01

    Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto…

  7. Not without the Art!! the Importance of Teacher Artistry When Applying Drama as Pedagogy for Additional Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julie; Stinson, Madonna

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years drama has been promoted as a valuable teaching tool for language learning. Recent research results have reinforced this position. However, these and other earlier studies reveal that the overall success of the work is dependent, at least in part, upon the artistry of the teacher and the quality of the pretext materials used…

  8. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children’s Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children’s Cognition and Health (RANCH—South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children’s reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores. PMID:26999169

  9. A Role for the EAL-Like Protein STM1344 in Regulation of CsgD Expression and Motility in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium▿

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Roger; Remminghorst, Uwe; Ahmad, Irfan; Zakikhany, Katherina; Römling, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the transition between sessility and motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the expression of CsgD, the regulator of multicellular rdar morphotype behavior, is a major target of c-di-GMP signaling. CsgD expression is positively regulated by at least two diguanylate cyclases, GGDEF domain proteins, and negatively regulated by at least four phosphodiesterases, EAL domain proteins. Here, we show that in contrast to EAL domain proteins acting as phosphodiesterases, the EAL-like protein STM1344 regulated CsgD expression positively and motility negatively. STM1344, however, did not have a role in c-di-GMP turnover and also did not bind the nucleotide. STM1344 acted upstream of the phosphodiesterases STM1703 and STM3611, previously identified to participate in CsgD downregulation, where it repressed their expression. Consequently, although STM1344 has not retained a direct role in c-di-GMP metabolism, it still participates in the regulation of c-di-GMP turnover and has a role in the transition between sessility and motility. PMID:19376870

  10. A systematic analysis of the role of GGDEF-EAL domain proteins in virulence and motility in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Zhao, Mengran; Ling, Junjie; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Jun; Jin, Dongli; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

    2016-01-01

    The second messenger c-di-GMP is implicated in regulation of various aspects of the lifestyles and virulence of Gram-negative bacteria. Cyclic di-GMP is formed by diguanylate cyclases with a GGDEF domain and degraded by phosphodiesterases with either an EAL or HD-GYP domain. Proteins with tandem GGDEF-EAL domains occur in many bacteria, where they may be involved in c-di-GMP turnover or act as enzymatically-inactive c-di-GMP effectors. Here, we report a systematic study of the regulatory action of the eleven GGDEF-EAL proteins in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, an important rice pathogen causing bacterial leaf streak. Mutational analysis revealed that XOC_2335 and XOC_2393 positively regulate bacterial swimming motility, while XOC_2102, XOC_2393 and XOC_4190 negatively control sliding motility. The ΔXOC_2335/XOC_2393 mutant that had a higher intracellular c-di-GMP level than the wild type and the ΔXOC_4190 mutant exhibited reduced virulence to rice after pressure inoculation. In vitro purified XOC_4190 and XOC_2102 have little or no diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity, which is consistent with unaltered c-di-GMP concentration in ΔXOC_4190. Nevertheless, both proteins can bind to c-di-GMP with high affinity, indicating a potential role as c-di-GMP effectors. Overall our findings advance understanding of c-di-GMP signaling and its links to virulence in an important rice pathogen. PMID:27053282

  11. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Serovars Anatum and Ealing Associated with Two Historical Outbreaks, Linked to Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lynda; Finn, Sarah; Hurley, Daniel; Bai, Li; Wall, Ellen; Iversen, Carol; Threlfall, John E.; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not intended to be produced as a sterile product unless explicitly stated and on occasion may become contaminated during production with pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. This retrospective study focused on two historically reported salmonellosis outbreaks associated with PIF from the United Kingdom and France, in 1985 and 1996/1997. In this paper, the molecular characterization of the two outbreaks associated Salmonella serovars Anatum and Ealing is reported. Initially the isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which revealed the clonal nature of the two outbreaks. Following from this two representative isolates, one from each serovar was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS), wherein analysis focused on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, the ability of these isolates to survive the host intercellular environment was determined using an ex vivo gentamicin protection assay. Results suggest a high level of genetic diversity that may have contributed to survival and virulence of isolates from these outbreaks. PMID:27818652

  12. Does Equal Access Mean Treat the Same? From Theory to Practice in the Classroom of English as an Additional Language Learner in Ireland--Towards a Transformative Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    While a substantial body of research exists on First- and Second-Language Acquisition (SLA), research on the language acquisition process that a language minority student goes through when they are acquiring a second language has been largely unexplored. Pedagogical practices that espouse language learning theories facilitate both the language…

  13. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R; Galvani, Cheryl D; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence.

  14. Modulation of Biofilm-Formation in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by the Periplasmic DsbA/DsbB Oxidoreductase System Requires the GGDEF-EAL Domain Protein STM3615

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Rhen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), biofilm-formation is controlled by the cytoplasmic intracellular small-molecular second messenger cyclic 3′, 5′-di- guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) through the activities of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins. Here we describe that deleting either dsbA or dsbB, respectively encoding a periplasmic protein disulfide oxidase and a cytoplasmic membrane disulfide oxidoreductase, resulted in increased biofilm-formation on solid medium. This increased biofilm-formation, defined as a red, dry and rough (rdar) colony morphotype, paralleled with enhanced expression of the biofilm master regulator CsgD and the biofilm-associated fimbrial subunit CsgA. Deleting csgD in either dsb mutant abrogated the enhanced biofilm-formation. Likewise, overexpression of the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase YhjH, or mutationally inactivating the CsgD activator EAL-domain protein YdiV, reduced biofilm-formation in either of the dsb mutants. Intriguingly, deleting the GGDEF-EAL domain protein gene STM3615 (yhjK), previously not connected to rdar morphotype development, also abrogated the escalated rdar morphotype formation in dsb mutant backgrounds. Enhanced biofilm-formation in dsb mutants was furthermore annulled by exposure to the protein disulfide catalyst copper chloride. When analyzed for the effect of exogenous reducing stress on biofilm-formation, both dsb mutants initially showed an escalated rdar morphotype development that later dissolved to reveal a smooth mucoid colony morphotype. From these results we conclude that biofilm-development in S. Typhimurium is affected by periplasmic protein disulphide bond status through CsgD, and discuss the involvement of selected GGDEF/EAL domain protein(s) as signaling mediators. PMID:25153529

  15. Developing Children's Language Awareness: Switching Codes in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoll, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…

  16. Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa CupD Fimbrial Genes Is Antagonistically Controlled by RcsB and the EAL-Containing PvrR Response Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Helga; Ball, Geneviève; Giraud, Caroline; Filloux, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium with a high adaptive potential that allows proliferation in a broad range of hosts or niches. It is also the causative agent of both acute and chronic biofilm-related infections in humans. Three cup gene clusters (cupA-C), involved in the assembly of cell surface fimbriae, have been shown to be involved in biofilm formation by the P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 or PAK. In PA14 isolates, a fourth cluster, named cupD, was identified within a pathogenicity island, PAPI-I, and may contribute to the higher virulence of this strain. Expression of the cupA genes is controlled by the HNS-like protein MvaT, whereas the cupB and cupC genes are under the control of the RocS1A1R two-component system. In this study, we show that cupD gene expression is positively controlled by the response regulator RcsB. As a consequence, CupD fimbriae are assembled on the cell surface, which results in a number of phenotypes such as a small colony morphotype, increased biofilm formation and decreased motility. These behaviors are compatible with the sessile bacterial lifestyle. The balance between planktonic and sessile lifestyles is known to be linked to the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP with high levels favoring biofilm formation. We showed that the EAL domain-containing PvrR response regulator counteracts the activity of RcsB on cupD gene expression. The action of PvrR is likely to involve c-di-GMP degradation through phosphodiesterase activity, confirming the key role of this second messenger in the balance between bacterial lifestyles. The regulatory network between RcsB and PvrR remains to be elucidated, but it stands as a potential model system to study how the equilibrium between the two lifestyles could be influenced by therapeutic agents that favor the planktonic lifestyle. This would render the pathogen accessible for the immune system or conventional antibiotic treatment. PMID:19547710

  17. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 Gene Encoding Degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL Domains, and Its Role in the Development of Pierce’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R.; Galvani, Cheryl D.; Zaini, Paulo A.; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce’s disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence. PMID:25811864

  18. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2a: Suma y Resta de Numeros Enteros (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Level 2a: Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition and subtraction. (MK)

  19. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  20. Language deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Morehead, D M; Morehead, K E; Morehead, W A

    1980-01-01

    Research in cognition and language has provided useful constructs which suggests that specific deficits underlie language deficiencies in children. In addition, this research has provided procedures that the determine what a child knows about language at a particular level of development and has established a sequence of linguistic development that maps the specific content and structure of training programs. Two new areas of research offer additional approaches to assessment and remediation. One approach focuses on the actual principles and strategies that normal children use to learn language, making it possible to determine which methods are most efficient. The second research approach looks at the contextual conditions adults and children provide the first language learner. Preliminary work suggests that the natural conditions found universally in first language learning may be the best indicators of how to proceed with language-deficient children.

  1. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  2. Language as Information and the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, Kant

    2010-01-01

    Language attracts everyone on earth. That is because we have and use language. Although there are some minority languages that have limited expressions such as the lack of writing systems in "Aynu itak" and "Shona" languages, they can effectively express their emotion and thought with their languages. In addition, every human being can acquire…

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Programs for transferring data between a relational data base and a finite element structural analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interface system for passing data between a relational information management (RIM) data base complex and engineering analysis language (EAL), a finite element structural analysis program is documented. The interface system, implemented on a CDC Cyber computer, is composed of two FORTRAN programs called RIM2EAL and EAL2RIM. The RIM2EAL reads model definition data from RIM and creates a file of EAL commands to define the model. The EAL2RIM reads model definition and EAL generated analysis data from EAL's data library and stores these data dirctly in a RIM data base. These two interface programs and the format for the RIM data complex are described.

  5. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  7. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  8. Sign Language Versus Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1978-01-01

    In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  12. Learning Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  13. Instinctive Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  14. Language Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulay, Heidi; And Others

    In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

  15. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  16. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  17. Learning to Hear by Learning to Speak: The Effect of Articulatory Training on Arab Learners' English Phonemic Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebaugh, Gary; Roche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore English pronunciation teaching within an English as an International Language (EIL) framework, arguing that teaching learners how to produce English phonemes can lead to an improvement in their aural ability. English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners often have difficulty discriminating between and producing…

  18. Advanced Language Attrition of Spanish in Contact with Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Language acquisition research frequently concerns itself with linguistic development and result of the acquisition process with respect to a first or subsequent language. For some, it seems tacitly assumed that a first language, once acquired, remains stable, regardless of exposure to and the acquisition of additional language(s) beyond the first…

  19. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  20. Breathiness in Indic languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christina; Khan, Sameeruddowla; Hurst, Alex

    2005-04-01

    Previous work on breathiness in Indic languages has focused on the acoustic properties of breathy oral stops in languages like Hindi ([bal] hair versus [bhal] forehead) or Bengali ([baSa] house versus [bhaSa] language). However, breathiness in Indic languages often extends to nasals (e.g., Marathi ([maar] beat versus [mhaar] a caste). It is unclear if languages such as Hindi and Bengali have breathy nasals in addition to breathy oral stops. This study addresses the following questions: (1) Are breathy nasals (Nh) acoustically different from N+h sequences, both in languages where they are phonemic and ones where they are not? (2) In sequences of a breathy stop and a modal nasal (e.g., Hindi [udhmi] naughty) where is the breathiness realized, if at all? To answer these questions, audio, aerodynamic, and electroglottographic recordings will be made of Hindi, Bengali, and Marathi speakers. It is hypothesized that acoustically breathy nasals in Hindi and Bengali will not be distinct from sequences of N+ h. We believe that this will also be true for the oral stops. In addition, it is believed that in sequences of breathy oral stop followed by a modal nasal (e.g., ChN), the breathiness will be produced on the nasal.

  1. Classroom Composition and Language Minority Students' Motivation in Language Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rjosk, Camilla; Richter, Dirk; Hochweber, Jan; Lüdtke, Oliver; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated effects of the proportion of language minority students in classrooms on the development of students' intrinsic motivation in language lessons and the mediating role of instructional climate (e.g., teacher support, focus on student interests). In addition, we explored the interaction between the proportion of…

  2. Language Learning Disabilities: The Ultimate Foreign Language Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFino, Sharon M.; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    In today's world where great value is placed on global understanding, the acquisition of languages is essential. Academics would agree that the study of other languages provides students access to the cultural and intellectual heritage of cultures other than their own. Additionally, such study gives new and different perspectives on the structure…

  3. Language abilities and nonverbal IQ in children with language impairment: inconsistency across measures.

    PubMed

    Dethorne, Laura S; Watkins, Ruth V

    2006-11-01

    The present study used correlation analyses to examine the extent to which language abilities are associated with nonverbal IQ in 30 children with language impairment, age 4-8 years. After controlling for age, nonverbal IQ demonstrated medium associations with composite measures of both semantic and morphosyntactic abilities (r = .46 and .45 respectively). However when only criterion-referenced measures of language were included in the analyses, no significant associations between language and nonverbal IQ were observed. In addition, individual difference scores between language and nonverbal IQ revealed that discrepancies occurred in both directions--with language exceeding nonverbal IQ in some cases and nonverbal IQ exceeding language in others. In sum, the relatively inconsistent associations between language and nonverbal IQ provided additional reason to question current practices, such as cognitive referencing and the definition of specific language impairment. Implications in regard to theoretical accounts of language impairment are also discussed.

  4. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K.; Davenport, Tristan S.; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2016-01-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772–2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. PMID:25410427

  5. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience.

  6. Language Universals and Language Particulars: Implications for Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakada, Seiichi

    This paper explores the implications of presumed language universals and language particulars for second language teaching and learning. It is felt that an awareness of the universal features of language design builds confidence in the student who can concentrate on features which distinguish the target language from the native language. Examples…

  7. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  8. Selling Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Ibarra, Jose L.

    1975-01-01

    To reverse trends toward reductions in the number of foreign language teaching positions, it is necessary to change the negative image associated with foreign languages and to try to attract more students. A four-point selling program is suggested. (Author/RM)

  9. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  10. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  11. Music and early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  12. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  13. Integrating Language and Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    are compact disc ( CD ) and MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 ( MP3 ) players that use common military and medical terms.127 This is far from a perfect solution. No...language in addition to English .”28 The problem continues once a student advances to the secondary education level. Many universities have no foreign...

  14. Scaffolding Productive Language Skills through Sociodramatic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews how a receptive, bilingual four-year-old increased her Spanish productive-language skills over five weeks as she engaged in Spanish-language play sessions with bilingual peers. The data show her growing participation in group verbal interactions along with her growing production of her weaker language. In addition, a…

  15. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  16. Web-Based English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

  17. Handbook for Foreign Language Educators. Working Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, David; And Others

    A handbook for foreign language educators, which was prepared by a Pennsylvania Department of Education task force, is presented. After stating the rationale, benefits, and goals of foreign language study, attention is directed to the organization and content of the curriculum. Additional considerations are evaluation of second language learners…

  18. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  19. Teaching English as a "Second Language" in Kenya and the United States: Convergences and Divergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2015-01-01

    English is spoken in five countries as the native language and in numerous other countries as an official language and the language of instruction. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all domains of life of that country. In many…

  20. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  1. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  2. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  3. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages

    PubMed Central

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-01-01

    Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  4. Language Mosaic. Developing Literacy in a Second-New Language: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura

    2002-01-01

    Presents a new approach to examining second language writing among young learners, which the author defines as "Language mosaic." Offers a new perspective on the process of writing development and examines how and what children do in the writing process while developing an additional language. Suggests that educators should view the…

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Language Development in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) was followed over a 2-year period to provide additional evidence for the…

  6. Language barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs. PMID:23242902

  7. Language Experience in Second-Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Merle

    1994-01-01

    Rather than concentrate on ritual language and stock phrases, second-language teachers should utilize the language experience approach to help children develop more natural communication in active learning situations, using realistic settings and materials. (six references) (MDM)

  8. Reconceptualising Poetry as a Multimodal Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Denise; D'abdon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article theorises the role of poetry in English classrooms from a multimodal perspective. It discusses the gap between the practices of poetry inside and outside South African schools, particularly where English is taught as an additional language (EAL). The former is shown to be monomodal and prescriptive, while the latter is…

  9. Realigning Capital Portfolios: International Students' Educational Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on first year experiences of international students who use English as an additional language (EAL) in higher education in Australia. It examines how valued resources can foster a positive educational experience of these students from sociological perspectives. It draws data from an interview study, exploring narrative accounts…

  10. "Convenience Editors" as Legitimate Participants in the Practice of Scientific Editing: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Ian; Tanimoto, Kimie

    2013-01-01

    Native-English-speaking English teachers at universities in EFL contexts are often asked to edit scientific manuscripts written by English as an additional language (EAL) colleagues. However, a lack of familiarity with scientific writing can make such editing tasks burdensome to English teachers. Using Lave and Wenger's (1991) notion of legitimate…

  11. Authentic Cultural and Linguistic Learning through Practicum in a Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the value of community experience for mediating linguistic practice and cultural learning. Learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL), both immigrants and international students, frequently report difficulties in practicing English outside the classroom (Wright, 2006). Grounded in poststructuralist social identity…

  12. "Like a Newborn Baby": Using Journals to Record Changing Identities beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the sociocultural learning of 40 second-year students in a Bachelor of Arts in English-as-an-additional-language (EAL) program in Auckland, New Zealand. These learners participated in a teaching and learning intervention involving journalized community placement. The study illustrates how reflective…

  13. The Triunal Model of Anxiety and its Application to Anxiety Reduction in Learning and Teaching Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Bai, Heesoon

    2009-01-01

    In this article we are calling for an interlayered and cross-dimensional approach to understanding and working with anxiety, especially as manifested in English as an additional language (EAL) teaching and learning environments. We aim to understand the phenomenon of anxiety from the multidimensional perspectives of physiology, psychology, and…

  14. On the Importance of a Genre-Based Approach in the Teaching of English for Medical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León Pérez, Isabel K.; Martín-Martín, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In experimental disciplinary fields such as medicine, the writing up of a research paper in English may represent a major hurdle, especially for inexperienced writers and users of EAL (English as an Additional Language), mainly due to a lack of familiarity with international discourse conventions. Despite the efforts of many EAP (English for…

  15. How are Leaders Integrating the Ideology of Globalisation in Primary School Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    This study carried out research focusing on diverse learners, such as pupils who have English as additional language (EAL) in primary schools in the Midlands, England. Essentially, we wanted to know how they are supported to become global learners. Therefore, questions were posed to school leaders on their understanding of the concept of…

  16. Shaping Chinese Novice Scientists' Manuscripts for Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan; Flowerdew, John

    2007-01-01

    Researchers of scholarly literacy are becoming more aware that a published research article, especially if it is written by an English as an Additional Language (EAL) author, needs to be viewed as a product involving a range of "shapers" who participate in the editorial process (e.g., Burrough-Boenisch, 2003). Drawing on data gathered…

  17. A Stroke of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  18. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  19. Language Policy, Language Use and English Language Teaching in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasher, S. V.

    This paper evaluates the language policy of India and its implementation with a special focus on English language teaching (ELT). In the first part of the paper, India's language policy is chronicled from the pre-independence period through the nationalist movement and post-independence era, with attention to the language policies of the…

  20. Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strevens, Peter

    European language-teaching theory and practice in retrospect covering the period from 1920 to 1970 are noted to be an amalgam of underlying disciplines, teaching methodologies, and technical aids. Chronologically presented, the "orthodoxy" of 1920-40 charts general similarities in the state of the art prior to a 10-year period of major…

  1. On language.

    PubMed

    Pinker, S

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Steven Pinker is a professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, and in 1994 will become director of its McDonnell-Pew Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. He received his B.K from McGill University in 1976 and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1979, both in experimental psychology, and taught at Harvard and Stanford before joining the faculty of MIT in 1982. He has done research in visual cognition and the psychology of language, and is the author of Language Learnability and Language Development (1984) and Learnability and Cognition (1989) and the editor of Visual Cognition (1985), Connections and Symbol (1988, with Jacques Mehler), and Lexical and Conceptual Semantics (1992, with Beth Levin). He was the recipient of the Early Career Award in 1984 and the Boyd McCandless Award in 1986 from the American Psychological Association, a Graduate Teaching Award from MIT in 1986, and the Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1993. His newest book, The Language Instinct, will be published by William Morrow & Company in January 1994.

  2. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…

  3. Film Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudlin, Edward W.

    1979-01-01

    The author briefly surveys some of the claims made about the presumed nature of film as language and some of the problems that arise. He considers the views of two influential schools of film criticism: the Russian formalists (Pudovkin and Eisenstein) and the British semiologist (Peter Wollen). (Author/SJL)

  4. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  5. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  6. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  7. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  8. Lying in a native and foreign language.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Costa, Albert

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the interaction between deceptive language and second language processing. One hundred participants were asked to produce veridical and false statements in either their first or second language. Pupil size, speech latencies, and utterance durations were analyzed. Results showed additive effects of statement veracity and the language in which these statements were produced. That is, false statements elicited larger pupil dilations and longer naming latencies compared with veridical statements, and statements in the foreign language elicited larger pupil dilations and longer speech durations and compared with first language. Importantly, these two effects did not interact, suggesting that the processing cost associated with deception is similar in a native and foreign language. The theoretical implications of these observations are discussed.

  9. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  10. Language Tests as Language Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2007-01-01

    This paper contextualizes language tests in relation to educational and national language policies by demonstrating how these language measures may be used as mechanisms for affecting "de facto" language policies. This phenomenon is of special relevance given current controversies in nation states between multilingual and multicultural realities…

  11. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  12. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  13. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  14. Language Learning Strategies and Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajski, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    Language learning strategies (LLS), here defined as specific actions or mental procedures that assist in fulfilling language learning goals, have attracted increasing attention as one of the factors that impact second language acquisition. A key reason for their appeal is that language learning strategies can be manipulated to an extent that most…

  15. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  16. Generating Natural Language Under Pragmatic Constraints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    THIS PAGIE (When Dae deureel Due to the flexibility of language , speakers can communicate far more than Just the literal content of tile words they use...flexibility of language , speakers can communicate far more than just the literal content of the words they use; the additional information usually serves...each of three domains, various paragraphs that differ in slant, content , and style. Generating Natural Language Under Pragmatic Constraints A

  17. An Exploration of Linguistic Neo-Colonialism through Educational Language Policy--An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, educational language policy is explored through the lens of linguistic neo-colonialism in Ireland in the case of learners of English as an Additional Language. The perspective of Ireland as a decolonized nation may have an impact on current language policy. Arguments for an additive approach to language and identity, language…

  18. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  19. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  20. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  1. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  2. Marketing the Maori Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rangi

    Although the New Zealand government is spending millions of dollars to teach the Maori language in preschool language nests and immersion primary schools, its language policies are unlikely to succeed because they do not address the perceived low social status of the language. A marketing paradigm outlines how language can be viewed as a product…

  3. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  4. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  5. Language as Pure Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  6. Foreign Language Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  7. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  8. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  9. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  10. Transform Modern Language Learning through Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2013-01-01

    College professors can transform their modern language classes through mobile devices. Their students' learning becomes more active, more personalized, more contextual, and more culturally authentic as illustrated through the author's modern language mobile learning classroom examples. In addition, their students engage in many diverse types of…

  11. Prevalence of SLI in Language Resource Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Many children with communication impairments whose educational needs cannot be met in mainstream classrooms receive additional resource support in classroom units that specialise in the coordination and provision of academic teaching and speech language therapy in the UK. This study estimated the prevalence of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)…

  12. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice M; Chen Pichler, Deborah; Fieldsteel, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children. Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending-expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously-an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children's language choices. This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult. Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language.

  13. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice M.; Chen Pichler, Deborah; Fieldsteel, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children. Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending—expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously—an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children's language choices. This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult. Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant community language. PMID

  14. Language Change Announced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevalainen, Terttu

    1993-01-01

    Considers how changes in language usage come about and whether such changes can be identified and examined as they occur in a language, focusing on changes in the English language in past centuries and the present day. (MDM)

  15. Foreign Language Teaching Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beheydt, L.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion is divided into three parts: (1) [native] language acquisition versus [second] language learning, (2) successful language learning, and (3) teaching strategies (grammar-translation, direct, cognitive and cognitive habit-formation). (KM)

  16. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  17. Computer Language For Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Lucas, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    SOL is computer language geared to solution of design problems. Includes mathematical modeling and logical capabilities of computer language like FORTRAN; also includes additional power of nonlinear mathematical programming methods at language level. SOL compiler takes SOL-language statements and generates equivalent FORTRAN code and system calls. Provides syntactic and semantic checking for recovery from errors and provides detailed reports containing cross-references to show where each variable used. Implemented on VAX/VMS computer systems. Requires VAX FORTRAN compiler to produce executable program.

  18. First-language acquisition after childhood differs from second-language acquisition: the case of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, R I

    1993-12-01

    This study determined whether the long-range outcome of first-language acquisition, when the learning begins after early childhood, is similar to that of second-language acquisition. Subjects were 36 deaf adults who had contrasting histories of spoken and sign language acquisition. Twenty-seven subjects were born deaf and began to acquire American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language at ages ranging from infancy to late childhood. Nine other subjects were born with normal hearing, which they lost in late childhood; they subsequently acquired ASL as a second language (because they had acquired spoken English as a first language in early childhood). ASL sentence processing was measured by recall of long and complex sentences and short-term memory for signed digits. Subjects who acquired ASL as a second language after childhood outperformed those who acquired it as a first language at exactly the same age. In addition, the performance of the subjects who acquired ASL as a first language declined in association with increasing age of acquisition. Effects were most apparent for sentence processing skills related to lexical identification, grammatical acceptability, and memory for sentence meaning. No effects were found for skills related to fine-motor production and pattern segmentation.

  19. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pathology includes sections on preschool speech-language and communication assessment (section 13) and preschool speech-language and communication intervention (section 14). These sections describe the typical ...

  20. Native Literacy: A Living Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Rhonda L.

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy encompasses oral tradition, culture, language, identity, and world view in addition to the written word, and is a process of lifelong learning, much of which occurs beyond school walls. When defining Native literacy, one must move away from measuring Aboriginal students by Euro-Western definitions and move toward a balanced,…

  1. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems.

  2. What’s “right” in language comprehension: ERPs reveal right hemisphere language capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Federmeier, Kara D.; Wlotko, Edward W.; Meyer, Aaron M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the term “nonverbal” is often applied to the right cerebral hemisphere (RH), a growing body of work indicates that the RH can comprehend language and, indeed, that it makes critical contributions to normal language functions. Reviewed here are studies that have examined RH language capabilities by combining visual half-field presentation methods with event-related potential (ERP) measures. Because they afford temporal and functional specificity and can be obtained as participants simply process language for meaning, ERPs provide especially valuable insights into RH language functions. Such studies suggest that the RH appreciates word and message-level meaning information, and that it may play a particularly important role in the processing of relatively unpredictable semantic relationships. In addition, this work suggests that patterns observed for everyday language processing may often be an emergent property of multiple, distinct mechanisms operating in parallel as the left and right hemispheres jointly comprehend language. PMID:19777128

  3. Reconceptulizing Language Discordance: Meanings and Experiences of Language Barriers in the U.S. and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-24

    Individuals with language barriers may face challenges unique to a host society. By examining and comparing the sociocultural conditions that can result in providers and patients not sharing the same language in the United States and in Taiwan, I argue that (a) language discordance is a social phenomenon that may entail diverging meanings and experiences in different countries; (b) language-discordant patients may not share similar experiences even if they are in the same country; and (c) disparities in language concordance may be confounded with other disparities and cultural particulars that are unique to a host society. In addition, because English is a dominant language in medicine, language-discordant patients' quality of care in Taiwan can be moderated by their fluency in English.

  4. The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

  5. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals with human behaviour and learning. In addition to learner beliefs about language learning, language teachers themselves may hold certain beliefs about language learning that will have an impact on their instructional practices and that are likely to influence their students' beliefs…

  6. Recognizing and Combating Emotive Language: Examples Associated with Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Emotive language frequently appears in sporting contexts because it arouses feelings within its participants, listeners, and readers. The use of emotive language frequently provokes criticism because some people abuse emotive language to manipulate individuals, environments, and events. In addition, many individuals fail to understand how and when…

  7. Actors and Agency in Academic Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Gurney, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Nearly two decades have passed since Kaplan and Baldauf [1997. "Language planning from practice to theory." Clevedon: Multilingual Matters] drew attention to the dearth of language policy and planning (LPP) in higher education. Despite the continuing inflow of English as an additional language students into Anglophone universities, and a…

  8. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  9. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  10. Language Variation, Language Change and Perceptual Dialectology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessinger, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Subjective and objective language data collected in a research project on language variation in north Germany not only reveal information on current linguistic trends in north Germany; they also show how language change in this region is represented in the consciousness of the speakers themselves and described in comments by them. This diachronic…

  11. Early Language Milestones and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…

  12. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication.

  13. Marginal Words--Sophisticated Attitudinal Meaning Making Resources in the Vietnamese Language: Implications for the Shaping of Vietnamese Teaching in the Australian Curriculum: Languages (Vietnamese)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Thu Thi Bich

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation is an important aspect in communication in any language as it not only functions to express language users' evaluative stance but also to construct and maintain relations between interactants. In the teaching of languages in addition to English, paying attention to evaluative language contributes to an understanding of the…

  14. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  15. Relations among language exposure, phonological memory, and language development in Spanish-English bilingually developing 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  17. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  18. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  19. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  20. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  1. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  2. 34 CFR 658.32 - What additional criteria does the Secretary apply to institutional applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant? § 658.32 What additional... studies and foreign languages at the applicant institution; (ii) The interdisciplinary aspects of the... funds will result in the implementation of a program in international studies and foreign languages...

  3. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

  4. Endangered Language Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

    2012-01-01

    Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

  5. Learning a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Shirley A.

    This paper presents an overview of research literature on second language learning in children. Theories regarding these aspects of second language acquisition are summarized: (1) developmental stages of language acquisition; (2) the role of imitation and practice; (3) differences between oral and written language skills; (4) the ways in which…

  6. Speaking of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nelson

    Fourteen selected speeches dating from 1955 to 1969 cover a broad range of information relevant to the history of language instruction in American schools. A state-of-the-art review of language instruction, written in 1955, precedes papers on: (1) language proficiency; (2) school and college language program cooperation; (3) motion pictures in…

  7. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    The text presents an introduction to sociolinguistics for second language teachers, focusing on social dimensions of language likely to be of interest to this group. The first group of chapters addresses the manner in which the larger social and political context affects language broadly: "Language Attitudes, Motivation, and Standards" (Mary…

  8. Computerized Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a computerized language analysis system that produces a detailed description and summary statistics to track language growth within student populations. This microcomputer-based language assessment system simplifies identification of deficits in productive language, enabling the teacher or clinician to spend more time…

  9. Creativity in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  10. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and…

  11. On Explaining Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenneberg, Eric H.

    1969-01-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to discuss the aspects of language (especially the development of language in children) to which biological concepts are most appropriately applied. While results of past studies would seem to show that language development is contingent on specific language training, it is important to distinguish between…

  12. Language Reversion Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bot, Kees; Clyne, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal study on language maintenance and loss among Dutch-English bilinguals in Australia revealed little loss in both languages over the years. This leads to the hypothesis of a "critical threshold" that must be reached to retain the second language. First language reversion appears commonly among immigrants who did not reach this…

  13. Language Structure Is Partly Determined by Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Dale, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures— a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in

  14. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  15. Comparability of a Paper-Based Language Test and a Computer-Based Language Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Inn-Chull; Kim, Kyoung Sung; Boo, Jaeyool

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the Test of English Proficiency, developed by Seoul National University (TEPS), examined comparability between the paper-based language test and the computer-based language test based on content and construct validation employing content analyses based on corpus linguistic techniques in addition to such statistical analyses as…

  16. Issues of Language Assessment. Volume II: Language Assessment and Curriculum Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidner, Stanley S., Ed.

    These 25 papers address issues of second language assessment and curriculum planning. The papers are divided into three categories: theoretical foundations, assessment approaches, and research and policy. Among the specific topics discussed are: whether tests measure language or intelligence, additive versus subtractive bilingualism, the…

  17. Language Awareness and Perception of Connected Speech in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara; Blanchet, Josée

    2014-01-01

    To be effective second or additional language (L2) listeners, learners should be aware of typical processes in connected L2 speech (e.g. linking). This longitudinal study explored how learners' developing ability to perceive connected L2 speech was related to the quality of their language awareness. Thirty-two learners of L2 French at a university…

  18. Strategy-Based English Language Instruction: The Impact on the Language Proficiency of Young Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…

  19. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  20. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-07-16

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control.

  1. Examining the Effectiveness of an Academic Language Planning Organizer as a Tool for Planning Science Academic Language Instruction and Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Karl G.; Brown, Julie C.

    2016-12-01

    To engage in the practices of science, students must have a strong command of science academic language. However, content area teachers often make academic language an incidental part of their lesson planning, which leads to missed opportunities to enhance students' language development. To support pre-service elementary science teachers (PSTs) in making language planning an explicit part of their science lessons, we created the Academic Language Planning Organizer (ALPO). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the ALPO on two levels: first, by examining participants' interactions with the ALPO as they identified academic language features, objectives and supports; and second, by exploring the ways that participants translated identified language supports to planned science activities. Findings indicated that, when using the ALPO, PSTs identified clear language functions and relevant vocabulary terms, and also frequently developed clear, observable and measurable language objectives. When lesson planning, PSTs were largely successful in translating previously identified language supports to their lesson plans, and often planned additional language supports beyond what was required. We also found, however, that the ALPO did not meet its intended use in supporting PSTs in identifying discourse and syntax demands associated with specific academic language functions, suggesting that revisions to the ALPO could better support PSTs in identifying these academic language demands. Implications for supporting PSTs' planning for and scaffolding of science academic language use are presented.

  2. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  3. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  4. The Language of Language: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Jesse Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The study of language in general and the study of foreign languages in particular have attracted new interest in academic circles during the past decade. The concepts of the "global village" and "cultural diversity" have become commonplace in the jargon of the 1990s. The development of two new courses at Westminster College…

  5. First Language and Target Language in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William; Yu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, foreign language teaching has been dominated by the principle that teachers should use only the target language (TL) and avoid using the mother tongue (L1) except as a last resort. However, reports show that teachers make extensive use of the L1. This paper illustrates this discrepancy and considers some main reasons for it. It…

  6. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  7. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  8. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Zhukova, Marina A.; Prikhoda, Natalia A.; Korotaeva, Irina V.; Koposov, Roman A.; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development. PMID:27346924

  9. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Language outcomes after resection of dominant inferior parietal lobule gliomas.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Derek G; Riva, Marco; Jordan, Kesshi; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Li, Jing; Perry, David W; Henry, Roland G; Berger, Mitchel S

    2017-01-06

    difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.46). Additionally, patients with long-term language deficits were older than those without deficits (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a small number of patients with preoperative language deficits, IPL glioma resection resulted in improved language function. However, in patients with intact preoperative language function, resection of IPL gliomas may result in new language deficits, especially if the tumors are diffuse, high-grade lesions. Thus, language-dominant IPL glioma resection is not risk-free, yet it is safe and its morbidity can be reduced by the use of cortical and subcortical stimulation mapping.

  13. Longitudinal Effects on Early Adolescent Language: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Method We used structural equation modeling on latent factors to estimate additive genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on variance in standardized language skills (i.e., Formal Language) and productive language-sample measures (i.e., Productive Language) in a sample of 527 twins across 3 time points (mean ages 10–12 years). Results Individual differences in the Formal Language factor were influenced primarily by genetic factors at each age, whereas individual differences in the Productive Language factor were primarily due to nonshared environmental influences. For the Formal Language factor, the stability of genetic effects was high across all 3 time points. For the Productive Language factor, nonshared environmental effects showed low but statistically significant stability across adjacent time points. Conclusions The etiology of language outcomes may differ substantially depending on assessment context. In addition, the potential mechanisms for nonshared environmental influences on language development warrant further investigation. PMID:27732720

  14. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Language Policy and Planning: Fundamental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental issues in language policy and planning are discussed: language death, language survival, language change, language revival, language shift and expansion, language contact and pidginization or creolization, and literacy development. (Contains 21 references.) (LB)

  17. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  18. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  20. Breaking the Language Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  1. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  2. Language Policy and Language Planning in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjioannou, Xenia; Tsiplakou, Stavroula; Kappler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the…

  3. Mongolian Language Handbook. Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Nicholas

    The present book is an introduction to Mongolian, designed to give the most essential information about that language to nonspecialists in the field, primarily to linguists who are interested in learning about the structure, or students of Mongolian who wish to get a general picture of the language before they begin studying it in detail.…

  4. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  5. Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Harrison, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Students' first and target language are often used by both teachers and students during instruction in the foreign language classroom (Levine, 2011). In this study, the frequency of and reasons for students' and teachers' use of English or Spanish were analyzed using video recordings of 40 class sessions taught by eight randomly…

  6. The "Other Language": Language Planning in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Michele

    The language planning activities undertaken by Belgium's government suggest that the goals of linguistic legislation have changed over time, reflecting the evolution and complex interplay of social, cultural, political, and economic characteristics. Initially, language legislation stemmed from the desire of Flemish militants to protect and promote…

  7. The Politics of Language: Spain's Minority Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and legal framework in Spain and its attempts to define nationhood and a collective identity that encompasses its three major linguistic minority groups. The four major language groups of Spain are discussed with regard to official language policy and legislation. Article 3 of the 1978 Spanish constitution was…

  8. Languages for Business Means Business for Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    Georgia State University has developed undergraduate applied language programs in commercial French, German, and Spanish combining practical with theoretical studies. The curricula stress the communicative aspect of language, and are based on the content of certification examinations given in France, Germany, and Spain. Two upper-level courses in…

  9. First Language Use in Second Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulisse, Nanda; Bongaerts, Theo

    1994-01-01

    In a study of bilingual speech production, data were collected from 771 unintentional language switches by 45 Dutch learners of English at 3 different proficiency levels. One finding was that the occurrence of language switch was related to learner proficiency in English. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/LB)

  10. The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju

    This book describes the phonological and grammatical structure of the whole-Dravidian language family from different aspects, examining its history and writing system, structure and typology, lexicon, and recent contacts between Dravidian and other language groups. The 11 chapters highlight the following: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., the…

  11. Languages for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on languages for specific purposes, providing a brief historical perspective, examining it as a profession, discipline, or neither; its role in science and law; language for business purposes; and the position of English worldwide. (Author/VWL)

  12. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePlus

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 45. Simms MD. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  13. Using Language Broadcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian; Barley, Anthony

    1977-01-01

    Various ways to use foreign language radio broadcasts in comprehension practice, speaking practice, and written work are outlined. BBC and other broadcasts in several languages are listed and annotated as to age level and topics. (CHK)

  14. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... is…Robbie, Pearl, and Mario. Back to top Definition There are many kinds of speech and language ... education available to school-aged children with disabilities. Definition of “Speech or Language Impairment” under IDEA The ...

  15. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  16. The Rudiments of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  19. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  20. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  1. Acquisition of Language Information from Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    This report describes the methods to acquire language information from online databases, which are usually employed to retrieve technical information. Typical uses are shown to obtain equivalent foreign words, language usages, illustrative sentences and statistical linguistic data, by use of JOIS, DIALOG, SDC and BRS online information systems. In comparison with dictionaries and usage books, the online databases provide a vast file of language information, which is unabridged, continually updated and accessible through any words or their combinations. In addition, they give quantitative data such as frequencies in use of words and expressions.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  4. Turkmen Language Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, David; Clark, Larry

    The manual of standard Turkmen language is designed to teach basic language skills that Peace Corps volunteers need during a tour in Turkmenistan. An introductory section gives information about the Turkmen language, including a brief history, notes on the alphabet, vowel and consonant sounds, rules of vowel harmony, and specific grammatical forms…

  5. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  6. The right to language.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Tom; Kushalnagar, Raja; Mathur, Gaurav; Napoli, Donna Jo; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian; Smith, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We argue for the existence of a state constitutional legal right to language. Our purpose here is to develop a legal framework for protecting the civil rights of the deaf child, with the ultimate goal of calling for legislation that requires all levels of government to fund programs for deaf children and their families to learn a fully accessible language: a sign language.

  7. Research in Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Since its inception in 1990, the Language Testing Research Centre (LTRC) at the University of Melbourne has earned an international reputation for its work in the areas of language assessment and testing as well as program evaluation. The mission of the centre is: (1) to carry out and promote research and development in language testing; (2) to…

  8. Bourdieu, Language, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on the work of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu with a special focus on issues of language, education and literacy. The essay sketches out Bourdieu's main theoretical ideas with respect to language, and raises a number of issues on classroom language and academic discourse. Bourdieu's approach is considered…

  9. Language Teaching through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uemichi, Isao S.

    Language teaching through literature is based on the principle that literary works of art can give students intellectual pleasure. It should be revived in English language teaching in Japan because (1) it has the power to motivate students to learn a language they might not learn otherwise, (2) literature is readily available and applicable to a…

  10. Cassirer's View of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  11. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  12. The Language Teacher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Malcolm, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

    These issues of "The Language Teacher" examine second language learning issues in Japan, focusing on such topics as the following: language educators and labor law; using videofeedback to nurture self-monitoring skills; learning diaries in learner training; English for special learners; developing listening subskills with trivia;…

  13. Languages on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Glyn

    1986-01-01

    A speech addressed to British foreign language teachers concerning the state of foreign language instruction in Great Britain stressed the importance of maintaining high quality second language instruction at all educational levels for the purpose of securing the future of the United Kingdom in commercial, social, cultural, and political domains.…

  14. Sinhala Language Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    This guide is designed for Singhalese language training of Peace Corps workers in Sri Lanka, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of: a list of selected language topics and related language competencies; lesson plans for each topic; culture notes for each topic; and a series of reproducible masters for handouts on a…

  15. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  16. TEFL and Language Ontogeny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocaz de Arriagada, Aura

    The author discusses "the parallels between learning English as a foreign language and learning English as a native language and their relevance for the construction of appropriate teaching materials." Four postulates or language universals are presented about the order in which children learn the phonological features of their native language…

  17. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  18. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  19. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  20. Language Trends 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a survey of secondary schools carried out during the autumn term of 2010 by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, with support from the Association for Language Learning and the Independent Schools' Modern Language Association. It is based on responses to a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of…

  1. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  2. Motives for Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Raymond, Ed.

    This collection of papers considers processes involved in language change and issues of how they can be modeled and studied. After "Introduction" (Raymond Hickey), there are 15 papers in 6 parts. Part 1, "The Phenomenon of Language Change," includes: (1) "On Change in 'E-language'" (Peter Matthews); and (2)…

  3. Language, Name, and Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronowski, J.; Bellugi, Ursula

    1970-01-01

    Summarizes the results of attempts to teach a young chimpanzee to use sign language, and raises questions about the uniqueness of human language. Analyzes language development in children and suggests that humans differ from nonhuman primates in the ability to analyze the environment into parts which can be manipulated in the mind, and that it is…

  4. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  5. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    An analysis of the relationship of language to learning, particularly as it affects "avoidance behaviors" of remedial readers in the classroom, strongly emphasized the importance of greater stress on oral language development. New concern for cognitive and personality development in children stresses the role of language as an interaction medium…

  6. Experiencing Indian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol; And Others

    Intended to provide for the reader a new road to study India, the booklet encourages students to experience the languages of India as an avenue to learning something about its people. The workbook introduces the reader to the languages of India; shows through activities and research the contributions of Indian languages to English; and provides a…

  7. Orwell and Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Commemorating the end of George Orwell's year, 1984, the majority of articles in this journal issue are devoted to some aspect of language. The first article alerts teachers to the need for a critical examination of Orwell's underlying assumptions about language change in "Politics and the English Language." The next five articles deal…

  8. Digital Language Death

    PubMed Central

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  9. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  10. Language, Culture & Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, foreign language faculty have been adjusting their curricula to ensure that today's college students know how to use technology to communicate effectively in languages other than their native tongue. Once upon a time, students were considered fluent if they could read, write, speak and aurally comprehend a foreign language. However…

  11. The Learning of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

    Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

  12. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  13. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  14. Trends in Language Policy Overseas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Explores the relative dominance of English as the preferred second language among foreign countries and the rise in the importance accorded to other languages, growing foreign language enrollment, language attitude changes, and concerns that English language competence is not enough and that other important languages are being neglected. (CB)

  15. Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing bilingual children, and monolingual Dutch children with SLI. Assuming that speaking a language in varying environments involves distinct subskills that can be acquired in differential patterns, the achievement of phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and textual abilities were assessed separately. For each of these abilities, it was determined to what extent the conditions of restricted input (first vs. second language) and language deficit (typically developing vs. SLI) cause stagnation or a delay in language acquisition. Bilingual children with SLI perform at a lower level than the other groups in almost all aspects of achievement in Dutch. For language tasks related to the mental lexicon and grammar, an additional disadvantage was evidenced as a result of the combination of learning Dutch as second language and having SLI.

  16. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-03-24

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  17. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  18. Mind and language architecture.

    PubMed

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-07-08

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described.

  19. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  20. Teaching Receptive Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507

  1. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  3. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  4. Language Experience Changes Language and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Poarch, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of two languages by bilinguals has been shown to induce broad changes in language and cognitive abilities across the lifespan. The largest changes are seen as advantages in executive control, a set of processes responsible for controlled attention, inhibition, and shifting. Moreover, there is evidence that these executive control advantages mitigate cognitive decline in older age and contribute to cognitive reserve. In this paper, we examine some of the evidence for these findings and explain their relation to bilingual language use. These effects are considered in terms of their implications for our understanding of cognitive and brain plasticity. Some implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:25435805

  5. GESTURE’S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate––they gesture––and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form––they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form––they are part of language. PMID:23526836

  6. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  7. Native language change during early stages of second language learning

    PubMed Central

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The co-activation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as the second language (L2). The present study asked whether L1 change can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how it is modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared to noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. Additionally, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that the L2 affects the L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact the L1 early in the development of L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  8. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  9. Distinct mechanisms and timing of language recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jarso, Samson; Li, Muwei; Faria, Andreia; Davis, Cameron; Leigh, Richard; Sebastian, Rajani; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    The “language network” is remarkably stable across language tasks but changes in response to injury to specific components or in response to “disconnection” of input to one component. We investigated network changes during language recovery, hypothesizing that language recovery takes place through distinct mechanisms: (a) reperfusion; (b) recovery from diaschisis; (c) recovery from structural disconnection; and (d) “reorganization” of language, whereby various components assume function of a damaged component. We also tested the hypothesis that “reorganization” depends on: the language task, level of performance, size and site of stroke, and time post onset. We tested these hypotheses in five participants who had structural, perfusion, and functional imaging utilizing spelling, reading, word generation, and picture naming tasks at acute and subsequent stages after ischaemic stroke. These cases illustrate different mechanisms of aphasia recovery or illustrate that reorganization of language acutely depends on individual variables in addition to size and site of stroke. PMID:24472056

  10. Attitudes to Language and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpin, William

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the revolutionary reorientation taking place in English teaching, the responses to it found in the Bullock Report, and studies of the effects of language attitudes in teaching that have been undertaken and that still need to be undertaken. (GT)

  11. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  12. Signed language working memory capacity of signed language interpreters and deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an Auslan working memory (WM) span task. The results revealed that the hearing signers (i.e., the professional interpreters) significantly outperformed the deaf signers on the Auslan WM span task. However, the results showed no significant differences between the native signers and the nonnative signers in their Auslan working memory capacity. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction between hearing status and age of signed language acquisition. Additionally, the study found no significant differences between the deaf native signers (adults) and the deaf nonnative signers (adults) in their Auslan working memory capacity. The findings are discussed in relation to the participants' memory strategies and their early language experience. The findings present challenges for WM theories.

  13. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language.

  14. Language disorder: a functional linguistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issues involved in the linguistic characterisation of disordered discourse and the ways in which a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework addresses these issues. For many years, language disorders were described in terms of formal grammars, with "breakdown" discussed in terms of one or more of the traditional levels of language, i.e., phonology, syntax, and semantics. While it was acknowledged that an individual could have difficulty at one or more of these levels, each was viewed quite separately, with semantics viewed largely from a referential perspective. More recent approaches using functional grammar have broadened this view of language and have provided a model of language that re-conceptualizes the notion of meaning and embraces context as integral to its organisation. Such a model has introduced a different perspective on language into clinical fields, and has enabled researchers and clinicians to explore the skills of speakers with language disorders across a variety of situations and contextual variables, examining the linguistic resources still available to them. This paper introduces principles involved in a functional framework and provides an overview of how these principles have been applied to language disorders to date. In addition, the notion of "disorder" itself is discussed as it is situated in this alternative model.

  15. Formal language constrained path problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  16. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  17. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  18. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  19. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards.

  2. The use of the R language for medicinal chemistry applications.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Kuhn, Max

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript serves as a review of how the R language has been used in the last decade to address problems related to medicinal chemistry design. This includes the use of the R language for chemoinformatics applications and interfaces, as well as statistical modeling for ADMET and potency endpoints. Additionally, a few examples of R code are provided to demonstrate the ability of this language to make available cutting-edge statistical analysis to the medicinal chemistry design community.

  3. Language development in children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M; Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen

    2002-09-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is the most common severely disabling birth defect in North America. It is a disorder of the central nervous system that includes, in addition to the defining spinal dysraphism, congenital malformations of the cerebellum and corpus callosum that, along with hydrocephalus, produces a range of cognitive and motor difficulties, including language. In the language domain, many children with SBM demonstrate adequate development of language at the level of form and content (grammar and lexicon). However, most children with SBM experience significant difficulties in the construction of meaning and in pragmatic communication, both of which require flexible language processing in real time. Assessment and intervention should specifically attend to the development of meaning construction and semantic-pragmatic communication.

  4. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  5. Language Enabled Airmen Program: Language Intensive Training Events 2011 Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    learning a second language ? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory . Language Learning , 53, 33-64. Nyikos, M...largely on improving language proficiency. Cultural learning and growth was a weak second focus. However, the challenges that the participants most...and motivations in language learning : Advances in theory , research and applications. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Gardner, R.C. (1982). Language

  6. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Language Awareness and Second Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the publication of Hawkins's (1984) "Awareness of Language," researchers have been investigating the language awareness of second language (L2) learners. Few studies, however, have targeted the relationship between classroom learners' language awareness and L2 production, with fewer still focusing on language awareness and L2…

  8. Language Schemes--A Useful Policy Tool for Language Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ó Flatharta, Peadar

    2015-01-01

    The Irish language is recognised in Bunreacht na hÉireann [The Constitution of Ireland] as the national and first official language, and provisions to support the language are to found in c.120 specific enactments in Irish legislation. In 2007, the Irish language was designated as an official working language of the European Union. In 2003, the…

  9. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  10. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  11. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  12. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  13. Do Inclusion Practices for Pupils with Special Educational Needs in the English as a Foreign Language Class in Israel Reflect Inclusion Laws and Language Policy Requirements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russak, Susie

    2016-01-01

    The study of additional languages is mandatory for all pupils in most European countries. Usually, the first foreign language is English. This is due to the status of English as a global language. According to inclusion laws, pupils with special educational needs (SEN) should be taught in regular classes with support services by teachers with…

  14. The Effect on Cumulative Language Acquisition Increase for English Language Learner Students in Kindergarten through Third Grade Who Attended Multiple Years of Summer Remediation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Already academically at risk, students in the rapidly growing English Language Learner (ELL) student population in the United States face additional challenges due to regression of English language acquisition over the average ten-week agrarian summer break when they return to homes in which Spanish was the primary language spoken. While the…

  15. A Roadmap for True Accountability: Reconceptualizing Language-Learning Services, Reclassification Practices and Monitoring Systems for English Language Learners in U.S. Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slama, Rachel B.

    2012-01-01

    A major problem facing educators in the United States is how to determine when the nation's five million English language learners (ELL) are ready to exit language-learning programs, i.e. to be "reclassified" as fluent English proficient (R-FEP) and placed in mainstream classrooms without additional language support. No Child Left Behind…

  16. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  17. How arbitrary is language?

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Kirby, Simon

    2014-01-01

    It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary—typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound–meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound–meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency. PMID:25092667

  18. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  19. Codeswitching in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Cereijido, Gabriela Simon; Leone, Angela Erickson

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit limited grammatical skills compared to their peers with typical language. These difficulties may be revealed when alternating their two languages (i.e., codeswitching) within sentences. Fifty-eight Spanish-English speaking children with and without SLI produced narratives using wordless picture books and conversational samples. The results indicated no significant differences in the proportion of utterances with codeswitching (CS) across age groups or contexts of elicitation. There were significant effects for language dominance, language of testing, and a significant dominance by language of testing interaction. The English-dominant children demonstrated more CS when tested in their nondominant language (Spanish) compared to the Spanish-dominant children tested in their weaker English. The children with SLI did not display more CS or more instances of atypical CS patterns compared to their typical peers. The findings indicate that children with SLI are capable of using grammatical CS, in spite of their language difficulties. In addition, the analyses suggest that CS is sensitive to sociolinguistic variables such as when the home language is not socially supported in the larger sociocultural context. In these cases, children may refrain from switching to the home language, even if that is their dominant language. PMID:22611333

  20. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. PMID:25448322

  1. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations.

  2. Employing mobile technology to improve language skills of young students with language-based disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cathi Draper; Cumming, Therese M

    2016-04-11

    This exploratory study investigated the effects of a language building iPad application on the language skills (i.e., receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and sentence formation) of young students with language-based disabilities. The study utilized a pre-test-post-test control group design. Students in the treatment group used the iPad language building application, Language Builder, for 30 minutes a day. Participants were 31 first-grade to third-grade students with identified language-based disabilities. Students were assigned to two groups for the 8-week intervention. Data indicated that students in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in the area of sentence formation than the control group. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the areas of expressive and receptive vocabulary. A short intervention of using Language Builder via the iPad may increase the sentence formation skills of young students with language delays. Additionally, discussion regarding the usefulness of iPad applications in education is presented.

  3. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  4. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  5. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  6. Language and Recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  7. Natural Language Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Language Generation, Trento, Italy, April 1992 ( to appear). " Parsimonious or Profligate: How Many and...and generate human language into and from computer-internal format in restricted domains, and since the cost of teaching people specialized computer... languages and interaction procedures is likely to remain high, it is incumbent on Artificial Intelligence researchers to develop algorithms that

  8. Language Training in MIBOLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    kit as a rifle and a helmet.”5 Dari and Pashto are complex languages dissimilar to English . Both use the Arabic alphabet which contains sounds...that do not exist in English and are hard for native English speakers to pronounce. It is very difficult, nearing impossible, to learn either language...without outside 3 instruction, particularly regarding pronunciation . While the Army has an array of language curriculums available, including

  9. Language and Social Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    of thousands of text files that include online chats, Internet bulletin board messages, telephone calls, face-to-face conversations, blog posts...essays, online ads, books, lyrics, poems, speeches, and other text samples in English, Spanish, Arabic, and other languages. Finally, we have been...developing a range of new statistical methods that measures language style matching, provides real time online feedback about people’s language use, and

  10. Language and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with teaching physics in English and students' native languages. Reviews studies on the topic, including Whorf's linguistic relativity. Includes suggestions for further research. (SK)

  11. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  12. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  13. Language Study in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Calls for the study of language in secondary schools, discusses components of language study, notes the failure of the Bullock Report to point out the importance of language study, and discusses four characteristics of language that could serve as starting points for the study of language in secondary schools. (GT)

  14. Language and the Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  15. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  16. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  17. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S.; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that – at least with respect to language acquisition – early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  18. Speech and Language Therapy Intervention in Schizophrenia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Parks, Randolph W.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and…

  19. CA for SLA: Arguments from the Chinese Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2004-01-01

    When the seminal article on the organization of turn-taking by Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) was published 30 years ago, I started learning English as a foreign language. In addition to being a learner of the English language for many years, I was also trained in the traditions of Conversation Analysis (CA) and linguistic anthropology…

  20. Video Dubbing Projects in the Foreign Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The dubbing of muted video clips offers an excellent opportunity to develop the skills of foreign language learners at all linguistic levels. In addition to its motivational value, soundtrack dubbing provides a rich source of activities in all language skill areas: listening, reading, writing, speaking. With advanced students, it also lends itself…

  1. Bidirectional Associations among Sensitive Parenting, Language Development, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In addition,…

  2. The Future of the Spanish Language in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, Siobhan; Valdivieso, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of "The Veltman Report," published by the Hispanic Policy Development Project. Hispanic residents and citizens of the United States are learning English and using English in addition to Spanish, a language shift process that spans three generations. Components of language acquisition are outlined. Policy…

  3. Student Attitudes and Perceptions of Using Facebook for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Craig; Wilkins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insight into Japanese students' perceptions and attitudes of participating in activities through Facebook for language learning. In addition, the authors discuss the overall implications of and potential uses for Facebook in the field of second language learning and teaching. Ninety-seven students from three private…

  4. Rethinking the Connection between Working Memory and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Harder Griebeling, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working memory deficits have been found for children with specific language impairment (SLI) on tasks imposing increasing short-term memory load with or without additional, consistent (and simple) processing load. Aims: To examine the processing function of working memory in children with low language (LL) by employing tasks imposing…

  5. What Is the Human Language Faculty? Two Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In addition to providing an account of the empirical facts of language, a theory that aspires to account for language as a biologically based human faculty should seek a graceful integration of linguistic phenomena with what is known about other human cognitive capacities and about the character of brain computation. The present discussion note…

  6. Spelling Skills of Children in Whole Language and Phonics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Maggie; Teiman, Rebecca; Caravolas, Marketa; Genesee, Fred; Cassar, Marie

    1998-01-01

    The spelling skills of grade three children who had received whole-language instruction since they began to learn to read were compared with those of grade three children attending a phonics program. Overall, the phonics group produced more accurate word spellings than the whole-language group. In addition, the phonics children's spelling of…

  7. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children.

  8. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  9. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's parents... examinations of children, such as a school psychologist, speech-language pathologist, or remedial...

  10. Teaching Addition and Subtraction Facts: A Chinese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Joanne Y.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an issue that arises in every country: How can teachers best help children master basic addition and subtraction facts? Discusses how this is handled in China and highlights the impact that language has on how children think about numbers. (KHR)

  11. Discriminating Children with Language Impairment among English-Language Learners from Diverse First-Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne; Schneider, Phyllis; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine whether a combination of English-language measures and a parent questionnaire on first-language development could adequately discriminate between English-language learners (ELLs) with and without language impairment (LI) when children had diverse first-language backgrounds. Method:…

  12. EAL Teacher Agency: Implications for Participation in Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Laura; Liyanage, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Teachers construct their practice, education and professional development within two domains of professionalism: sponsored and independent. The association between these two domains, however, is complex; it is overlapping, inseparable and sometimes uneasy. The complexity is further exacerbated by the codependent nature of association between the…

  13. Language extinction and linguistic fronts

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction–diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data. PMID:24598207

  14. Language extinction and linguistic fronts.

    PubMed

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-05-06

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction-diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data.

  15. Learning to Teach Languages: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study of Two New Language Teachers in a New Zealand Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers (East, 2007, 2008; Villers, Tolosa & East, 2010) have identified a shortage of language teachers in New Zealand as a main limitation in the enactment of a learning area devoted to the learning of additional languages in the New Zealand curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007). Thus it is important to consider the range of…

  16. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  17. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  18. Language Processing and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan

    Three aspects of language behavior--linguistic independence, linguistic interference, and code-switching, are an integral part of the language processing experiences of the bilingual person. Complex cerebral mechanisms function in a coordinated effort to analyze and synthesize the various components of linguistic codes, store them in semantic…

  19. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  20. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  1. Language Industries Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, P. M., Ed.; Button, D. F., Ed.

    This atlas describes the activities of public and private organizations that create the infrastructure within which languages are able to develop and interact in the European Community (EC). It contains over 1,000 descriptions of activities that play a role in shaping the language industries, from a user or provider perspective. The atlas is…

  2. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  3. Language in Religious Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samarin, William J.

    This book discusses some of the functions, ends, or goals that language serves in religion; the various kinds of linguistic resources that are exploited; and some of the social processes that characterize the use of language. In section one, "Performance," three approaches to the description of verbal behavior are contrasted. This…

  4. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Yoshiko; Horwitz, Elaine K.; Garza, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of anxiety in response to foreign- or second-language reading. Introduces the construct of foreign-language reading anxiety, offers a scale for its measurement, and reports on a preliminary study of reading anxiety in 30 intact first-semester classes of Spanish, Russian, and Japanese. (VWL)

  5. Arctic Languages: An Awakening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Dermid R. F., Ed.

    This work is a study of Arctic languages written in an interdisciplinary manner. Part of the Unesco Arctic project aimed at safeguarding the linguistic heritage of Arctic peoples, the book is the outcome of three Unesco meetings at which conceptual approaches to and practical plans for the study of Arctic cultures and languages were worked out.…

  6. Learning a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  7. Interactive Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M., Ed.

    In this collection of essays, a group of innovative teachers and writers describe the approaches and techniques they have incorporated into their own language teaching. The articles are designed to help classroom teachers make language classes more participatory and communication oriented. The book is divided into three sections: (1) What Is…

  8. Natural Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalkowski, Tomek

    1995-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in which advanced natural language processing is used to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval by preprocessing the documents; discovering interterm dependencies and build a conceptual hierarchy specific to database domain; and processing the user's natural language requests into…

  9. Urban Wall Languaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. Normann

    2008-01-01

    Graffiti constitutes a medium through which the youth express opposition to authorities, as well as desires, dreams, and hopes. Graffiti shows many of the linguistic characteristics of youth language, including playfulness and, first and foremost, polylingual languaging. Graffiti in almost every city, at least in Europe, uses English and one or…

  10. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  11. Foreign Languages and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

  12. Foreign Languages and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    The purpose of the report is to explain why so many different types of people in so many different parts of the country need languages in their work, and why students planning their education in preparation for certain kinds of careers should be aware of these needs. The focus is mainly on language as an auxiliary skill, on the careers in which…

  13. Testing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L., Ed.; Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the 1974 Washington Language Testing Sumposium. The volume also includes much of the discussion that followed each paper. The participants were an international group of language testing specialists from academic institutions, research centers, and government agencies. The primary focus…

  14. The Lozanov Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  15. Students' Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Edward

    Students have a right to use the dialect and language of their own cultural heritage. Language and dialect rights have many advantages for the user, including prestige, self-confidence, group identity, opportunity to project personality and style, appreciation and respect of cultural heritage, and self-awareness. All dialects are equal and are…

  16. Natural Language Sourcebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Discussion Lemon has two meanings. In (1) it means a poorly made car. In (2) it means a small, sour , yellow fruit. Usually a frame or script is used... dough " has different meanings in the cooking and bank robbery frames. front end: a natural language system that accepts natural language input and/or

  17. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  18. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American…

  19. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  20. Defining the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Patte, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "Basic Education" presents articles that discuss, respectively, defining the language arts, an agenda for English, the benefits of two languages, a new teacher (presently teaching English in a foreign country) looking ahead, and the Shaker Fellowships awarded by the school district in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Articles in the…

  1. Literary and Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Gives a broad overview of developments in using literary texts in language teaching. Describes both language-based and stylistic approaches to the use of literary texts and draws particular attention to the way in which non-literary genres draw on literary devices for their effects. (Author/VWL)

  2. Technology in Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquith, Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    In this special issue on technology in language teaching, major articles include: "Sociocultural Aspects of Second Language Acquisition" (David Nunan); "The Need for Multi-Media ESL Teaching Methods: A Psychological Investigation into Learning Styles" (Don W. Hinkelman, Jay M. Pysock); "Can Japanese Children Learn…

  3. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  4. Teaching Language Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing on ways to teach language intelligently and enjoyably, this journal issue contains 23 articles dealing with a variety of topics. Article titles and authors are (1) "An Experiment: Immersing Students in Language" (S. C. Kirby); (2) "The Art of Storytaking" (J. Charnock); (3) "Getting Poems from the A-poetic" (J. W. Broaddus); (4) "Using…

  5. Developments in Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D.

    This report discusses three recent developments in foreign and second language education. The first is the "proficiency movement," which is leading teachers and curriculum planners to find effective ways of measuring functional language proficiency and of bringing students to pragmatically useful levels of speaking, listening, reading,…

  6. Foreign Languages in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Wolfgang

    Foreign language study must be justified in relation to everyday situations, problems and needs. Second language education must therefore be integrated with career education. The Oregon State Department of Education sponsored a study for a group of educators to produce a transportable display and a video tape for career awareness purposes and to…

  7. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  8. Pathways of Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    Prepared by teachers for teachers, this practical classroom guide offers a process of monitoring language development and planning for development within a whole language framework, supported by a compendium of appropriate practice to be drawn on when needed. The guide (1) emphasizes the interdependence of reading, writing, talking, and listening;…

  9. Sensorimotor Bases for Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Mildred C.

    Some very practical questions about how children learn the first language compel us to study brain functions and how these functions evolve. They also bring the studies of linguistics and neurology together. The purpose of this paper is to relate some of the research that describes language acquisition with the research about the early development…

  10. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  11. Are Languages Digital Codes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Language use is commonly understood to involve digital signalling, which imposes certain constraints and restrictions on linguistic communication. Two papers by Ross [Ross, D., 2004. "Metalinguistic signalling for coordination amongst social agents." "Language Sciences" 26, 621-642; Ross, D., this issue. "'H. sapiens' as ecologically special: what…

  12. TOMORROW'S LANGUAGE LAB TODAY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ESTARELLAS, JUAN; REGAN, TIMOTHY F., JR.

    LANGUAGE LABORATORIES HAVE CHANGED FROM SIMPLE INSTALLATIONS, EQUIPPED WITH RECORD PLAYERS OR TAPE RECORDERS, TO COMPLEX INSTALLATIONS WITH FACILITIES FOR SELF-INSTRUCTION, DIAL SELECTION OF AUDIO PROGRAMS, REMOTE STORAGE OF TAPES, AND EVEN RECEPTION OF TV. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES OF THE FUTURE MUST HAVE THE CAPABILITY OF BEING OPERATED EFFICIENTLY…

  13. Moodling English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  14. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  15. Defense Language Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Discussed in this Defense Language Institute (DLI) brochure are its intensive language programs' history, and its four schools, which are located in Monterey, California, Washington, D.C., Lackland Air Force Base, and Fort Bliss, Texas. Proficiency levels determined by the DLI and utilization of the audiolingual method are also described.…

  16. Rethinking Language in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation…

  17. Reading, Perception and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  18. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language…

  19. Two Functions of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  20. Oral Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    Language is a fantastic gift: it empowers humans to create new ways of speaking with, for and to others about any topic or experience. Language is a rule-governed, meaningful communication system. It is a symbol system, where a word or phrase stands for or represents something else that can be touched, thought about, seen, heard, felt, done,…

  1. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  2. Foreign Language Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Sheldon G.

    In order to assess the foreign language programs currently offered by Oakton Community College (OCC), a three-part investigation was undertaken in 1974. First, to examine grade distribution and drop-out rate, the records of students enrolled in language courses were compared with the records of the total student body. During the spring, summer and…

  3. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  4. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  5. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  6. Friction in Different Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sarah Jessica; Murray, Alexa Lee; Cormas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson taught in a designated English Language Learner (ELL) classroom in an elementary school in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, using a sheltered instruction approach. Eighty one percent of the students at this school are from diverse ethnic backgrounds where 25 per cent of them receive ELL services. A variety of languages are…

  7. LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

  8. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  9. Integrating Language and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  10. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  11. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  12. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  13. Drama in Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Susan

    This book presents a view of the place of drama in foreign language teaching with the intent that student motivation for learning a foreign language can be activated through the use of a number of activities grouped under the heading of "drama." Drama here is defined as any activity which asks the student to portray self or another person in an…

  14. The Language of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

  15. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  16. Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  17. The Language of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes activities of kindergarten through grade-four students in an art classroom that emphasizes expression of creative process along with the product. Explores interconnections between art, thinking, and writing as expressed by a former language arts teacher who transfers her knowledge of language, words, and creative expression to art. (BAC)

  18. Caught between Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to educating English-language learners (ELLs) is ensuring that students become literate in their native language--something that experts say is important for their success in English and other subjects--and learn sufficient English skills before the middle grades, a critical transition point because of the increasingly…

  19. Philosophy and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  20. Rethinking language in autism.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory.

  1. Global health language and culture competency.

    PubMed

    Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need.

  2. XML Based Markup Languages for Specific Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde, Aparna; Rundensteiner, Elke; Fahrenholz, Sally

    A challenging area in web based support systems is the study of human activities in connection with the web, especially with reference to certain domains. This includes capturing human reasoning in information retrieval, facilitating the exchange of domain-specific knowledge through a common platform and developing tools for the analysis of data on the web from a domain expert's angle. Among the techniques and standards related to such work, we have XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This serves as a medium of communication for storing and publishing textual, numeric and other forms of data seamlessly. XML tag sets are such that they preserve semantics and simplify the understanding of stored information by users. Often domain-specific markup languages are designed using XML, with a user-centric perspective. Standardization bodies and research communities may extend these to include additional semantics of areas within and related to the domain. This chapter outlines the issues to be considered in developing domain-specific markup languages: the motivation for development, the semantic considerations, the syntactic constraints and other relevant aspects, especially taking into account human factors. Illustrating examples are provided from domains such as Medicine, Finance and Materials Science. Particular emphasis in these examples is on the Materials Markup Language MatML and the semantics of one of its areas, namely, the Heat Treating of Materials. The focus of this chapter, however, is not the design of one particular language but rather the generic issues concerning the development of domain-specific markup languages.

  3. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden.

  4. The language growth of spanish-speaking English language learners.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raúl; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples (6,516 Spanish; 5,732 English) produced by 1,723 ELLs during the first 3 years of formal schooling (M age at first observation = 5 years 7 months). Results indicated distinct trajectories of language growth over time for each language differentially impacted by summer vacation and gender, significant intra- and interindividual differences in initial status and growth rates across both languages, and language-specific relations between language growth and initial status. Implications of ELLs' language growth are discussed.

  5. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    PubMed

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  6. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  7. Carving the world for language: how neuroscientific research can enrich the study of first and second language learning.

    PubMed

    George, Nathan R; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map word to world in language-specific ways. Cross-linguistic differences in semantic organization also reveal sources of struggles for SLLs. We discuss how better integrating neuroscience into this literature can unlock additional mysteries of verb learning.

  8. Carving the World for Language: How Neuroscientific Research Can Enrich the Study of First and Second Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    George, Nathan R.; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map word to world in language-specific ways. Cross-linguistic differences in semantic organization also reveal sources of struggles for SLLs. We discuss how better integrating neuroscience into this literature can unlock additional mysteries of verb learning. PMID:24854772

  9. The Language Phenotype of Children and Adolescents With Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Roberts, Amy E.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an analysis of language skills in individuals with Noonan syndrome (NS), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. We investigated whether the language impairments affecting some individuals arise from deficits specifically within the linguistic system or whether they are associated with cognitive, perceptual, and motor factors. Comparisons of language abilities among the different NS genotypes were also conducted. Method Sixty-six children and adolescents with NS were evaluated using standardized speech, language, and literacy assessments. Additional cognitive, perceptual, and motor tasks were administered to examine the relation of these factors to language development. Genotype was noted for those who underwent genetic testing. Results Language impairments were more frequent in NS than in the general population and were associated with higher risk for reading and spelling difficulties. Language was significantly correlated with nonverbal cognition, hearing ability, articulation, motor dexterity, and phonological memory. Genotype analyses suggest that the higher performance of SOS1-positive than PTPN11-positive individuals on language tasks was largely mediated by differences in cognitive ability. Conclusions Our results indicate that variation in language skill in NS is closely related to cognitive, perceptual, and motor factors. It does not appear that specific aspects of language are selectively affected in this syndrome. PMID:20543023

  10. Hupa Language: Literature and Culture. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others

    One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…

  11. Successful Strategies for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Tracy; Fleischman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The authors state that one key to successfully working with English language learners (ELLs) is to view them as a resource in the classroom since these students can offer information and perspectives about other countries and cultures. Additionally, many researchers support the use of scaffolding strategies to help ELLs organize their thoughts in…

  12. Draft for a Subthesaurus on Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viet, Jean

    A sub-thesaurus of language teaching terms was compiled as a supplement to the EUDISED Multilingual Thesaurus. The sub-thesaurus includes three lists: (1) an alphabetized cross-referenced list of English descriptors to be added to the Multilingual Thesaurus; (2) an alphabetized English list of additional descriptors and the French and German…

  13. Hindsight of an English Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Phap

    This keynote address by a native Vietnamese speaker who did not learn English until he was college-age, through the now obsolete "grammar-translation" method, recounts his difficulties in learning to converse orally in English. He stresses the need to teach conversational English to English Language Learners (ELLs) in addition to…

  14. ELT Documents: 103-Individualisation in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    Articles on individualization in English language learning, a bibliography and list of selected additions to the English Teaching Information Centre archives (October 1977 - April 1978), and a list of recent publications are presented. An introduction by Elizabeth Smyth and the following articles are included: "Autonomy, Self-Directed Learning and…

  15. The Language Abilities of Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Morales, Leo S.; Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    language other than English. Most residents would benefit from additional education in working with interpreters. PMID:26413583

  16. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  17. Language Technology and Language Resources in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiwei, Feng

    Trends and developments in computer applications in Chinese language research are described, focusing on these areas: input of Chinese characters and Chinese corpus; automatic segmentation of Chinese written text in corpus; development of a grammar knowledge base for Chinese words to be used as a resource for text segmentation and corpus…

  18. Language and Gender in English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Murni

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the impact of gender differences in English Language Teaching. It explores students' learning styles as affected by the notions about men and women differences in communication. The data collected in 2008 from 20 males and 20 females' English students of the State University of Makassar. It is to reveal their attitudes…

  19. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  20. Academic Language Barriers and Language Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Laura Gabriela Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The ability to access a foreign language can be an issue for academics trying to publish in international journals. The barriers that non-(limited)English-speaking academics in poor countries have in accessing the academic literature pose an issue of disadvantage in a world where the current trend is to publish research work mostly in English.…