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Sample records for additional language eal

  1. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  2. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice. PMID:23421011

  3. Raising Standards for Pupils Who Have English as an Additional Language (EAL) through Monitoring and Evaluation of Provision in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to further knowledge and understand how monitoring and evaluation of pupils who have English as an additional language (EAL) is undertaken in primary schools. This is a comparative study across primary schools using qualitative approaches to help gain insight into current good practice and identify future needs in EAL.…

  4. Are South African Speech-Language Therapists adequately equipped to assess English Additional Language (EAL) speakers who are from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background? A profile and exploration of the current situation.

    PubMed

    Mdladlo, Thandeka; Flack, Penelope; Joubert, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey conducted on Speech-Language Therapists (SLTs) regarding current practices in the assessment of English Additional Language (EAL) speakers in South Africa. It forms part of the rationale for a broader (PhD) study that critiques the use of assessment instruments on EAL speakers from an indigenous linguistic and cultural background. This article discusses an aspect of the broader research and presents the background, method, findings, discussion and implications of the survey. The results of this survey highlight the challenges of human and material resources to, and the dominance of English in, the profession in South Africa. The findings contribute to understanding critical factors for acquiring reliable and valid assessment results with diverse populations, particularly the implications from a cultural and linguistic perspective. PMID:27247254

  5. Procedure for implementation of temperature-dependent mechanical property capability in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Robinson, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is presented to allow the use of temperature dependent mechanical properties in the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) System for solid structural elements. This is accomplished by including a modular runstream in the main EAL runstream. The procedure is applicable for models with multiple materials and with anisotropic properties, and can easily be incorporated into an existing EAL runstream. The procedure (which is applicable for EAL elastic solid elements) is described in detail, followed by a description of the validation of the routine. A listing of the EAL runstream used to validate the procedure is included in the Appendix.

  6. English as an Additional Language and Initial Teacher Education: Views and Experiences from Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses training for teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL) at initial teacher education (ITE) level in Northern Ireland. This small-scale qualitative study describes 15 primary and post-primary teachers' perspectives on their preparation for teaching EAL in Northern Ireland. It explores reflections on EAL content in ITE…

  7. Documentation for a Structural Optimization Procedure Developed Using the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Carl J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a structural optimization procedure developed for use with the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) finite element analysis system. The procedure is written primarily in the EAL command language. Three external processors which are written in FORTRAN generate equivalent stiffnesses and evaluate stress and local buckling constraints for the sections. Several built-up structural sections were coded into the design procedures. These structural sections were selected for use in aircraft design, but are suitable for other applications. Sensitivity calculations use the semi-analytic method, and an extensive effort has been made to increase the execution speed and reduce the storage requirements. There is also an approximate sensitivity update method included which can significantly reduce computational time. The optimization is performed by an implementation of the MINOS V5.4 linear programming routine in a sequential liner programming procedure.

  8. Multimodal Representations of Identity in the English-as-an-Additional-Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajee, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the multimodal engagement of English-as-an-additional-language (EAL) students in a classroom in Johannesburg. Within a social semiotic framework, and using constructions of design and identity to understand the students' multimodal engagement, the paper argues that multimodal representations offer EAL students from…

  9. English as an Additional Language, Policy and the Teaching and Learning of English in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the ways in which social policy and social concerns have impacted upon and shaped provision for students who consider English as an additional language (EAL). It provides an overview of practice and provision in relation to EAL learners in the context of state-funded education in England over the last 60 years in order to…

  10. East Asian International Student Experiences as Learners of English as an Additional Language: Implications for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee E.; Marshall, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In the school counselling literature, little focus is placed on international students who are learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL) and on school counselling support related to their language acquisition. Using the Critical Incident Technique, we analyzed transcripts of 21 international EAL students from China, Japan, and Korea who…

  11. A Support Program for English as an Additional Language Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the most diverse countries in the world. To provide meaningful health care, the Canadian health care system requires nursing health care teams reflecting this diversity. Meeting this demand should be a specific goal of Canadian nursing schools. Nursing students with English as an Additional Language (EALs) are graduating and passing national licencing exams at a lower rate than nursing students whose first language is English. It is the premise of the article that EALs require both academic and nonacademic forms of support during their years of nursing education. A literature review reveals that EALs facing academic crisis benefit from individual and group English language support, aimed at improving their understanding and use of English in an academic environment. Studies also suggest that group sessions help improve EALs' psychosocial functioning. This article provides an overview of the establishment and implementation of a proactive nursing support program, purposely designed to address the challenges faced by EALs. PMID:25288563

  12. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  13. [Eales' disease].

    PubMed

    Errera, M-H; Pratas, A; Goldschmidt, P; Sedira, N; Sahel, J-A; Benesty, J

    2016-05-01

    The syndrome of recurrent vitreous hemorrhages in young men was described for the first time by Henry Eales in 1880. The association with a clinical manifestation of ocular inflammation was reported 5years later. Eales disease affects young adults who present with ischemic retinal vasculitis, with the peripheral retina most commonly affected. Most cases have been reported in South Asia. Although the etiology of this abnormality is unknown, it may be related to an immune sensitivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Its pathogenesis is related to extensive ischemia that affects the retina, secondary to an obliterative retinal vasculopathy with release of angiogenic factors of the VEGF type. Involvement of the retina is the hallmark of the disease, which manifests as follows: periphlebitis, retinal capillary ischemia most often affecting the periphery with secondary proliferative retinopathy and retinal and/or papillary neovascularization, recurrent vitreous hemorrhages and tractional retinal detachment. These complications are potentially blinding. The natural history of Eales disease varies, with temporary or permanent remission in some cases and continuous progression in others. Progression is often bilateral, which necessitates regular follow-up. The treatment of Eales disease depends on the stage of the disease and is not well defined. Observation only, pars plana vitrectomy surgery and/or intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF are recommended in cases of vitreous hemorrhage, associated with corticosteroids when retinal vasculitis is present. Laser pan-retinal photocoagulation is necessary when neovascularization is present. PMID:27185661

  14. Developing EAL Learners' Intercultural Sensitivity through a Digital Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galante, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture are informally integrated in many English as an Additional Language (EAL) programs, but cultural discussions are often regarded from the perspective of a particular dominant culture. Although this integration is crucial for the development of communicative competence, practical applications are still challenging as language…

  15. Communicative Literacy Pedagogy: Engaging EAL Students in Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms reading comprehension is essential for students to access all areas of the curriculum. For English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, research has identified the need to combine literacy strategies with second language principles to scaffold students' comprehension of text. To…

  16. Static and dynamic structural-sensitivity derivative calculations in the finite-element-based Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Adelman, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of static and dynamic structural-sensitivity derivative calculations in a general purpose, finite-element computer program denoted the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) System is described. Derivatives are calculated with respect to structural parameters, specifically, member sectional properties including thicknesses, cross-sectional areas, and moments of inertia. Derivatives are obtained for displacements, stresses, vibration frequencies and mode shapes, and buckling loads and mode shapes. Three methods for calculating derivatives are implemented (analytical, semianalytical, and finite differences), and comparisons of computer time and accuracy are made. Results are presented for four examples: a swept wing, a box beam, a stiffened cylinder with a cutout, and a space radiometer-antenna truss.

  17. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  18. English as an Additional Language--A Genealogy of Language-in-Education Policies and Reflections on Research Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant

    2016-01-01

    The school population in England is linguistically diverse; according to official data, over one million pupils do not speak English as their first language. All teachers are expected to support English as an additional language (EAL) development as part of their professional responsibility. At the same time, there has been little specific…

  19. Making Connections. Literacy and EAL from a Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonesuch, Kate, Ed.

    This book is designed for instructors and tutors working with female learners in literacy and English-as-an-additional language (EAL). It consists of a series of papers that explore some of the links among feminism, literacy, violence, and a women-centered curriculum while simultaneously presenting suggested activities, readings, and discussions…

  20. Collaborative Consciousness-Raising Tasks in EAL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNicoll, Josh; Lee, Jang Ho

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates learning gains resulting from collaborative consciousness-raising (CR) tasks. For this purpose, text reconstruction and text repair tasks, two varieties of CR, were adapted from previous CR studies and administered to EAL (English as an Additional Language) learners in a women's university in South Korea. We…

  1. Roots and Connections: A Culturally Integrated Approach to EAL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apedaile, Sarah; Whitelaw, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a culturally integrated approach to teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL) through Roots and Connections: A Culturally Integrated ESL Curriculum for Community Orientation in Alberta. This was developed by the Centre for Intercultural Education to integrate intercultural sensitivity into English-language…

  2. Emergent Identity and Dilemmatic Spaces: Pre-Service Teachers' Engagement with EAL Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Integrationist policies that promote the mainstreaming of English language learners are well established in many English-speaking countries. This has led to the embedding of English as an additional language (EAL) methodology in teacher education, and also to the notion of collaboration between English language teachers and content area teachers.…

  3. Developing Independent Listening Skills for English as an Additional Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Michelle; Velautham, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project to develop online, self-access listening resources mirroring the authentic academic contexts experienced by graduate university students. Current listening materials for English as an Additional Language (EAL) students mainly use Standard American English or Standard British pronunciation, and far…

  4. Preparing Newly Qualified Teachers in England to Teach Pupils Who Have English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Bernadette; Cajkler, Wasyl

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the perspectives of newly qualified teachers (NQTs) in England entering the profession in 2005 and 2006 about their training and induction to meet the needs of pupils with English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from a survey and from interviews revealed that the greatest concerns of NQTs related to the…

  5. The Role of Background Knowledge in Text Comprehension for Children Learning English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Whiteley, Helen E.; Hutchinson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience difficulties with reading comprehension relative to their monolingual peers. While low levels of vocabulary appear to be one factor underlying these difficulties, other factors such as a relative lack of appropriate background knowledge may also contribute. Sixteen children…

  6. Learning Science through Dialogic Inquiry: Is It Beneficial for English-as-Additional-Language Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haneda, Mari; Wells, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    While the effectiveness of teaching that emphasizes dialogue and inquiry has been well documented with respect to English-as-mother-tongue children, it remains an empirical question as to whether this approach is equally useful when the student body includes a substantial number of English-as-additional-language (EAL) students. Through a…

  7. EAL Pupils in London Schools: A Success Story against the Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture Professor Catherine Wallace explores the literacy and language development of two groups of EAL (English as an Additional Language) pupils in London schools: Year 5 pupils in a primary school and Year 8 new arrivals in a secondary school. As they navigate their way through the British educational system, the learners recount…

  8. Measuring Productive Elements of Multi-Word Phrase Vocabulary Knowledge among Children with English as an Additional or Only Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sara A.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a critical role in language and reading development for children, particularly those learning English as an additional language (EAL) (Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Previous research on vocabulary has mainly focused on measuring individual words without considering multi-word phrase knowledge, despite evidence that these items occur…

  9. Nursing education challenges: students with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Starr, Kimberly

    2009-09-01

    Nurse educators are challenged by students who did not learn Standard American English as a primary language. It is not only language that makes these students stand out-cultural beliefs, values and practices need to be appreciated as well. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current qualitative literature on challenges faced in nursing education for students with English as an additional language. Ten qualitative studies regarding educational issues of nursing students with EAL were included in the synthesis. The study was conducted using the ethnographic metasynthesis model of Noblit and Hare. Two major reciprocal translations of educational issues emerged: challenges and reinforcements. Challenges included language, academics, resources, and culture. Reinforcements included resources, academics, and culture. The results may be used by nurse educators for developing interventions to help culturally diverse students succeed. Interventions are directed toward issues surrounding language and culture.

  10. Applied Linguistics Project: Student-Led Computer Assisted Research in High School EAL/EAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Linguistics Project (ALP) started at the International School of Prague (ISP) in 2013. Every year, Grade 9 English as an Additional Language (EAL) students identify an area of learning in need of improvement and design a research method followed by data collection and analysis using basic computer software tools or online corpora.…

  11. The Usefulness of an Intensive Preparatory Course for EAL Thesis Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manalo, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, most Australasian universities have experienced significant increases in numbers of international and new immigrant students, including those enrolling at the graduate level. This article describes a non-credit, intensive course for English as an additional language (EAL) students preparing to undertake a thesis or…

  12. Preservice EAL Teaching as Emotional Experiences: Practicum Experience in an Australian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Minh Hue

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on activity theory, this qualitative case study examines the emotional experiences of Maria, a preservice teacher of English as an additional language (EAL) during the practicum in an Australian secondary school setting and the factors shaping these emotions. Data included interviews with the preservice teacher before and after the…

  13. Literacy in the Early Years and English as an Additional Language: The Case of a British International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englezou, Eliana; Fragkouli, Elpiniki

    2014-01-01

    The study upon which this article is based investigates teachers' literacy development methods used in nursery and reception classrooms of a British international school, and focuses specifically on children having English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from teaching observations and from interviews with teachers present the…

  14. "When They First Come in What Do You Do?" English as an Additional Language and Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajkler, Wasyl; Hall, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA), responsible for teacher training in England, requires all trainees to be prepared for the teaching of English as an additional language (EAL). This study investigated newly qualified teachers' (NQTs) continuing training needs in relation to the standards set by the TDA. One hundred and thirty…

  15. "You Get to Be Yourself": Visual Arts Programs, Identity Construction and Learners of English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielgosz, Meg; Molyneux, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Students learning English as an additional language (EAL) in Australian schools frequently struggle with the cultural and linguistic demands of the classroom while concurrently grappling with issues of identity and belonging. This article reports on an investigation of the role primary school visual arts programs, distinct programs with a…

  16. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  17. Expert opinion: Assessing cochlear implant candidacy and progress for people with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Merle; Rajput, Kaukab; Vickers, Debi

    2016-04-01

    Special considerations relating to cochlear implants (CIs) are necessary for deaf people for whom English is an additional language (EAL). The audiological and pre-linguistic skills criteria for CI candidacy are the same for children with EAL as for children from English-speaking families. However, thorough assessment is not straightforward, for example, requiring employment of experienced interpreters. To ensure family engagement and thus appropriate support in the home, clear understanding of the family's social and cultural framework and of their needs and requirements is essential. Equally, the family must be enabled to understand the implications of CI. Additional training of staff in CI teams may be needed. This article will address these and other issues for children and also consider the situation for adults. PMID:27099114

  18. Teachers' Awareness and Use of Scales to Map the Progress of Children Who Speak English as an Additional Language or Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele; Adoniou, Misty; Ngoc, Doan Ba

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Teacher Resource, the educational needs and outcomes of refugee and immigrant children have been placed on the national mainstream teaching agenda. This new national resource sits alongside a plethora of other resources, known as scales and standards, which have been…

  19. Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Glew, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English. PMID:23898598

  20. Multilingualism as Legitimate Shared Repertoires in School Communities of Practice: Students' and Teachers' Discursive Constructions of Languages in Two Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongcan; Evans, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a 12-month project within a broader research programme that looks at a group of East European students with English as an Additional Language (EAL) in England. The data are derived from interviews with the students and teachers in two schools. The findings show that EAL students had a keen interest in English.…

  1. PATRAN 2.5/EAL interface guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldhaus, Winifred S.

    1994-01-01

    The PATRAN/EA interface guide describes two programs, EALPAT and PATEAL. EALPAT reads an EAL LO1 file and translates the model and results into a PATRAN 2.5 neutral file, element results file, and nodal results file. An EAL model can be color coded in PATRAN, and geometry, loads, boundary conditions, section and material properties, rigid masses, springs, and beam orientations can be plotted and debugged. EAL results can be brought into PATRAN as element or nodal quantities and displayed as deformed plots, animated shapes, color coded elements, or color filled contour plots. PATEAL converts a PATRAN 2.5 data base into an EAL runstream. Geometry, including all element types, alternate coordinate systems, material properties, section properties, loads and boundary conditions are all converted. EALPAT and PATEAL can also be used together with the PATNAS translator from PDA Engineering to convert an EAL runstream to an MSC/NASTRAN bulk data file.

  2. Design sensitivity analysis using EAL. Part 1: Conventional design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dopker, B.; Choi, Kyung K.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical implementation of design sensitivity analysis of builtup structures is presented, using the versatility and convenience of an existing finite element structural analysis code and its database management system. The finite element code used in the implemenatation presented is the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL), which is based on a hybrid method of analysis. It was shown that design sensitivity computations can be carried out using the database management system of EAL, without writing a separate program and a separate database. Conventional (sizing) design parameters such as cross-sectional area of beams or thickness of plates and plane elastic solid components are considered. Compliance, displacement, and stress functionals are considered as performance criteria. The method presented is being extended to implement shape design sensitivity analysis using a domain method and a design component method.

  3. English as an Additional Language: Changing Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant, Ed.; Cable, Carrie, Ed.

    This volume highlights the language and learning needs of pupils with English as an additional language in the United Kingdom. It includes chapters by British teachers and researchers working in this field. The book addresses a number of issues of interest to practitioners, scholars, teacher educators, and policy makers. Each chapter is prefaced…

  4. Catering for EAL/D Students' Language Needs in Mainstream Classes: Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives and Practices in One Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobinson, Toni J.; Buchori, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the complexity of English language related experiences and interactions of a small group of teachers in an Australian, Early Childhood (EC), mainstream setting with children four to eight years old. It draws on data collected from a qualitative case study which investigated four teachers' perspectives and anxieties…

  5. Bilingual Education in a Community Language: Lessons from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul; Scull, Janet; Aliani, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Provision for students learning English as an additional language (EAL) frequently overlooks the linguistic resources these children bring to the classroom. This is despite international research that highlights the facilitative links between support of the home language and the acquisition of new languages. This article reports on a longitudinal…

  6. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  7. "Everybody Is Just Fumbling along": An Investigation of Views Regarding EAL Training and Support Provisions in a Rural Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research conducted in a rural area of England that has experienced a rise in the number of pupils who speak a language other than English as their first language. The research was motivated by a concern that EAL teacher training provisions in such areas are insubstantial. The data source for the study comes from…

  8. Clothing the Emperor: Addressing the Issue of English Language Proficiency in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunworth, Katie

    2010-01-01

    The English language proficiency levels of students in Australian higher education who have English as an additional language (EAL) has become an increasingly prominent issue, particularly as it relates to international students. In 2009 this resulted in the publication of a set of good practice principles for the sector. This paper argues that…

  9. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  10. The Teaching of Additional Languages in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallel, Michael; Spolsky, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    Describes the linguistic situation in Israel and the language teaching policies and practices in Israeli schools. Policy is dominated by the ideological role and practical value of Hebrew, and is further driven by the large numbers of non-Jewish minorities, the status of English as a world language, and the political values of Arabic. (21…

  11. How Much Is Enough? Involving Occupational Experts in Setting Standards on a Specific-Purpose Language Test for Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, John; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how to establish the minimum required level of professionally relevant oral communication ability in the medium of English for health practitioners with English as an additional language (EAL) to gain admission to practice in jurisdictions where English is the dominant language. A theoretical concern is the construct of…

  12. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  13. The EAL-like protein STM1697 regulates virulence phenotypes, motility and biofilm formation in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irfan; Wigren, Edvard; Le Guyon, Soazig; Vekkeli, Santtu; Blanka, Andrea; El Mouali, Youssef; Anwar, Naeem; Chuah, Mary Lay; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Frank, Ronald; Rhen, Mikael; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Lindqvist, Ylva; Römling, Ute

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous second messenger c-di-GMP regulates the switching of bacterial lifestyles from motility to sessility and acute to chronic virulence to adjust bacterial fitness to altered environmental conditions. Conventionally, EAL proteins being c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases promote motility and acute virulence phenotypes such as invasion into epithelial cells and inhibit biofilm formation. We report here that in contradiction, the EAL-like protein STM1697 of Salmonella typhimurium suppresses motility, invasion into HT-29 epithelial cell line and secretion of the type three secretion system 1 effector protein SipA, whereas it promotes rdar biofilm formation and CsgD expression. STM1697 can, however, functionally replace the EAL-like protein STM1344 and vice versa, whereby both proteins neither degrade nor bind c-di-GMP. Like STM1344, STM1697 suppresses the transcription of class 2 and class 3 flagella regulon genes by binding to FlhD, a component of the master regulator of the flagella regulon FlhD4 C2 and act additively under numerous conditions. Interestingly, the interaction interface of STM1697 with FlhD2 is distinct from its paralogue STM1344. We predict that the stand alone EAL domain proteins STM1697 and STM1344 belong to a subclass of EAL domain proteins in S. typhimurium, which are all involved in motility, biofilm and virulence regulation through interaction with proteins that regulate flagella function.

  14. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language…

  15. Progressive Nodular Histiocytosis Associated with Eale's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Abhilasha; Thomas, Abraham G; Kwatra, Kanwardeep Singh; Jain, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Progressive nodular histiocytosis (PNH) is a rare normolipemic macrophage disorder and belongs to a subgroup of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCHs) which is characterized by a progressive course with no sign of spontaneous resolution but without systemic involvement. We report a 30-year-old gentleman who presented with skin lesions all over the body associated with gradual bilateral painless loss of vision. On examination, approximately 30 to 40, skin-colored, firm, non-tender papules and nodules were noted over the body especially on the face and trunk. A skin biopsy revealed a cellular tumor in the dermis composed of oval to spindle-shaped cells, positive for CD68 but negative for S-100, CD34, CD21, CD35 and HMB45, supporting a diagnosis of spindle cell histiocytic tumor. Ophthalmic examination revealed a generalized arteriolar attenuation in both eyes. He received Tab Imatinib 400 mg OD for 5 months followed by Tab Pazopanib 800 mg OD for 4 months and both the drugs were stopped due to lack of any response in the skin lesions. We report this case due to its rarity, characteristic clinical presentation, and its association with Eale's disease. Primary treatment remains surgical excision of bothersome lesions and optimal systemic treatment is still unknown. PMID:26288410

  16. Systematic Nomenclature for GGDEF and EAL Domain-Containing Cyclic Di-GMP Turnover Proteins of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hengge, Regine; Galperin, Michael Y; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Gomelsky, Mark; Green, Jeffrey; Hughes, Kelly T; Jenal, Urs; Landini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Escherichia coli has served as one of a few model bacterial species for studying cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. The widely used E. coli K-12 laboratory strains possess 29 genes encoding proteins with GGDEF and/or EAL domains, which include 12 diguanylate cyclases (DGC), 13 c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE), and 4 "degenerate" enzymatically inactive proteins. In addition, six new GGDEF and EAL (GGDEF/EAL) domain-encoding genes, which encode two DGCs and four PDEs, have recently been found in genomic analyses of commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. As a group of researchers who have been studying the molecular mechanisms and the genomic basis of c-di-GMP signaling in E. coli, we now propose a general and systematic dgc and pde nomenclature for the enzymatically active GGDEF/EAL domain-encoding genes of this model species. This nomenclature is intuitive and easy to memorize, and it can also be applied to additional genes and proteins that might be discovered in various strains of E. coli in future studies.

  17. Systematic Nomenclature for GGDEF and EAL Domain-Containing Cyclic Di-GMP Turnover Proteins of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hengge, Regine; Galperin, Michael Y; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Gomelsky, Mark; Green, Jeffrey; Hughes, Kelly T; Jenal, Urs; Landini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Escherichia coli has served as one of a few model bacterial species for studying cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. The widely used E. coli K-12 laboratory strains possess 29 genes encoding proteins with GGDEF and/or EAL domains, which include 12 diguanylate cyclases (DGC), 13 c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE), and 4 "degenerate" enzymatically inactive proteins. In addition, six new GGDEF and EAL (GGDEF/EAL) domain-encoding genes, which encode two DGCs and four PDEs, have recently been found in genomic analyses of commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. As a group of researchers who have been studying the molecular mechanisms and the genomic basis of c-di-GMP signaling in E. coli, we now propose a general and systematic dgc and pde nomenclature for the enzymatically active GGDEF/EAL domain-encoding genes of this model species. This nomenclature is intuitive and easy to memorize, and it can also be applied to additional genes and proteins that might be discovered in various strains of E. coli in future studies. PMID:26148715

  18. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  19. Catalytic mechanism of cyclic di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase: a study of the EAL domain-containing RocR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rao, Feng; Yang, Ye; Qi, Yaning; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2008-05-01

    EAL domain proteins are the major phosphodiesterases for maintaining the cellular concentration of second-messenger cyclic di-GMP in bacteria. Given the pivotal roles of EAL domains in the regulation of many bacterial behaviors, the elucidation of their catalytic and regulatory mechanisms would contribute to the effort of deciphering the cyclic di-GMP signaling network. Here, we present data to show that RocR, an EAL domain protein that regulates the expression of virulence genes and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic di-GMP by using a general base-catalyzed mechanism with the assistance of Mg(2+) ion. In addition to the five essential residues involved in Mg(2+) binding, we propose that the essential residue E(352) functions as a general base catalyst assisting the deprotonation of Mg(2+)-coordinated water to generate the nucleophilic hydroxide ion. The mutation of other conserved residues caused various degree of changes in the k(cat) or K(m), leading us to propose their roles in residue positioning and substrate binding. With functions assigned to the conserved groups in the active site, we discuss the molecular basis for the lack of activity of some characterized EAL domain proteins and the possibility of predicting the phosphodiesterase activities for the vast number of EAL domains in bacterial genomes in light of the catalytic mechanism.

  20. Structures of the catalytic EAL domain of the Escherichia coli direct oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Barends, Thomas R M; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-06-01

    The direct oxygen sensor DosP is a multidomain protein that contains a gas-sensing haem domain and an EAL effector domain. EAL domains are omnipresent signal transduction domains in bacteria. Many EAL domains are active phosphodiesterases and are involved in breakdown of the ubiquitous bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP. Despite a great deal of information on the functional and structural aspects of active and inactive EAL domains, little is known about the structural basis of their regulation by their associated sensory domains. Here, two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli DosP EAL domain derived from cubic and monoclinic crystal forms that were obtained under tartrate and PEG conditions, respectively, are described. Both of the structures display the typical TIM (triosephosphate isomerase) barrel fold with one antiparallel β-strand. However, unlike other EAL structures, access to the active site in DosP EAL is sterically restricted by the presence of a short helical stretch (Ser637-Ala-Leu-His640) in loop L3 between strand β3 and helix α3. This element, together with an unordered fragment, replaces the short α-helix (named α5 in Tbd1265 EAL) that is found in other EAL-domain structures. Since DosP EAL is an active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, the observed inactive conformation is suggested to be of functional relevance for the regulation mechanism of DosP.

  1. Meaning and Function of Dummy Auxiliaries in Adult Acquisition of Dutch as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…

  2. Combined oral corticosteroid-methotrexate therapy in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of combined oral corticosteroid and low-dose oral methotrexate pulsed therapy in Eales' disease was evaluated prospectively, based on weighted visual morbidity scale for disease activity and visual acuity grading in 36 consecutive cases. Oral corticosteroids in a weekly tapering dose for 4 weeks and 12.5 mg methotrexate as a single oral dose, once per week for 12 weeks, were administered simultaneously. We concluded that this combined oral therapy is clinically effective with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:19845224

  3. Addressing the Assessment Dilemma of Additional Language Learners through Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidire, M. F.; Bouwer, A. C.; Jordaan, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Many learners with an additional language (AL) as their language of learning and teaching (LoLT) have not acquired the level of proficiency required for them to demonstrate their knowledge and achieve the desired outcome on assessment tasks given in that language. Using instruments designed for fully fluent learners and covertly including…

  4. Evaluation of a Videoconferencing Pilot Project: Training for Volunteer Literacy Tutors for Speakers of English as an Additional Language (EAL). An iCCAN Pilot Project in Collaboration with the Rural Routes Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Courtney; Eaton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: iCCAN (Innovative Communities Connecting and Networking) is a not-for-profit provincial network of videoconferencing sites creating unprecedented learning opportunities and greater access to training and professional development for all Albertans, regardless of where they live. Led by a partnership of Community Learning Network,…

  5. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  6. Causing Students to Choose More Language Arts Work: Enhancing the Validity of the Additive Interspersal Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sadonya F.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the additive interspersal procedure was extended by exposing seventh-grade students to curricula-based (e.g., educationally valid) language arts assignments. In Experiment I, each student was given a control language arts assignment containing 20 discrete target items and an experimental assignment containing 24 equivalent target…

  7. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.

  8. Structural Insight into the Mechanism of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by EAL domain phosphodiesterases.

    SciTech Connect

    Tchigvintsev, A.; Xu, X.; Singer, A.; Chang, C.; Brown, G.; Proudfoot, M.; Cui, H.; Flick, R.; Anderson, W.; Joachimiak, A.; Galperin, M.; Savchenko, A.; Yakunin, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Northwestern Univ.; NIH

    2010-08-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (or bis-(3'-5') cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate; c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation, cell cycle progression, and virulence in bacteria. In the cell, degradation of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by highly specific EAL domain phosphodiesterases whose catalytic mechanism is still unclear. Here, we purified 13 EAL domain proteins from various organisms and demonstrated that their catalytic activity is associated with the presence of 10 conserved EAL domain residues. The crystal structure of the TBD1265 EAL domain was determined in free state (1.8 {angstrom}) and in complex with c-di-GMP (2.35 {angstrom}), and unveiled the role of conserved residues in substrate binding and catalysis. The structure revealed the presence of two metal ions directly coordinated by six conserved residues, two oxygens of c-di-GMP phosphate, and potential catalytic water molecule. Our results support a two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by EAL domain phosphodiesterases.

  9. Ultra-wide field angiography in the management of Eales disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Chandra, Parijat; Kumar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to evaluate the use of ultra-wide field (UWF) angiography in patients with Eales disease (ED). Settings and Design: Prospective observational case series in tertiary eye care center. Subjects and Methods: This study involved 17 patients diagnosed with ED, who underwent UWF fluorescein angiography. The angiograms were analyzed to look for additional information as compared to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study seven standard field. The impact of this information in the management of patients was analyzed. Results: 24 eyes of 17 patients with mean age of 26.3 years were diagnosed with ED and underwent UWF angiography. UWF fluorescein angiography was helpful in the documentation of peripheral retinal changes (in 67% of eyes), exact localization of capillary nonperfusion (CNP) (in 54% of eyes), and in determination of vascular involvement (in 21% of eyes). In 33% of eyes, immediate treatment plan changed because of changes picked up on UWF angiography. Conclusions: UWF angiography helped in the better documentation, exact quantification, and location of CNP areas and better determination of disease activity. UWF imaging may play an important part in the management of patients with ED. PMID:27609162

  10. Combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and peripheral photocoagulation: an alternative treatment in eales disease.

    PubMed

    Cp, Juarez; Al, Gramajo; Jd, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease.

  11. Combination of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Peripheral Photocoagulation: An Alternative Treatment in Eales Disease

    PubMed Central

    CP, Juarez; AL, Gramajo; JD, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease. PMID:24600639

  12. Inherent regulation of EAL domain-catalyzed hydrolysis of second messenger cyclic di-GMP.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Amit; Massa, Claudia; Samoray, Dietrich; Zehender, Fabian; Sharpe, Timothy; Jenal, Urs; Schirmer, Tilman

    2014-03-01

    The universal second messenger cyclic di-GMP (cdG) is involved in the regulation of a diverse range of cellular processes in bacteria. The intracellular concentration of the dinucleotide is determined by the opposing actions of diguanylate cyclases and cdG-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Whereas most PDEs have accessory domains that are involved in the regulation of their activity, the regulatory mechanism of this class of enzymes has remained unclear. Here, we use biophysical and functional analyses to show that the isolated EAL domain of a PDE from Escherichia coli (YahA) is in a fast thermodynamic monomer-dimer equilibrium, and that the domain is active only in its dimeric state. Furthermore, our data indicate thermodynamic coupling between substrate binding and EAL dimerization with the dimerization affinity being increased about 100-fold upon substrate binding. Crystal structures of the YahA-EAL domain determined under various conditions (apo, Mg(2+), cdG·Ca(2+) complex) confirm structural coupling between the dimer interface and the catalytic center. The built-in regulatory properties of the EAL domain probably facilitate its modular, functional combination with the diverse repertoire of accessory domains.

  13. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  14. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  15. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  16. Reconceptualising "Identity Slippage": Additional Language Learning and (L2) Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…

  17. Additional Language Education and Language Development Goals: The Example of Gaelic (Learners) Education in Highland Council, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Lindsay Milligan

    2014-01-01

    Language shift is the process whereby one language becomes increasingly lesser used in place of the use of another language. In Scotland, language shift is occurring for Gaelic, as English takes its place for a variety of functions in the home and wider community. Extensive literature has argued the important role that education can play in the…

  18. Centre-Stage in the Instructional Register: Partnership Talk in Primary EAL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of partnership teaching, as distinct from collaborative teaching and support teaching, evidence from the Midlands and West of England suggests that full partnership teaching between a class teacher and language support teacher of English as an Additional Language is rare, though collaboration is increasing.…

  19. Language and Content "Integration": The Affordances of Additional Languages as a Tool within a Single Curriculum Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    "Language across the curriculum" has been pivotal in establishing a knowledge base on the role of language for accessing opportunities afforded by the curriculum. Yet, the ubiquity of language "within" all facets of human activity--not least of all the more abstract domains of thinking and relating with others--can easily…

  20. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Double threshold in bi- and multilingual contexts: preconditions for higher academic attainment in English as an additional language

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages. PMID:24926277

  3. Double threshold in bi- and multilingual contexts: preconditions for higher academic attainment in English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Simone; Siemund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional languages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz, 2003; Jessner, 2006). In this exploratory trend study, we revisit Cummins' Threshold Hypothesis (1979), claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to (a) avoid academic deficits and (b) allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attainment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-years-old school children from Hamburg (n = 52). Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children's heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages.

  4. Enriching Kindergarten Learners' English by Using Language Portfolio and Additional Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorba, Mehmet Galip; Tosun, Sezen

    2011-01-01

    Though pre-school education is not compulsory in Turkey, having foreign language education in kindergarten has been an upward trend lately. Besides, as there has been an increasing demand on language education in kindergartens, a large number of kindergartens have begun to give English language education so as to meet the demand. However, most of…

  5. Supporting Pupils with EAL and Their Teachers in Ireland: The Need for a Co-Ordinated Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Lelia; Francis, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a Language Support Service in 1999, all newcomer children with limited English skills arriving in schools in Ireland are entitled to two years of additional English language support. This is provided mainly by designated Language Support Teachers (LSTs). During the peak of the Celtic Tiger, there was a sharp growth in…

  6. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  7. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales. PMID:24135313

  8. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  9. The Linguistic Landscape as an Additional Source of Input in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the role that the linguistic landscape, in the sense of all the written language in the public space, can have in second language acquisition (SLA). The linguistic landscape has symbolic and informative functions and it is multimodal, because it combines visual and printed texts, and multilingual, because it uses several…

  10. The Additive Effect of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2003-01-01

    Looks at the general effects of bilingualism on cognitive development and highlights the specific effects of bilingualism on third language acquisition. Examines effects of bilingualism on cognitive development, metalinguistic awareness, and communicative skills, then focuses on the specific effects of bilingualism on third language proficiency by…

  11. Cultural Dimensions of Feedback at an Australian University: A Study of International Students with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard; Miller, Julia

    2015-01-01

    International students with English as an additional language face transitional challenges when entering a new academic culture. One such challenge involves optimising feedback to help foster their academic development, bearing in mind that feedback is not a culturally neutral entity (Nazif, A., Biswas, D., & Hilbig, R. (2004-2005). Towards an…

  12. Understanding the Undergraduate Experience of the Baccalaureate Nursing Student with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubaty, Dolores R.

    2013-01-01

    Disparities exist in healthcare related to language barriers and lack of cultural understanding between caregivers and recipients. Increasing the linguistic and cultural diversity of caregivers may decrease the healthcare disparities observed. The research study described in this manuscript was conducted to explore the undergraduate student…

  13. Developing Interactional Competence by Using TV Series in "English as an Additional Language" Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a combined methodology to analyse the conversations in supplementary audio-visual materials to be implemented in language teaching classrooms in order to enhance the Interactional Competence (IC) of the learners. Based on a corpus of 90.000 words (Coupling Corpus), the author tries to reveal the potentials of using TV series in …

  14. Korean-Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Additive Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang; Park, Jae

    2012-01-01

    China's diversity of minority groups, marked by many languages and cultures, has led to much push and pull experience between homogenising forces and indigenous cultures. This is apparent in its bilingual education programme for ethnic minorities, among which Korean diaspora communities are to be counted. Korean-Chinese people in China have been…

  15. Virulence and prodigiosin antibiotic biosynthesis in Serratia are regulated pleiotropically by the GGDEF/EAL domain protein, PigX.

    PubMed

    Fineran, Peter C; Williamson, Neil R; Lilley, Kathryn S; Salmond, George P C

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Serratia are opportunistic human, plant, and insect pathogens. Serratia sp. strain ATCC 39006 secretes pectinases and cellulases and produces the secondary metabolites carbapenem and prodigiosin. Mutation of a gene (pigX) resulted in an extremely pleiotropic phenotype: prodigiosin antibiotic biosynthesis, plant virulence, and pectinase production were all elevated. PigX controlled secondary metabolism by repressing the transcription of the target prodigiosin biosynthetic operon (pigA-pigO). The transcriptional start site of pigX was determined, and pigX expression occurred in parallel with Pig production. Detailed quantitative intracellular proteome analyses enabled the identification of numerous downstream targets of PigX, including OpgG, mutation of which reduced the production of the plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and virulence. The highly pleiotropic PigX regulator contains GGDEF and EAL domains with noncanonical motifs and is predicted to be membrane associated. Genetic evidence suggests that PigX might function as a cyclic dimeric GMP phosphodiesterase. This is the first characterization of a GGDEF and EAL domain protein in Serratia and the first example of the regulation of antibiotic production by a GGDEF/EAL domain protein.

  16. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  17. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  18. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  19. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  20. Using Peer Feedback in a Master's Programme: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poverjuc, Oxana; Brooks, Val; Wray, David

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the findings of a longitudinal case study, which investigated the writing experiences of five students who spoke English as an additional language (EAL). The major interest was in examining what it was like to be an EAL writer and what changes occurred in EAL students' perceptions of academic writing and of themselves as…

  1. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Serovars Anatum and Ealing Associated with Two Historical Outbreaks, Linked to Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Lynda; Finn, Sarah; Hurley, Daniel; Bai, Li; Wall, Ellen; Iversen, Carol; Threlfall, John E.; Fanning, Séamus

    2016-01-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not intended to be produced as a sterile product unless explicitly stated and on occasion may become contaminated during production with pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. This retrospective study focused on two historically reported salmonellosis outbreaks associated with PIF from the United Kingdom and France, in 1985 and 1996/1997. In this paper, the molecular characterization of the two outbreaks associated Salmonella serovars Anatum and Ealing is reported. Initially the isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which revealed the clonal nature of the two outbreaks. Following from this two representative isolates, one from each serovar was selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS), wherein analysis focused on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, the ability of these isolates to survive the host intercellular environment was determined using an ex vivo gentamicin protection assay. Results suggest a high level of genetic diversity that may have contributed to survival and virulence of isolates from these outbreaks.

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nested polymerase chain reaction analysis in enucleated eye ball in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Dhanurekha, L; Gayathri, R; Lily Therese, K

    2016-06-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed on enucleated eyeball for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome in a patient with Eales' disease. PCR analysis in all previous studies has been done mainly using aqueous, vitreous and epiretinal membranes from these patients. Paraffin wax embedded tissue section of the enucleated eyeball was analyzed by histopathology and nPCR targeting MPB64 gene and IS6110 region of M. tb genome. Lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the vitreous, iris and the retinal tissue. Ziehl Neelsen stain was negative for acid fast bacilli. Caseation necrosis was not seen in any section. Agarose gel electrophoretogram showed positive results with 200 bp specific amplified product targeting MPB64 gene, whereas nPCR targeting IS6110 region was negative. Since biopsy proven M. tb is extremely difficult in ocular tissues due to extensive necrosis, the nPCR technique aided in the diagnosis.

  4. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nested polymerase chain reaction analysis in enucleated eye ball in Eales' disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Dhanurekha, L; Gayathri, R; Lily Therese, K

    2016-06-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed on enucleated eyeball for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) genome in a patient with Eales' disease. PCR analysis in all previous studies has been done mainly using aqueous, vitreous and epiretinal membranes from these patients. Paraffin wax embedded tissue section of the enucleated eyeball was analyzed by histopathology and nPCR targeting MPB64 gene and IS6110 region of M. tb genome. Lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the vitreous, iris and the retinal tissue. Ziehl Neelsen stain was negative for acid fast bacilli. Caseation necrosis was not seen in any section. Agarose gel electrophoretogram showed positive results with 200 bp specific amplified product targeting MPB64 gene, whereas nPCR targeting IS6110 region was negative. Since biopsy proven M. tb is extremely difficult in ocular tissues due to extensive necrosis, the nPCR technique aided in the diagnosis. PMID:26499903

  5. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  6. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children’s Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children’s Cognition and Health (RANCH—South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children’s reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores. PMID:26999169

  7. Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students Who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…

  8. Buckling loads of stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized with emphasis placed on the shear buckling analyses. The PASCO buckling analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared stiffener solution, which treats a stiffened panel as an orthotropic plate. Buckling results are then presented for seven stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and are very accurate. These finite element solutions together with the PASCO results for pure longitudinal compression provide benchmark calculations to evaluate other analysis procedures.

  9. A systematic analysis of the role of GGDEF-EAL domain proteins in virulence and motility in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Zhao, Mengran; Ling, Junjie; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Jun; Jin, Dongli; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

    2016-01-01

    The second messenger c-di-GMP is implicated in regulation of various aspects of the lifestyles and virulence of Gram-negative bacteria. Cyclic di-GMP is formed by diguanylate cyclases with a GGDEF domain and degraded by phosphodiesterases with either an EAL or HD-GYP domain. Proteins with tandem GGDEF-EAL domains occur in many bacteria, where they may be involved in c-di-GMP turnover or act as enzymatically-inactive c-di-GMP effectors. Here, we report a systematic study of the regulatory action of the eleven GGDEF-EAL proteins in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, an important rice pathogen causing bacterial leaf streak. Mutational analysis revealed that XOC_2335 and XOC_2393 positively regulate bacterial swimming motility, while XOC_2102, XOC_2393 and XOC_4190 negatively control sliding motility. The ΔXOC_2335/XOC_2393 mutant that had a higher intracellular c-di-GMP level than the wild type and the ΔXOC_4190 mutant exhibited reduced virulence to rice after pressure inoculation. In vitro purified XOC_4190 and XOC_2102 have little or no diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity, which is consistent with unaltered c-di-GMP concentration in ΔXOC_4190. Nevertheless, both proteins can bind to c-di-GMP with high affinity, indicating a potential role as c-di-GMP effectors. Overall our findings advance understanding of c-di-GMP signaling and its links to virulence in an important rice pathogen. PMID:27053282

  10. Teaching English as an Additional Language in the Global Classroom: A Transnational Study in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Gail; Bhatti, Ghazala

    2015-01-01

    Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto…

  11. Disambiguating with Bourdieu: Unravelling Policy from Practice in the Teaching of Children with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of Bourdieusian analysis for examining how policy and practice interact in the teaching of English and therefore in the development of children's language and literacy, in particular how. Bourdieusian analysis uncovers the ways in which teachers' practice has been influenced unconsciously by centralised…

  12. Does Equal Access Mean Treat the Same? From Theory to Practice in the Classroom of English as an Additional Language Learner in Ireland--Towards a Transformative Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    While a substantial body of research exists on First- and Second-Language Acquisition (SLA), research on the language acquisition process that a language minority student goes through when they are acquiring a second language has been largely unexplored. Pedagogical practices that espouse language learning theories facilitate both the language…

  13. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R; Galvani, Cheryl D; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence. PMID:25811864

  14. NAPLaN Test Data, ESL Bandscales and the Validity of EAL/D Teacher Judgement of Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creagh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are now experiencing the age of quantitative test-driven assessment, in which there is little weight accorded to teacher-based judgement about student progress. In the Australian context, the NAPLaN test has become a driving force in school and teacher accountability. The language of NAPLaN is one of bands and numerical scores and…

  15. "I Think They Just Think it's Going to Go Away at Some Stage": Policy and Practice in Teaching English as an Additional Language in Irish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Matthew; Kelly-Holmes, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Due to growth in immigration to the Republic of Ireland, the number of language minority students enrolling in primary schools has increased substantially over the last 10 years. The Irish context is a particularly interesting one in that until recently Ireland was a country of net emigration with limited experience of cultural diversity. An…

  16. Developing Children's Language Awareness: Switching Codes in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoll, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…

  17. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  18. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  19. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2a: Suma y Resta de Numeros Enteros (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Level 2a: Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition and subtraction. (MK)

  20. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  1. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  2. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  3. Language Development and Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lois; Lahey, Margaret

    This book provides a synthesis of research findings in normal language development as well as a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of children with language disorders. Its 21 chapters are divided into six topical sections: language description, normal language development, deviant language development, goals of language learning…

  4. Programs for transferring data between a relational data base and a finite element structural analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interface system for passing data between a relational information management (RIM) data base complex and engineering analysis language (EAL), a finite element structural analysis program is documented. The interface system, implemented on a CDC Cyber computer, is composed of two FORTRAN programs called RIM2EAL and EAL2RIM. The RIM2EAL reads model definition data from RIM and creates a file of EAL commands to define the model. The EAL2RIM reads model definition and EAL generated analysis data from EAL's data library and stores these data dirctly in a RIM data base. These two interface programs and the format for the RIM data complex are described.

  5. Language as Information and the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, Kant

    2010-01-01

    Language attracts everyone on earth. That is because we have and use language. Although there are some minority languages that have limited expressions such as the lack of writing systems in "Aynu itak" and "Shona" languages, they can effectively express their emotion and thought with their languages. In addition, every human being can acquire…

  6. Russian Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  7. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Language Policies in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Rosalina Morales

    1985-01-01

    Filipinos speak more than a hundred different languages, 10 to 15 of which are major. In addition, the Philippines was occupied by two foreign powers, each speaking a different language, i.e., Spanish and English. This situation has resulted in a number of different language policies throughout the country's history. These policies are discussed.…

  10. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  11. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  15. Learning to Hear by Learning to Speak: The Effect of Articulatory Training on Arab Learners' English Phonemic Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebaugh, Gary; Roche, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore English pronunciation teaching within an English as an International Language (EIL) framework, arguing that teaching learners how to produce English phonemes can lead to an improvement in their aural ability. English as an Additional Language (EAL) learners often have difficulty discriminating between and producing…

  16. Content-Focused Classrooms and Learning English: How Teachers Collaborate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the possibilities of content-based instruction in mainstream English secondary schools. It considers the continuum from a language to content focus in classrooms where teachers collaborate. English as an additional language (EAL) and subject curriculum teachers work together to support young people while they simultaneously…

  17. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  18. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  19. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  20. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission.

  1. Arthroscopy language.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, H; Brazina, G; Zahiri, C A

    1994-09-01

    The authors have devised an "arthroscopy language" to make orthopaedic surgeons' intraoperative communication clear, comprehensive, and concise. This language specifically eliminates surgeons' "freestyle" conversation at the most crucial moments of their procedure, when concentration and the coordinated work of two surgeons are essential. The language uses current arthroscopic terminology and new words that have been adapted by the authors to describe all the basic maneuvers that are used during any arthroscopic procedure. The authors believe the language brings the necessary scientific sophistication into arthroscopic surgeons' speech in the operating theater. PMID:7800401

  2. Classroom Composition and Language Minority Students' Motivation in Language Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rjosk, Camilla; Richter, Dirk; Hochweber, Jan; Lüdtke, Oliver; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated effects of the proportion of language minority students in classrooms on the development of students' intrinsic motivation in language lessons and the mediating role of instructional climate (e.g., teacher support, focus on student interests). In addition, we explored the interaction between the proportion of…

  3. Language Learning Disabilities: The Ultimate Foreign Language Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFino, Sharon M.; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    In today's world where great value is placed on global understanding, the acquisition of languages is essential. Academics would agree that the study of other languages provides students access to the cultural and intellectual heritage of cultures other than their own. Additionally, such study gives new and different perspectives on the structure…

  4. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. PMID:25410427

  5. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

    THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

  6. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  7. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  8. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  9. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  10. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  11. Music and early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  12. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  13. State Funding Mechanisms for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…

  14. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  15. Teaching English as a "Second Language" in Kenya and the United States: Convergences and Divergences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2015-01-01

    English is spoken in five countries as the native language and in numerous other countries as an official language and the language of instruction. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all domains of life of that country. In many…

  16. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  17. Dichotic listening performance predicts language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Helland, Turid

    2006-05-01

    Dichotic listening performance is considered a reliable and valid procedure for the assessment of language lateralisation in the brain. However, the documentation of a relationship between language functions and dichotic listening performance is sparse, although it is accepted that dichotic listening measures language perception. In particular, language comprehension should show close correspondence to perception of language stimuli. In the present study, we tested samples of reading-impaired and normally achieving children between 10 and 13 years of age with tests of reading skills, language comprehension, and dichotic listening to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. A high correlation between the language scores and the dichotic listening performance was expected. However, since the left ear score is believed to be an error when assessing language laterality, covariation was expected for the right ear scores only. In addition, directing attention to one ear input was believed to reduce the influence of random factors, and thus show a more concise estimate of left hemisphere language capacity. Thus, a stronger correlation between language comprehension skills and the dichotic listening performance when attending to the right ear was expected. The analyses yielded a positive correlation between the right ear score in DL and language comprehension, an effect that was stronger when attending to the right ear. The present results confirm the assumption that dichotic listening with CV syllables measures an aspect of language perception and language skills that is related to general language comprehension.

  18. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  19. Applying a Multimedia Storytelling Website in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsou, Wenli; Wang, Weichung; Tzeng, Yenjun

    2006-01-01

    Storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in language classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional problems such as having little prior…

  20. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages

    PubMed Central

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-01-01

    Language shift’ is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100–120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the ‘natural wastage’ as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  1. The Triunal Model of Anxiety and its Application to Anxiety Reduction in Learning and Teaching Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Bai, Heesoon

    2009-01-01

    In this article we are calling for an interlayered and cross-dimensional approach to understanding and working with anxiety, especially as manifested in English as an additional language (EAL) teaching and learning environments. We aim to understand the phenomenon of anxiety from the multidimensional perspectives of physiology, psychology, and…

  2. "Convenience Editors" as Legitimate Participants in the Practice of Scientific Editing: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Ian; Tanimoto, Kimie

    2013-01-01

    Native-English-speaking English teachers at universities in EFL contexts are often asked to edit scientific manuscripts written by English as an additional language (EAL) colleagues. However, a lack of familiarity with scientific writing can make such editing tasks burdensome to English teachers. Using Lave and Wenger's (1991) notion of legitimate…

  3. How are Leaders Integrating the Ideology of Globalisation in Primary School Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    This study carried out research focusing on diverse learners, such as pupils who have English as additional language (EAL) in primary schools in the Midlands, England. Essentially, we wanted to know how they are supported to become global learners. Therefore, questions were posed to school leaders on their understanding of the concept of…

  4. Reconceptualising Poetry as a Multimodal Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Denise; D'abdon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article theorises the role of poetry in English classrooms from a multimodal perspective. It discusses the gap between the practices of poetry inside and outside South African schools, particularly where English is taught as an additional language (EAL). The former is shown to be monomodal and prescriptive, while the latter is…

  5. Whom to Group with--A Bourdieusian Narrative Analysis of International Students in an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2012-01-01

    Increasing degree-seeking international students from affluent Asian countries, who use English as an additional language (EAL), have contributed to cultural and linguistic diversity in Australian universities. However, such diversity posed challenges in pedagogy and assessment. Drawn from a larger interview study, exploring what resources helped…

  6. Authentic Cultural and Linguistic Learning through Practicum in a Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the value of community experience for mediating linguistic practice and cultural learning. Learners of English as an Additional Language (EAL), both immigrants and international students, frequently report difficulties in practicing English outside the classroom (Wright, 2006). Grounded in poststructuralist social identity…

  7. "I Have No Time to Find out Where the Sentences Came from; I Just Rebuild Them": A Biochemistry Professor Eliminating Novices' Textual Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    English as an Additional Language (EAL) students' textual borrowing in disciplinary writing has attracted wide research interest in recent years. However, much of the research was conducted in the regular curriculum setting while the relevance of the issue in a writing-for-publication context has largely been overlooked. In particular,…

  8. Realigning Capital Portfolios: International Students' Educational Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Isadora Jung-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on first year experiences of international students who use English as an additional language (EAL) in higher education in Australia. It examines how valued resources can foster a positive educational experience of these students from sociological perspectives. It draws data from an interview study, exploring narrative accounts…

  9. Language Mosaic. Developing Literacy in a Second-New Language: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura

    2002-01-01

    Presents a new approach to examining second language writing among young learners, which the author defines as "Language mosaic." Offers a new perspective on the process of writing development and examines how and what children do in the writing process while developing an additional language. Suggests that educators should view the process of new…

  10. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  11. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  12. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic skills…

  13. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  14. Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  15. Language Policy, Language Use and English Language Teaching in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasher, S. V.

    This paper evaluates the language policy of India and its implementation with a special focus on English language teaching (ELT). In the first part of the paper, India's language policy is chronicled from the pre-independence period through the nationalist movement and post-independence era, with attention to the language policies of the…

  16. The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

  17. Spatial Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  18. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  19. Understanding the Oxidative Addition of σ-Bonds to Group 13 Compounds.

    PubMed

    García-Rodeja, Yago; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Fernández, Israel

    2016-09-12

    The oxidative addition reaction of X-H σ-bonds to Group 13 (E=Al, Ga, In) containing compounds has been computationally explored within the density functional theory framework. These reactions, which proceed concertedly involving the E(I) →E(III) oxidation, are exothermic and associated with relatively low activation barriers. In addition, the following trends in reactivity are found: (i) the activation barriers are lower for the X-H bonds involving the heavier element in the same group (ΔE(≠) : C>Si; N>P; O>S), (ii) the process becomes kinetically more favorable in going from left to right in the same period (ΔE(≠) : C>N>O; Si≈P>S), and (iii) the activation barrier systematically increases when heavier Group 13 elements are involved in the transformation (ΔE(≠) : Al

  20. Language Acquisition Is Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition…

  1. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  2. Community Language Resources in Dual Language Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick, H.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined minority-language use at a Tucson (Arizona) dual-language school and shifting patterns of language dominance in the surrounding Mexican American neighborhood. The minority-language resources most immediately available--held by fluent bilingual elders and recent Mexican immigrants--were less used than those of majority-language…

  3. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  4. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  5. Language therapy for children: some thoughts on context and content.

    PubMed

    Holland, A L

    1975-11-01

    A presentation of ideas on the ideal context for language therapy for children, this paper explores in detail the importance of teaching child language, centering language therapy in the present, teaching words with empirical significance to the child, attempting to provide a language context which is generative to unassisted later language learning, and finally, teaching communication, not merely to language skills. In addition a sample core lexicon is presented which was designed to relate the above contextual aspects of therapy to psycholinguistic strategies of language therapy.

  6. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Brunner, Martin; Landerl, Karin; Schiltz, Christine; Ugen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g., greater difficulties, error types, etc.) in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German–French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g., unit-ten vs. ten-unit) also induced significant modulations of bilinguals' arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals. PMID:25821442

  7. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Brunner, Martin; Landerl, Karin; Schiltz, Christine; Ugen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g., greater difficulties, error types, etc.) in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German-French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g., unit-ten vs. ten-unit) also induced significant modulations of bilinguals' arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals. PMID:25821442

  8. The relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals: insights from different stages of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Brunner, Martin; Landerl, Karin; Schiltz, Christine; Ugen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g., greater difficulties, error types, etc.) in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German-French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g., unit-ten vs. ten-unit) also induced significant modulations of bilinguals' arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals.

  9. Lying in a native and foreign language.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Costa, Albert

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the interaction between deceptive language and second language processing. One hundred participants were asked to produce veridical and false statements in either their first or second language. Pupil size, speech latencies, and utterance durations were analyzed. Results showed additive effects of statement veracity and the language in which these statements were produced. That is, false statements elicited larger pupil dilations and longer naming latencies compared with veridical statements, and statements in the foreign language elicited larger pupil dilations and longer speech durations and compared with first language. Importantly, these two effects did not interact, suggesting that the processing cost associated with deception is similar in a native and foreign language. The theoretical implications of these observations are discussed.

  10. Back from the (Nearly) Dead: Reviving Indigenous Languages across North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    This document discusses the teaching of Indigenous languages. Immersion programs have become very popular over that past few years, and serve as an effective tool to teaching languages. In addition to language immersions, conferences and language revivals are also effective tools in teaching languages. This document provides an overview of these…

  11. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.

  12. Assessing students' English language proficiency during clinical placement: A qualitative evaluation of a language framework.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran

    2015-06-01

    The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. PMID:25784501

  13. Two functions of early language experience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  14. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  15. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  16. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  17. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  18. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  19. Foreign Language Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  20. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  1. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  2. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  3. Idiosyncratic sound systems of the South African Bantu languages: Research and clinical implications for speech-language pathologists and audiologists.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, Anita; le Roux, Mia

    2014-12-03

    The objective of this article is to create awareness amongst speech-language pathologists and audiologists in South Africa regarding the difference between the sound systems of Germanic languages and the sound systems of South African Bantu languages. A brief overview of the sound systems of two Bantu languages, namely isiZulu and Setswana, is provided. These two languages are representative of the Nguni language group and the Sotho group respectively.Consideration is given to the notion of language-specific symptoms of speech, language and hearing disorders in addition to universal symptoms. The possible impact of speech production, language and hearing disorders on the ability to produce and perceive speech in these languages, and the challenges that this holds for research and clinical practice, are pointed out.

  4. The Study of Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    The textbook surveys what is known about language and of the methods used by linguists in arriving at that knowledge. Each chapter addresses an aspect of linguistics, reviewing current knowledge and providing study questions, discussion topics and projects, and a list of additional reading. Chapter topics include: the origins of language;…

  5. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  6. Revisiting Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  7. First-language acquisition after childhood differs from second-language acquisition: the case of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, R I

    1993-12-01

    This study determined whether the long-range outcome of first-language acquisition, when the learning begins after early childhood, is similar to that of second-language acquisition. Subjects were 36 deaf adults who had contrasting histories of spoken and sign language acquisition. Twenty-seven subjects were born deaf and began to acquire American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language at ages ranging from infancy to late childhood. Nine other subjects were born with normal hearing, which they lost in late childhood; they subsequently acquired ASL as a second language (because they had acquired spoken English as a first language in early childhood). ASL sentence processing was measured by recall of long and complex sentences and short-term memory for signed digits. Subjects who acquired ASL as a second language after childhood outperformed those who acquired it as a first language at exactly the same age. In addition, the performance of the subjects who acquired ASL as a first language declined in association with increasing age of acquisition. Effects were most apparent for sentence processing skills related to lexical identification, grammatical acceptability, and memory for sentence meaning. No effects were found for skills related to fine-motor production and pattern segmentation. PMID:8114493

  8. An Analog Study of First Language Dominance and Interference over Second Language.

    PubMed

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Hayes, Linda J; Herbst, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a model for "first language" dominance over "second language" performance and the interference of one language over the other. Two sets of equivalence relations showing a common element (i.e., the reference) were established under different contextual conditions. One set ("first language") was over trained relative to the other ("second language"). Dominance of the "first language," as demonstrated in relations involving the common element, was determined by examining performances in the absence of contextual stimuli. Interference by one language over the other was modeled by examining the degree to which resurgence of "first language" and "second language" relations would occur in extinction, following a period of exposure to inconsistent test trials. In addition, both selection-based (i.e., copy text) and topography-based (i.e., intraverbal) equivalence were examined in these areas. The results demonstrated that the development of an analog for a bilingual repertoire, the domination of the "first language" over the "second language" and the interference of one language over the other, were established.

  9. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  10. Languages and Language Varieties in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Maltese, the national language of Malta, is, without doubt, the dominant language of most Maltese in most domains of language use in Malta. It however shares official status with English, which is also in regular use. Most Maltese can, in fact, be said to be bilingual to differing degrees. This article begins by providing some background…

  11. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  12. Language Processes and Second-Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Larry Lloyd

    A review of the literature and research concerning the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and an analysis of the findings regarding the characteristics of these processes and their relationship to the second-language learner led to the following conclusions: (1) the circumstances under which the first language is…

  13. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  14. Early Language Milestones and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…

  15. Language Variation, Language Change and Perceptual Dialectology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessinger, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Subjective and objective language data collected in a research project on language variation in north Germany not only reveal information on current linguistic trends in north Germany; they also show how language change in this region is represented in the consciousness of the speakers themselves and described in comments by them. This diachronic…

  16. Spontaneous Language Markers of Spanish Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish-speaking (SS) children with language impairment (LI) present with deficits in morphology and verb argument structure. These language areas may be useful for clinical identification of affected children. This study aimed to evaluate the discrimination accuracy of spontaneous language measures with SS preschoolers to tease out what…

  17. Network model of human language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markošová, Mária

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of human language is widely studied from various points of view. It is interesting not only for social scientists, antropologists or philosophers, but also for those, interested in the network dynamics. In several recent papers word web, or language as a graph has been investigated [R.F. Cancho, R. Solé, The small world of human language, Proc. R. Soc. London B 268 (2001) 2261-2265; A.E. Motter, P.S. de Moura, Lai Ying-Cheng, P. Dasgupta, Topology of the conceptual network of language, Phys. Rev. E 65 (2002) R 065102; M. Steyvers, J.B. Tenenbaum, The large-scale structure of semantic networks: Statistical analysis and a model of semantic growth, Cogn. Sci. 29 (2005) 41-78]. In this paper I revise recent studies of syntactical word web [R.F. Cancho, R. Solé, The small world of human language, Proc. R. Soc. London B 268 (2001) 2261-2265; S.N. Dorogovtsev, J.F.F. Mendes, Language as an evolving word web, Proc. R. Soc. London B 268 (2001) 2603-2606]. I present a model of growing network in which such processes as node addition, edge rewiring and new link creation are taken into account. I argue, that this model is a satisfactory minimal model explaining measured data [R.F. Cancho, R. Solé, The small world of human language, Proc. R. Soc. London B 268 (2001) 2261-2265; M. Markošová, P. Náther, Language as a graph, in: V. Kvasnička, P. Trebatický, J. Pospíchal (Eds.), Mind, Intelligence and Life, Kelemen, STU Bratislava, 2007, pp. 298-307 (in Slovak)].

  18. Listening and the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper emphasizes the connections between listening and the language arts. It lists advantages of students who are good listeners, such as students can learn more when listening well, and students learn to be polite by listening. In addition, the paper lists the following conditions which improve student listening: teaching and learning…

  19. Bilingual control: sequential memory in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M; Koch, Iring

    2013-11-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments, sequential responses (i.e., weekdays, numbers or new sequences) and an alternating language sequence (e.g., L1-L1-L2-L2) were implemented, both of which were memory based. Our data revealed switch costs, showing that a language switch is associated with worse performance compared with a language repetition, and mixing costs, which constitutes the performance difference between pure and mixed language blocks, even while producing entirely predictable responses (i.e., language and concept). Additionally, we found these switch costs with overlearned and new sequences and found that switch costs were reduced with longer preparation time. The obtained data are consistent with a proactive interference account, such as the inhibitory control model.

  20. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. PMID:26663825

  1. Actors and Agency in Academic Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Gurney, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Nearly two decades have passed since Kaplan and Baldauf [1997. "Language planning from practice to theory." Clevedon: Multilingual Matters] drew attention to the dearth of language policy and planning (LPP) in higher education. Despite the continuing inflow of English as an additional language students into Anglophone universities, and a…

  2. The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

  3. 16 CFR 803.8 - Foreign language documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... language documents. (a) Whenever at the time of filing a Notification and Report Form there is an English... English language versions shall be filed along with the foreign language information or materials. (b... for additional information or documentary material shall be submitted with verbatim English...

  4. 16 CFR 803.8 - Foreign language documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... language documents. (a) Whenever at the time of filing a Notification and Report Form there is an English... English language versions shall be filed along with the foreign language information or materials. (b... for additional information or documentary material shall be submitted with verbatim English...

  5. 16 CFR 803.8 - Foreign language documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... language documents. (a) Whenever at the time of filing a Notification and Report Form there is an English... English language versions shall be filed along with the foreign language information or materials. (b... for additional information or documentary material shall be submitted with verbatim English...

  6. 16 CFR 803.8 - Foreign language documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... language documents. (a) Whenever at the time of filing a Notification and Report Form there is an English... English language versions shall be filed along with the foreign language information or materials. (b... for additional information or documentary material shall be submitted with verbatim English...

  7. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

  8. [Verbal and nonverbal intelligence in children with language development disorders].

    PubMed

    Willinger, U; Eisenwort, B

    1999-01-01

    Difficulties in language acquisition seem to be serious, if there are additional problems like intellectual and/or emotional/social impairment, which are often reported [10]. These additional problems and the definition of specific language impairment as a developmental disorder, restricted to language acquisition seem to be contradictory [17]. Aim of that study is to look for specific language impaired children with similar cognitive abilities and though to investigate, if there are children without additional cognitive problems considering the definition of specific language impairment. 93 children, between 4;0 and 6;6 years old, were diagnostized as specific language impaired (ICD-10) and were assessed by the "Hannover Wechsler Intelligenztest für das Vorschulalter (HAWIVA)" [6] (german version of WPPSI). Cluster analysis showed, that 1/3 of the specific language impaired children presented no additional cognitive problems and 2/3 of them showed cognitive problems regarding nonverbal and verbal intelligence indeed. These additional cognitive problems indicate that there may be a more basic cognitive defect underlying specific language impairment [15]--at least for a group of specific language impaired children. Furthermore the nonverbal and verbal intellectual difficulties emphasize to general developmental support of specific language impaired children for optimal improvement in language acquisition.

  9. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  10. Feminist Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist language planning is an active engagement with the ways in which language represents and reproduces gender. It is not specifically concerned with the ways in which language presents women, although this is a major focus, but rather how language positions both males and females and how it enters into the social practices that gender people…

  11. First Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eve V.

    This book examines children's acquisition of a first language, the stages they go through, and how they use language as they learn. There are 16 chapters in 4 parts. After chapter 1, "Acquiring Languages: Issues and Questions," Part 1, "Getting Started," offers (2) "In Conversation with Children," (3) "Starting on Language: Perception," (4) "Early…

  12. Language Policy and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  13. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  14. Aspects of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratta, Leslie, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Reflecting the increasing interest in language by teachers of English, articles in this collection: (1) describe and attempt to justify the exploration of living language as it is actually used--"Learning to Evaluate the Spoken Word" by M. C. Dobson, "Exploring the Language of Persuasion" by Sandra Williams, and "Language at Work" by J. H. G.…

  15. Languages for Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

  16. Endangered Language Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

    2012-01-01

    Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

  17. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

  18. Relations among language exposure, phonological memory, and language development in Spanish-English bilingually developing 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development.

  19. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  20. Effect of language switching on arithmetic: a bilingual FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vinod; Siong, Soon Chun; Chee, Michael W L; Ansari, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The role of language in performing numerical computations has been a topic of special interest in cognition. The "Triple Code Model" proposes the existence of a language-dependent verbal code involved in retrieving arithmetic facts related to addition and multiplication, and a language-independent analog magnitude code subserving tasks such as number comparison and estimation. Neuroimaging studies have shown dissociation between dependence of arithmetic computations involving exact and approximate processing on language-related circuits. However, a direct manipulation of language using different arithmetic tasks is necessary to assess the role of language in forming arithmetic representations and in solving problems in different languages. In the present study, 20 English-Chinese bilinguals were trained in two unfamiliar arithmetic tasks in one language and scanned using fMRI on the same problems in both languages (English and Chinese). For the exact "base-7 addition" task, language switching effects were found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and left inferior parietal lobule extending to the angular gyrus. In the approximate "percentage estimation" task, language switching effects were found predominantly in the bilateral posterior intraparietal sulcus and LIFG, slightly dorsal to the LIFG activation seen for the base-7 addition task. These results considerably strengthen the notion that exact processing relies on verbal and language-related networks, whereas approximate processing engages parietal circuits typically involved in magnitude-related processing. PMID:16417683

  1. Language Structure Is Partly Determined by Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary; Dale, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures— a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche) in

  2. Assessment of Second Language Proficiency in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing…

  3. Strategy-Based English Language Instruction: The Impact on the Language Proficiency of Young Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…

  4. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control. PMID:26177885

  5. Free Language Selection in the Bilingual Brain: An Event-Related fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tao; Huang, Peiyu; Li, Dan; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Tong; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual speakers may select between two languages either on demand (forced language selection) or on their own volition (free language selection). However, the neural substrates underlying free and forced language selection may differ. While the neural substrates underlying forced language selection have been well-explored with language switching paradigms, those underlying free language selection have remained unclear. Using a modified digit-naming switching paradigm, we addressed the neural substrates underlying free language selection by contrasting free language switching with forced language switching. For a digit-pair trial, Chinese-English bilinguals named each digit in Chinese or English either on demand under forced language selection condition or on their own volition under free language selection condition. The results revealed activation in the frontoparietal regions that mediate volition of language selection. Furthermore, a comparison of free and forced language switching demonstrated differences in the patterns of brain activation. Additionally, free language switching showed reduced switching costs as compared to forced language switching. These findings suggest differences between the mechanism(s) underlying free and forced language switching. As such, the current study suggests interactivity between control of volition and control of language switching in free language selection, providing insights into a model of bilingual language control.

  6. Whole-language and item-specific control in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-11-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) on a verbal fluency task in which speakers produced members of letter (or phoneme for Chinese) categories first in 1 language and then members of either (a) the same categories or (b) different categories in their other language. Chinese-English bilinguals also named pictures in both languages. Both bilingual groups showed reduced dominant language fluency after producing exemplars from the same categories in the nondominant language, whereas nondominant language production was not influenced by prior production of words from the same categories in the other language. Chinese-English, but not Dutch-English, bilinguals exhibited similar testing order effects for different letter/phoneme categories. In addition, Chinese-English bilinguals who exhibited significant testing order effects in the repeated categories condition of the fluency task exhibited no such effects when naming repeated pictures after a language switch. These results imply multiple levels of inhibitory control in bilingual language production. Testing order effects in the verbal fluency task pinpoint a lexical locus of bilingual control, and the finding of interference effects for some bilinguals even when different categories are tested across languages further implies a whole-language control process, although the ability to exert such global inhibition may only develop for some types of bilinguals.

  7. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  8. Using language in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Fine, J

    2001-12-01

    Much of the diagnosis and definition of psychiatric disorders depends on language behaviour. Both the lay and clinical communities recognize that some atypical language behaviour helps to the identify psychiatric disorders. A functional approach to language provides the means to classify the atypicalities in meaning and in wordings that are associated with psychiatric disorders. Culture levels, register, genre, context, vocabulary-grammar, and sound must all be taken into account in considering language atypicalities. Language simultaneously conveys 3 kinds of meaning--ideational, interpersonal and textual. Individually or combined, these 3 kinds of meaning can be used to describe the atypical language behaviour associated with psychiatric disorders. PMID:11816312

  9. Robust language-independent OCR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhidong A.; Bazzi, Issam; Kornai, Andras; Makhoul, John; Natarajan, Premkumar S.; Schwartz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    We present a language-independent optical character recognition system that is capable, in principle, of recognizing printed text from most of the world's languages. For each new language or script the system requires sample training data along with ground truth at the text-line level; there is no need to specify the location of either the lines or the words and characters. The system uses hidden Markov modeling technology to model each character. In addition to language independence, the technology enhances performance for degraded data, such as fax, by using unsupervised adaptation techniques. Thus far, we have demonstrated the language-independence of this approach for Arabic, English, and Chinese. Recognition results are presented in this paper, including results on faxed data.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  11. Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Harrison, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Students' first and target language are often used by both teachers and students during instruction in the foreign language classroom (Levine, 2011). In this study, the frequency of and reasons for students' and teachers' use of English or Spanish were analyzed using video recordings of 40 class sessions taught by eight randomly…

  12. First Language Use in Second Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulisse, Nanda; Bongaerts, Theo

    1994-01-01

    In a study of bilingual speech production, data were collected from 771 unintentional language switches by 45 Dutch learners of English at 3 different proficiency levels. One finding was that the occurrence of language switch was related to learner proficiency in English. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/LB)

  13. Languages for Business Means Business for Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Bettina F.

    Georgia State University has developed undergraduate applied language programs in commercial French, German, and Spanish combining practical with theoretical studies. The curricula stress the communicative aspect of language, and are based on the content of certification examinations given in France, Germany, and Spain. Two upper-level courses in…

  14. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  15. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  16. Breaking the Language Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for the Apollo Soyuz mission entailed large-scale informational exchange that was accomplished by a computerized translation system. Based on this technology of commercial machine translation, a system known as SYSTRAN II was developed by LATSEC, Inc. and the World Translation Company of Canada. This system increases the output of a human translator by five to eight times, affording cost savings by allowing a large increase in document production without hiring additional people. Extra savings accrue from automatic production of camera-ready copy. Applications include translation of service manuals, proposals and tenders, planning studies, catalogs, list of parts and prices, textbooks, technical reports and education/training materials. System is operational for six language pairs. Systran users include Xerox Corporation, General Motors of Canada, Bell Northern Research of Canada, the U.S. Air Force and the European Commission. The company responsible for the production of SYSTRAN II has changed its name to SYSTRAN.

  17. The Rudiments of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  18. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  19. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  20. Using Language Broadcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian; Barley, Anthony

    1977-01-01

    Various ways to use foreign language radio broadcasts in comprehension practice, speaking practice, and written work are outlined. BBC and other broadcasts in several languages are listed and annotated as to age level and topics. (CHK)

  1. Aspects of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of language--code, relation of structure to meaning, creativity, capacity to influence thought--are discussed, as well as reasons for including foreign language study in school and university. (RM)

  2. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  3. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  4. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  5. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  6. Foreign Language Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palandra, Maria

    2008-01-01

    As interest in the study of foreign languages grows, more and more school and district leaders will be charged with the responsibility of establishing a language program. Some of the questions that they will need to answer include: What language and what model should be selected? How could another program be inserted in a school day already…

  7. The Language Contact Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Barbara F.; Dewey, Dan P.; Segalowitz, Norman; Halter, Randall

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to gather data of various sorts--demographics, language-learning history, contact with native speakers, use of the language in the field--as they relate to participants in SLA research studies are inherent to understanding more about language acquisition and use. Scholars frequently develop questionnaires of their own, which are rarely…

  8. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  9. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  10. Career Education - Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dora F.; And Others

    This guide is designed to hel teachers in all disciplines to expand students' awareness of foreign languages and their importance in career education. The guide urges interdisciplinary cooperation between foreign language instructors and other teachers. Study and activity suggestions using foreign languages are made for elementary, junior high and…

  11. Cassirer's View of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  12. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  13. Orwell and Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Commemorating the end of George Orwell's year, 1984, the majority of articles in this journal issue are devoted to some aspect of language. The first article alerts teachers to the need for a critical examination of Orwell's underlying assumptions about language change in "Politics and the English Language." The next five articles deal with…

  14. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  15. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  16. Language Teaching through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uemichi, Isao S.

    Language teaching through literature is based on the principle that literary works of art can give students intellectual pleasure. It should be revived in English language teaching in Japan because (1) it has the power to motivate students to learn a language they might not learn otherwise, (2) literature is readily available and applicable to a…

  17. Digital Language Death

    PubMed Central

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  18. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  19. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a…

  20. Language Motivation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the study of second language learning motivation, and suggests that social and psychological aspects of language learning and use are a source of fruitful exploration. Calls for a triangulation of methodology, using hard sociolinguistic data and personal statements from second language learners. Provides examples from studies of…

  1. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to distinguish between children who are struggling to learn a new language and children with true language impairments. After studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers have developed a dual ...

  2. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  3. Language, Culture & Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, foreign language faculty have been adjusting their curricula to ensure that today's college students know how to use technology to communicate effectively in languages other than their native tongue. Once upon a time, students were considered fluent if they could read, write, speak and aurally comprehend a foreign language. However…

  4. Bourdieu, Language, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on the work of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu with a special focus on issues of language, education and literacy. The essay sketches out Bourdieu's main theoretical ideas with respect to language, and raises a number of issues on classroom language and academic discourse. Bourdieu's approach is considered…

  5. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  6. The Language Teacher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Malcolm, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

    These issues of "The Language Teacher" examine second language learning issues in Japan, focusing on such topics as the following: language educators and labor law; using videofeedback to nurture self-monitoring skills; learning diaries in learner training; English for special learners; developing listening subskills with trivia; attitude and…

  7. Languages for Dublin Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on languages for the Dublin Core, examines the experience of some related ways to seek semantic interoperability through simplicity: planned languages, interlingua constructs, and pidgins. Also defines the conceptual and organizational problem of maintaining a metadata standard in multiple languages. (AEF)

  8. Sign Language Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    The sign language of the American deaf community (ASL) is analyzed from a linguistic point of view. The history of the application of linguistic principles to sign language studies is briefly traced. The cherology (phonology) of sign language is treated with respect to finger spelling, manual numeration, ASL phonetics, and conventions of sign…

  9. Motives for Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Raymond, Ed.

    This collection of papers considers processes involved in language change and issues of how they can be modeled and studied. After "Introduction" (Raymond Hickey), there are 15 papers in 6 parts. Part 1, "The Phenomenon of Language Change," includes: (1) "On Change in 'E-language'" (Peter Matthews); and (2) "Formal and Functional Motivation for…

  10. Language, the Forgotten Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia P., Ed.; Small, Robert C., Jr., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The ways that students can learn about the nature of the English language and develop a sense of excitement about their language are explored in this focused journal issue. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Language, the Forgotten Content" (R. Small and P. P. Kelly); (2) "What Should English Teachers Know about…

  11. Language, Name, and Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronowski, J.; Bellugi, Ursula

    1970-01-01

    Summarizes the results of attempts to teach a young chimpanzee to use sign language, and raises questions about the uniqueness of human language. Analyzes language development in children and suggests that humans differ from nonhuman primates in the ability to analyze the environment into parts which can be manipulated in the mind, and that it is…

  12. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  13. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language"…

  14. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  15. TEFL and Language Ontogeny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocaz de Arriagada, Aura

    The author discusses "the parallels between learning English as a foreign language and learning English as a native language and their relevance for the construction of appropriate teaching materials." Four postulates or language universals are presented about the order in which children learn the phonological features of their native language…

  16. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    An analysis of the relationship of language to learning, particularly as it affects "avoidance behaviors" of remedial readers in the classroom, strongly emphasized the importance of greater stress on oral language development. New concern for cognitive and personality development in children stresses the role of language as an interaction medium…

  17. Acquisition of Language Information from Online Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Hikomaro

    This report describes the methods to acquire language information from online databases, which are usually employed to retrieve technical information. Typical uses are shown to obtain equivalent foreign words, language usages, illustrative sentences and statistical linguistic data, by use of JOIS, DIALOG, SDC and BRS online information systems. In comparison with dictionaries and usage books, the online databases provide a vast file of language information, which is unabridged, continually updated and accessible through any words or their combinations. In addition, they give quantitative data such as frequencies in use of words and expressions.

  18. Community Languages. Sources and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geach, June, Comp.

    This European-focused guide covers basic sources of English language information for teachers of community languages, other language teachers, and language teaching support personnel regarding the background and teaching of European Community languages in Great Britain. The guide complements Centre for Information on Language Teaching Information…

  19. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  20. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  1. Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing bilingual children, and monolingual Dutch children with SLI. Assuming that speaking a language in varying environments involves distinct subskills that can be acquired in differential patterns, the achievement of phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and textual abilities were assessed separately. For each of these abilities, it was determined to what extent the conditions of restricted input (first vs. second language) and language deficit (typically developing vs. SLI) cause stagnation or a delay in language acquisition. Bilingual children with SLI perform at a lower level than the other groups in almost all aspects of achievement in Dutch. For language tasks related to the mental lexicon and grammar, an additional disadvantage was evidenced as a result of the combination of learning Dutch as second language and having SLI. PMID:21550769

  2. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences.

  3. Speaking in multiple languages: neural correlates of language proficiency in multilingual word production.

    PubMed

    Videsott, Gerda; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Hoenig, Klaus; Schilly, Edgar; Grothe, Jo; Wiater, Werner; Spitzer, Manfred; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-06-01

    The human brain has the fascinating ability to represent and to process several languages. Although the first and further languages activate partially different brain networks, the linguistic factors underlying these differences in language processing have to be further specified. We investigated the neural correlates of language proficiency in a homogeneous sample of multilingual native Ladin speakers from a mountain valley in South Tyrol, Italy, who speak Italian as second language at a high level, and English at an intermediate level. In a constrained word production task under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants had to name pictures of objects in Ladin, Italian and English in separate blocks. Overall, multilingual word production activated a common set of brain areas dedicated to known subcomponents of picture naming. In comparison to English, the fluently spoken languages Ladin and Italian were associated with enhanced right prefrontal activity. In addition, the MR signal in right prefrontal cortex correlated with naming accuracy as a measure of language proficiency. Our results demonstrate the significance of right prefrontal areas for language proficiency. Based on the role of these areas for cognitive control, our findings suggest that right prefrontal cortex supports language proficiency by effectively supervising word retrieval.

  4. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Brown, Timothy T; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Elman, Jeffrey L; Halgren, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

  5. Environment: Language Ecology and Language Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    Global linguistic diversity is rapidly declining. As the world becomes less linguistically diverse, it is becoming culturally less diverse as well as the world's tribes and languages are dying out or being assimilated into modern civilization because their habitats are being destroyed. At the same time the world is experiencing a substantial decline in biodiversity. The extinction of languages is part of the larger picture of near total collapse of the worldwide ecosystem, and languages are vital parts of complex local ecologies that must be supported if global biodiversity is to be maintained.

  6. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  7. Chaos and language.

    PubMed

    Mitchener, W Garrett; Nowak, Martin A

    2004-04-01

    Human language is a complex communication system with unlimited expressibility. Children spontaneously develop a native language by exposure to linguistic data from their speech community. Over historical time, languages change dramatically and unpredictably by accumulation of small changes and by interaction with other languages. We have previously developed a mathematical model for the acquisition and evolution of language in heterogeneous populations of speakers. This model is based on game dynamical equations with learning. Here, we show that simple examples of such equations can display complex limit cycles and chaos. Hence, language dynamical equations mimic complicated and unpredictable changes of languages over time. In terms of evolutionary game theory, we note that imperfect learning can induce chaotic switching among strict Nash equilibria.

  8. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood.

  9. Advanced computer languages

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, H.

    1984-05-03

    If software is to become an equal partner in the so-called fifth generation of computers-which of course it must-programming languages and the human interface will need to clear some high hurdles. Again, the solutions being sought turn to cerebral emulation-here, the way that human beings understand language. The result would be natural or English-like languages that would allow a person to communicate with a computer much as he or she does with another person. In the discussion the authors look at fourth level languages and fifth level languages, used in meeting the goal of AI. The higher level languages aim to be non procedural. Application of LISP, and Forth to natural language interface are described as well as programs such as natural link technology package, written in C.

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  13. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  14. 19 CFR 111.60 - Request for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for additional information. 111.60 Section 111.60 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... particular language of the proposed statement of charges as to which additional information is needed. If...

  15. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  16. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  17. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  18. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  19. 40 CFR 141.154 - Required additional health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required additional health information... Required additional health information. (a) All reports must prominently display the following language... from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk...

  20. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  1. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  2. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  3. GESTURE’S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate––they gesture––and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form––they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form––they are part of language. PMID:23526836

  4. Language Death, Language Genesis, and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karttunen, Frances; Crosby, Alfred W.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that linguistics has great potential value for historians. Contends that the pidgin and creole languages of the former colonies of European nations provide avenues for examining the histories of "people without history." (CFR)

  5. Distinct mechanisms and timing of language recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jarso, Samson; Li, Muwei; Faria, Andreia; Davis, Cameron; Leigh, Richard; Sebastian, Rajani; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

    2014-01-01

    The “language network” is remarkably stable across language tasks but changes in response to injury to specific components or in response to “disconnection” of input to one component. We investigated network changes during language recovery, hypothesizing that language recovery takes place through distinct mechanisms: (a) reperfusion; (b) recovery from diaschisis; (c) recovery from structural disconnection; and (d) “reorganization” of language, whereby various components assume function of a damaged component. We also tested the hypothesis that “reorganization” depends on: the language task, level of performance, size and site of stroke, and time post onset. We tested these hypotheses in five participants who had structural, perfusion, and functional imaging utilizing spelling, reading, word generation, and picture naming tasks at acute and subsequent stages after ischaemic stroke. These cases illustrate different mechanisms of aphasia recovery or illustrate that reorganization of language acutely depends on individual variables in addition to size and site of stroke. PMID:24472056

  6. Specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

  7. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  8. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language.

  9. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-12-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., slide (L2 prime)-Kleid (L1 target, "dress")], or (b) phonologically related through translation, with L1 translations of L2 primes rhymed with the L1 target words [e.g., leg (L2 prime, L1 translation, "Bein")-Stein (L1 target, "stone"). Evidence of facilitated target recognition in the phonological priming condition suggests language nonselective access but not necessarily lexical access. However, a late interference effect on target recognition in the phonological priming through translation condition provides evidence for language nonselective lexical access: The L2 prime (leg) could influence L1 target recognition (Stein) in this condition only if both the L2 prime (leg) and its L1 translation ("Bein") were concurrently activated. In addition, age- and gender-matched monolingual toddler controls showed no difference between conditions, providing further evidence that the results with bilingual toddlers were driven by cross-language activation. The current study, therefore, presents the first-ever evidence of cross-talk between the two languages of bilinguals even as they begin to acquire fluency in their second language. PMID:22980955

  10. Evaluation of Language Function under Awake Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, Aya; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is the only established way to assess patients’ language functions intraoperatively and to contribute to their preservation, if necessary. Recent guidelines have enabled the approach to be used widely, effectively, and safely. Non-invasive brain functional imaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, have been used preoperatively to identify brain functional regions corresponding to language, and their accuracy has increased year by year. In addition, the use of neuronavigation that incorporates this preoperative information has made it possible to identify the positional relationships between the lesion and functional regions involved in language, conduct functional brain mapping in the awake state with electrical stimulation, and intraoperatively assess nerve function in real time when resecting the lesion. This article outlines the history of awake craniotomy, the current state of pre- and intraoperative evaluation of language function, and the clinical usefulness of such functional evaluation. When evaluating patients’ language functions during awake craniotomy, given the various intraoperative stresses involved, it is necessary to carefully select the tasks to be undertaken, quickly perform all examinations, and promptly evaluate the results. As language functions involve both input and output, they are strongly affected by patients’ preoperative cognitive function, degree of intraoperative wakefulness and fatigue, the ability to produce verbal articulations and utterances, as well as perform synergic movement. Therefore, it is essential to appropriately assess the reproducibility of language function evaluation using awake craniotomy techniques. PMID:25925758

  11. Language and communication in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frith, U; Happé, F

    1994-10-29

    Communication problems form one of the key diagnostic criteria for autism, but there is a wide variety of manifestations. The theory that autistic individuals are unable to represent mental states can shed light on both the nature and range of communication impairments. This theory predicts that the specific communication deficit lies in the use of language to affect other minds. Language is not special in this respect, and is important only in so far as it may be used to give evidence of a speaker's thoughts and intentions. Thus, in autism, language level would be expected to relate strongly to performance on standard tests of theory of mind. Normal language acquisition appears to build upon the ability to recognize and orient towards ostensive behaviour. For this reason, it may not be necessary to postulate additional language impairments in order to explain the almost universal prevalence of language delay in children with autism. Autism, then, provides a model for studying the important distinction between language and communication, and demonstrates the vital part which mind-reading plays in normal human verbal and non-verbal interaction.

  12. The logical problem of language acquisition: a probabilistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Anne S; Chater, Nick

    2010-08-01

    Natural language is full of patterns that appear to fit with general linguistic rules but are ungrammatical. There has been much debate over how children acquire these "linguistic restrictions," and whether innate language knowledge is needed. Recently, it has been shown that restrictions in language can be learned asymptotically via probabilistic inference using the minimum description length (MDL) principle. Here, we extend the MDL approach to give a simple and practical methodology for estimating how much linguistic data are required to learn a particular linguistic restriction. Our method provides a new research tool, allowing arguments about natural language learnability to be made explicit and quantified for the first time. We apply this method to a range of classic puzzles in language acquisition. We find some linguistic rules appear easily statistically learnable from language experience only, whereas others appear to require additional learning mechanisms (e.g., additional cues or innate constraints). PMID:21564242

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Bibliography of Language Arts Materials For Native North Americans: Bilingual, English as a Second Language and Native Language Materials, 1975-1976 With Supplemental Entries for 1965-1974. American Indian Bibliographic Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. Edward; Abbey, Karin

    The bibliography includes 369 works, printed or reprinted in 1975 and 1976, which have been or might be used in native language education, bilingual education, or English as a Second Language education for Native North Americans. In addition, 42 items published between 1964 and 1974 are incorporated in the listing. Only English language materials…

  15. Language Schemes--A Useful Policy Tool for Language Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ó Flatharta, Peadar

    2015-01-01

    The Irish language is recognised in Bunreacht na hÉireann [The Constitution of Ireland] as the national and first official language, and provisions to support the language are to found in c.120 specific enactments in Irish legislation. In 2007, the Irish language was designated as an official working language of the European Union. In 2003, the…

  16. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  17. Adolescent Second Language Literacy: Language-Culture, Literature, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, Steven G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests adolescent second language speakers of English can better understand the second culture as embedded in the language, and feel more comfortable with expressing their sense of self through language, by discussing language and its use in the contexts of literary texts. Examines elements of the interface between language, culture, and…

  18. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  19. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  20. Language Arts Guide; Composition and Language Study. Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Board of Public Instruction, Miami, FL.

    GRADES OR AGES: Junior high school (grades 7, 8 and 9). SUBJECT MATTER: Language arts; composition and language study. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has three main sections: 1) oral composition--individual preservations and group activities; 2) language study--the nature of language, varieties of language, history of the English…

  1. Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

  2. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  3. How arbitrary is language?

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C; Christiansen, Morten H; Kirby, Simon

    2014-09-19

    It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary--typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound-meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound-meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency.

  4. Hardware description languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  5. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies. PMID:21740206

  6. How arbitrary is language?

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Kirby, Simon

    2014-01-01

    It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary—typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound–meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound–meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency. PMID:25092667

  7. Language matters: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  8. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards.

  11. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards. PMID:25633142

  12. Language and Recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  13. Early writing deficits in preschoolers with oral language difficulties.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A group of 293 preschool children were administered an assessment battery that included measures to examine oral language, nonverbal cognition, emergent reading, and writing. Children were divided into four groups based on their language and cognitive performance. The findings from this study show that as early as preschool, children with weaker oral language skills lag behind their peers with stronger oral language skills in terms of their writing-related skills. Children with oral language and cognitive deficits performed more poorly than children whose deficits were confined to oral language. A child's cognitive ability also has an impact on emergent writing skills, but it appears to be moderated by oral language skills. These results are consistent with research documenting links between preschool language and emergent reading in children with a history of LI. PMID:22043027

  14. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  15. Group caregiver language checklist.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M E; Shelton, D; Pearson, A A; Miller, M

    1992-01-01

    Because young children with language disabilities frequently are placed in group-care settings, there is a need to make judgments concerning the language environment of those settings. The GCLC is offered as one procedure for assessment of the language environment provided by the caregiver(s) in a group setting. The assessment provides information that may assist in matching the environment to a particular child's needs and may provide a basis for assisting caregivers in improving the language environment and addressing a child's needs. The authors welcome comments from the readers.

  16. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Eicher, John D; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations.

  17. Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language impairment (LI), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, LI, and/or language-related traits with language skills in children with ASD. We used genetic and language data collected in the Autism Genome Research Exchange (AGRE) and Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) cohorts to perform a meta-analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with LI risk gene ATP2C2 and dyslexia risk gene MRPL19. Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with CMIP, GCFC2, KIAA0319L, the DYX2 locus (ACOT13, GPLD1, and FAM65B), and DRD2. Our results show that LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. PMID:25448322

  18. Effects of Language Context on Ratings of Shy and Unsociable Behaviors in English Language Learning Children

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Andrea C.; Rice, Mabel L.; Redmond, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of the language context on the socially withdrawn behaviors of school aged-children who are English Language Learners (ELLs) from middle to high SES backgrounds. This is one of the first studies to address the frequently confused concepts of shyness and unsociability as independent constructs within the ELL population. This study also investigated the feasibility of an experimental parent and child questionnaire that examines shyness and unsociability across native and English speaking contexts. Method Children and parents (34 ELL and 37 native English speaking) were administered an experimental questionnaire examining shy and unsociable behavior in native language and English-speaking contexts. Results Parents and children from the ELL group reported significantly higher ratings of shy behavior in English versus native language contexts, whereas unsociable ratings did not differ across language contexts. Conclusions Shyness and unsociability are distinguishable behaviors in ELL children and these constructs should be considered when examining withdrawal. Additionally, examining ELL children’s behavior across language contexts provides a valuable method for investigating language influenced behavioral problems. This study demonstrates the need for service providers to evaluate behavior across subtype and language context before pathologizing withdrawal in ELL children. PMID:24687767

  19. Codeswitching in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Cereijido, Gabriela Simon; Leone, Angela Erickson

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit limited grammatical skills compared to their peers with typical language. These difficulties may be revealed when alternating their two languages (i.e., codeswitching) within sentences. Fifty-eight Spanish-English speaking children with and without SLI produced narratives using wordless picture books and conversational samples. The results indicated no significant differences in the proportion of utterances with codeswitching (CS) across age groups or contexts of elicitation. There were significant effects for language dominance, language of testing, and a significant dominance by language of testing interaction. The English-dominant children demonstrated more CS when tested in their nondominant language (Spanish) compared to the Spanish-dominant children tested in their weaker English. The children with SLI did not display more CS or more instances of atypical CS patterns compared to their typical peers. The findings indicate that children with SLI are capable of using grammatical CS, in spite of their language difficulties. In addition, the analyses suggest that CS is sensitive to sociolinguistic variables such as when the home language is not socially supported in the larger sociocultural context. In these cases, children may refrain from switching to the home language, even if that is their dominant language. PMID:22611333

  20. Maintaining and Developing Indigenous Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, John

    Dr. Joshua Fishman, a world renowned sociolinguist and expert on endangered languages, postulates a continuum of eight stages of language loss for indigenous languages. The most-endangered languages are in stage 8 and only have a few elderly speakers. In stage 7 only adults beyond child-bearing age still speak the tribal language. In stage 6 there…

  1. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  2. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  3. Faulty Language Selection in Polyglots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanon, Benny

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of several types of faulty language selection in polyglots revealed that production errors were not a result of limited vocabulary or language deficiency but rather to interlingual code-switching based on the polyglot's differentiations between dominant language, foreign language, and weak language. (20 references) (Author/CB)

  4. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  5. Language and the Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  6. Do Inclusion Practices for Pupils with Special Educational Needs in the English as a Foreign Language Class in Israel Reflect Inclusion Laws and Language Policy Requirements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russak, Susie

    2016-01-01

    The study of additional languages is mandatory for all pupils in most European countries. Usually, the first foreign language is English. This is due to the status of English as a global language. According to inclusion laws, pupils with special educational needs (SEN) should be taught in regular classes with support services by teachers with…

  7. The Effect on Cumulative Language Acquisition Increase for English Language Learner Students in Kindergarten through Third Grade Who Attended Multiple Years of Summer Remediation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Already academically at risk, students in the rapidly growing English Language Learner (ELL) student population in the United States face additional challenges due to regression of English language acquisition over the average ten-week agrarian summer break when they return to homes in which Spanish was the primary language spoken. While the…

  8. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  9. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  10. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  11. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  14. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  15. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  16. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S.; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that – at least with respect to language acquisition – early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  17. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children. PMID:25090017

  18. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children.

  19. Identifying native language difficulties among foreign language learners in college: a "foreign" language learning disability?

    PubMed

    Ganschow, L; Sparks, R L; Javorsky, J; Pohlman, J; Bishop-Marbury, A

    1991-11-01

    The present study compared successful and unsuccessful college foreign language learners on measures of intelligence, foreign language aptitude, native oral and written language, and math. Unsuccessful students had received petitions to waive the foreign language requirement. No significant differences between groups were found on intelligence and reading comprehension. Significant differences were found on the Modern Language Aptitude Test, on tests of written and oral language in the syntactic and phonological domains, and on math calculation. Authors suggest that students with foreign language learning difficulties may have underlying native language problems manifested especially in the areas of syntax and phonology. Suggestions for diagnosing a foreign language disability are made.

  20. Is word perception in a second language more vulnerable than in one's native language? Evidence from brain potentials in a dual task setting.

    PubMed

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Mierke, Karsten; Sommer, Werner

    2004-06-01

    We assessed the effect of additional tasks on language perception in second-language and native speakers. The N400 component of the event-related potential was recorded to spoken nouns that had to be judged for synonymity with a preceding word, while additional choice responses were required to visual stimuli. In both participant groups N400 was delayed as a function of temporal overlap with the additional task. In second-language speakers there was a global delay of N400 independent of additional task load and a decrease of accuracy at highest overlap. These findings are interpreted within a single channel account of language perception.

  1. Discriminating Children with Language Impairment among English-Language Learners from Diverse First-Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Johanne; Schneider, Phyllis; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine whether a combination of English-language measures and a parent questionnaire on first-language development could adequately discriminate between English-language learners (ELLs) with and without language impairment (LI) when children had diverse first-language backgrounds. Method:…

  2. Perception of Paralinguistic Intonational Meaning in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Aoju

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of paralinguistic intonational meaning show that languages differ systematically in how pitch range is used to signal meaning differences, contra previous claims. This poses an additional challenge to second language learners, who generally receive little tutoring on intonation. This study investigates learners' competence and…

  3. Rethinking the Connection between Working Memory and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Harder Griebeling, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working memory deficits have been found for children with specific language impairment (SLI) on tasks imposing increasing short-term memory load with or without additional, consistent (and simple) processing load. Aims: To examine the processing function of working memory in children with low language (LL) by employing tasks imposing…

  4. Primary Language Support in an Era of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara; Necochea, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Second language learners continue to languish in California public schools in spite of six years of promises following passage of the controversial ballot initiative "English for the Children" (Proposition 227) to fix the education of English Language Learners (ELLs) through English-only instruction. In addition, with the development of new…

  5. Elementary World Language Programs: Current Existence and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    School districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have recognized the need for elementary world language programs. The intention of this research was to determine if school districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are utilizing elementary world language programs and discover the type of program models being applied. Additionally,…

  6. What Is the Human Language Faculty? Two Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In addition to providing an account of the empirical facts of language, a theory that aspires to account for language as a biologically based human faculty should seek a graceful integration of linguistic phenomena with what is known about other human cognitive capacities and about the character of brain computation. The present discussion note…

  7. 9 CFR 381.128 - Labels in foreign languages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in foreign languages. Any label to be affixed to a container of any dressed poultry or other poultry product for foreign commerce may be printed in a foreign language. However, the official inspection legend and establishment number shall appear on the label in English, but in addition, may be...

  8. 9 CFR 381.128 - Labels in foreign languages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in foreign languages. Any label to be affixed to a container of any dressed poultry or other poultry product for foreign commerce may be printed in a foreign language. However, the official inspection legend and establishment number shall appear on the label in English, but in addition, may be...

  9. Video Dubbing Projects in the Foreign Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The dubbing of muted video clips offers an excellent opportunity to develop the skills of foreign language learners at all linguistic levels. In addition to its motivational value, soundtrack dubbing provides a rich source of activities in all language skill areas: listening, reading, writing, speaking. With advanced students, it also lends itself…

  10. Speech and Language Therapy Intervention in Schizophrenia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Judy; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Parks, Randolph W.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is a significant body of evidence documenting the speech and language abnormalities found in adult psychiatric disorders. These speech and language impairments can create additional social barriers for the individual and may hinder effective communication in psychiatric treatment and management. However, the role of speech and…

  11. Personality and Language: A Restatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiora, Alexander Z.; Acton, William R.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a restatement of the three basic constructs of "language ego,""language ego boundaries," and "permeability of language ego boundaries," discusses interdisciplinary "borrowing" of constructs, and examines the question of theory validation. (Author/AM)

  12. Language extinction and linguistic fronts

    PubMed Central

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction–diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data. PMID:24598207

  13. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  14. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  15. Learning a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  16. Foreign Languages and Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    The purpose of the report is to explain why so many different types of people in so many different parts of the country need languages in their work, and why students planning their education in preparation for certain kinds of careers should be aware of these needs. The focus is mainly on language as an auxiliary skill, on the careers in which…

  17. Rethinking Language in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation…

  18. An Awareness of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulis, Joel B.

    Historical incidents, photographs of sheet music, cartoons, and advertisements are employed to study language in this textbook. The text, suggestions, and quoted material in the book are to be used not only for the study of language but also as sources for writing. It is recommended that journal entries, more fresh and spontaneous than formal…

  19. Runyakitara: Uganda's "New" Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernsten, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Examined the emergence of Runyakitara as a new language in Uganda in the 1980s. The formation of Runyakitara through the realignment of four Western Bantu varieties illustrates the potential for the use of language as a resource in ethnic competition. Discusses the construction of Runyakitara in the context of the current political situation in…

  20. Language Learning and Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of original papers draws upon work in linguistics, psychology, and education to highlight the relationship between language acquisition in deaf and hearing populations. The book's 11 chapters are divided into 2 sections, Theoretical Issues and Research Reports. Titles and authors are as follows: "Language Varieties in the Deaf…

  1. Mohawk Language Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    The Mohawk Language Checklist was developed for the intermediate grades, after the implementation of the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 increased the need for Mohawk language materials. It was designed to: (1) determine the need for bilingual instruction; (2) identify students needing bilingual instruction; and (3) determine the effectiveness of…

  2. Science in Any Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how Guided Language Acquisition Design (GLAD) teaching strategies can help English language learners (ELL) with science. GLAD is a model for planning science, social studies, and literature-based units. It includes a collection of innovative strategies designed to help all levels of ELL students' access core curriculum while…

  3. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  4. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  5. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  6. Testing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L., Ed.; Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the 1974 Washington Language Testing Sumposium. The volume also includes much of the discussion that followed each paper. The participants were an international group of language testing specialists from academic institutions, research centers, and government agencies. The primary focus…

  7. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  8. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  9. Are Languages Digital Codes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Language use is commonly understood to involve digital signalling, which imposes certain constraints and restrictions on linguistic communication. Two papers by Ross [Ross, D., 2004. "Metalinguistic signalling for coordination amongst social agents." "Language Sciences" 26, 621-642; Ross, D., this issue. "'H. sapiens' as ecologically special: what…

  10. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  11. LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

  12. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  13. Two Functions of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  14. Language Arts Tutorial Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.

    This handbook is designed for tutors in a language arts tutorial program for migrant students who are deficient in reading and language skills. Introductory materials discuss the special problems of migrant children, point to programs developed to meet their needs, and explain the basic design of the tutorial program. The handbook then discusses…

  15. Technology in Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquith, Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    In this special issue on technology in language teaching, major articles include: "Sociocultural Aspects of Second Language Acquisition" (David Nunan); "The Need for Multi-Media ESL Teaching Methods: A Psychological Investigation into Learning Styles" (Don W. Hinkelman, Jay M. Pysock); "Can Japanese Children Learn English?" (David Paul);…

  16. Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  17. Language Teaching and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the impact of computer networking on foreign language teaching and focuses on the competing claims made regarding the value of network-based language learning activity. A description of how internet-based activities operate in the classroom is included. (24 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  19. The Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is made of research focusing on how speaking and listening activities are relevant to the language classroom. Current thinking is reviewed on spoken language, with a focus on pronunciation, as a medium of information transfer and of interpersonal exchange. (66 references) (GLR)

  20. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  1. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  2. The Language of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

  3. Sexism and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; And Others

    This book contains the following essays regarding sexism and language: "Linguistic Sexism as a Social Issue,""Sexism as Shown through the English Vocabulary,""Sexism in the Language of Marriage," and "Sexism in Children's Books and Elementary Teaching Materials" by Alleen Pace Nilsen; "Gender-Marking in American English: Usage and Reference" by…

  4. Whole Language: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Comp.

    This book presents a debate between "reasonable" educators who either claim that there is evidence for the effectiveness of whole language, or who challenge the claim that whole language works across the broad spectrum of learners. The book presents the debate in the form of formal debate resolutions, opening "statements," transcripts of a…

  5. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  6. The Lozanov Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  7. Arctic Languages: An Awakening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Dermid R. F., Ed.

    This work is a study of Arctic languages written in an interdisciplinary manner. Part of the Unesco Arctic project aimed at safeguarding the linguistic heritage of Arctic peoples, the book is the outcome of three Unesco meetings at which conceptual approaches to and practical plans for the study of Arctic cultures and languages were worked out.…

  8. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  9. The Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Elton

    This condensed article on the language laboratory describes educational and financial possibilities and limitations, often citing the foreign language program at Purdue University as an example. The author discusses: (1) costs and amortization, (2) preventive maintenance, (3) laboratory design, (4) the multichannel recorder, and (5) visuals. Other…

  10. Perspectives in Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Carlo, Julia E.

    Written to focus attention on the emerging philosophy and practice of whole language, this book serves as a "portfolio" for the graduate or undergraduate student who is interested in pursuing ideas, considering issues, and thinking about problems related to whole language. The 48 selected articles from 24 major education journals presented in the…

  11. Early Dual Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  12. Second Language Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2012-01-01

    The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

  13. Philosophy and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  14. Integrating Language and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their own…

  15. Controversy within Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay

    1987-01-01

    A review of problems with using such manual communication systems as cued speech, fingerspelling, Signed or Manual English, American Sign Language, and Pidgin Sign provides a rationale for using a combination of American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign and a few markers from Signed English for a Total Communication system. (CB)

  16. Friction in Different Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sarah Jessica; Murray, Alexa Lee; Cormas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson taught in a designated English Language Learner (ELL) classroom in an elementary school in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, using a sheltered instruction approach. Eighty one percent of the students at this school are from diverse ethnic backgrounds where 25 per cent of them receive ELL services. A variety of languages are…

  17. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  18. LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

    THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

  19. Students' Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Edward

    Students have a right to use the dialect and language of their own cultural heritage. Language and dialect rights have many advantages for the user, including prestige, self-confidence, group identity, opportunity to project personality and style, appreciation and respect of cultural heritage, and self-awareness. All dialects are equal and are…

  20. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  1. Language in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  2. Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is currently field testing a set of instructional materials for teaching English language speaking and listening skills in preschool and first grade classes. The Oral Language Program (OLP) is directed at providing non-English speaking youngsters with a fluent, independent speaking ability in…

  3. Oral Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    Language is a fantastic gift: it empowers humans to create new ways of speaking with, for and to others about any topic or experience. Language is a rule-governed, meaningful communication system. It is a symbol system, where a word or phrase stands for or represents something else that can be touched, thought about, seen, heard, felt, done,…

  4. Caught between Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to educating English-language learners (ELLs) is ensuring that students become literate in their native language--something that experts say is important for their success in English and other subjects--and learn sufficient English skills before the middle grades, a critical transition point because of the increasingly…

  5. Urban Wall Languaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. Normann

    2008-01-01

    Graffiti constitutes a medium through which the youth express opposition to authorities, as well as desires, dreams, and hopes. Graffiti shows many of the linguistic characteristics of youth language, including playfulness and, first and foremost, polylingual languaging. Graffiti in almost every city, at least in Europe, uses English and one or…

  6. Literary and Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Gives a broad overview of developments in using literary texts in language teaching. Describes both language-based and stylistic approaches to the use of literary texts and draws particular attention to the way in which non-literary genres draw on literary devices for their effects. (Author/VWL)

  7. Britain's South Asian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobbs, Michael

    This book focuses on the languages spoken by people of South Asian origin living in Britain and is intended to assist individuals in Britain whose work involves them with speakers of these languages. The approach taken is descriptive and practical, offering linguistic, geographic, and historical background information leading to appreciation of…

  8. Language Resource Centers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Language Resource Centers (LRC) program provides grants to institutions of higher education to establish, strengthen, and operate resource centers that serve to improve the nation's capacity to teach and learn foreign languages. Eligible applicants are institutions of higher education. Duration of the grant is four years. Center activities…

  9. Language and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  10. Technologies for Language Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…

  11. American Language Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The six issues of this journal cover a variety of topics of interest to the second language professional. Among the topics covered are the following: "virtual" classrooms, staff development, traveling with students, learner self-testing, advice on how to find a job on the Web, online pronunciation aids, language teaching strategies for deaf…

  12. Foreign Languages in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Wolfgang

    Foreign language study must be justified in relation to everyday situations, problems and needs. Second language education must therefore be integrated with career education. The Oregon State Department of Education sponsored a study for a group of educators to produce a transportable display and a video tape for career awareness purposes and to…

  13. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  14. Language Industries Atlas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, P. M., Ed.; Button, D. F., Ed.

    This atlas describes the activities of public and private organizations that create the infrastructure within which languages are able to develop and interact in the European Community (EC). It contains over 1,000 descriptions of activities that play a role in shaping the language industries, from a user or provider perspective. The atlas is…

  15. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  16. Moodling English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  17. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  18. Interactive Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M., Ed.

    In this collection of essays, a group of innovative teachers and writers describe the approaches and techniques they have incorporated into their own language teaching. The articles are designed to help classroom teachers make language classes more participatory and communication oriented. The book is divided into three sections: (1) What Is…

  19. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals.

  20. Unusual atypical language lateralization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad T; Oghlakian, Roger; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2016-01-01

    Determining the language-dominant hemisphere is essential for planning epilepsy surgery. A 60-year-old right-handed woman with epilepsy since age 16 failed a partial right anterior lobectomy at age 21. Later, a brain MRI found extensive right-sided cortical dysplasia and periventricular heterotopia. Subsequently, prolonged video-EEG monitoring localized her seizures to the right temporoparietal region. Functional MRI was inconclusive in lateralizing her language, prompting a Wada test, which strongly lateralized language to the right. This unique case of atypical language representation in a right-handed individual with an extensive right-hemispheric congenital malformation and seizure focus illustrates the important thorough presurgical language assessment. PMID:27668182

  1. Rethinking language in autism.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory.

  2. Language universals at birth.

    PubMed

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A H; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-04-22

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2-5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition.

  3. Cognitive and Linguistic Predictors of Basic Arithmetic Skills: Evidence from First-Language and Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemans, Tijs; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were tested on non-verbal intelligence, working memory,…

  4. The language growth of spanish-speaking English language learners.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Raúl; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples (6,516 Spanish; 5,732 English) produced by 1,723 ELLs during the first 3 years of formal schooling (M age at first observation = 5 years 7 months). Results indicated distinct trajectories of language growth over time for each language differentially impacted by summer vacation and gender, significant intra- and interindividual differences in initial status and growth rates across both languages, and language-specific relations between language growth and initial status. Implications of ELLs' language growth are discussed.

  5. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    PubMed

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  6. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  7. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden.

  8. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. PMID:25365036

  9. Global health language and culture competency.

    PubMed

    Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need.

  10. XML Based Markup Languages for Specific Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde, Aparna; Rundensteiner, Elke; Fahrenholz, Sally

    A challenging area in web based support systems is the study of human activities in connection with the web, especially with reference to certain domains. This includes capturing human reasoning in information retrieval, facilitating the exchange of domain-specific knowledge through a common platform and developing tools for the analysis of data on the web from a domain expert's angle. Among the techniques and standards related to such work, we have XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This serves as a medium of communication for storing and publishing textual, numeric and other forms of data seamlessly. XML tag sets are such that they preserve semantics and simplify the understanding of stored information by users. Often domain-specific markup languages are designed using XML, with a user-centric perspective. Standardization bodies and research communities may extend these to include additional semantics of areas within and related to the domain. This chapter outlines the issues to be considered in developing domain-specific markup languages: the motivation for development, the semantic considerations, the syntactic constraints and other relevant aspects, especially taking into account human factors. Illustrating examples are provided from domains such as Medicine, Finance and Materials Science. Particular emphasis in these examples is on the Materials Markup Language MatML and the semantics of one of its areas, namely, the Heat Treating of Materials. The focus of this chapter, however, is not the design of one particular language but rather the generic issues concerning the development of domain-specific markup languages.

  11. SOCK Language. English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Laurence

    The manual includes teacher instructions and learning activities for a transitional, bilingual program of English as a Second Language (ESL). The program, which is aimed at elementary to college-age Spanish-speaking students from Mexico, Central America, and South America, uses soccer as a motivating cultural force. The ESL program is designed to…

  12. Language Policy and Language Assessment: The Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, major attention has been given to the power of tests and to the pivotal roles tests play in societies in shaping the definitions of language, affecting learning and teaching, and maintaining and creating social class. Accordingly, the quality of tests is not judged merely by their psychometric traits but also in relation to…

  13. First Language Status and Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of growing numbers in high schools and colleges, US-resident adolescent bilingual learners, sometimes termed "English as a second language" (ESL) or "Generation 1.5," are not succeeding academically in proportion to their monolingual English-speaking peers. This achievement gap is evident in their writing as they enter…

  14. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  15. Language Policy and Language Identity in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenberg, Peter H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys the historical and contemporary contexts in which Bahasa Indonesia has developed and spread, focusing in particular on political, sociocultural, and linguistic forces that have created a fundamental bond between the language and Indonesians' sense of national identity. (70 references) (VWL)

  16. Bilingualism, Language Contact, and Immigrant Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Reynaldo F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the literature on bilingualism over the last decade, emphasizing publications between 1985 and 1989. Focus is placed on the following themes: (1) definitions of the field, (2) language specific research, (3) the bilingual individual and community, (4) education and bilingualism, and (5) national bilingualism and political economy. (128…

  17. Language Technology and Language Resources in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiwei, Feng

    Trends and developments in computer applications in Chinese language research are described, focusing on these areas: input of Chinese characters and Chinese corpus; automatic segmentation of Chinese written text in corpus; development of a grammar knowledge base for Chinese words to be used as a resource for text segmentation and corpus…

  18. Time in Language, Language in Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Many millenia ago, a number of genetic changes endowed the human species with the remarkable capacity: (1) to construct highly complex systems of expressions--human languages; (2) to copy such systems, once created, from other members of the species; and (3) to use them for communicative and perhaps other purposes. This capacity is not uniform; it…

  19. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  20. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  1. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  2. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  3. Carving the world for language: how neuroscientific research can enrich the study of first and second language learning.

    PubMed

    George, Nathan R; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map word to world in language-specific ways. Cross-linguistic differences in semantic organization also reveal sources of struggles for SLLs. We discuss how better integrating neuroscience into this literature can unlock additional mysteries of verb learning.

  4. Carving the World for Language: How Neuroscientific Research Can Enrich the Study of First and Second Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    George, Nathan R.; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    Linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience all have rich histories in language research. Crosstalk among these disciplines, as realized in studies of phonology, is pivotal for understanding a fundamental challenge for first and second language learners (SLLs): learning verbs. Linguistic and behavioral research with monolinguals suggests that infants attend to foundational event components (e.g., path, manner). Language then heightens or dampens attention to these components as children map word to world in language-specific ways. Cross-linguistic differences in semantic organization also reveal sources of struggles for SLLs. We discuss how better integrating neuroscience into this literature can unlock additional mysteries of verb learning. PMID:24854772

  5. The role of language in science

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.; Peat, F.D. )

    1988-12-01

    It is argued that language plays an active role in the development of scientific thought. A research project is outlined which will investigate this hypothesis and, in addition, focus on such questions as the role of mathematics in science and the status of the genetic code.

  6. Hupa Language: Literature and Culture. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others

    One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…

  7. Embodied, Embedded Language Use

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Language use has a public face that is as important to study as the private faces under intensive psycholinguistic study. In the domain of phonology, public use of speech must meet an interpersonal “parity” constraint if it is to serve to communicate. That is, spoken language forms must reliably be identified by listeners. To that end, language forms are embodied, at the lowest level of description, as phonetic gestures of the vocal tract that lawfully structure informational media such as air and light. Over time, under the parity constraint, sound inventories emerge over communicative exchanges that have the property of sufficient identifiability. Communicative activities involve more than vocal tract actions. Talkers gesture and use facial expressions and eye gaze to communicate. Listeners embody their language understandings, exhibiting dispositions to behave in ways related to language understanding. Moreover, linguistic interchanges are embedded in the larger context of language use. Talkers recruit the environment in their communicative activities, for example, in using deictic points. Moreover, in using language as a “coordination device,” interlocutors mutually entrain. PMID:21243080

  8. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility. PMID:26886161

  9. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility.

  10. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  11. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  12. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language. PMID:22658973

  13. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language.

  14. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic... Deputy Secretary and Director for the Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and...

  15. "Being Gay Guy, that Is the Advantage": Queer Korean Language Learning and Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Brian W.

    2008-01-01

    This study works against heteronormativity, which is prevalent in the second language acquisition field, adding queer perspectives to the growing body of research that questions a narrower, 1-dimensional view of the language learner. There is a common belief that learning an additional language (L2) while surrounded by L2 speakers in a…

  16. Effect of the Affordances of a Virtual Environment on Second Language Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Heidy P. Cuervo

    2013-01-01

    The traditional language laboratory consists of computer-based exercises in which students practice the language individually, working on language form drills and listening comprehension activities. In addition to the traditional approach to the laboratory requirement, students in the study participated in a weekly conversation hour focusing on…

  17. The Development of Executive Function and Language Skills in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…

  18. How National Foreign Language Week Promotes Cultural Awareness at a Historically Black University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farfan-Cobb, Irma; Lassiter, Linda E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how celebrating National Foreign Language Week has increased cultural awareness and appreciation among students enrolled in foreign language courses at one of the largest historically Black universities in the United States. In addition, more students have expressed an interest in pursuing minors in foreign languages. (Author/VWL)

  19. A Year-Round Professional Development Model for World Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tracy M.; Peterson, Margaret D.; Silva, Duarte M.; Padilla, Amado M.

    2009-01-01

    The Bay Area Foreign Language Program (BAFLP), one of nine regional sites of the California Foreign Language Project, offers ongoing, year-round professional development programs for world language educators. In addition, its leadership program prepares selected educators to assume leadership positions at their school sites, building capacity for…

  20. Investigating the Influence of the Open Court Language Arts Curriculum on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Denise Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Language Arts is one of the most important subjects for students to learn. Encompassing reading, writing, and comprehension, skills learned through Language Arts instruction influence student ability to reach levels of academic achievement in all subjects. Additionally, Language Arts skills reach far past the classroom and into the workplace. In…