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Sample records for additional latent heat

  1. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  2. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Latent heat models

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpinsky, E.

    1996-03-01

    Latent heat models were developed to calculate heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels for two cases: (1) heating with a condensable fluid flowing through coils and jackets; (2) vacuum reflux cooling with an overhead condenser. In either case the mathematical treatment, based on macroscopic balances, requires no iterative schemes. In addition to providing heat-transfer coefficients, the models predict flow rates of service fluid through the coils and jackets, estimate the percentage of heat transfer due to latent heat, and compute reflux rates.

  3. Retrieved Latent Heating from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, Eric A.; Houze Jr, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to meso-synoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations in environmental prediction models. The status of retrieved TRMM LH products, TRMM LH inter-comparison and validation project, current TRMM LH applications and critic issues/action items (based on previous five TRMM LH workshops) is presented in this article.

  4. Latent Heating from TRMM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R.; Haddad, Z.; Hou, A.; Iguchi, T.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall production is the fundamental variable within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it is both the principal forcing term in surface water budgets and its energetics corollary, latent heating, is the principal source of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The properties of the vertical distribution of latent heat release modulate large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the tropics - as well as modifying the energetic efficiencies of midlatitude weather systems. This paper focuses on the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observatory, which was launched in November 1997 as a joint American-Japanese space endeavor. Since then, TRMM measurements have been providing an accurate four-dimensional account of rainfall over the global tropics and sub-tropics, information which can be used to estimate the space-time structure of latent heating across the Earth's low latitudes. The paper examines how the observed TRMM distribution of rainfall has advanced an understanding of the global water and energy cycle and its consequent relationship to the atmospheric general circulation and climate via latent heat release. A set of algorithm methodologies that are being used to estimate latent heating based on rain rate retrievals from the TRMM observations are described. The characteristics of these algorithms and the latent heating products that can be generated from them are also described, along with validation analyses of the heating products themselves. Finally, the investigation provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, concluding with remarks intended to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval from satellites.

  5. Latent Heating Structures Derived from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.; Olson, W.; Satoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall is the fundamental variable within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it is both the main forcing term leading to variations in continental and oceanic surface water budgets. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied with rain, modulates large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the tropics as well as modifying the energetic efficiency of mid-latitude weather systems. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water.This paper focuses on the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 0. The TRMM observatory, whose development was a joint US-Japan space endeavor, was launched in November 1997. TRMM measurements provide an accurate account of rainfall over the global tropics, information which can be .used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of latent heating across the entire tropical and sub-tropical regions. Various algorithm methodologies for estimating latent heating based on rain rate measurements from TRMM observations are described. The strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms, as well as the latent heating products generated by these algorithms, are also discussed along with validation analyses of the products. The investigation paper provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, and concludes with remarks designed to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval

  6. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  7. The effective latent heat of aqueous nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soochan; Taylor, Robert A.; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Phelan, Patrick E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions, popularly termed ‘nanofluids’, have been extensively investigated for their thermal and radiative properties (Eastman et al 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 457; Keblinski et al 2005 Mater. Today 8 36-44 Barber et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-13 Thomas and Sobhan 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-21 Taylor et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-11 Fang et al 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1736-42 Otanicar et al 2010 J. Renew. Sustainable Energy 2 03310201-13 Prasher et al 2006 ASME J. Heat Transfer 128 588-95 Shin and Banerjee 2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4 Taylor and Phelan 2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48 Ameen et al 2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44 Lee et al 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 1-4). Such work has generated great controversy, although it is (arguably) generally accepted today that the presence of nanoparticles rarely leads to useful enhancements in either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer. On the other hand, there are still examples of unanticipated enhancements to some properties, such as the specific heat of molten salt-based nanofluids reported by Shin and Banerjee (2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4) and the critical heat flux mentioned by Taylor and Phelan (2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48). Another largely overlooked example is the reported effect of nanoparticles on the effective latent heat of vaporization (hfg) of aqueous nanofluids, as reported by Ameen et al (2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44). Through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling supplemented with limited experimental data they found that hfg increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, for Pt nanoparticles (MD) and Al2O3 nanoparticles (experiments). Here, we extend those exploratory experiments in an effort to determine if hfg of aqueous nanofluids can be manipulated, i.e., increased or decreased by the addition of graphite or silver nanoparticles. Our results to date indicate that, yes, hfg can be substantially impacted, by

  8. Latent Heating Processes within Tropical Deep Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Mcgee, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    It has been suggested that latent heating above the freezing level plays an important role in reconciling Riehl and Malkus' Hot Tower Hypothesis (HTH) with observational evidence of diluted tropical deep convective cores. In this study, recent modifications to the HTH have been evaluated through the use of Lagrangian trajectory analysis of deep convective cores simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated microphysical, surface and radiation parameterization schemes. Idealized, high-resolution simulations of a line of tropical convective cells have been conducted. A two-moment microphysical scheme was utilized, and the initial and lateral boundary grid conditions were obtained from a large-domain CRM simulation approaching radiative convective equilibrium. As the tropics are never too far from radiative convective equilibrium, such a framework is useful for investigating the relationships between radiation, thermodynamics and microphysics in tropical convection. Microphysical impacts on latent heating and equivalent potential temperature (θe) have been analyzed along trajectories ascending within convective regions. Changes in θe along backward trajectories are partitioned into contributions from latent heating due to ice processes and a residual term that is shown to be an approximate representation of mixing. It is apparent from the CRM simulations that mixing with dry environmental air decreases θe along ascending trajectories below the freezing level, while latent heating due to freezing and vapor deposition increase θe above the freezing level. The along-trajectory contributions to latent heating from cloud nucleation, condensation, evaporation, freezing, deposition, and sublimation have also been quantified. Finally, the source regions of trajectories reaching the upper troposphere have been identified. The analysis indicates that while much of the air ascending within convective

  9. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  10. Solar desalination with latent heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Assouad, Y.; Lavan, Z.

    1988-02-01

    Unlike conventional solar stills, the present system utilizes the latent heat of condensation and the sensible heat of the discarded seawater. The performance was optimized analytically and the system is presently under construction in Egypt. The system consists of a humidifier, a solar still or channel, a condenser, and a pond. In the humidifier, ambient air is humidified and heated by a warm brine from the pond. If the brine outlet temperature is higher than the ambient temperature, it goes back to the pond, if not, it is discarded. The solar still is a long glass-covered channel, about 200 meters long.

  11. The role of chemical additives to the phase change process of CaCl2.6H2O to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; U, S. Rahayu A.; Kurniati, Nia; Pallitine, Ivyalentine D.; Kurnia, D.

    2016-08-01

    CaCl2.6H2O is one of salt hydrate based phase change material (PCM) which is suitable for room air-temperature stabilizer because it has the melting temperature just above the human comfort zone temperature (Tm ∼⃒ 29 oC) and a relatively large heat entalphy (AH ∼⃒ 190 kJ/kg). This paper reports the role of the type of chemical additives to PCM CaCl2.6H2O to the phase change process throughout the solidification process or heat release in order to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system. In this research we used several kinds of chemical additive, namely SrCl2.6H2O (1.0 wt%), BaCO3 (0.5 wt%), and K2CO3 (0.5 wt%). In terms of its latent time for phase change process the order the effectiveness of those chemical additives are reduced from SrCl2.6H2O, BaCO3and K2CO3. We found that this is also related to their role in suppression supercooling and phase separation effects which occurs during crystallization process of CaCl2.6H2O.

  12. Determination of the Latent Heats and Triple Point of Perfluorocyclobutane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, A. G.; Strachan, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Proposes the use of Perfluorocyclobutane in physical chemistry courses to conduct experiments on latent heat, triple point temperatures and pressures, boiling points, and entropy of vaporization. (SL)

  13. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  14. Retrieval of Latent Heating from TRMM Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R. F.; Hou, A. Y.; Meneghini, R.; Simpson, J.; Haddad, Z. S.; Iguchi, T.; Satoh, S.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kummerow, C. D.; Lang, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Okamoto, K.; Shige, S.; Olson, W. S.; Takayabu, Y.; Tripoli, G. J.; Yang, S.

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation, in driving the global hydrological cycle, strongly influences the behavior of the Earth's weather and climate systems and is central to their variability. Two-thirds of the global rainfall occurs over the Tropics, which leads to its profound effect on the general circulation of the atmosphere. This is because its energetic equivalent, latent heating (LH), is the tropical convective heat engine's primary fuel source as originally emphasized by Riehl and Malkus (1958). At low latitudes, LH stemming from extended bands of rainfall modulates large-scale zonal and meridional circulations and their consequent mass overturnings (e.g., Hartmann et al. 1984; Hack and Schubert 1990). Also, LH is the principal energy source in the creation, growth, vertical structure, and propagation of long-lived tropical waves (e.g., Puri 1987; Lau and Chan 1988). Moreover, the distinct vertical distribution properties of convective and stratiform LH profiles help influence climatic outcomes via their tight control on large-scale circulations (Lau and Peng 1987; Nakazawa 1988; Sui and Lau 1988; Emanuel et al. 1994; Yanai et al. 2000; Sumi and Nakazawa 2002; Schumacher et al. 2004). The purpose of this paper is to describe how LH profiles are being derived from satellite precipitation rate retrievals, focusing on those being made with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements.

  15. Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes Over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayabu, Yukari N.; Shige, Shoichi; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Hirota, Nagio

    2010-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. Three-dimensional distributions of latent heating estimated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR)utilizing the Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm are analyzed. Mass-weighted and vertically integrated latent heating averaged over the tropical oceans is estimated as approx.72.6 J/s (approx.2.51 mm/day), and that over tropical land is approx.73.7 J/s (approx.2.55 mm/day), for 30degN-30degS. It is shown that non-drizzle precipitation over tropical and subtropical oceans consists of two dominant modes of rainfall systems, deep systems and congestus. A rough estimate of shallow mode contribution against the total heating is about 46.7 % for the average tropical oceans, which is substantially larger than 23.7 % over tropical land. While cumulus congestus heating linearly correlates with the SST, deep mode is dynamically bounded by large-scale subsidence. It is notable that substantial amount of rain, as large as 2.38 mm day-1 in average, is brought from congestus clouds under the large-scale subsiding circulation. It is also notable that even in the region with SST warmer than 28 oC, large-scale subsidence effectively suppresses the deep convection, remaining the heating by congestus clouds. Our results support that the entrainment of mid-to-lower-tropospheric dry air, which accompanies the large

  16. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  17. Heat Storage Characteristics of Latent-Heat Microcapsule Slurry Using Hot Air Bubbles by Direct-Contact Heat Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Tsukamoto, Hirofumi

    This study deals with the heat storage characteristics of latent-heat microcapsule slurry consisting of a mixture of fine microcapsules packed with latent-heat storage material and water. The heat storage operation for the latent-heat microcapsules was carried out by the direct-contact heat exchange method using hot air bubbles. The latent-heat microcapsule consisted of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relationship between the completion time of latent-heat storage and some parameters was examined experimentally. The nondimensional correlation equations for temperature efficiency, the completion time period of the latent-heat storage process and variation in the enthalpy of air through the microcapsule slurry layer were derived in terms of the ratio of microcapsule slurry layer height to microcapsule diameter, Reynolds number for airflow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air.

  18. Latent heat thermal energy storage for lunar oxygen production

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.D.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.; Naney, M.; Olszewski, M.

    1992-08-01

    A necessary component of a solar-based lunar oxygen production system is a thermal energy storage module. We discuss some of the heat transfer and phase change problems associated with the design and operation of such a module based on the latent heat of melting of lunar rock. 12 refs.

  19. Latent heat thermal energy storage for lunar oxygen production

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.D. , Omer ); Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.; Naney, M.; Olszewski, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A necessary component of a solar-based lunar oxygen production system is a thermal energy storage module. We discuss some of the heat transfer and phase change problems associated with the design and operation of such a module based on the latent heat of melting of lunar rock. 12 refs.

  20. Variability of the latent heat flux in the Amazon over ten years of use and occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, D. N.; Ballester, M. V.; Andrade, R. G.; Victoria, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    An alternative to determine the latent heat flux, which is the amount of energy available for evapotranspiration, is the use of data obtained by remote sensing. Among the models that use these data, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land - SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) has been increasing and has become widely used because it determines the evapotranspiration from the bullet full of radiation and energy on the surface land, using remote sensing data and a few additional data collected by surface weather station, as wind speed and temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the latent heat flux according to the change of use and land cover. Thus, the algorithm was used to determine the SEBAL latent heat flux rate defined as the latent heat transferred from the surface due to the evaporation process or obtained by simple evaporation difference between the radiation balance, the heat flow in the soil and latent heat flux: (λET=RN-G-H). Where the value of the latent heat instantaneous flow, ie., its value at the time of satellite passage. To determine the latent heat flux were used Landsat 5 TM orbit and point 231/068 the following dates: 06/08/1999, 11/08/2001, 13/07/2005 and 09/08/2009.The study area is located in the central region of the Rondonia state in the Brazilian Amazon. This region has undergone an accelerated process of land use and soil in the last 30 years, which caused significant replacement of forest areas for other classes land use practices, mainly as grazing and agriculture.The results show that the area where the latent heat flux was greater decreased over ten years in analysis due to reduction of forest areas (Figure 1).These results show the latent heat flux in Rondônia in a very dry period, which is in July and August. Due to the long drought period, the topsoil dries faster and areas that are covered by pastures and agriculture have lower evapotranspiration values due to the root system are smaller and do

  1. Scale effects in the latent heat of melting in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-H; Parlange, J-Y; Deinert, M R

    2013-07-28

    The curvature of a liquid vapor interface has long been known to change the equilibrium vapor pressure. It has also been shown that a capillary structure will affect the temperature at which both freezing and vaporization of a substance will occur. However, describing interfacial effects on the latent heat of a phase change has proven more difficult. Here, we present a classical thermodynamic model for how the latent heat of melting changes as the size of the particles undergoing the transition decreases. The scale dependence for the surface tension is taken into consideration using a Tolman length correction. The resulting model is tested by fitting to published experimental data for the latent heat of melting for benzene, heptane, naphthalene, and water contained in nano-porous glass. In all cases the model fits the data with a R(2) ≥ 0.94. PMID:23901997

  2. The Temperature Dependence of Water's Latent Heat of Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szedlak, A.; Blanchard, A. V.; Kostinski, A. B.; Cantrell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Freezing of water in Earth's atmosphere affects cloud dynamics through the release of the latent heat. The latent heat released is a function of how deeply the cloud water is supercooled before freezing begins - the deeper the supercooling, the less heat is released to the atmosphere. We present new measurements of the temperature dependent latent heat of freezing of water, measured using a Perkin Elmer DSC 7 and a Mettler Toledo Polymer DSC. Both instruments have been calibrated against melting transitions of water, dodecane, undecane,and tetradecane, and both agree within the error of the measurements with values in the literature. However, the two measurements show dramatic differences for the latent heat of freezing of water, which we attribute to the different methods used to extract a heat flux. At higher temperatures our measurements with the Perkin Elmer, which is a power compensation type calorimeter, are comparable to those of Bertolini et al. (1985). At lower temperatures, our measurements diverge from those of Bertolini et al. (1985), which we again attribute to the different principle of operation of the calorimeters. We conclude that temperature gradients within the freezing water play a critical role in the quantity of heat eventually exchanged with the surroundings. Finally, we reconcile the measurements with Kirchhoff's relation, which can be written (∂ΔH/∂T)p = Δcp where ΔH is the enthalpy difference between product and reactant (supercooled water and ice in this case) and Δcp is the difference in their heat capacities. [Bertolini, D., M. Cassettari, and G. Salvetti, Anomalies in the latent-heat of solidification of supercooled water. Chem. Phys. Lett., 119, 553-555, 1985.

  3. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experimental and theoretical studies were made of the heat transfer characteristics of a latent heat storage unit used for a natural circulation cooling /latent heat storage system. Heating and cooling curves of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change of a PCM (lauric acid) was obtained by using anatural circulation loop of R22 which consisted of an electrically heated evaporater, a water cooled condenser and the latent heat storage unit. The latent heat storage unit showed a heat transfer performance which was high enough for practical use. An approximate theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate transient behavior of the latent heat storage unit. Predictions of the refrigerant and outer surface temperatures during the melting process were in fair agreement with the experimental data, whereas that of the refrigerant temperature during the solidification process was considerably lower than the measurement.

  4. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Filled Carbon Nanotubes: Superior Latent Heat Storage Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a rstudy whose technical objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of filled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as latent heat storage enhancers, with potential applications as next generation thermal management fluids in diverse applications in industries ranging from high-demand microelectronic cooling, manufacturing, power generation, transportation, to solar energy storage.

  6. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  7. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  8. Retrieving Latent Heat Vertical Structure Using Precipitation and Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Min, Q.; Wu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The latent heat (LH) released from tropical precipitation plays a critical role in driving regional and global atmosphere circulation. However, the vertical distribution of LH is one of most difficult parameters to be measured and has a large uncertainty in both residual diagnostic products and satellite retrievals. Most of current satellite LH products use limited observational information of precipitation and cloud profiles and highly depend on cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. Our novel approach, distinguishing from existing schemes, is directly using observable precipitation and cloud profiles in combination with phase change partition parameterization of various kinds from the CRM simulations to produce the latent heating profiles. This hybrid latent heat algorithm separately deals with the condensation-evaporation heating (LHc_e), the deposition-sublimation heating (LHd_s) and the freezing-melting heating (LHf_m) for convective rain, stratiform rain, and shallow warm rain. Each component is based on physical processes, such as nucleation and auto conversion, by combining observable precipitation and cloud profiles. Although the proposed algorithm utilizes microphysical parameterizations from a specific CRM, the general LH vertical structure is primarily determined by the precipitation and cloud profiles observable from cloud and precipitation radars available at ground sites or from satellite platforms, and less sensitive to the specific CRM. The self consistency tests of this algorithm show good agreements with the CRM simulated LH at different spatial and temporal scales, even at simultaneous and pixel level. The applications of this algorithm are expected to provide new information for understanding the heating budget in the atmosphere and its impacts on the atmosphere circulations at various spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

  10. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  11. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  12. MJO Signals in Latent Heating: Results from TRMM Retrievals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chidong; Ling, Jian; Hagos, Samson M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Steve; Takayabu, Yukari N.; Shige, Shoichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Olson, William S.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2010-11-01

    Four Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets of latent heating were diagnosed for signals in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In all four datasets, vertical structures of latent heating are dominated by two components, one deep with its peak above the melting level and one shallow with its peak below. Profiles of the two components are nearly ubiquitous in longitude, allowing a separation of the vertical and zonal/temporal variations when the latitudinal dependence is not considered. All four datasets exhibit robust MJO spectral signals in the deep component as eastward propagating spectral peaks centered at period of 50 days and zonal wavenumber 1, well distinguished from lower- and higher-frequency power and much stronger than the corresponding westward power. The shallow component shows similar but slightly less robust MJO spectral peaks. MJO signals were further extracted from a combination of band-pass (30 – 90 day) filtered deep and shallow components. Largest amplitudes of both deep and shallow components of the MJO are confined to the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. There is a local minimum in the deep components over the Maritime Continent. The shallow components of the MJO differ substantially among the four TRMM datasets in their detailed zonal distributions in the eastern hemisphere. In composites of the heating evolution through the life cycle of the MJO, the shallow components lead the deep ones in some datasets and at certain longitudes. In many respects, the four TRMM datasets agree well in their deep components, but not in their shallow components and the phase relations between the deep and shallow components. These results indicate that caution must be exercised in applications of these latent heating data.

  13. Sensible and latent heating of the atmosphere as inferred from DST-6 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Schubert, S. D.; Johnson, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    The average distribution of convective latent heating, boundary layer sensible heat flux, and vertical velocity are determined for the winter 1976 DST period from GLAS model diagnostics. Key features are the regions of intense latent heating over Brazil, Central Africa, and Indonesia; and the regions of strong sensible heating due to air mass modification over the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans.

  14. A study on cooling characteristics of clathrate compound as low temperature latent heat storage material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Jin Heung; Chung, Nak Kyu

    2007-07-01

    Materials that can store low temperature latent heat are organic/inorganic chemicals, eutectic salt system and clathrate compound. Clathrate compound is the material that host compound in hydrogen bond forms cage and guest compound is included into it and combined. Crystallization of hydrate is generated at higher temperature than that of ice from pure water. And physical properties according to temperature are stable and congruent melting phenomenon is occurred without phase separation and it has relatively high latent heat. But clathrate compound still has supercooling problem occurred in the course of phase change and supercooling should be minimized because it affects efficiency of equipment very much. Therefore, various studies on additives to restrain this or heat storage methods are needed. Supercooling is the phenomenon that low temperature thermal storage material is not crystallized and existed as liquid for some time under phase change temperature. Because phase change into solid is delayed and it is existed as liquid due to this, heat transfer from low temperature thermal storage material is lowered. Therefore it is not crystallized at original phase change temperature and crystallized after cooled as much as supercooling degree and operation time of refrigerator is increased. In this study was investigated the cooling characteristics of the clathrate compound as a low temperature latent heat storage material. And additive was added to clathrate compound and its supercooling restrain effect was studied experimentally.

  15. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  16. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics Using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in straitform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMXX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM- LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  17. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  18. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Jian; Li, Min-Min; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5′-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruits a family of closely related multi-subunit complexes, including p300 and p-TEFb. And HSF1 recruits p300 for self-acetylation is also a committed step. The knockout of HSF1 impaired HIV transcription, whereas the conditional over-expression of HSF1 improved that. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 positively regulates the transcription of latent HIV, suggesting that it might be an important target for different therapeutic strategies aimed at a cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:27189267

  19. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Jian; Li, Min-Min; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5'-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruits a family of closely related multi-subunit complexes, including p300 and p-TEFb. And HSF1 recruits p300 for self-acetylation is also a committed step. The knockout of HSF1 impaired HIV transcription, whereas the conditional over-expression of HSF1 improved that. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 positively regulates the transcription of latent HIV, suggesting that it might be an important target for different therapeutic strategies aimed at a cure for HIV/AIDS.

  20. TRMM observations of latent heat distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region and associated dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, Kandula V.; Kishore Kumar, Karanam

    2016-05-01

    The latent heat released/absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere due to phase change of water molecule plays a vital role in various atmospheric processes. It is now well established that the latent heat released in the clouds is the secondary source of energy for driving the atmosphere, the Sun being the primary. In this context, studies on latent heat released in the atmosphere become important to understand the some of the physical processes taking place in the atmosphere. One of the important implications of latent heat release is its role in driving the circulations on various temporal and spatial scales. Realizing the importance of latent heat released in the clouds, a comprehensive study is carried out to understand its role in driving the mesoscale circulation. As Indian summer monsoon (ISM) serves as natural laboratory for studying the clouds and their microphysics, an attempt is made to explore the latent heat distribution over this region using 13 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations. The observed profiles of latent heating over ISM region showed large spatial and temporal variability in the magnitude thus reflecting the presence of organization of convection on mesoscale. The latent profiles in convective and stratiform regions are segregated to study the differences in their interaction with large-scale environment. Various re-analysis dataset were used to examine the role of latent heating distribution on the mesoscale circulation. The significance of the present study lies in establishing the vertical distribution of latent heating and their impact on the background circulation.

  1. Latent heat storage technology and application workshop. Summary report: Session 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. F.

    Latent heat storage technology and application were studied. The economics of short term latent heat storage for application and system configuration were analyzed. Subjects discussed included: state of the art, solar energy stores, residential heating and cooling, and industrial and utility applications.

  2. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-05-31

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin [melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications.

  3. Relating Convective and Stratiform Rain to Latent Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

    2010-01-01

    The relationship among surface rainfall, its intensity, and its associated stratiform amount is established by examining observed precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The results show that for moderate-high stratiform fractions, rain probabilities are strongly skewed toward light rain intensities. For convective-type rain, the peak probability of occurrence shifts to higher intensities but is still significantly skewed toward weaker rain rates. The main differences between the distributions for oceanic and continental rain are for heavily convective rain. The peak occurrence, as well as the tail of the distribution containing the extreme events, is shifted to higher intensities for continental rain. For rainy areas sampled at 0.58 horizontal resolution, the occurrence of conditional rain rates over 100 mm/day is significantly higher over land. Distributions of rain intensity versus stratiform fraction for simulated precipitation data obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations are quite similar to those from the satellite, providing a basis for mapping simulated cloud quantities to the satellite observations. An improved convective-stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm is developed based on two sources of information: gridded rainfall quantities (i.e., the conditional intensity and the stratiform fraction) observed from the TRMM PR and synthetic cloud process data (i.e., latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence, and radiative heating/cooling) obtained from CRM simulations of convective cloud systems. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. Major differences between the new and old algorithms include a significant increase in the amount of low- and midlevel heating, a downward emphasis in the level of maximum cloud heating by about 1 km, and a larger variance between land and ocean in

  4. Study on Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Asaoka, Tatsunori; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji

    In this study, latent heat of fusion of ice in aqueous solutions was measured to understand latent heat of fusion of ice slurries. Propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, ethanol, NaCl and NaNO3 solutions were examined as the aqueous solutions. In the measurement, pure ice was put into the solution, and the temperature variation of the solution due to the melting of the ice was measured. Then, the effective latent heat of fusion was calculated from energy balance equation. When ice melts in solution, the concentration of the solution varies due to the melting of the ice, and dilution heat must be considered. Therefore, the latent heat of fusion of ice in aqueous solutions was predicted by considering the effects of dilution and freezing-point depression. The latent heat of fusion was also measured by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) to compare the results obtained from the experiments with that obtained by DSC. As the result, it was found that the effective latent heat of fusion of ice decreased with the increase of the concentration of solution, and the effective latent heat of fusion was calculated from latent heat of fusion of pure ice and the effects of freezing-point depression and the dilution heat.

  5. Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Processes and their Relationship to Latent Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Steve; Zeng, Xiping; Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari

    2009-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. An improved convective -stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm has been developed to obtain the 3D structure of cloud heating over the Tropics based on two sources of information: 1) rainfall information, namely its amount and the fraction due to light rain intensity, observed directly from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the TRMM satellite and 2) synthetic cloud physics information obtained from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of cloud systems. The cloud simulations provide details on cloud processes, specifically latent heating, eddy heat flux convergence and radiative heating/cooling, that. are not directly observable by satellite. The new CSH algorithm-derived heating has a noticeably different heating structure over both ocean and land regions compared to the previous CSH algorithm. One of the major differences between new and old algorithms is that the level of maximum cloud heating occurs 1 to 1.5 km lower in the atmosphere in the new algorithm. This can effect the structure of the implied air currents associated with the general circulation of the atmosphere in the Tropics. The new CSH algorithm will be used provide retrieved heating data to other heating algorithms to supplement their performance.

  6. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  7. The surface latent heat flux anomalies related to major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Feng; Shen, Xuhui; Kang, Chunli; Xiong, Pan; Hong, Shunying

    2011-12-01

    SLHF (Surface Latent Heat Flux) is an atmospheric parameter, which can describe the heat released by phase changes and dependent on meteorological parameters such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed etc. There is a sharp difference between the ocean surface and the land surface. Recently, many studies related to the SLHF anomalies prior to earthquakes have been developed. It has been shown that the energy exchange enhanced between coastal surface and atmosphere prior to earthquakes can increase the rate of the water-heat exchange, which will lead to an obviously increases in SLHF. In this paper, two earthquakes in 2010 (Haiti earthquake and southwest of Sumatra in Indonesia earthquake) have been analyzed using SLHF data by STD (standard deviation) threshold method. It is shows that the SLHF anomaly may occur in interpolate earthquakes or intraplate earthquakes and coastal earthquakes or island earthquakes. And the SLHF anomalies usually appear 5-6 days prior to an earthquake, then disappear quickly after the event. The process of anomaly evolution to a certain extent reflects a dynamic energy change process about earthquake preparation, that is, weak-strong-weak-disappeared.

  8. Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release Using TRMM Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Olson, W. S.; Meneghini, R.; Yang, S.; Simpson, J.; Kummerow, C.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to use TRMM rainfall information to estimate the four dimensional latent heating structure over the global tropics for February 1998. The mean latent heating profiles over six oceanic regions (TOGA COARE IFA, Central Pacific, S. Pacific Convergence Zone, East Pacific, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and three continental regions (S. America, Central Africa and Australia) are estimated and studied. The heating profiles obtained from the results of diagnostic budget studies over a broad range of geographic locations are used to provide comparisons and indirect validation for the heating algorithm estimated heating profiles. Three different latent heating algorithms, the Goddard Convective-Stratiform (CSH) heating, the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) heating, and the Hydrometeor heating (HH) are used and their results are intercompared. The horizontal distribution or patterns of latent heat release from the three different heating retrieval methods are quite similar. They all can identify the areas of major convective activity (i.e., a well defined ITCZ in the Pacific, a distinct SPCZ) in the global tropics. The magnitude of their estimated latent heating release is also not in bad agreement with each other and with those determined from diagnostic budget studies. However, the major difference among these three heating retrieval algorithms is the altitude of the maximum heating level. The CSH algorithm estimated heating profiles only show one maximum heating level, and the level varies between convective activity from various geographic locations. These features are in good agreement with diagnostic budget studies. By contrast, two maximum heating levels were found using the GPROF heating and HH algorithms. The latent heating profiles estimated from all three methods can not show cooling between active convective events. We also examined the impact of different TMI (Multi-channel Passive Microwave Sensor) and PR (Precipitation Radar

  9. The microphysical contributions to and evolution of latent heating profiles in two MC3E MCSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, P. J.; Heever, S. C.; Saleeby, S. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The shapes and magnitudes of latent heating profiles have been shown to be different within the convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Properly representing these distinctions has significant implications for the atmospheric responses to latent heating on various scales. This study details (1) the microphysical process contributions to latent heating profiles within MCS convective, stratiform, and anvil regions and (2) the time evolution of these profiles throughout the MCS lifetime, using cloud-resolving model simulations. Simulations of two MCS events that occurred during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) are conducted. Several features of the simulated MCSs are compared to a suite of observations obtained during the MC3E field campaign, and it is concluded that the simulations reasonably reproduce the MCS events. The simulations show that condensation and deposition are the primary contributors to MCS latent warming, as compared to riming and nucleation processes. In terms of MCS latent cooling, sublimation, melting, and evaporation all play significant roles. It is evident that throughout the MCS lifecycle, convective regions demonstrate an approximately linear decrease in the magnitudes of latent heating rates, while latent heating within stratiform regions is associated with transitions between MCS flow regimes. Such information regarding the temporal evolution of latent heating within convective and stratiform MCS regions could be useful in developing parameterizations representing convective organization.

  10. Model of direct contact heat transfer for latent heat energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, M. E.

    1980-05-01

    Direct contact heat transfer is an attractive method to reduce the cost of heat exchange for latent heat thermal energy storage systems. However, current performance information is insufficient to allow an accurate appraisal of its economic and technical feasibility. In a direct contact heat transfer system, an immiscible fluid is bubbled through the storage media and heat is transferred between the phases as the droplets rise. An analytical model is presented for predicting the temperature of the rising droplets from information in the literature. The drop size is calculated from empirical correlations in the jetting formation region and rise velocity is characterized by a creeping-flow surface cell model which accounts for the hindering effects of neighboring droplets. The viscosity of the crystallizing solution in the rise velocity equation is approximated by an expression for concentrated suspensions, where the percentage of solids is taken as the percentage of crystallization. Dispersed phase holdup is predicted with the rise velocity. Calculation of the rate of heat transfer to the dispersed immiscible fluid droplets is based on three different internal hydrodynamic approximations: rigid, internally circulating, and wall-mixed spheres. The predictions of the circulating drop case agree reasonably well in the latent heat region with previous data on a similar system. However, because the model is also sensitive to the estimates used for drop size, continuous phase viscosity, and interfacial tension, the heat transfer mechanism cannot be conclusively identified, and experimental research is required to establish the validity of the model.

  11. Sensitivity of Latent Heating Profiles to Environmental Conditions: Implications for TRMM and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) as a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall through microwave and visible sensors, and includes the first spaceborne rain radar. Tropical rainfall comprises two-thirds of global rainfall. It is also the primary distributor of heat through the atmosphere's circulation. It is this circulation that defines Earth's weather and climate. Understanding rainfall and its variability is crucial to understanding and predicting global climate change. Weather and climate models need an accurate assessment of the latent heating released as tropical rainfall occurs. Currently, cloud model-based algorithms are used to derive latent heating based on rainfall structure. Ultimately, these algorithms can be applied to actual data from TRMM. This study investigates key underlying assumptions used in developing the latent heating algorithms. For example, the standard algorithm is highly dependent on a system's rainfall amount and structure. It also depends on an a priori database of model-derived latent heating profiles based on the aforementioned rainfall characteristics. Unanswered questions remain concerning the sensitivity of latent heating profiles to environmental conditions (both thermodynamic and kinematic), regionality, and seasonality. This study investigates and quantifies such sensitivities and seeks to determine the optimal latent heating profile database based on the results. Ultimately, the study seeks to produce an optimized latent heating algorithm based not only on rainfall structure but also hydrometeor profiles.

  12. Preparation of fine powdered composite for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fořt, Jan; Pomaleski, Marina; Trník, Anton; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Application of latent heat storage building envelope systems using phase-change materials represents an attractive method of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high-energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. This study deals with a preparation of a new type of powdered phase change composite material for thermal energy storage. The idea of a composite is based upon the impregnation of a natural silicate material by a reasonably priced commercially produced pure phase change material and forming the homogenous composite powdered structure. For the preparation of the composite, vacuum impregnation method is used. The particle size distribution accessed by the laser diffraction apparatus proves that incorporation of the organic phase change material into the structure of inorganic siliceous pozzolana does not lead to the clustering of the particles. The compatibility of the prepared composite is characterized by the Fourier transformation infrared analysis (FTIR). Performed DSC analysis shows potential of the developed composite for thermal energy storage that can be easily incorporated into the cement-based matrix of building materials. Based on the obtained results, application of the developed phase change composite can be considered with a great promise.

  13. Wallboard with latent heat storage for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.

    1991-05-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM, as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. 11 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Development of composite latent/sensible heat storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, R.; Ong, E. T.; Kardas, A.

    1990-12-01

    Results of an on-going program to develop a composite latent-sensible thermal energy storage medium, trade marked CompPhase, are presented. The target application area was periodic kiln energy recovery. The concept is that of a composite salt/ceramic material processed such that the medium maintains its shape and mechanical integrity through the salt melting temperature. As such, the media can be fabricated into a variety of shapes suitable for packed beds, fluidized beds, or direct contact heat exchangers. The properties of ten carbonate salt or eutectic mixtures of carbonate salts were reviewed to select the most appropriate candidates for development. Three salts and two ceramic materials were evaluated in laboratory tests to select the final material, a composite of sodium-barium eutectic/magnesium oxide, for development. Two methods of processing the constituent powders for fabrication into storage pellets were developed, and one method was applied to pellet fabrication by commercial processing equipment. Two different preliminary cost estimates bracketed the expected cost of commercially fabricating storage pellets. Also, two modifications to the material processing method were suggested to reduce costs. Thermal cycling was conducted on laboratory produced experimental pellets and on prototype pellets fabricated by commercial processes. Detailed laboratory tests to determine composite mechanical and thermal properties were conducted. It is concluded that further laboratory, field, and economic studies are required before the concept of composite storage media can be considered fully developed for commercialization.

  15. The role of latent heat in kinetic energy conversions of South Pacific cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Deirdre M.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1986-01-01

    The four-dimensional behavior of cyclone systems in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is analyzed. Three cyclone systems, which occurred during the period from January 10-16, 1979, are examined using the data collected during the first special observing period of the FGGE. The effects of latent heating on the life cycles of the cyclones are investigated. Particular attention is given to the conversions of eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy and of mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy. The net radiation profile, sensible heat flux, total field of vertical motion, and latent heat component were computed. The life cycles of the cyclones are described. It is observed that the latent heating component accounts for nearly all the conversion in the three cyclones, and latent heating within the SPCZ is the major source of eddy kinetic energy for the cyclones.

  16. Evaluation and Application of Satellite-Based Latent Heating Profile Estimation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Grecu, Mircea; Yang, Song; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, methods for estimating atmospheric latent heating vertical structure from both passive and active microwave remote sensing have matured to the point where quantitative evaluation of these methods is the next logical step. Two approaches for heating algorithm evaluation are proposed: First, application of heating algorithms to synthetic data, based upon cloud-resolving model simulations, can be used to test the internal consistency of heating estimates in the absence of systematic errors in physical assumptions. Second, comparisons of satellite-retrieved vertical heating structures to independent ground-based estimates, such as rawinsonde-derived analyses of heating, provide an additional test. The two approaches are complementary, since systematic errors in heating indicated by the second approach may be confirmed by the first. A passive microwave and combined passive/active microwave heating retrieval algorithm are evaluated using the described approaches. In general, the passive microwave algorithm heating profile estimates are subject to biases due to the limited vertical heating structure information contained in the passive microwave observations. These biases may be partly overcome by including more environment-specific a priori information into the algorithm s database of candidate solution profiles. The combined passive/active microwave algorithm utilizes the much higher-resolution vertical structure information provided by spaceborne radar data to produce less biased estimates; however, the global spatio-temporal sampling by spaceborne radar is limited. In the present study, the passive/active microwave algorithm is used to construct a more physically-consistent and environment-specific set of candidate solution profiles for the passive microwave algorithm and to help evaluate errors in the passive algorithm s heating estimates. Although satellite estimates of latent heating are based upon instantaneous, footprint- scale data, suppression

  17. Latent heat exchange in the boreal and arctic biomes.

    PubMed

    Kasurinen, Ville; Alfredsen, Knut; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Bernier, Pierre; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; van Huissteden, Ko; Dolman, Han; Sachs, Torsten; Ohta, Takeshi; Varlagin, Andrej; Rocha, Adrian; Arain, Altaf; Oechel, Walter; Lund, Magnus; Grelle, Achim; Lindroth, Anders; Black, Andy; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea; Berninger, Frank

    2014-11-01

    In this study latent heat flux (λE) measurements made at 65 boreal and arctic eddy-covariance (EC) sites were analyses by using the Penman-Monteith equation. Sites were stratified into nine different ecosystem types: harvested and burnt forest areas, pine forests, spruce or fir forests, Douglas-fir forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, larch forests, wetlands, tundra and natural grasslands. The Penman-Monteith equation was calibrated with variable surface resistances against half-hourly eddy-covariance data and clear differences between ecosystem types were observed. Based on the modeled behavior of surface and aerodynamic resistances, surface resistance tightly control λE in most mature forests, while it had less importance in ecosystems having shorter vegetation like young or recently harvested forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra. The parameters of the Penman-Monteith equation were clearly different for winter and summer conditions, indicating that phenological effects on surface resistance are important. We also compared the simulated λE of different ecosystem types under meteorological conditions at one site. Values of λE varied between 15% and 38% of the net radiation in the simulations with mean ecosystem parameters. In general, the simulations suggest that λE is higher from forested ecosystems than from grasslands, wetlands or tundra-type ecosystems. Forests showed usually a tighter stomatal control of λE as indicated by a pronounced sensitivity of surface resistance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Nevertheless, the surface resistance of forests was lower than for open vegetation types including wetlands. Tundra and wetlands had higher surface resistances, which were less sensitive to vapor pressure deficits. The results indicate that the variation in surface resistance within and between different vegetation types might play a significant role in energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. These results suggest the need

  18. A model for the latent heat of melting in free standing metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeong-Heon; Deinert, Mark R.

    2014-04-28

    Nanoparticles of many metals are known to exhibit scale dependent latent heats of melting. Analytical models for this phenomenon have so far failed to completely capture the observed phenomena. Here we present a thermodynamic analysis for the melting of metal nanoparticles in terms of their internal energy and a scale dependent surface tension proposed by Tolman. The resulting model predicts the scale dependence of the latent heat of melting and is confirmed using published data for tin and aluminum.

  19. Environmental Forcing of Super Typhoon Paka's (1997) Latent Heat Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Olson, William; Halverson, Jeff; Simpson, Joanne; Pierce, Harold

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and intensity of total (i.e., combined stratified and convective processes) rainrate/latent heat release (LHR) were derived for tropical cyclone Paka during the period 9-21 December, 1997 from the F-10, F-11, F-13, and F-14 Defense Meteorological Satellite Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission Microwave Imager observations. These observations were frequent enough to capture three episodes of inner core convective bursts that preceded periods of rapid intensification and a convective rainband (CRB) cycle. During these periods of convective bursts, satellite sensors revealed that the rainrates/LHR: 1) increased within the inner eye wall region; 2) were mainly convectively generated (nearly a 65% contribution), 3) propagated inwards; 4) extended upwards within the middle and upper-troposphere, and 5) became electrically charged. These factors may have caused the eye wall region to become more buoyant within the middle and upper-troposphere, creating greater cyclonic angular momentum, and, thereby, warming the center and intensifying the system. Radiosonde measurements from Kwajalein Atoll and Guam, sea surface temperature observations, and the European Center for Medium Range Forecast analyses were used to examine the necessary and sufficient condition for initiating and maintaining these inner core convective bursts. For example, the necessary conditions such as the atmospheric thermodynamics (i.e., cold tropopause temperatures, moist troposphere, and warm SSTs [greater than 26 deg]) suggested that the atmosphere was ideal for Paka's maximum potential intensity (MPI) to approach super-typhoon strength. Further, Paka encountered weak vertical wind shear (less than 15 m/s ) before interacting with the westerlies on 21 December. The sufficient conditions, on the other hand, appeared to have some influence on Paka's convective burst, but the horizontal moisture flux convergence values in the outer core were weaker than

  20. Latent Heat and Sensible Heat Fluxes Simulation in Maize Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, B.

    2015-12-01

    Latent Heat (LE) and Sensible Heat (H) flux are two major components of the energy balance at the earth's surface which play important roles in the water cycle and global warming. There are various methods for their estimation or measurement. Eddy covariance is a direct and accurate technique for their measurement. Some limitations lead to prevention of the extensive use of the eddy covariance technique. Therefore, simulation approaches can be utilized for their estimation. ANNs are the information processing systems, which can inspect the empirical data and investigate the relations (hidden rules) among them, and then make the network structure. In this study, multi-layer perceptron neural network trained by the steepest descent Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm was tested to simulate LE and H flux above two maize sites (rain-fed & irrigated) near Mead, Nebraska. Network training and testing was fulfilled using hourly data of including year, local time of day (DTime), leaf area index (LAI), soil water content (SWC) in 10 and 25 cm depths, soil temperature (Ts) in 10 cm depth, air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), wind speed (WS), irrigation and precipitation (P), net radiation (Rn), and the fraction of incoming Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (fPAR), which were selected from days of year (DOY) 169 to 222 for 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009. The results showed high correlation between actual and estimated data; the R² values for LE flux in irrigated and rain-fed sites were 0.9576, and 0.9642; and for H flux 0.8001, and 0.8478, respectively. Furthermore, the RMSE values ranged from 0.0580 to 0.0721 W/m² for LE flux and from 0.0824 to 0.0863 W/m² for H flux. In addition, the sensitivity of the fluxes with respect to each input was analyzed over the growth stages. Thus, the most powerful effects among the inputs for LE flux were identified net radiation, leaf area index, vapor pressure deficit, wind speed, and for H

  1. Evolution of Latent Heating Profiles in Two MC3E MCSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleeby, S. M.; Marinescu, P. J.; van den Heever, S. C.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can be separated into convective and stratiform regions, with each region being associated with characteristic microphysical processes. As such, latent heating that occurs within convective and stratiform regions also has distinct vertical profiles. The latent heating in MCSs plays an important role in the (1) redistribution of energy and moisture from near the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere, (2) generation of buoyancy forcing for updrafts and downdrafts, and (3) creation of pressure waves that can propagate away from the MCS and alter the surrounding environment. During the various stages of an MCS's lifecycle, the latent heating vertical profiles within the convective and stratiform regions can change. To provide details on these dynamic latent heating profiles, results from two MCS simulations will be presented. Three-dimensional, cloud-resolving model simulations are performed using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to represent two MCS events from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E), which occurred in Spring 2011 in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. Comparisons of simulations against observations demonstrate that both simulations capture many features of the observed MC3E MCS events very well, such as precipitation, cold pool strength, and MCS cloud structure. Precipitation regions within these simulations are broken up into convective and stratiform regions using a convective-stratiform separation algorithm. Region-specific latent heating vertical profiles are assessed both as averages over the simulation and as a function of time. In the middle and upper troposphere, convective region warming from latent heating decreases in magnitude throughout the MCS lifecycle, while stratiform warming increases in magnitude in a more confined region between 4 and 8 kilometers above the surface. In the lower troposphere, cooling from latent heating is dominant in both

  2. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content.

  3. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  4. Fundamental Properties of TBAF Clathrate for Usage as a Latent Heat Storage at a Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizushima, Takanari; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takao, Shingo; Yabe, Akira

    For promotion of further energy conservation, development of a coolant with a higher heat capacity regulated around a room temperature is strongly required. As a candidate of such a new coolant, we employ the clathrate hydrate, i.e., a mixture of Tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride (TBAF) and water. This clathrate hydrate is composed of the micro crystals with an order of 100 μm in dimension. It retains fluidity and melting point at a room temperature of about 25 °C. Moreover, the melting point is able to be controlled between 25 °C and 0 °C by changing the concentration of TBAF. The temperature can be regulated by its latent heat at the melting point. Characteristics such as the latent heat and the crystal structure of the clathrate have been experimentally obtained to confirm the feasibility for its usage as the latent heat storage around a room temperature.

  5. A numerical study of the performance of latent heat storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, A. D.

    1985-12-01

    The structure and theoretical foundation of a simulation code for heat transfer and storage in an idealized storage module which forms part of a Brayton cycle solar power system are described. The underlying physical system is shown, and the advantages, drawbacks, and possible pitfalls of latent heat thermal energy storage are discussed. Some possible designs of a latent heat thermal energy storage module are examined. Preliminary results obtained by using analytical approximations which are crucial to 'homing in' on potential system configurations are reported and examined using the simulation code.

  6. Correlation between the latent heats and cohesive energies of metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Neal, Colleen M.; Cao, Baopeng; Jarrold, Martin F.; Aguado, Andrés; López, José M.

    2008-10-01

    Dissociation energies have been determined for Aln+ clusters (n=25-83) using a new experimental approach that takes into account the latent heat of melting. According to the arguments presented here, the cohesive energies of the solidlike clusters are made up of contributions from the dissociation energies of the liquidlike clusters and the latent heats for melting. The size-dependent variations in the measured dissociation energies of the liquidlike clusters are small and the variations in the cohesive energies of solidlike clusters result almost entirely from variations in the latent heats for melting. To compare with the measured cohesive energies, density-functional theory has been used to search for the global minimum energy structures. Four groups of low energy structures were found: Distorted decahedral fragments, fcc fragments, fcc fragments with stacking faults, and "disordered." For most cluster sizes, the measured and calculated cohesive energies are strongly correlated. The calculations show that the variations in the cohesive energies (and the latent heats) result from a combination of geometric and electronic shell effects. For some clusters an electronic shell closing is responsible for the enhanced cohesive energy and latent heat (e.g., n =37), while for others (e.g., n =44) a structural shell closing is the cause.

  7. Numerical study of finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2014-11-01

    In the present study the thermal characteristics of a finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system are investigated numerically. A transient two dimensional finite volume based model employing enthalpy-porosity technique is implemented to analyze the performance of a thermal energy storage unit with square container and high melting temperature phase change material. The effects of heat pipe spacing, fin length and numbers as well as the influence of natural convection on the thermal response of the thermal energy storage unit have been studied. The obtained results reveal that the natural convection has considerable effect on the melting process of the phase change material. Increasing the number of heat pipes leads to the increase of melting rate and the decrease of base wall temperature. Also, the increase of fin length results in the decrease of temperature difference within the phase change material in the container, providing more uniform temperature distribution. Furthermore, it is showed that the number of fins does not affect the performance of the system considerably.

  8. Experimental investigation of the latent heat of vaporization in aqueous nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soochan; Phelan, Patrick E. Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Gunawan, Andrey; Taylor, Robert A.

    2014-04-14

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the latent heat of vaporization (h{sub fg}) in nanofluids. Two different types of nanoparticles, graphite and silver, suspended in deionized water were exposed to a continuous laser beam (130 mW, 532 nm) to generate boiling. The latent heat of vaporization in the nanofluids was determined by the measured vapor mass generation and the heat input. To ensure that the measured h{sub fg} values are independent of heating method, the experiments were repeated with an electrically heated hot wire as a primary heat input. These experiments show considerable variation in the h{sub fg} of nanofluids. That is, graphite nanofluid exhibits an increased h{sub fg} and silver nanofluid shows a decrease in h{sub fg} compared to the value for pure water. As such, these results indicate that relatively low mass fractions of nanoparticles can apparently create large changes in h{sub fg}.

  9. Investigation of a eutectic mixture of sodium acetate trihydrate and urea as latent heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jing-Hua Li; Gui-En Zhang; Jin-Yun Wang )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the pseudobinary system CH{sub 3}COONa {times} 3H{sub 2}O{bond}CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Its eutectic mixture is found to melt congruently at 30C, its heat of fusion is 200.5 J/g, considering the temperature of phase change and its heat storage capacity. This eutectic mixture is an excellent material for latent heat storage of solar energy.

  10. Melting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Latent Heat Microcapsule-Water Mixed Slurry Flowing in a Pipe with Constant Wall Heat Flux (Experimental Study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Horibe, Akihiko

    The present experiments have been performed for obtaining the melting heat transfer characteristics of micro-encapsulated solid-liquid phase change material and water mixed slurry flow in a circular tube heated with constant wall heat flux. The phase change material having a low melting point was selected for a domestic cooling system in the present study. The governing parameters were found to be latent heat material concentration,heat,flux,and the slurry velocity. The experimental results revealed that the mean heat transfer coefficient of latent microcapsule slurry was about l.3~l.8 times greater than that of the single phase of water. Moreover the effectiveness of heat transfer coefficient to friction factor had a maximum at latent heat material concentration of 25%.

  11. Evaluating Precipitation, Latent Heat Release and Potential Vorticity in Extratropical Cyclones in a High Resolution Climate Model using Reanalysis and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Shaffrey, L.; Dacre, H.; Forbes, R.; Stein, T. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models must be capable of adequately simulating the processes that drive extratropical cyclones if they are to realistically represent their evolution and propagation. One such process which models need to capture is the magnitude and location of latent heat release within cyclones. Precipitation is closely related to column integrated latent heating, but both the magnitude and the (horizontal and vertical) location of the latent heat release in the context of the relative vorticity structure in a cyclone is important as the potential vorticity generation is determined by both of these factors. Here, an evaluation of precipitation and latent heat release in a climate model (HiGEM) is presented. The model is evaluated against a range of remote sensing data and global reanalyses (ERA-Interim) using an innovative storm compositing technique. Many studies compare models to reanalysis, but at the scale of individual weather systems, the latent heat release in global reanalyses may not be strongly constrained by the observations. Remote sensing data that measures processes associated with latent heat release is therefore employed to extend this work. Forward modelled radiances from the model and reanalysis are created using an offline simulator (COSP: CFMIP Offline Simulator Package) to provide fields that can be directly compared to remote sensing data from ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) and CloudSat, in addition to direct comparison of the model and reanalysis data to the GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project) dataset. The potential vorticity structure and evolution of composite extratropical cyclones is then compared in HiGEM and ERA-Interim, with starkly divergent results, which are related to differences in latent heating.

  12. Basic Research on a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage by Direct Contact Melting and Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akihiro; Saito, Akio; Utaka, Yoshio; Okuda, Kenichi; Katayama, Kozo

    A basic experimental research on a latent heat thermal energy storage system, utilizing a simple and effective heat exchange mechanism by a direct contact between the phase change material (PCM) and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) , was shown. In this report, authors proposed the direct contact latent heat thermal energy storage system using industrial paraffin and n-Eicosane as the PCM, and using water as the HTF. The observations were performed concerning the HTF separation from the solid PCM in the solidification process (heat discharging process), and concerning the water pass formation within the solid PCM. Then, it was confirmed that the system worked effectively by using n-Eicosane as the PCM. And authors discussed the mechanism of direct contact solidification process from experimental results.

  13. Basic Research on a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage by Direct Contact Melting and Soldification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akihiro; Saito, Akio; Utaka, Yoshio; Okuda, Kenichi; Katayama, Kozo

    A basic experimental research on a latent heat thermal energy storage system , utilizing a simple and effective heat exchange mechanism by a direct contact between the phase change material (PCM) and the heat transfer fluid (HTF), was shown. Discharging experiments on direct contact latent heat thermal energy reservoir using n-Eicosane as the PCM and water as the HTF, were performed, based on the conditions obtained in previous report. Then, operating conditions for suitable discharging process were searched from the experimental results (outlet water temperature response and local temperature response in the reservoir). Moreover, solidification mechanisms of PCM, which had been presumed in previous report, were confirmed from these experimental results, and the simple physical model on direct contact heat exchange in the reservoir was proposed. Then, the outlet water temperature response by this model was compared with the experimental results.

  14. Simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmon, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The relative value of thermal energy storage (TES) for heat pump storage (heating and cooling) as a function of storage temperature, mode of storage (hotside or coldside), geographic locations, and utility time of use rate structures were derived. Computer models used to simulate the performance of a number of TES/heat pump configurations are described. The models are based on existing performance data of heat pump components, available building thermal load computational procedures, and generalized TES subsystem design. Life cycle costs computed for each site, configuration, and rate structure are discussed.

  15. The Estimation of Surface Latent Heat Flux over the Ocean and its Relationship to Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Vandemark, Doug; Evans, Keith; Miller, David O.; Demoz, Belay B.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new technique combining active and passive remote sensing instruments for the estimation of surface latent heat flux over the ocean is presented. This synergistic method utilizes aerosol lidar backscatter data, multi-channel infrared radiometer data, and microwave scatterometer data acquired onboard the NASA P-313 research aircraft during an extended field campaign over the Atlantic ocean in support of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) in September of 1994. The 10 meter wind speed derived from scatterometers and lidar-radiometer inferred near-surface moisture are used to obtain an estimate of the surface flux of moisture via a bulk aerodynamic formula. The results are compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) daily average latent heat flux and show reasonable agreement. However, the SSM/I values are biased low by about 15 W/sq m. In addition, the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) height, entrainment zone thickness and integrated lidar backscatter intensity are computed from the lidar data and compared with the magnitude of the surface fluxes. The results show that the surface latent heat flux is most strongly correlated with entrainment zone depth, MABL height and the integrated MABL lidar backscatter, with corresponding correlation coefficients of 0.39, 0.43 and 0.71, respectively.

  16. The Estimation of Surface Latent Heat Flux Over the Ocean and its Relationship to Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary

    2000-01-01

    A new technique combining active and passive remote sensing instruments for the estimation of surface latent heat flux over the ocean is presented. This synergistic method uses aerosol lidar backscatter data, multi-channel infrared radiometer data and microwave scatterometer data acquired onboard the NASA P-3B research aircraft during an extended field campaign over the Atlantic ocean in support of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) in September of 1994. The 10 meter wind speed derived from the scatterometers and the lidar-radiometer inferred near-surface moisture are used to obtain an estimate of the surface flux of moisture via bulk aerodynamic formulae. The results are compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) daily average latent heat flux and show reasonable agreement with an rms error and bias of about 50 and 25 W per square meters, respectively. In addition, the MABL height, entrainment zone thickness and integrated lidar backscatter intensity are computed from the lidar data and compared with the magnitude of the surface fluxes. The results show that the surface latent heat flux is most strongly correlated with entrainment zone top, bottom and the integrated MABL lidar backscatter, with corresponding correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.67 and 0.61, respectively.

  17. The Estimation Surface Latent Heat Flux Over the Ocean and its Relationship to Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Vandemark, Doug; Evans, Keith; Miller, David O.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique combining active and passive remote sensing instruments for the estimation of surface latent heat flux over the ocean is presented. This synergistic method utilizes aerosol lidar backscatter data, multi-channel infrared radiometer data and microwave scatterometer data acquired onboard the NASA P-3B research aircraft during an extended field campaign over the Atlantic ocean in support of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) in September of 1994. The 10 meter wind speed derived from the scatterometers and the lidar-radiometer inferred near-surface moisture are used to obtain an estimate of the surface flux of moisture via bulk aerodynamic formulae. The results are compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) daily average latent heat flux and show reasonable agreement. However, the SSM/I values are biased high by about 30 W/sq m. In addition, the MABL height, entrainment zone thickness and integrated lidar backscatter intensity are computed from the lidar data and compared with the magnitude of the surface fluxes. The results show that the surface latent heat flux is most strongly correlated with entrainment zone top, bottom and the integrated MABL lidar backscatter, with corresponding correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.67 and 0.61, respectively.

  18. Joseph Black, carbon dioxide, latent heat, and the beginnings of the discovery of the respiratory gases.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-06-15

    The discovery of carbon dioxide by Joseph Black (1728-1799) marked a new era of research on the respiratory gases. His initial interest was in alkalis such as limewater that were thought to be useful in the treatment of renal stone. When he studied magnesium carbonate, he found that when this was heated or exposed to acid, a gas was evolved that he called "fixed air" because it had been combined with a solid material. He showed that the new gas extinguished a flame, that it could not support life, and that it was present in gas exhaled from the lung. Within a few years of his discovery, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen were also isolated. Thus arguably Black's work started the avalanche of research on the respiratory gases carried out by Priestley, Scheele, Lavoisier, and Cavendish. Black then turned his attention to heat and he was the first person to describe latent heat, that is the heat added or lost when a liquid changes its state, for example when water changes to ice or steam. Latent heat is a key concept in thermal physiology because of the heat lost when sweat evaporates. Black was a friend of the young James Watt (1736-1819) who was responsible for the development of early steam engines. Watt was puzzled why so much cooling was necessary to condense steam into water, and Black realized that the answer was the latent heat. The resulting improvements in steam engines ushered in the Industrial Revolution.

  19. Joseph Black, carbon dioxide, latent heat, and the beginnings of the discovery of the respiratory gases.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-06-15

    The discovery of carbon dioxide by Joseph Black (1728-1799) marked a new era of research on the respiratory gases. His initial interest was in alkalis such as limewater that were thought to be useful in the treatment of renal stone. When he studied magnesium carbonate, he found that when this was heated or exposed to acid, a gas was evolved that he called "fixed air" because it had been combined with a solid material. He showed that the new gas extinguished a flame, that it could not support life, and that it was present in gas exhaled from the lung. Within a few years of his discovery, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen were also isolated. Thus arguably Black's work started the avalanche of research on the respiratory gases carried out by Priestley, Scheele, Lavoisier, and Cavendish. Black then turned his attention to heat and he was the first person to describe latent heat, that is the heat added or lost when a liquid changes its state, for example when water changes to ice or steam. Latent heat is a key concept in thermal physiology because of the heat lost when sweat evaporates. Black was a friend of the young James Watt (1736-1819) who was responsible for the development of early steam engines. Watt was puzzled why so much cooling was necessary to condense steam into water, and Black realized that the answer was the latent heat. The resulting improvements in steam engines ushered in the Industrial Revolution. PMID:24682452

  20. Daily evapotranspiration estimates by scaling instantaneous latent heat flux derived from a two-source model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radiometric brightness temperature can be used in energy balance models that estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes of the land surface. However, brightness temperature is usually available only at one time of day when acquired from aircraft, fine-scale satellite platforms, or infrared thermometer...

  1. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  2. Robust estimates of soil moisture and latent heat flux coupling strength obtained from triple collocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface models (LSMs) are often applied to predict the one-way coupling strength between surface soil moisture (SM) and surface latent heat (LH) flux. However, the ability of LSMs to accurately represent such coupling has not been adequately established. Likewise, the estimation of one-way SM/L...

  3. Microphysical Contributions to the Latent Heating Structures of Midlatitude and Tropical Storms and Feedbacks to Storm Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Saleeby, S. M.; Herbener, S.; Storer, R. L.; Seigel, R. B.; Igel, A. L.; Sheffield, A. M.; McGee, C. J.; Igel, M. R.; Grant, L. D.; Clavner, M.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Berg, W. K.

    2012-12-01

    Latent heating associated with phase changes is a fundamental cloud process, and is influenced by both the microphysical and dynamical characteristics of the cloud system. As such, the structure of latent heating tends to be a function of the vertical profile, as well as of cloud type. Furthermore, changes to the latent heating can induce significant changes to the intensity of the cloud system, which in turn can have feedbacks on the microphysical processes and precipitation production of such storms. In spite of the importance of latent heating across a broad range of cloud systems, few direct measurements of this field are made routinely on a global basis. Nearly all current large-scale retrieval schemes depend heavily on some form of cloud resolving model simulations. With the development and design of future satellite and radar systems, it is hoped that more direct measurements of latent heat may become possible. However, in the meantime, it appears that one of our most appropriate tools to examine latent heating is cloud resolving models with sophisticated cloud microphysical schemes. The goal of the research to be presented is to examine the variations in the magnitude and distribution of latent heating across a range of different storm types, the role of different microphysical processes in explaining such variations, and the feedbacks between latent heating and dynamics in the organization of such systems. In particular, these characteristics will be examined for extratropical cyclones, squall lines and deep tropical convection. The goal will be achieved by examining a suite of numerical simulations of these storm systems conducted using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Recent developments to the model code allow for the evaluation of the contributions made by each microphysical process to the latent heating throughout the model domain. Insights into the importance of different microphysical processes in explaining the vertical and

  4. A Semi-parametric Multivariate Gap-filling Model for Eddy Covariance Latent Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative descriptions of latent heat fluxes are important to study the water and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The eddy covariance approaches have been recognized as the most reliable technique for measuring surface fluxes over time scales ranging from hours to years. However, unfavorable micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, and applicable measurement limitations may cause inevitable flux gaps in time series data. Development and application of suitable gap-filling techniques are crucial to estimate long term fluxes. In this study, a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model was developed to fill latent heat flux gaps for eddy covariance measurements. Our approach combines the advantages of a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation technique (K-nearest-neighbors, KNN). The PCA method was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various hydrometeorological factors, such as radiation, soil moisture deficit, LAI, and wind speed. The KNN method was then applied as a nonlinear interpolation tool to estimate the flux gaps as the weighted sum latent heat fluxes with the K-nearest distances in the PCs’ domain. Two years, 2008 and 2009, of eddy covariance and hydrometeorological data from a subtropical mixed evergreen forest (the Lien-Hua-Chih Site) were collected to calibrate and validate the proposed approach with artificial gaps after standard QC/QA procedures. The optimal K values and weighting factors were determined by the maximum likelihood test. The results of gap-filled latent heat fluxes conclude that developed model successful preserving energy balances of daily, monthly, and yearly time scales. Annual amounts of evapotranspiration from this study forest were 747 mm and 708 mm for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Nocturnal evapotranspiration was estimated with filled gaps and results are comparable with other studies

  5. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  6. Latent Heat storage characteristics of solid-liquid phase change Heat Storage Microcapsule Slurry by Boiling Heat Transfer under a Vacuum Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Katayama, Masatoshi; Manabe, Ken

    Recently, the new heat transfer medium, which fulfills both functions of heat storage and heat transportation, has been developed in ah eat storage field. Solid-liquid latent heat microcapsule slurry would correspond to the topical medium, so-called functionally thermal fluid. The preset study has clarified the latent heat storage characteristics of microcapsule slurry by making heat transfer enlargement with the help of slurry water pool boiling phenomenon. The paraffin wax at a melting point of 62°C was used as a phase change material which was packed into the microcapsule. The heating surface temperature and concentration of paraffin in the microcapsule slurry was selected as experimental parameters. As a result, the non-dimensional correlation equations of heat storage completion time and heat transfer were derived in terms of non-dimensional parameters.

  7. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  8. Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage: Effect of Metallic Mesh Size on Storage Time and Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    Use of metallic meshes in latent heat thermal storage system shortens the charging time (total melting of the phase change material), which is favorable in practical applications. In the present study, effect of metallic mesh size on the thermal characteristics of latent heat thermal storage system is investigated. Charging time is predicted for various mesh sizes, and the influence of the amount of mesh material on the charging capacity is examined. An experiment is carried out to validate the numerical predictions. It is found that predictions of the thermal characteristics of phase change material with presence of metallic meshes agree well with the experimental data. High conductivity of the metal meshes enables to transfer heat from the edges of the thermal system towards the phase change material while forming a conduction tree in the system. Increasing number of meshes in the thermal system reduces the charging time significantly due to increased rate of conduction heat transfer in the thermal storage system; however, increasing number of meshes lowers the latent heat storage capacity of the system.

  9. Imprint of the ENSO on rainfall and latent heating variability over the Southern South China Sea from TRMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets revealed a prominent interannual variation in the convective-stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern South China Sea (SCS) during the winter monsoon between 1998 and 2010. Although the height of maximum latent heating remained nearly constant at around 7 km in all of the years, the year-to-year changes in the magnitudes of maximum latent heating over the region were noticeable. The interannual variations of the convective- stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern SCS were highly anti-correlated with the Niño-3 index, with more (less) rainfall and latent heating during La Niña (El Niño) years. Analysis of the large-scale environment revealed that years of active rainfall and latent heating corresponded to years of large deep convergence and relative humidity at 600 hPa. The moisture budget diagnosis indicated that the interannual variation of humidity at 600 hPa was largely modulated by the vertical moisture advection. The year-to-year changes in rainfall over the southern SCS were mainly caused by the interannual variations of the dynamic component associated with anomalous upward motions in the middle troposphere, while the interannual variations of the thermodynamic component associated with changes in surface specific humidity played a minor role. Larger latent heating over the southern SCS during La Niña years may possibly further enhance the local Hadley circulation over the SCS in the wintertime.

  10. Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Andraka, C. E.

    2016-06-21

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. In conclusion, two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  11. Copper-Silicon-Magnesium Alloys for Latent Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Andraka, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. Two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  12. A neural network to retrieve the mesoscale instantaneous latent heat flux over oceans from SSM/I observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourras, D.; Eymard, L.; Liu, W. T.

    2000-01-01

    The turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes are necessary to study heat budget of the upper ocean or initialize ocean general circulation models. In order to retrieve the latent heat flux from satellite observations authors mostly use a bulk approximation of the flux whose parameters are derived from different instrument. In this paper, an approach based on artificial neural networks is proposed and compared to the bulk method on a global data set and 3 local data sets.

  13. The study of latent heat transport characteristics by solid particles and saccharide solution mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of latent heat transport system by using the mixture of the minute latent heat storage materials and the saccharine solution as medium. The experimental studies are carried out by the evaluation of viscosity and pressure loss in a pipe. Polyethylene (P.E.) is selected as the dispersed minute material that has closeness density (920kg/m3) of ice (917kg/m3). D-sorbitol and D-xylose solutions are picked as continuum phase of the test mixture. The concentration of D-sorbitol solution is set 48mass% from measured results of saturation solubility and the melting point. 40mass% solution of D-xylose is selected as the other test continuum phase. The non-ion surfactant, EA157 Dai-ichiseiyaku CO. Ltd, is used in order to prevent of dispersed P.E. powder cohere. The pressure loss of test mixture is measured by the straight circular pipe that has smooth inner surface. The measuring length for pressure loss is 1000 mm, and the inner diameter of pipe is 15mm. The accuracy of experiment apparatus for measuring pressure loss is within ±5%. The pressure loss data is estimated by the relationship between the heat transport ratio and the required pump power. It is clarified that the optimum range of mixing ratio exists over 10mass% of latent heat storage material.

  14. Latent Heating Retrieval from TRMM Observations Using a Simplified Thermodynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for the retrieval of hydrometeor latent heating from TRMM active and passive observations is presented. The procedure is based on current methods for estimating multiple-species hydrometeor profiles from TRMM observations. The species include: cloud water, cloud ice, rain, and graupel (or snow). A three-dimensional wind field is prescribed based on the retrieved hydrometeor profiles, and, assuming a steady-state, the sources and sinks in the hydrometeor conservation equations are determined. Then, the momentum and thermodynamic equations, in which the heating and cooling are derived from the hydrometeor sources and sinks, are integrated one step forward in time. The hydrometeor sources and sinks are reevaluated based on the new wind field, and the momentum and thermodynamic equations are integrated one more step. The reevalution-integration process is repeated until a steady state is reached. The procedure is tested using cloud model simulations. Cloud-model derived fields are used to synthesize TRMM observations, from which hydrometeor profiles are derived. The procedure is applied to the retrieved hydrometeor profiles, and the latent heating estimates are compared to the actual latent heating produced by the cloud model. Examples of procedure's applications to real TRMM data are also provided.

  15. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part II: Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2006-05-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from spaceborne microwave radiometers are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science community. One of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) facility rain-rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). In Part I of this series, improvements of the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce latent heating as an additional algorithm product are described. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, 0.5°-resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean from the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r ˜0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over earlier algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly 2.5°-resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data is limited, TMI-estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain-rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem and/or (b) physically consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous 0.5°-resolution rain-rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons with collocated radar. Error

  16. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 2; Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from space-borne k&ents are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science commu&y. One-of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRh4M) facility rain rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations fiom the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Part I of this study describes improvements in the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce cloud latent heating and drying as additional algorithm products. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, OP5resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean fiom the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r approx. 0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over forerunning algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm, and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly, 2.5 deg. -resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data are limited, TMI estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with: (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem, and/or; (b) physically-consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous, 0.5 deg-resolution rain rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons to collocated radar

  17. Uncertainty in Tropical Ocean Latent Heat Flux Variability During the Last 25 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Lu, H.-I.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Miller, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    When averaged over the tropical oceans (30deg N/S), latent heat flux anomalies derived from passive microwave satellite measurements as well as reanalyses and climate models driven with specified seal-surface temperatures show considerable disagreement in their decadal trends. These estimates range from virtually no trend to values over 8.4 W/sq m decade. Satellite estimates also tend to have a larger interannual signal related to El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events than do reanalyses or model simulations. An analysis of wind speed and humidity going into bulk aerodynamic calculations used to derive these fluxes reveals several error sources. Among these are apparent remaining intercalibration issues affecting passive microwave satellite 10 m wind speeds and systematic biases in retrieval of near-surface humidity. Likewise, reanalyses suffer from discontinuities in availability of assimilated data that affect near surface meteorological variables. The results strongly suggest that current latent heat flux trends are overestimated.

  18. Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data: Comparison of Look-Up Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shige, Shoichi; Takayabu, Yukari N.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Johnson, Daniel E.; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is to use the information about distributions of precipitation to determine the four dimensional (i.e., temporal and spatial) patterns of latent heating over the whole tropical region. The Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm has been developed to estimate latent heating profiles for the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) with a cloud- resolving model (CRM). The method uses CRM- generated heating profile look-up tables for the three rain types; convective, shallow stratiform, and anvil rain (deep stratiform with a melting level). For convective and shallow stratiform regions, the look-up table refers to the precipitation top height (PTH). For anvil region, on the other hand, the look- up table refers to the precipitation rate at the melting level instead of PTH. For global applications, it is necessary to examine the universality of the look-up table. In this paper, we compare the look-up tables produced from the numerical simulations of cloud ensembles forced with the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Response Experiment (COARE) data and the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) data. There are some notable differences between the TOGA-COARE table and the GATE table, especially for the convective heating. First, there is larger number of deepest convective profiles in the TOGA-COARE table than in the GATE table, mainly due to the differences in SST. Second, shallow convective heating is stronger in the TOGA COARE table than in the GATE table. This might be attributable to the difference in the strength of the low-level inversions. Third, altitudes of convective heating maxima are larger in the TOGA COARE table than in the GATE table. Levels of convective heating maxima are located just below the melting level, because warm-rain processes are prevalent in tropical oceanic convective systems. Differences in levels of convective heating maxima probably reflect

  19. Experimental study on latent heat storage characteristics of W/O emulsion -Supercooling rate of dispersed water drops by direct contact heat exchange-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Inaba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to investigate the latent heat storage system. Using of ice heat storage system brings an equalization of electric power demand, because it will solved the electric -power-demand-concentration on day-time of summer by the air conditioning. The flowable latent heat storage material, Oil/Water type emulsion, microencapsulated latent heat material-water mixture or ice slurry, etc., is enable to transport the latent heat in a pipe. The flowable latent heat storage material can realize the pipe size reduction and system efficiency improvement. Supercooling phenomenon of the dispersed latent heat storage material in continuous phase brings the obstruction of latent heat storage. The latent heat storage rates of dispersed water drops in W/O (Water/Oil) emulsion are investigated experimentally in this study. The water drops in emulsion has the diameter within 3 ˜ 25μm, the averaged water drop diameter is 7.3μm and the standard deviation is 2.9μm. The direct contact heat exchange method is chosen as the phase change rate evaluation of water drops in W/O emulsion. The supercooled temperature and the cooling rate are set as parameters of this study. The evaluation is performed by comparison between the results of this study and the past research. The obtained experimental result is shown that the 35K or more degree from melting point brings 100% latent heat storage rate of W/O emulsion. It was clarified that the supercooling rate of dispersed water particles in emulsion shows the larger value than that of the bulk water.

  20. The effects of latent heat release on the waves with Ekman pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the effects of the latent heat release on the waves with both upper and lower boundary frictional effects is investigated. The influence of the vertical shear of the basic wind in these models will be investigated. These investigations will shed some light on the method of solution to the problem of including the effect of Ekman pumping on the moist baroclinic waves in the model of Tang and Fichtl.

  1. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  2. Cold Heat Release Characteristics of Solidified Oil Droplet-Water Solution Latent Heat Emulsion by Air Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    The present work investigates the cold heat-release characteristics of the solidified oil droplets (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K)/water solution emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air bubbles-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method is selected for the cold heat-results from the solidified oil droplet-emulsion layer. This type of direct-contact method results in the high thermal efficiency. The diameter of air bubbles in the emulsion increases as compared with that in the pure water. The air bubbles blown from a nozzle show a strong mixing behavior during rising in the emulsion. The temperature effectiveness, the sensible heat release time and the latent heat release time have been measured as experimental parameters. The useful nondimensional emulsion level equations for these parameters have been derived in terms of the nondimensional emalsion level expressed the emulsion layer dimensions, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and heat capacity ratio.

  3. A revised surface resistance parameterisation for estimating latent heat flux from remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Wang, Jiemin; Yang, Kun; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Xufeng

    2012-07-01

    Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) is required for many environmental studies. Remote sensing provides the ability to spatially map latent heat flux. Many studies have developed approaches to derive spatially distributed surface energy fluxes from various satellite sensors with the help of field observations. In this study, remote-sensing-based λE mapping was conducted using a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image and an Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image. The remotely sensed data and field observations employed in this study were obtained from Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER). A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to account for water stress and temperature constraints. The precision of the results was validated using 'ground truth' data obtained by eddy covariance (EC) system. Scale effects play an important role, especially for parameter optimisation and validation of the latent heat flux (λE). After considering the footprint of EC, the λE derived from the remote sensing data was comparable to the EC measured value during the satellite's passage. The results showed that the revised surface resistance parameterisation scheme was useful for estimating the latent heat flux over cropland in arid regions.

  4. A method to model latent heat for transient analysis using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A sample heat transfer analysis is demonstrated which includes the heat of fusion. The method can be used to analyze a system with nonconstant specific heat. The enthalpy is introduced as an independent degree of freedom at each node. The user input consists of a curve of temperature as a function of enthalpy, which may include a constant temperature phase change. The basic NASTRAN heat transfer capability is used to model the effects of latent heat with existing direct matrix output and nonlinear load data cards. Although some user care is required, the numerical stability of the integration is quite good when the given recommendations are followed. The theoretical equations used and the NASTRAN techniques are shown.

  5. Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent Heat Production in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic heat evolution. Heat loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin heat flux, and is buffered by latent heat production. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent heat production is almost always greater than sensible heat production, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible heats of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated heat production must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our

  6. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: (1) a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and (2) a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which was nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  7. Comparison of chemical and heating methods to enhance latent fingerprint deposits on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2014-03-01

    A comparison is made of proprietary methods to develop latent fingerprint deposits on the inked side of thermal paper using either chemical treatment (Thermanin) or the application of heat to the paper (Hot Print System). Results with a trial of five donors show that the application of heat produces statistically significantly more fingerprint ridge detail than the chemical treatment for both fingerprint deposits aged up to 4 weeks and for a nine sequence depletion series. Subjecting the thermal paper to heat treatment with the Hot Print System did not inhibit subsequent ninhydrin chemical development of fingerprint deposits on the noninked side of the paper. A further benefit of the application of heat is the rapid development of fingerprint deposits (less than a minute) compared with up to 12 h for the Thermanin chemical treatment. PMID:24673413

  8. Comparison of chemical and heating methods to enhance latent fingerprint deposits on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2014-03-01

    A comparison is made of proprietary methods to develop latent fingerprint deposits on the inked side of thermal paper using either chemical treatment (Thermanin) or the application of heat to the paper (Hot Print System). Results with a trial of five donors show that the application of heat produces statistically significantly more fingerprint ridge detail than the chemical treatment for both fingerprint deposits aged up to 4 weeks and for a nine sequence depletion series. Subjecting the thermal paper to heat treatment with the Hot Print System did not inhibit subsequent ninhydrin chemical development of fingerprint deposits on the noninked side of the paper. A further benefit of the application of heat is the rapid development of fingerprint deposits (less than a minute) compared with up to 12 h for the Thermanin chemical treatment.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material using Urea-Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokamura, Taku; Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Ashizawa, Kiyonori

    This study is concerned with the measurement of thermophysical properties of a urea-water mixture with the aim of adopting the mixture as a latent heat storage material for air-conditioning systems. The urea-water mixture is made of natural substances and has a good fluidity. The urea concentration in the mixture was controlled by measuring the refractive index of the mixture. Being a multi-component substance, a urea-water solution has a liquid-solid co-existent phase on a phase-diagram. Therefore, the liquidus temperature was measured to establish a relationship between the fraction of the solid-phase and temperature. Furthermore, apparent values of specific heat and coefficient of viscosity were measured in the two-phase region where the solid phase is ice. The apparent specific heat and coefficient of viscosity were measure by using an adiabatic calorimeter and a stirring torque meter respectively. The results revealed that the urea-water mixture can probably be used as a latent heat storage material of good fluidity.

  10. Development of approximate method to analyze the characteristics of latent heat thermal energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, Akira

    1999-07-01

    Third Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3) held in last December in Kyoto urged the industrialized nation to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 5.2 percent (on the average) below 1990 level until the period between 2008 and 2012 (Kyoto protocol). This implies that even for the most advanced countries like the US, Japan, and EU implementation of drastic policies and overcoming many barriers in market should be necessary. One idea which leads to a path of low carbon intensity is to adopt an energy storage concept. One of the reasons that the efficiency of the conventional energy systems has been relatively low is ascribed to lacking of energy storage subsystem. Most of the past energy systems, for example, air-conditioning system, do not have energy storage part and the system usually operates with low energy efficiency. Firstly, the effect of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions was also examined if the LHTES subsystems were incorporated in all the residential and building air-conditioning systems. Another field of application of the LHTES is of course transportation. Future vehicle will be electric or hybrid vehicle. However, these vehicles will need considerable energy for air-conditioning. The LHTES system will provide enough energy for this purpose by storing nighttime electricity or rejected heat from the radiator or motor. Melting and solidification of phase change material (PCM) in a capsule is of practical importance in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems which are considered to be very promising to reduce a peak demand of electricity in the summer season and also reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Two melting modes are involved in melting in capsules. One is close-contact melting between the solid bulk and the capsule wall, and another is natural convection melting in the liquid (melt) region. Close-contact melting processes for a single enclosure have been solved using several

  11. A preliminary evaluation of surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhao, J.; Wang, W.; Ren, H.; Chen, L.; Yan, G.

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between variations in surface latent heat flux (SLHF) and marine earthquakes has been a popular subject of recent seismological studies. So far, there are two key problems: how to identify the abnormal SLHF variations from complicated background signals, and how to ensure that the anomaly results from an earthquake. In this paper, we proposed four adjustable parameters for identification, classified the relationship and analyzed SLHF changes several months before six marine earthquakes by employing daily SLHF data. Additionally, we also quantitatively evaluate the long-term relationship between earthquakes and SLHF anomalies for the six study areas over a 20 yr period preceding each earthquake. The results suggest the following: (1) before the South Sandwich Islands, Papua, Samoa and Haiti earthquakes, the SLHF variations above their individual background levels have relatively low amplitudes and are difficult to be considered as precursory anomalies; (2) after removing the clustering effect, most of the anomalies prior to these six earthquakes are not temporally related to any earthquake in each study area in time sequence; (3) for each case, apart from Haiti, more than half of the studied earthquakes, which were moderate and even devastating earthquakes (larger than Mw = 5.3), had no precursory variations in SLHF; and (4) the correlation between SLHF and seismic activity depends largely on data accuracy and parameter settings. Before any application of SLHF data on earthquake prediction, we suggest that anomaly-identifying standards should be established based on long-term regional analysis to eliminate subjectivity. Furthermore, other factors that may result in SLHF variations should also be carefully considered.

  12. Computational modeling of latent-heat-storage in PCM modified interior plaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fořt, Jan; Maděra, Jiří; Trník, Anton; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    The latent heat storage systems represent a promising way for decrease of buildings energy consumption with respect to the sustainable development principles of building industry. The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of the effect of PCM incorporation on thermal performance of cement-lime plasters. For basic characterization of the developed materials, matrix density, bulk density, and total open porosity are measured. Thermal conductivity is accessed by transient impulse method. DSC analysis is used for the identification of phase change temperature during the heating and cooling process. Using DSC data, the temperature dependent specific heat capacity is calculated. On the basis of the experiments performed, the supposed improvement of the energy efficiency of characteristic building envelope system where the designed plasters are likely to be used is evaluated by a computational analysis. Obtained experimental and computational results show a potential of PCM modified plasters for improvement of thermal stability of buildings and moderation of interior climate.

  13. Heat Exchange, Additive Manufacturing, and Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick

    2015-02-23

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured undistorted snapshots of refrigerants flowing through small heat exchangers, helping them to better understand heat transfer in heating, cooling and ventilation systems.

  14. Evaporative cooling: effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; den Hartog, Emiel; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar; Rossi, Rene M; Richards, Mark; Farnworth, Brian; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-03-15

    Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has found little use in recent literature. In this experiment a thermal manikin, (MTNW, Seattle, WA) was used to determine the effective cooling power of moisture evaporation. The manikin measures both heat loss and mass loss independently, allowing a direct calculation of an effective latent heat of evaporation (λeff). The location of the evaporation was varied: from the skin or from the underwear or from the outerwear. Outerwear of different permeabilities was used, and different numbers of layers were used. Tests took place in 20°C, 0.5 m/s at different humidities and were performed both dry and with a wet layer, allowing the breakdown of heat loss in dry and evaporative components. For evaporation from the skin, λeff is close to the theoretical value (2,430 J/g) but starts to drop when more clothing is worn, e.g., by 11% for underwear and permeable coverall. When evaporation is from the underwear, λeff reduction is 28% wearing a permeable outer. When evaporation is from the outermost layer only, the reduction exceeds 62% (no base layer), increasing toward 80% with more layers between skin and wet outerwear. In semi- and impermeable outerwear, the added effect of condensation in the clothing opposes this effect. A general formula for the calculation of λeff was developed.

  15. Effects of latent heating on driving atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), such as brightness variability and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of BDs include modeling of convection from the interior and its interactions with stably stratified atmospheres. These models show that such interactions can drive an atmospheric circulation, forming zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry, not including condensation of various chemical species. Latent heating from condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various chemical species are believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of BDs and directly imaged EGPs. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the atmospheres of BDs and EGPs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly. We examine the circulation patterns caused by large-scale latent heating which results from condensation of silicate vapor in hot dwarfs and water vapor in the cold dwarfs. By varying the abundance of condensable vapor and the radiative timescale, we conclude that under normal atmospheric conditions of BDs (hot and thus with relatively short radiative timescale), latent heating alone by silicate vapor is unable to drive a global circulation, leaving a quiescent atmosphere, because of the suppression to moist instability by downward transport of dry air. Models with relatively long radiative timescale, which may be the case for cooler bodies, tend to maintain an active hydrological cycle and develop zonal jets. Once condensation happens, storms driven by

  16. Phase Change Characteristics of a Nanoemulsion as a Latent Heat Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumoto, Koji; Sato, Noriaki; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi; Inamura, Takao

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the fundamental phase change characteristics of a nanoemulsion using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Tetradecane, which has a slightly higher melting point than water, was utilized as the phase change material for the nanoemulsion. The melting point of the nanoemulsion, the melting peak temperature, and latent heat were examined in detail. Regarding the fundamental phase change characteristics of the nanoemulsion, it was found that its phase change characteristics were strongly affected by the temperature-scanning rate of the DSC. Moreover, it was confirmed that the phase change behavior does not change with repeated solidification and melting.

  17. A methodology for mapping forest latent heat flux densities using remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Congalton, Russell G.

    1988-01-01

    Surface temperatures and reflectances of an upper elevation Sierran mixed conifer forest were monitored using the Thematic Mapper Simulator sensor during the summer of 1985 in order to explore the possibility of using remote sensing to determine the distribution of solar energy on forested watersheds. The results show that the method is capable of quantifying the relative energy allocation relationships between the two cover types defined in the study. It is noted that the method also has the potential to map forest latent heat flux densities.

  18. Relation between sensible and latent heat fluxes in the Mediterranean and precipitation in the Greek area during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.; Katsoulis, B. D.

    2004-11-01

    The variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea and their effect on precipitation in the Greek area during the winter months are investigated for the 39 year period 1959-97 by using multivariate statistical methods. First, factor analysis is applied, mainly as a data reduction tool, and then canonical correlation analysis is applied on the factor scores time series of the two pairs, i.e. sensible heat flux-precipitation and latent heat flux-precipitation, to reveal their interrelations. The results show there is a statistically significant relationship between sensible and latent heat fluxes over the western Mediterranean Sea and precipitation in the western windward areas of Greece. The sensible and latent heat fluxes in the western Mediterranean Sea contribute significantly to depression development. The depressions formed advect cold and dry air masses over the western Mediterranean, reinforcing these sensible and latent heat fluxes. Furthermore, these depressions lead to a southerly or southwesterly airflow over Greece. This flow, along with the existence of potential instability, significantly contributes to precipitation formation in the windward areas of western Greece and also in the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea.

  19. Effect of latent heat in boiling water on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different sizes by using the Turkevich method.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenchao; Zhang, Peina; Li, Yijing; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2015-02-01

    The Turkevich method, involving the reduction of HAuCl4 with citrate in boiling water, allows the facile production of monodisperse, quasispherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Although, it is well-known that the size of the AuNPs obtained with the same recipe vary slightly (as little as approximately 4 nm), but noticeably, from one report to another, it has rarely been studied. The present work demonstrates that this size variation can be reconciled by the small, but noticeable, effect that the latent heat in boiling water has on the size of the AuNPs obtained by using the Turkevich method. The increase in latent heat during water boiling caused an approximately 3 nm reduction in the size of the as-prepared AuNPs; this reduction in size is mainly a result of accelerated nucleation driven by the extra heat. It was further demonstrated that, the heating temperature can be utilized as an additional measure to adjust the growth rate of AuNPs during the reduction of HAuCl4 with citrate in boiling water. Therefore, the latent heat of boiling solvents may provide one way to control nucleation and growth in the synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles.

  20. A Latent Heat Retrieval and its Effects on the Intensity and Structure Change of Hurricane Guillermo (1997). Part I: The Algorithm and Observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimond, Stephen R.; Bourassa, mark A.; Reasor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    The release of latent heat in clouds is an essential part of the formation and I intensification ohurricanes. The community knows very little about the intensity and structure of latent heating due largely to inadequate observations. In this paper, a new method for retrieving the latent heating field in hurricanes from airborne Dopple radar is presented and fields from rapidly intensifying Hurricane Guillermo (1997) are shown.

  1. Latent heat at the first order phase transition point of SU(3) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirogane, Mizuki; Ejiri, Shinji; Iwami, Ryo; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; WHOT-QCD Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the energy gap (latent heat) and pressure gap between the hot and cold phases of the SU(3) gauge theory at the first order deconfining phase transition point. We perform simulations around the phase transition point with the lattice size in the temporal direction Nt=6 , 8 and 12 and extrapolate the results to the continuum limit. We also investigate the spatial volume dependence. The energy density and pressure are evaluated by the derivative method with nonperturabative anisotropy coefficients. We adopt a multipoint reweighting method to determine the anisotropy coefficients. We confirm that the anisotropy coefficients approach the perturbative values as Nt increases. We find that the pressure gap vanishes at all values of Nt when the nonperturbative anisotropy coefficients are used. The spatial volume dependence in the latent heat is found to be small on large lattices. Performing extrapolation to the continuum limit, we obtain Δ ɛ /T4=0.75 ±0.17 and Δ (ɛ -3 p )/T4=0.623 ±0.056 .

  2. A Wind-Driven, Hybrid Latent and Sensible Heat Coastal Polynya at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, D.; Fukamachi, Y.; Watanabe, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Shimizu, D.; Ohshima, K. I.; Tamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP) formed off the Alaska Coast in winter is examined using mooring data (temperature, salinity, and ocean current), atmospheric re-analysis data (ERA-Interim), and AMSR-E-derived sea-ice concentration and production data (Iwamoto et al., 2014). Previously, the BCP has been considered to be a latent heat polynya formed by predominantly offshore winds resulting in sea-ice divergence. Recently, it has been suggested that the sea-ice production rate in the BCP is suppressed by warm Pacific- or Atlantic-origin waters distributed beneath the BCP (e.g. Itoh et al., 2012). In this study, we focus on the oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP, which have not been fully documented. A mooring was deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeast Chukchi Sea (71.23°N, 157.65°W, water depth 55 m) from August 2009 to July 2010. During the freeze-up period from December to May, five BCP events occurred in the same manner; 1) dominant wind parallel to Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component near Barrow, 2) high sea-ice production followed by sudden cessation of ice growth, 3) upwelling of warm (>2 K above freezing point) and saline (>34) Atlantic Water (AW) beneath the BCP, 4) strong up-canyon flow (>100cm/s) associated with density fluctuations. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, resulted in enhanced vertical shear, promoting vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from AW into the surface layer were likely to form/maintain the open water area that is a sensible heat polynya. The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya was well reproduced by a pan-Arctic ice-ocean model (COCO). We propose that the BCP is a hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both processes driven by the same offshore wind.

  3. TRMM Latent Heating Retrieval and Comparisons with Field Campaigns and Large-Scale Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Takayabu, Yukuri; Lang, S.; Shige, S.; Olson, W.; Hou, A.; Jiang, X.; Zhang, C.; Lau, W.; Krishnamurti, T.; Waliser, D.; Grecu, M.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Houze, R.; Kakar, R.; Nakamura, K.; Braun, S.; Hagos, S.; Oki, R.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall production is a fundamental process within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it represents both a principal forcing term in surface water budgets, and its energetics corollary, latent heating (LH), is one of the principal sources of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The vertical distribution of LH has a strong influence on the atmosphere, controlling large-scale tropical circulations, exciting and modulating tropical waves, maintaining the intensities of tropical cyclones, and even providing the energetics of midlatitude cyclones and other mobile midlatitude weather systems. Moreover, the processes associated with LH result in significant non-linear changes in atmospheric radiation through the creation, dissipation and modulation of clouds and precipitation. Yanai et al. (1973) utilized the meteorological data collected from a sounding network to present a pioneering work on thermodynamic budgets, which are referred to as the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). Yanai's paper motivated the development of satellite-based LH algorithms and provided a theoretical background for imposing large-scale advective forcing into cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These CRM-simulated LH and Q1 data have been used to generate the look-up tables used in LH algorithms. This paper examines the retrieval, validation, and application of LH estimates based on rain rate quantities acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM). TRMM was launched in November 1997 as a joint enterprise between the American and Japanese space agencies -- with overriding goals of providing accurate four-dimensional estimates of rainfall and LH over the global Tropics and subtropics equatorward of 35o. Other literature has acknowledged the achievement of the first goal of obtaining an accurate rainfall climatology. This paper describes the

  4. Combined solar heat and power system with a latent heat storage - system simulations for an economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Decentralized solar combined heat and power (CHP) systems can be economically feasible, especially when they have a thermal storage. In such systems, heat provided by solar thermal collectors is used to generate electricity and useful heat for e.g. industrial processes. For the supply of energy in times without solar irradiation, a thermal storage can be integrated. In this work, the performance of a solar CHP system using an active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger is investigated. Annual yield calculations are conducted in order to calculate annual energy gains and, based on them; economic assumptions are used to calculated economic numbers in order to assess the system performance. The energy savings of a solar system, compared to a system with a fossil fuel supply, are calculated. Then the net present value and the dynamic payback are calculated with these savings, the initial investment costs and the operational costs. By interpretation and comparison of these economic numbers, an optimum system design in terms of solar field size and storage size was determined. It has been shown that the utilization of such systems can be economical in remote areas without gas and grid connection. Optimal storage design parameters in terms of the temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the storage capacity have been determined which can further increase the net present value of such system.

  5. Analyzing consistency of interannual variability in air-sea sensible and latent heat fluxes in CMIP5 model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Gulev, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Surface turbulent heat fluxes are critically important in climate model experiments, since they represent a language of communication of the ocean and atmosphere. Interannual variability of surface turbulent heat fluxes is believed to be the major contributor to the changes in the ocean surface heat balance, at least in mid latitudes. Being relatively well assessed and validated in reanalyses, surface turbulent heat fluxes always were of a lesser attention in diagnostics of climate model experiments. We analysed interannual variability of sensible and latent heat fluxes in historical climate simulations with several CMIP5 models. Variability in surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in model simulations has been analysed during several last decades (from 1950s to 2005) with the emphasis on different scales of variability (short-term, interannual, decadal). At all scales has been found a little consistency between the changes in turbulent surface fluxes diagnosed by reanalyses and blended data sets (OA-FLUX) on one hand and model simulations on the other. Furthermore, some models (e.g. ECHAM, IPSL) surprisingly demonstrate large regions with negative correlations between sensible and latent heat fluxes, which is not the case in observational data sets (reanalyses and OAFLUX). Interestingly, variability in air temperature and surface humidity (which could be potentially considered as the reason for autocorrelation between sensible and latent fluxes) demonstrates consistency with each other at most scales. Further we discuss potential reasons for the discovered phenomenon.

  6. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  7. Comparisons of sensible and latent heat fluxes using surface and aircraft data over adjacent wet and dry surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Shaw, W.J. ); Baldocchi, D.D.; Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J.; Meyers, T.J. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991, a field study of surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over heterogeneous surfaces was carried out near Boardman, Oregon (Doran et al., 1992). The object of the study was to develop improved methods of extrapolating from local measurements of fluxes to area-averaged values suitable for use in general circulation models (GCMs) applied to climate studies. A grid element in a GCM is likely to encompass regions whose fluxes vary significantly from one surface type to another. The problem of integrating these fluxes into a single, representative value for the whole element is not simple, and describing such a flux in terms of flux-gradient relationships, as is often done, presents additional difficulties.

  8. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-21

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma. PMID:26203037

  9. Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H.; Kooij, E. Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-07-01

    The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma.

  10. Materials compatibility in Dish-Stirling solar generators using Cu-Si-Mg eutectic for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizenga, A. M.; Withey, E. A.; Andraka, C. E.; Gibbs, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Dish-Stirling systems are a strong candidate to meet cost production goals for solar thermal power production. Thermal energy storage improves the capacity factor of thermal power systems; copper-silicon-magnesium eutectic alloys have been investigated as potential latent heat storage materials. This work examines the ability of commercially available plasma spray coatings to serve as protective barriers with these alloys, while highlighting mechanistic insights into materials for latent heat storage systems. Computed tomography was leveraged as a rapid screening tool to assess the presence of localized attack in tested coatings.

  11. Novel functional materials from renewable lipids: Amphiphilic antimicrobial polymers and latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floros, Michael Christopher

    Vegetable oils represent an ideal and renewable feedstock for the synthesis of a variety of functional materials. However, without financial incentive or unique applications motivating a switch, commercial products continue to be manufactured from petrochemical resources. Two different families of high value, functional materials synthesized from vegetable oils were studied. These materials demonstrate superior and unique performance to comparable petrochemical analogues currently on the market. In the first approach, 3 amphiphilic thermoplastic polytriazoles with differing lipophilic segment lengths were synthesized in a polymerization process without solvents or catalysts. Investigation of monomer structure influence on the resultant functional behaviour of these polymers found distinctive odd/even behaviour reliant on the number of carbon atoms in the monomers. Higher concentrations of triazole groups, due to shorter CH2 chains in the monomeric dialkynes, resulted in more brittle polymers, displaying higher tensile strengths but reduced elongation to break characteristics. These polymers had similar properties to commercial petroleum derived thermoplastics. One polymer demonstrated self-assembled surface microstructuring, and displayed hydrophobic properties. Antimicrobial efficacy of the polymers were tested by applying concentrated bacterial solutions to the surfaces, and near complete inhibition was demonstrated after 4 hours. Scanning electron microscope images of killed bacteria showed extensive membrane damage, consistent with the observed impact of other amphiphilic compounds in literature. These polytriazoles are suited for applications in medical devices and implants, where major concerns over antibiotic resistance are prevalent. In the second approach, a series of symmetric, saturated diester phase change materials (PCMs) were also synthesized with superior latent heat values compared to commercial petrochemical analogues. These diesters exhibit

  12. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  13. Development of latent fingerprints on thermal paper by the controlled application of heat.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2013-05-01

    Apparatus to produce a spatially and temporally uniform heat source is described and this is used to visualize latent fingerprints deposited onto thermal paper by raising the temperature of the paper. Results show an improvement over previous research when fingerprint deposits are aged or the developed fingerprints faint; visualization being enhanced by the use of a blue LED light source of 465 nm peak wavelength. An investigation of the components in fingerprint sweat likely to affect the solubility and hence color change of the dye present in the thermal paper has shown that polar protic solvents able to donate a proton are favored and a polar amino acid found commonly in eccrine fingerprint sweat (lysine) has been shown able to produce the desired color change. Aged fingerprint deposits on thermal paper from a variety of sources up to 4 years old have been visualized with this technique. PMID:23550933

  14. The sensitivity of latent heat flux to the air humidity approximations used in ocean circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1990-01-01

    In deriving the surface latent heat flux with the bulk formula for the thermal forcing of some ocean circulation models, two approximations are commonly made to bypass the use of atmospheric humidity in the formula. The first assumes a constant relative humidity, and the second supposes that the sea-air humidity difference varies linearly with the saturation humidity at sea surface temperature. Using climatological fields derived from the Marine Deck and long time series from ocean weather stations, the errors introduced by these two assumptions are examined. It is shown that the errors reach above 100 W/sq m over western boundary currents and 50 W/sq m over the tropical ocean. The two approximations also introduce erroneous seasonal and spatial variabilities with magnitudes over 50 percent of the observed variabilities.

  15. Development of latent fingerprints on thermal paper by the controlled application of heat.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2013-05-01

    Apparatus to produce a spatially and temporally uniform heat source is described and this is used to visualize latent fingerprints deposited onto thermal paper by raising the temperature of the paper. Results show an improvement over previous research when fingerprint deposits are aged or the developed fingerprints faint; visualization being enhanced by the use of a blue LED light source of 465 nm peak wavelength. An investigation of the components in fingerprint sweat likely to affect the solubility and hence color change of the dye present in the thermal paper has shown that polar protic solvents able to donate a proton are favored and a polar amino acid found commonly in eccrine fingerprint sweat (lysine) has been shown able to produce the desired color change. Aged fingerprint deposits on thermal paper from a variety of sources up to 4 years old have been visualized with this technique.

  16. A Numerical Study of a Double Pipe Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Tonny

    Solar energy is an intermittent supply source of energy. To efficiently utilize this free renewable energy source some form of thermal energy storage devices are necessary. Phase change materials (PCMs), because of their high energy density storage capacity and near isothermal phase change characteristics, have proven to be promising candidates for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) devices. Among the various LHTES devices for low temperature residential heating and cooling applications, the shell-and-tube type heat exchanging devices are the most simple to operate and can be easily fabricated. This work numerically investigates the buoyancy driven heat transfer process during melting (charging) of a commercial paraffin wax as PCM filling the annulus of a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger. The heated working fluid (water) is passing through the central tube of the annulus at a sufficiently high flow-rate and thereby maintaining an almost isothermal wall temperature at the inner pipe which is higher than the melting temperature of the PCM. The transient, two-dimensional coupled laminar momentum and energy equations for the model are suitably non-dimensionalized and are solved numerically using the enthalpy-porosity approach. Time-wise evolutions of the flow patterns and temperature distributions are presented through velocity vector fields and isotherm plots. In this study, two types of PCM filled annuli, a plain annulus and a strategically placed longitudinal finned annulus, are studied. The total energy stored, the total liquid fraction and the energy efficiency at different melting times are evaluated for three different operating conditions and the results are compared between the plain and finned annuli. The present study will provide guidelines for system thermal performance and design optimization of the shell-and-tube LHTES devices. .

  17. Dehumidification: Prediction of Condensate Flow Rate for Plate-Fin Tube Heat Exchangers Using the Latent j Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V.D.; Chen, D.T.; Conklin, J.C.

    1999-03-15

    Condensate flow rate is an important factor in designing dehumidifiers or evaporators. In this paper, the latentj fimtor is used to analyze the dehumidification performance of two plate-fin tube heat exchangers. This latent j factor, analogous to the total j factor, is a flmction of the mass transfa coefllcient, the volumetric air flow rate, and the Schmidt number. This latent j factor did predict condensate flow rate more directly and accurately than any other sensiblej factor method. The Iatentj factor has been used in the present study because the sensible j factor correlations presented in the literature failed to predict the condensate flow rate at high Reynolds numbers. Results show that the latent j i%ctor em be simply correlated as a fhnction of the Reynolds number based on the tube outside diameter and number of rows of the heat exchanger.

  18. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 1; Method and Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Petty, Grant W.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Bell, Thomas L.; Braun, Scott A.; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A revised Bayesian algorithm for estimating surface rain rate, convective rain proportion, and latent heating/drying profiles from satellite-borne passive microwave radiometer observations over ocean backgrounds is described. The algorithm searches a large database of cloud-radiative model simulations to find cloud profiles that are radiatively consistent with a given set of microwave radiance measurements. The properties of these radiatively consistent profiles are then composited to obtain best estimates of the observed properties. The revised algorithm is supported by an expanded and more physically consistent database of cloud-radiative model simulations. The algorithm also features a better quantification of the convective and non-convective contributions to total rainfall, a new geographic database, and an improved representation of background radiances in rain-free regions. Bias and random error estimates are derived from applications of the algorithm to synthetic radiance data, based upon a subset of cloud resolving model simulations, and from the Bayesian formulation itself. Synthetic rain rate and latent heating estimates exhibit a trend of high (low) bias for low (high) retrieved values. The Bayesian estimates of random error are propagated to represent errors at coarser time and space resolutions, based upon applications of the algorithm to TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates at 0.5 deg resolution range from approximately 50% at 1 mm/h to 20% at 14 mm/h. These errors represent about 70-90% of the mean random deviation between collocated passive microwave and spaceborne radar rain rate estimates. The cumulative algorithm error in TMI estimates at monthly, 2.5 deg resolution is relatively small (less than 6% at 5 mm/day) compared to the random error due to infrequent satellite temporal sampling (8-35% at the same rain rate).

  19. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-04-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  20. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  1. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  2. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  3. The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture for latent heat flux estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using ground-based soil moisture and latent/sensible heat fluxes observations acquired from the Ameriflux Network, we calculate the mutual information (MI) content between multiple soil moisture variables and evaporative fraction (EF) to examine the existence of information in vertically-integrated ...

  4. A dual-temperature-difference approach to estimate daytime sensible and latent heat fluxes under advective conditions during BEAREX08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dual-Temperature-Difference (DTD) approach uses continuous radiometric surface temperature measurements in a two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance model to solve for the daytime evolution of the sensible and latent heat fluxes. By using the surface-air temperature difference at two time...

  5. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth's energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat

  6. Characterization of Turbulent Latent and Sensible Heat Flux Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Ocean in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing both the spatiotemporal variability and the fidelity of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. This study examines the veracity of the recently completed NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) product with respect to its representation of the surface turbulent heat fluxes. A validation of MERRA turbulent heat fluxes and near-surface bulk variables at local, high-resolution space and time scales is achieved by making comparisons to a large suite of direct observations. Both in situ and satellite-observed gridded surface heat flux estimates are employed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the surface fluxes with respect to their annual mean climatologies, their seasonal covariability of near-surface bulk parameters, and their representation of extremes. The impact of data assimilation on the near-surface parameters is assessed through evaluation of incremental analysis update tendencies produced by the assimilation procedure. It is found that MERRA turbulent surface heat fluxes are relatively accurate for typical conditions but have systematically weak vertical gradients in moisture and temperature and have a weaker covariability between the near-surface gradients and wind speed than found in observations. This results in an underestimate of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes over the western boundary current and storm track regions. The assimilation of observations mostly acts to bring MERRA closer to observational products by increasing moisture and temperature near the surface and decreasing the near-surface wind speeds. The major patterns of spatial and temporal variability of the turbulent heat

  7. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1980-03-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application. Two concepts selected for hardware development are a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. Suitable phase change material (PCM) storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 C to 400 C) were investigated. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24/5 NaCl-55.0MgCl 2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  8. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application. Two concepts selected for hardware development are a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. Suitable phase change material (PCM) storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 C to 400 C) were investigated. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24/5 NaCl-55.0MgCl 2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  9. Verification of High Resolution Soil Moisture and Latent Heat in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Zink, M.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2012-12-01

    Improving our understanding of soil-land-surface-atmosphere feedbacks is fundamental to make reliable predictions of water and energy fluxes on land systems influenced by anthropogenic activities. Estimating, for instance, which would be the likely consequences of changing climatic regimes on water availability and crop yield, requires of high resolution soil moisture. Modeling it at large-scales, however, is difficult and uncertain because of the interplay between state variables and fluxes and the significant parameter uncertainty of the predicting models. At larger scales, the sub-grid variability of the variables involved and the nonlinearity of the processes complicate the modeling exercise even further because parametrization schemes might be scale dependent. Two contrasting modeling paradigms (WRF/Noah-MP and mHM) were employed to quantify the effects of model and data complexity on soil moisture and latent heat over Germany. WRF/Noah-MP was forced ERA-interim on the boundaries of the rotated CORDEX-Grid (www.meteo.unican.es/wiki/cordexwrf) with a spatial resolution of 0.11o covering Europe during the period from 1989 to 2009. Land cover and soil texture were represented in WRF/Noah-MP with 1×1~km MODIS images and a single horizon, coarse resolution European-wide soil map with 16 soil texture classes, respectively. To ease comparison, the process-based hydrological model mHM was forced with daily precipitation and temperature fields generated by WRF during the same period. The spatial resolution of mHM was fixed at 4×4~km. The multiscale parameter regionalization technique (MPR, Samaniego et al. 2010) was embedded in mHM to be able to estimate effective model parameters using hyper-resolution input data (100×100~km) obtained from Corine land cover and detailed soil texture fields for various horizons comprising 72 soil texture classes for Germany, among other physiographical variables. mHM global parameters, in contrast with those of Noah-MP, were

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible and latent heat over the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Schuepp, P. H.; Macpherson, J. I.; Buckley, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne measurements of flux densities of carbon dioxide CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat (H2O) obtained over the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) site during three intensive field campaigns in 1987 and one in 1989 are examined to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 and energy transfer processes. These data were collected by the National Research Council Twin Otter using low-level flight patterns, all flown at constant pressure altitude during relatively clear days. The spatial variations are larger in 1989 than in 1987 and a higher correlation is observed between the fluxes and the surface features. The temporal patterns are easier to characterize with the relatively homogeneous situation of 1987. Functional relationships obtained between fluxes of CO2 and latent heat, CO2 fluxes and greenness index, latent heat fluxes and greenness index, and between sensible heat fluxes and surface air temperature differences are presented for one day in 1987 and one in 1989 as an example of the kind of information that can be obtained from grid flights at constant pressure altitude.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible and latent heat over the FIFE site

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Schuepp, P.H.; Macpherson, J.I.; Buckley, D.J. McGill Univ., Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa Agriculture Canada, Centre for Food and Animal Research, Ottawa )

    1992-11-01

    Airborne measurements of flux densities of carbon dioxide CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat (H2O) obtained over the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) site during three intensive field campaigns in 1987 and one in 1989 are examined to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 and energy transfer processes. These data were collected by the National Research Council Twin Otter using low-level flight patterns, all flown at constant pressure altitude during relatively clear days. The spatial variations are larger in 1989 than in 1987 and a higher correlation is observed between the fluxes and the surface features. The temporal patterns are easier to characterize with the relatively homogeneous situation of 1987. Functional relationships obtained between fluxes of CO2 and latent heat, CO2 fluxes and greenness index, latent heat fluxes and greenness index, and between sensible heat fluxes and surface air temperature differences are presented for one day in 1987 and one in 1989 as an example of the kind of information that can be obtained from grid flights at constant pressure altitude. 20 refs.

  12. Detection of interleukin-2 in addition to interferon-gamma discriminates active tuberculosis patients, latently infected individuals, and controls.

    PubMed

    Biselli, R; Mariotti, S; Sargentini, V; Sauzullo, I; Lastilla, M; Mengoni, F; Vanini, V; Girardi, E; Goletti, D; D' Amelio, R; Nisini, R

    2010-08-01

    Effective control of tuberculosis (TB) includes discrimination of subjects with active TB from individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). As distinct interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 profiles of antigen-specific T-cells have been associated with different clinical stages and antigen loads in several viral and bacterial diseases, we analysed these cytokines in TB using a modified QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube test. Detection of IL-2 in addition to IFN-gamma distinguishes not only Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects from healthy controls, but also individuals with LTBI from active TB patients. This may help to improve diagnostic tests for TB.

  13. Aircraft- and tower-based fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Hart, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Schuepp, P. H.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat obtained over a grassland ecosystem, during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), using an aircraft- and two tower-based systems are compared for several days in 1987 and in 1989. The tower-based cospectral estimates of CO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum, expressed as a function of wavenumber K times sampling height z, are relatively similar to the aircraft-based estimates for K x z greater than 0.1. A measurable contribution to the fluxes is observed by tower-based systems at K x z less than 0.01 but not by the aircraft-based system operating at an altitude of approximately 100 m over a 15 x 15 km area. Using all available simultaneous aircraft and tower data, flux estimates by both systems were shown to be highly correlated. As expected from the spatial variations of the greenness index, surface extrapolation of airborne flux estimates tended to lie between those of the two tower sites. The average fluxes obtained, on July 11, 1987, and August 4, 1989, by flying a grid pattern over the FIFE site agreed with the two tower data sets for CO2, but sensible and latent heat were smaller than those obtained by the tower-based systems. However, in general, except for a small underestimation due to the long wavelength contributions and due to flux divergence with height, the differences between the aircraft- and tower-based surface estimates of fluxes appear to be mainly attributable to differences in footprint, that is, differences in the area contributing to the surface flux estimates.

  14. Aircraft- and tower-based fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Hart, R.L.; Macpherson, J.I.; Schuepp, P.H.; Verma, S.B. Argonne National Lab., IL National Research Council of Canada, Flight Research Lab., Ottawa McGill Univ., Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Nebraska Univ., Lincoln )

    1992-11-01

    Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat obtained over a grassland ecosystem, during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), using an aircraft- and two tower-based systems are compared for several days in 1987 and in 1989. The tower-based cospectral estimates of CO2, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum, expressed as a function of wavenumber K times sampling height z, are relatively similar to the aircraft-based estimates for K x z greater than 0.1. A measurable contribution to the fluxes is observed by tower-based systems at K x z less than 0.01 but not by the aircraft-based system operating at an altitude of approximately 100 m over a 15 x 15 km area. Using all available simultaneous aircraft and tower data, flux estimates by both systems were shown to be highly correlated. As expected from the spatial variations of the greenness index, surface extrapolation of airborne flux estimates tended to lie between those of the two tower sites. The average fluxes obtained, on July 11, 1987, and August 4, 1989, by flying a grid pattern over the FIFE site agreed with the two tower data sets for CO2, but sensible and latent heat were smaller than those obtained by the tower-based systems. However, in general, except for a small underestimation due to the long wavelength contributions and due to flux divergence with height, the differences between the aircraft- and tower-based surface estimates of fluxes appear to be mainly attributable to differences in footprint, that is, differences in the area contributing to the surface flux estimates. 21 refs.

  15. A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of global energy and water cycle variability, and to improve model simulations of climate variations, it is vital to have accurate latent heat fluxes (LHF) over global oceans. Monthly LHF, 10-m wind speed (U10m), 10-m specific humidity (Q10h), and sea-air humidity difference (Qs-Q10m) of GSSTF2 (version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes) over global Oceans during 1992-93 are compared with those of HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis). The mean differences, standard deviations of differences, and temporal correlation of these monthly variables over global Oceans during 1992-93 between GSSTF2 and each of the three datasets are analyzed. The large-scale patterns of the 2yr-mean fields for these variables are similar among these four datasets, but significant quantitative differences are found. The temporal correlation is higher in the northern extratropics than in the south for all variables, with the contrast being especially large for da Silva as a result of more missing ship data in the south. The da Silva has extremely low temporal correlation and large differences with GSSTF2 for all variables in the southern extratropics, indicating that da Silva hardly produces a realistic variability in these variables. The NCEP has extremely low temporal correlation (0.27) and large spatial variations of differences with GSSTF2 for Qs-Q10m in the tropics, which causes the low correlation for LHF. Over the tropics, the HOAPS LHF is significantly smaller than GSSTF2 by approx. 31% (37 W/sq m), whereas the other two datasets are comparable to GSSTF2. This is because the HOAPS has systematically smaller LHF than GSSTF2 in space, while the other two datasets have very large spatial variations of large positive and negative LHF differences with GSSTF2 to cancel and to produce smaller regional-mean differences. Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux

  16. Using satellite and reanalysis data to evaluate the representation of latent heating in extratropical cyclones in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawcroft, Matt; Dacre, Helen; Forbes, Richard; Hodges, Kevin; Shaffrey, Len; Stein, Thorwald

    2016-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones are a key feature of the weather in the extratropics, which climate models need to represent in order to provide reliable projections of future climate. Extratropical cyclones produce significant precipitation and the associated latent heat release can play a major role in their development. This study evaluates the ability of a climate model, HiGEM, to represent latent heating in extratropical cyclones. Remote sensing data is used to investigate the ability of both the climate model and ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis to represent extratropical cyclone cloud features before latent heating itself is assessed. An offline radiance simulator, COSP, and the ISCCP and CloudSat datasets are used to evaluate comparable fields from HiGEM and ERAI. HiGEM is found to exhibit biases in the cloud structure of extratropical cyclones, with too much high cloud produced in the warm conveyor belt region compared to ISCCP. Significant latent heating occurs in this region, derived primarily from HiGEM's convection scheme. ERAI is also found to exhibit biases in cloud structure, with more clouds at lower altitudes than those observed in ISCCP in the warm conveyor belt region. As a result, latent heat release in ERAI is concentrated at lower altitudes. CloudSat indicates that much precipitation may be produced at too low an altitude in both HiGEM and ERAI, particularly ERAI, and neither capture observed variability in precipitation intensity. The potential vorticity structure in composite extratropical cyclones in HiGEM and ERAI is also compared. A more pronounced tropopause ridge evolves in HiGEM on the leading edge of the composite as compared to ERAI. One future area of research to be addressed is what impact these biases in the representation of latent heating have on climate projections produced by HiGEM. The biases found in ERAI indicate caution is required when using reanalyses to study cloud features and precipitation processes in extratropical cyclones or

  17. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Control of Earth Radiation and Latent Heat Release Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, D.

    2006-08-01

    Aircraft observations and model simulations show that cloud development is strongly modulated by the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on precipitation forming processes. New insights into the mechanisms by which aerosols dominate the cloud cover of marine shallow clouds suggest that feedbacks between the cloud microstructure and cloud dynamics through precipitation processes play a major role in determining when a solid cloud cover will break up into a field of trade wind cumulus. Cloud-aerosol interactions dominate not only the dynamics of marine shallow clouds, but also the lifetime and the vertical disposition of latent heat of deep convective clouds over ocean and even more strongly over land. Recent coincident satellite measurements of aerosols and cloud properties quantify the aerosol effects on cloud cover and radiative forcing on regional and global scales. The shapes of the satellite retrieved relations between aerosols and cloud properties are consistent with the suggested ways by which aerosols affect clouds via precipitation processes, particularly by affecting the intensity of the cloud vertical air motions and its vertical development.

  18. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  19. Trends and Variations of Ocean Surface Latent Heat Flux: Results from GSSTF2c Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Si; Chiu, Long S.; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Trends and variations of Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) version 2c (GSSTF2c) latent heat flux (LHF) are examined. This version of LHF takes account of the correction in Earth incidence angle. The trend of global mean LHF for GSSTF2c is much reduced relative to GSSTF version 2b Set 1 and Set 2 for the same period 1988-2008. Temporal increase of GSSTF2c LHF in the two decades is 11.0%, in which 3.1%, 5.8%, and 2.1% are attributed to the increase in wind, the increase in sea surface saturated air humidity, and the decrease in near-surface air humidity, respectively. The first empirical orthogonal function of LHF is a conventional El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) mode. However, the trends in LHF are independent of conventional ENSO phenomena. After removing ENSO signal, the pattern of LHF trends is primarily determined by the pattern of air-sea humidity difference trends.

  20. Fundamental study of cold heat-storage system of O/W-type emulsion having cold latent-heat-dispersion material. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shinichi; Nozu, Shigeru

    1995-02-01

    This paper deals with thermal properties of an oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, melting point 278.9K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. The measured results of the physical properties of the test emulsion, that is, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat, and density, are discussed for the temperature region of solid and liquid phases of the dispersion material (tetradecane). It is clarified that Eucken`s equation can be applied to the estimation of the thermal conductivity of the emulsion. Moreover, it is established that tetradecane as the dispersion material exhibits a supercooling phenomenon which influences the thermal properties. Useful correlation equations of the thermal properties for the emulsion were proposed in terms of temperature and concentration ratio of the emulsion constituents.

  1. Melting and solidification characteristics of a mixture of two types of latent heat storage material in a vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, JikSu; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Machida, Akito; Kato, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the fundamental melting and solidification characteristics of mannitol, erythritol, and their mixture (70 % by mass mannitol: 30 % by mass erythritol) as potential phase-change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage systems, specifically those pertaining to industrial waste heat, having temperatures in the range of 100-250 °C. The melting point of erythritol and mannitol, the melting peak temperature of their mixture, and latent heat were measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal performance of the mannitol mixture was determined during melting and solidification processes, using a heat storage vessel with a pipe heat exchanger. Our results indicated phase-change (fusion) temperatures of 160 °C for mannitol and 113 and 150 °C for the mannitol mixture. Nondimensional correlation equations of the average heat transfer during the solidification process, as well as the temperature and velocity efficiencies of flowing silicon oil in the pipe and the phase-change material (PCM), were derived using several nondimensional parameters.

  2. Melting and solidification characteristics of a mixture of two types of latent heat storage material in a vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, JikSu; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Machida, Akito; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the fundamental melting and solidification characteristics of mannitol, erythritol, and their mixture (70 % by mass mannitol: 30 % by mass erythritol) as potential phase-change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage systems, specifically those pertaining to industrial waste heat, having temperatures in the range of 100-250 °C. The melting point of erythritol and mannitol, the melting peak temperature of their mixture, and latent heat were measured using differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal performance of the mannitol mixture was determined during melting and solidification processes, using a heat storage vessel with a pipe heat exchanger. Our results indicated phase-change (fusion) temperatures of 160 °C for mannitol and 113 and 150 °C for the mannitol mixture. Nondimensional correlation equations of the average heat transfer during the solidification process, as well as the temperature and velocity efficiencies of flowing silicon oil in the pipe and the phase-change material (PCM), were derived using several nondimensional parameters.

  3. Re-examining the roles of surface heat flux and latent heat release in a "hurricane-like" polar low over the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstad, Erik W.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Zahn, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale cyclones that occur at high latitudes in both hemispheres during winter. Their sometimes evidently convective nature, fueled by strong surface fluxes and with cloud-free centers, have led to some polar lows being referred to as "arctic hurricanes." Idealized studies have shown that intensification by hurricane development mechanisms is theoretically possible in polar winter atmospheres, but the lack of observations and realistic simulations of actual polar lows have made it difficult to ascertain if this occurs in reality. Here the roles of surface heat fluxes and latent heat release in the development of a Barents Sea polar low, which in its cloud structures showed some similarities to hurricanes, are studied with an ensemble of sensitivity experiments, where latent heating and/or surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat were switched off before the polar low peaked in intensity. To ensure that the polar lows in the sensitivity runs did not track too far away from the actual environmental conditions, a technique known as spectral nudging was applied. This was shown to be crucial for enabling comparisons between the different model runs. The results presented here show that (1) no intensification occurred during the mature, postbaroclinic stage of the simulated polar low; (2) surface heat fluxes, i.e., air-sea interaction, were crucial processes both in order to attain the polar low's peak intensity during the baroclinic stage and to maintain its strength in the mature stage; and (3) latent heat release played a less important role than surface fluxes in both stages.

  4. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, TRMM Latent Heating and Cloud Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to imiprove the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D GCE model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF will be developed by the end of 2004 and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. The purpose of this proposal is to augment the current Goddard MMF and other cloud modeling activities. I this talk, I will present: (1) A summary of the second Cloud Modeling Workshop took place at NASA Goddard, (2) A summary of the third TRMM Latent Heating Workshop took place at Nara Japan, (3) A brief discussion on the Goddard research plan of using Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  5. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System: TRMM Latent Heating and Cloud Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D GCE model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF will be developed by the end of 2004 and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. The purpose of this proposal is to augment the current Goddard MMF and other cloud modeling activities. In this talk, I will present: (1) A summary of the second Cloud Modeling Workshop took place at NASA Goddard, (2) A summary of the third TRMM Latent Heating Workshop took place at Nara Japan, (3) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhao, J.; Wang, W.; Ren, H.; Chen, L.; Yan, G.

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between variations in surface latent heat flux (SLHF) and marine earthquakes has been a popular subject of recent seismological studies. So far, there are two key problems: how to identify the abnormal SLHF variations from complicated background signals, and how to ensure that the anomaly results from earthquake. In this paper, we proposed four adjustable parameters for identification, classified the relationship and analyze SLHF changes several months before six marine earthquakes by employing daily SLHF data. Besides, we also quantitatively evaluate the long-term relationship between earthquakes and SLHF anomalies for the six study areas over a 20 yr period preceding each earthquake. The results suggest: (1) before the South Sandwich Islands, Papua, Samoa and Haiti earthquakes, the SLHF variations above their individual background levels have relatively low amplitudes and are difficult to be considered as precursory anomalies; (2) after removing the clustering effect, most of the anomalies prior to these six earthquakes are not temporally related to any earthquake in each study area in time sequence; (3) for each case, apart from Haiti, more than half of studied earthquakes which were moderate even devastating earthquakes (larger than Mw = 5.3) had no precursory variations in SLHF; and (4) the correlation between SLHF and seismic activity depends largely on data accuracy and parameter settings. Before any application of SLHF data on earthquake prediction, we suggest that anomaly-identifying standards should be established based on long-term regional analysis to eliminate subjectivity. Furthermore, other factors which may result in SLHF variations also should be carefully considered.

  7. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  8. Remotely sensed latent heat fluxes for improving model predictions of soil moisture: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, J. M.; van Geer, F. C.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates whether the use of remotely sensed latent heat fluxes improves the accuracy of spatially-distributed soil moisture predictions by a hydrological model. By using real data we aim to show the potential and limitations in practice. We use (i) satellite data of both ASTER and MODIS for the same two days in the summer of 2006 that, in association with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), provides us the spatial distribution of daily ETact and (ii) an operational physically based distributed (25 m×25 m) hydrological model of a small catchment (70 km2) in The Netherlands that simulates the water flow in both the unsaturated and saturated zone. Firstly, model outcomes of ETact are compared to the processed satellite data. Secondly, we perform data assimilation that updates the modelled soil moisture. We show that remotely sensed ETact is useful in hydrological modelling for two reasons. Firstly, in the procedure of model calibration: comparison of modeled and remotely sensed ETact together with the outcomes of our data assimilation procedure points out potential model errors (both conceptual and flux-related). Secondly, assimilation of remotely sensed ETact results in a realistic spatial adjustment of soil moisture, except for the area with forest and deep groundwater levels. As both ASTER and MODIS images were available for the same days, this study provides also an excellent opportunity to compare the worth of these two satellite sources. It is shown that, although ASTER provides much better insight in the spatial distribution of ETact due to its higher spatial resolution than MODIS, they appeared in this study just as useful.

  9. Characteristics of Precipitation, Cloud, and Latent Heating Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K-M.; Wu, H-T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of cloud and rainfall structures associated with Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Two complementary indices are used to define MJO phases. Joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud-top temperature and radar echo-top height are constructed for each of the eight MJO phases. The genesis stage of MJO convection over the western Pacific (phases 1 and 2) features a bottom-heavy PDF, characterized by abundant warm rain, low clouds, suppressed deep convection, and higher sea surface temperature (SST). As MJO convection develops (phases 3 and 4), a transition from the bottom-heavy to top-heavy PDF occurs. The latter is associated with the development of mixed-phase rain and middle-to-high clouds, coupled with rapid SST cooling. At the MJO convection peak (phase 5), a top-heavy PDF contributed by deep convection with mixed-phase and ice-phase rain and high echo-top heights (greater than 5 km) dominates. The decaying stage (phases 6 and 7) is characterized by suppressed SST, reduced total rain, increased contribution from stratiform rain, and increased nonraining high clouds. Phase 7, in particular, signals the beginning of a return to higher SST and increased warm rain. Phase 8 completes the MJO cycle, returning to a bottom-heavy PDF and SST conditions similar to phase 1. The structural changes in rain and clouds at different phases of MJO are consistent with corresponding changes in derived latent heating profiles, suggesting the importance of a diverse mix of warm, mixed-phase, and ice-phase rain associated with low-level, congestus, and high clouds in constituting the life cycle and the time scales of MJO.

  10. Validity of Five Satellite-Based Latent Heat Flux Algorithms for Semi-arid Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Fei; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Nannan; Guo, Yang; Yu, Jian; Sun, Minmin

    2015-12-09

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) is critical in characterizing semiarid ecosystems. Many LE algorithms have been developed during the past few decades. However, the algorithms have not been directly compared, particularly over global semiarid ecosystems. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five LE models over semiarid ecosystems such as grassland, shrub, and savanna using the Fluxnet dataset of 68 eddy covariance (EC) sites during the period 2000–2009. We also used a modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA) dataset, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products; the leaf area index (LAI) from the global land surface satellite (GLASS) products; and the digital elevation model (DEM) from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM30) dataset to generate LE at region scale during the period 2003–2006. The models were the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer LE (MOD16) algorithm, revised remote sensing based Penman–Monteith LE algorithm (RRS), the Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL), the modified satellite-based Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm (MS-PT), and the semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm (UMD). Direct comparison with ground measured LE showed the PT-JPL and MS-PT algorithms had relative high performance over semiarid ecosystems with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of approximately 20 W/m2. Empirical parameters in the structure algorithms of MOD16 and RRS, and calibrated coefficients of the UMD algorithm may be the cause of the reduced performance of these LE algorithms with R2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and RMSE ranging from 20 to 35 W/m2 for MOD16, RRS and UMD. Sensitivity analysis showed that radiation and vegetation terms were the dominating

  11. Validity of Five Satellite-Based Latent Heat Flux Algorithms for Semi-arid Ecosystems

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Fei; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Nannan; Guo, Yang; Yu, Jian; Sun, Minmin

    2015-12-09

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) is critical in characterizing semiarid ecosystems. Many LE algorithms have been developed during the past few decades. However, the algorithms have not been directly compared, particularly over global semiarid ecosystems. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five LE models over semiarid ecosystems such as grassland, shrub, and savanna using the Fluxnet dataset of 68 eddy covariance (EC) sites during the period 2000–2009. We also used a modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA) dataset, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) from the moderate resolutionmore » imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products; the leaf area index (LAI) from the global land surface satellite (GLASS) products; and the digital elevation model (DEM) from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM30) dataset to generate LE at region scale during the period 2003–2006. The models were the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer LE (MOD16) algorithm, revised remote sensing based Penman–Monteith LE algorithm (RRS), the Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL), the modified satellite-based Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm (MS-PT), and the semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm (UMD). Direct comparison with ground measured LE showed the PT-JPL and MS-PT algorithms had relative high performance over semiarid ecosystems with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of approximately 20 W/m2. Empirical parameters in the structure algorithms of MOD16 and RRS, and calibrated coefficients of the UMD algorithm may be the cause of the reduced performance of these LE algorithms with R2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and RMSE ranging from 20 to 35 W/m2 for MOD16, RRS and UMD. Sensitivity analysis showed that radiation and vegetation terms were the dominating variables

  12. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation (P < 0.01) for respiratory rate depending on the times of the day. The highest values were recorded at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h, corresponding to 66.85 ± 10.20, 66.98 ± 7.80, and 65.65 ± 6.50 breaths/min, respectively. Thus, the amount of heat transferred via respiration ranged from 19.21 to 29.42 W/m2. There was a variation from 31.6 to 38.8 °C for coat surface temperature; these values reflected a range of 55.52 to 566.83 W/m2 for heat transfer via cutaneous evaporation. However, throughout the day, the dissipation of thermal energy through the coat surface accounted for 87.9 % total loss of latent heat, and the remainder (12.1 %) was via the respiratory tract. In conclusion, the predictive models based on respiratory rate and coat surface temperature may be used to estimate the latent heat loss in dairy cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  13. A diagnostic study of the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddies, with latent heat effects included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salustri, G.; Stone, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    A diagnostic study of the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddy fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere is carried out. The quasi-geostrophic omega equation, and Oort and Rasmusson's (1971) data set, are used. The effects of condensation associated with the large scale motions are introduced to the omega equation by using the quasi-geostrophic moisture conservation equation. Thus, the dry static stability is replaced by a moist static stability, and the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddy latent heat fluxes as well as sensible heat and momentum fluxes is included. Both effects tend to enhance the forcing of the Ferrel cell. The numerical analysis indicates that the effects are small in January, but in July the maximum vertical velocities are enhanced by about 30 percent.

  14. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  15. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands (P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  16. Latent heat contribution to the direct magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Flores, R.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Gómez-Polo, C.

    2016-05-01

    We report the direct magnetocaloric response of materials that present a second-order phase transition in the temperature range where a first-order structural transition also occurs. In particular, the influence of the latent heat on the field-induced adiabatic temperature change has been analyzed in a Ni-Mn-Ga alloy with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations. It is found that discrepancies around 20% arise depending on whether the latent heat is taken into account or not. From the observed results, a general expression for the indirect determination of the adiabatic temperature change, that takes into account the contributions of both the martensitic and magnetic transformations, is proposed and experimentally confirmed. The observed key role of the latent heat allows us to understand why materials with first-order transformations do not present adiabatic temperature changes as higher as those which would correspond to materials undergoing second-order transformations with similar isothermal entropy change.

  17. Solid-State Additive Manufacturing for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfolk, Mark; Johnson, Hilary

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities in devices are increasing across many industries including power generation, high power electronics, manufacturing, and automotive. Increasingly, there is a need for very high efficiency thermal management devices that can pull heat out of a small area at higher and higher rates. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have the promise of creating parts with complex internal geometries required for integral thermal management. However, this goal has not been met due to constraints in fusion-based metal 3D printers. This work presents a new strategy for metal AM of heat exchangers using an ultrasonic sheet lamination approach.

  18. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within

  19. The role of water vapor and its associated latent heating in extreme Beaufort coastal storm surge events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Small, D. L.; Atallah, E.; Liu, N.; Kuo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    During the rather limited ice-free season that typically may occur from late July through early October, the Beaufort Sea region is susceptible to extreme windstorms, many of which produce damaging storm surges to low-lying coastal communities. During the most recent years, the ice-free season has lengthened, suggesting an increased vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclogenesis-related windstorms. Therefore, our research focuses on the dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms responsible for significant surface wind events during the ice-free season in this region. We demonstrate that these storm surge events are often associated with the generation of large-scale atmospheric circulation regomes conducive to North American droughts. Our analysis methodology includes the detailed synoptic-dynamic analysis, including numerical experiments, on a case of an especially long-lived extreme storm surge that occurred in September 1999. We utilize conventional surface and upper-air station data, along with satellite and ground-based water vapor data. We also utilize global and regional reanalysis data to document the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments associated with the cyclogenesis events. Our numerical experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model include sensitivity testing with COSMIC-derived water vapor data, and sensitivity tests to illustrate the relative roles that latent heating plays in the storm surge event, at various stages in its lifecycle. A particularly important finding of our research on the devastating September 1999 storm surge event is that a relatively rare case of explosive cyclogenesis in the Gulf of Alaska is a key player in this Beaufort storm surge. The deep-tropospheric latent heating during the explosive cyclogenesis generates a dynamic tropopause ridge. This ridge in turn induces surface ridging that contributes to the strong west-northwesterlies associated with the storm surge. This generation of the dynamic

  20. A 3-year dataset of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Tibetan Plateau, derived using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maoshan; Babel, Wolfgang; Chen, Xuelong; Zhang, Lang; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Binbin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong; Foken, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has become a focus of strong scientific interest due to its role in the global water cycle and its reaction to climate change. Regional flux estimates of sensible and latent heat are important variables for linking the energy and hydrological cycles at the TP's surface. Within this framework, a 3-year dataset (2008-2010) of eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes was compiled from four stations on the TP into a standardised workflow: corrections and quality tests were applied using an internationally comparable software package. Second, the energy balance closure ( C EB) was determined and two different closure corrections applied. The four stations (Qomolangma, Linzhi, NamCo and Nagqu) represent different locations and typical land surface types on the TP (high altitude alpine steppe with sparse vegetation, a densely vegetated alpine meadow, and bare soil/gravel, respectively). We show that the C EB differs between each surface and undergoes seasonal changes. Typical differences in the turbulent energy fluxes occur between the stations at Qomolangma, Linzhi and NamCo, while Nagqu is quite similar to NamCo. Specific investigation of the pre-monsoon, the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter periods within the annual cycle reinforces these findings. The energy flux of the four sites is clearly influenced by the Tibetan Plateau monsoon. In the pre-monsoon period, sensible heat flux is the major energy source delivering heat to the atmosphere, whereas latent heat flux is greater than sensible heat flux during the monsoon season. Other factors affecting surface energy flux are topography and location. Land cover type also affects surface energy flux. The energy balance residuum indicates a typically observed overall non-closure in winter, while closure (or `turbulent over-closure') is achieved during the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon at the Nagqu site. The latter seems to depend on ground heat flux, which is higher in the

  1. Non-additive model for specific heat of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Silva, R.; Mello, V. D.

    2016-10-01

    By using non-additive Tsallis entropy we demonstrate numerically that one-dimensional quasicrystals, whose energy spectra are multifractal Cantor sets, are characterized by an entropic parameter, and calculate the electronic specific heat, where we consider a non-additive entropy Sq. In our method we consider an energy spectra calculated using the one-dimensional tight binding Schrödinger equation, and their bands (or levels) are scaled onto the [ 0 , 1 ] interval. The Tsallis' formalism is applied to the energy spectra of Fibonacci and double-period one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We analytically obtain an expression for the specific heat that we consider to be more appropriate to calculate this quantity in those quasiperiodic structures.

  2. Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR data. Part 3; Moistening Estimates over Tropical Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shige, S.; Takayabu, Y.; Tao, W.-K.

    2007-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for threefourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to rne-sosynoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations In environmental prediction models. However, the LH and water vapor profile or budget (called the apparent moisture sink, or Q2) is closely related. This paper presented the development of an algorithm for retrieving Q2 using 'TRMM precipitation radar. Since there is no direct measurement of LH and Q2, the validation of algorithm usually applies a method called consistency check. Consistency checking involving Cloud Resolving Model (CRM)-generated LH and 42 profiles and algorithm-reconstructed is a useful step in evaluating the performance of a given algorithm. In this process, the CRM simulation of a time-dependent precipitation process (multiple-day time series) is used to obtain the required input parameters for a given algorithm. The algorithm is then used to "econsti-LKth"e heating and moisture profiles that the CRM simulation originally produced, and finally both sets of conformal estimates (model and algorithm) are compared each other. The results indicate that discrepancies between the reconstructed and CM-simulated profiles for Q2, especially at low levels

  3. The effect of latent heat release on synoptic-to-planetary wave interactions and its implication for satellite observations: Theoretical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Lee E.; Bleck, Rainer

    1989-01-01

    Simple models are being developed to simulate interaction of planetary and synoptic-scale waves incorporating the effects of large-scale topography; eddy heat and momentum fluxes (or nonlinear dynamics); radiative heating/cooling; and latent heat release (precipitation) in synoptic-scale waves. The importance of latent heat release is determined in oceanic storm tracks for temporal variability and time-mean behavior of planetary waves. The model results were compared with available observations of planetary and synoptic-scale wave variability and time-mean circulation. The usefulness of monitoring precipitation in oceanic storm tracks by satellite observing systems was ascertained. The modeling effort includes two different low-order quasi-geostrophic models-time-dependent version and climatological mean version. The modeling also includes a low-order primitive equation model. A time-dependent, multi-level version will be used to validate the two-level Q-G models and examine effects of spherical geometry.

  4. Development of media for dynamic latent heat storage for the low-temperature range. Part 1: Thermal analyses of selected salt hydrate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanwischer, H.; Tamme, R.

    1985-01-01

    Phase change temperatures and phase change enthalpies of seventeen salt hydrates, three double salts, and four eutectics were measured thermodynamically and the results reported herein. Good results were obtained, especially for congruently melting salt hydrates. Incongruently melting salt hydrates appear less suitable for heat storage applications. The influence of the second phase - water, acid and hydroxide - to the latent heat is described. From these results, basic values of the working temperatures and storage capabilities of various storage media compositions may be derived.

  5. Extracellular heat shock protein HSP90{beta} secreted by MG63 osteosarcoma cells inhibits activation of latent TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2010-07-30

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) is secreted as a latent complex, which consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. The release of the mature ligand from LAP usually occurs through conformational change of the latent complex and is therefore considered to be the first step in the activation of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. So far, factors such as heat, pH changes, and proteolytic cleavage are reportedly involved in this activation process, but the precise molecular mechanism is still far from clear. Identification and characterization of the cell surface proteins that bind to LAP are important to our understanding of the latent TGF-{beta} activation process. In this study, we have identified heat shock protein 90 {beta} (HSP90{beta}) from the cell surface of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line as a LAP binding protein. We have also found that MG63 cells secrete HSP90{beta} into extracellular space which inhibits the activation of latent TGF-{beta}1, and that there is a subsequent decrease in cell proliferation. TGF-{beta}1-mediated stimulation of MG63 cells resulted in the increased cell surface expression of HSP90{beta}. Thus, extracellular HSP90{beta} is a negative regulator for the activation of latent TGF-{beta}1 modulating TGF-{beta} signaling in the extracellular domain. -- Research highlights: {yields} Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) is secreted as a latent complex. {yields} This complex consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. {yields} The release of the mature ligand from LAP is the first step in TGF-{beta} activation. {yields} We identified for the first time a novel mechanism for this activation process. {yields} Heat shock protein 90 {beta} is discovered as a negative regulator for this process.

  6. Evidence for increased latent heat transport during the Cretaceous (Albian) greenhouse warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of increased heat transfer by atmospheric H 2O vapor during the Albian greenhouse warming suggest that the intensified hydrologic cycle played a greater role in warming high latitudes than at present and thus represents a viable alternative to oceanic heat transport. Sphaerosiderite ??18O values in paleosols of the North American Cretaceous Western Interior Basin are a proxy for meteoric ??18O values, and mass-balance modeling results suggest that Albian precipitation rates exceeded modern rates at both mid and high latitudes. Comparison of modeled Albian and modern precipitation minus evaporation values suggests amplification of the Albian moisture deficit in the tropics and moisture surplus in the mid to high latitudes. The tropical moisture deficit represents an average heat loss of ???75 W/m2 at 10??N paleolatitude (at present, 21 W/m2). The increased precipitation at higher latitudes implies an average heat gain of ???83 W/m2 at 45??N (at present, 23 W/m2) and of 19 W/m2 at 75??N (at present, 4 W/m2). These estimates of increased poleward heat transfer by H2O vapor during the Albian may help to explain the reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradients. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  7. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  8. Thermal energy storage - overview and specific insight into nitrate salts for sensible and latent heat storage.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Nicole; Bauer, Thomas; Martin, Claudia; Eck, Markus; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is capable to reduce the demand of conventional energy sources for two reasons: First, they prevent the mismatch between the energy supply and the power demand when generating electricity from renewable energy sources. Second, utilization of waste heat in industrial processes by thermal energy storage reduces the final energy consumption. This review focuses mainly on material aspects of alkali nitrate salts. They include thermal properties, thermal decomposition processes as well as a new method to develop optimized salt systems.

  9. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  10. A field study of the effects of inhomogeneities of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of characterizing turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture over inhomogeneous surfaces has received increasing attention. This issue is relevant to the performance of general circulation models (GCMs), in which a single grid element can encompass a variety of surface and topographical features. Although considerable progress has been made in describing the energy balance at a surface partially covered by vegetation, less is known about how to treat adjacent regions of sharply contrasting surface characteristics. One difficulty is the scarcity of suitable data sets with which to study the problem, particularly on scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers.

  11. Thermal Assessment of a Latent-Heat Energy Storage Module During Melting and Freezing for Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Archibold, Antonio

    Capital investment reduction, exergetic efficiency improvement and material compatibility issues have been identified as the primary techno-economic challenges associated, with the near-term development and deployment of thermal energy storage (TES) in commercial-scale concentrating solar power plants. Three TES techniques have gained attention in the solar energy research community as possible candidates to reduce the cost of solar-generated electricity, namely (1) sensible heat storage, (2) latent heat (tank filled with phase change materials (PCMs) or encapsulated PCMs packed in a vessel) and (3) thermochemical storage. Among these the PCM macro-encapsulation approach seems to be one of the most-promising methods because of its potential to develop more effective energy exchange, reduce the cost associated with the tank and increase the exergetic efficiency. However, the technological barriers to this approach arise from the encapsulation techniques used to create a durable capsule, as well as an assessment of the fundamental thermal energy transport mechanisms during the phase change. A comprehensive study of the energy exchange interactions and induced fluid flow during melting and solidification of a confined storage medium is reported in this investigation from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis has been placed on the thermal characterization of a single constituent storage module rather than an entire storage system, in order to, precisely capture the energy exchange contributions of all the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms during the phase change processes. Two-dimensional, axisymmetric, transient equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation have been solved numerically by the finite volume scheme. Initially, the interaction between conduction and natural convection energy transport modes, in the absence of thermal radiation, is investigated for solar power applications at temperatures (300--400°C). Later, participating thermal radiation

  12. An Empirical Orthogonal Function-Based Algorithm for Estimating Terrestrial Latent Heat Flux from Eddy Covariance, Meteorological and Satellite Observations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Zhao, Xiang; Jia, Kun; Pintér, Krisztina; McCaughey, J Harry

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) based on remote sensing data is critical in characterizing terrestrial ecosystems and modeling land surface processes. Many LE products were released during the past few decades, but their quality might not meet the requirements in terms of data consistency and estimation accuracy. Merging multiple algorithms could be an effective way to improve the quality of existing LE products. In this paper, we present a data integration method based on modified empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to integrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LE product (MOD16) and the Priestley-Taylor LE algorithm of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) estimate. Twenty-two eddy covariance (EC) sites with LE observation were chosen to evaluate our algorithm, showing that the proposed EOF fusion method was capable of integrating the two satellite data sets with improved consistency and reduced uncertainties. Further efforts were needed to evaluate and improve the proposed algorithm at larger spatial scales and time periods, and over different land cover types. PMID:27472383

  13. An Empirical Orthogonal Function-Based Algorithm for Estimating Terrestrial Latent Heat Flux from Eddy Covariance, Meteorological and Satellite Observations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Zhao, Xiang; Jia, Kun; Pintér, Krisztina; McCaughey, J Harry

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) based on remote sensing data is critical in characterizing terrestrial ecosystems and modeling land surface processes. Many LE products were released during the past few decades, but their quality might not meet the requirements in terms of data consistency and estimation accuracy. Merging multiple algorithms could be an effective way to improve the quality of existing LE products. In this paper, we present a data integration method based on modified empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to integrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LE product (MOD16) and the Priestley-Taylor LE algorithm of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) estimate. Twenty-two eddy covariance (EC) sites with LE observation were chosen to evaluate our algorithm, showing that the proposed EOF fusion method was capable of integrating the two satellite data sets with improved consistency and reduced uncertainties. Further efforts were needed to evaluate and improve the proposed algorithm at larger spatial scales and time periods, and over different land cover types.

  14. An Empirical Orthogonal Function-Based Algorithm for Estimating Terrestrial Latent Heat Flux from Eddy Covariance, Meteorological and Satellite Observations

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fei; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Zhao, Xiang; Jia, Kun; Pintér, Krisztina; McCaughey, J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) based on remote sensing data is critical in characterizing terrestrial ecosystems and modeling land surface processes. Many LE products were released during the past few decades, but their quality might not meet the requirements in terms of data consistency and estimation accuracy. Merging multiple algorithms could be an effective way to improve the quality of existing LE products. In this paper, we present a data integration method based on modified empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to integrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LE product (MOD16) and the Priestley-Taylor LE algorithm of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) estimate. Twenty-two eddy covariance (EC) sites with LE observation were chosen to evaluate our algorithm, showing that the proposed EOF fusion method was capable of integrating the two satellite data sets with improved consistency and reduced uncertainties. Further efforts were needed to evaluate and improve the proposed algorithm at larger spatial scales and time periods, and over different land cover types. PMID:27472383

  15. Two-Dimensional, Supersonic, Linearized Flow with Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard

    1959-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the forces on a thin supersonic wing underneath which the air is heated. The analysis is limited principally to linearized theory but nonlinear effects are considered. It is shown that significant advantages to external heating would exist if the heat were added well below and ahead of the wing.

  16. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, J. I.; Hidalgo, A.; Tello, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge–Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969

  17. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L

    2014-10-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration.

  18. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L

    2014-10-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969

  19. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  20. Estimating the daily course of Konza Prairie latent heat fluxes using a modified Tergra model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Allen S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests of the Tergra-2 model are based on data collected under moderately wet to wet and very dry soil moisture conditions. Further testing of the model under intermediate soil moisture conditions is required and additional testing under very dry conditions may lead to modifications that make the model more suitable to water-stressed conditions. Combining the Tergra model with a soil evaporation routine should enhance the accuracy of the model and allow it to be employed in situations where vapor fluxes are not almost solely attributable to transpiration.

  1. Improvement of discharge characteristics of latent heat thermal energy storage unit by using carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, Jun; Oishi, Akira; Kodama, Yoshikazu; Kanou, Makoto; Miyatake, Osamu

    1999-07-01

    Many phase change materials have unacceptably low thermal conductivities. Metal fins, metal honeycombs and metal matrices have been examined to enhance the thermal conductivity of the PCMs. This study proposed an enhancement technique using carbon fibers with high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers prepared in this study is 220 W/(m{center_dot}K). Paraffin wax (0.26 W/(m{center_dot}K) in solid phase) and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O-mixture (0.8 W/(m{center_dot}K) in solid phase) were selected as heat storage media. The fibers were uniformly mixed with th PCM encapsulated in a cylindrical capsule. The effective thermal conductivities of the fibers/PCM composites were measured. Figure A-1 shows the ratio of the effective thermal conductivity of the composite (k{sub c}) to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material (k{sub m}). The figure demonstrates that the fibers essentially enhance the thermal conductivities of paraffin. For paraffin, there is little dependence of the effective thermal conductivity on the fiber length (L{sub f}). Though the k{sub c}/k{sub m} for Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O-mixture is lower than that of the paraffin wax, 2% fibers increase the thermal conductivity of the PCM by a factor of about three. This value is almost identical to the thermal conductivity of ice (2.2 W/(m{center_dot}K)). The effect of the carbon fibers on discharge characteristics of a thermal energy storage system was investigated. Capsules containing a carbon fibers/paraffin composite are packed into a thermal energy storage unit. The inlet fluid temperature (T{sub in})and the outlet fluid temperature (T{sub out}) were measured during the discharge process. Figure A-2 shows a typical result of the experiments. Remarkable effect of the fibers is observed after the outlet temperature reaches the phase change temperature ({approx}60 C). That is, the period where the outlet temperature is maintained near the

  2. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous ( E S) and respiratory ( E R) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature ( T R), hair coat surface temperature ( T S) and respiratory rate ( F R) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature ( T G), air temperature ( T A), wind speed ( U), and partial air vapour pressure ( P V). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E S and E R were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m-2 and 44.0 W m-2, respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m-2 and 30.2 W m-2, respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects ( P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T S and E S in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect ( P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T S (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E S was higher in the neck (133.3 W m-2) than in the flank (116.2 W m-2) and hindquarters (98.6 W m-2). Coat colour affected significantly both T S and E S ( P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T S and E S in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m-2, respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m-2, respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific for semi-arid regions.

  3. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous (E(S)) and respiratory (E(R)) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature (T(R)), hair coat surface temperature (T(S)) and respiratory rate (F(R)) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature (T(G)), air temperature (T(A)), wind speed (U), and partial air vapour pressure (P(V)). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E(S) and E(R) were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m(-2) and 44.0 W m(-2), respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m(-2) and 30.2 W m(-2), respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects (P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T(S) and E(S) in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect (P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T(S) (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E(S) was higher in the neck (133.3 W m(-2)) than in the flank (116.2 W m(-2)) and hindquarters (98.6 W m(-2)). Coat colour affected significantly both T(S) and E(S) (P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T(S) and E(S) in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m(-2), respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m(-2), respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific

  4. Estimation of Mesoscale Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM Rain Statistics Utilizing a Simple One-Dimensional Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacovazzi, Robert A., Jr.; Prabhakara, C.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a model is developed to estimate mesoscale-resolution atmospheric latent heating (ALH) profiles. It utilizes rain statistics deduced from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, and cloud vertical velocity profiles and regional surface thermodynamic climatologies derived from other available data sources. From several rain events observed over tropical ocean and land, ALH profiles retrieved by this model in convective rain regions reveal strong warming throughout most of the troposphere, while in stratiform rain regions they usually show slight cooling below the freezing level and significant warming above. The mesoscale-average, or total, ALH profiles reveal a dominant stratiform character, because stratiform rain areas are usually much larger than convective rain areas. Sensitivity tests of the model show that total ALH at a given tropospheric level varies by less than +/- 10 % when convective and stratiform rain rates and mesoscale fractional rain areas are perturbed individually by 1 15 %. This is also found when the non-uniform convective vertical velocity profiles are replaced by one that is uniform. Larger variability of the total ALH profiles arises when climatological ocean- and land-surface temperatures (water vapor mixing ratios) are independently perturbed by +/- 1.0 K (+/- 5 %) and +/- 5.0 K (+/- 15 %), respectively. At a given tropospheric level, such perturbations can cause a +/- 25 % variation of total ALH over ocean, and a factor-of-two sensitivity over land. This sensitivity is reduced substantially if perturbations of surface thermodynamic variables do not change surface relative humidity, or are not extended throughout the entire model evaporation layer. The ALH profiles retrieved in this study agree qualitatively with tropical total diabatic heating profiles deduced in earlier studies. Also, from January and July 1999 ALH-profile climatologies generated separately with TRMM Microwave Imager and Precipitation Radar rain

  5. Evaluation of three satellite-based latent heat flux algorithms over forest ecosystems using eddy covariance data.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunjun; Zhang, Yuhu; Zhao, Shaohua; Li, Xianglan; Jia, Kun

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the performance of three satellite-based latent heat flux (LE) algorithms over forest ecosystems using observed data from 40 flux towers distributed across the world on all continents. These are the revised remote sensing-based Penman-Monteith LE (RRS-PM) algorithm, the modified satellite-based Priestley-Taylor LE (MS-PT) algorithm, and the semi-empirical Penman LE (UMD-SEMI) algorithm. Sensitivity analysis illustrates that both energy and vegetation terms has the highest sensitivity compared with other input variables. The validation results show that three algorithms demonstrate substantial differences in algorithm performance for estimating daily LE variations among five forest ecosystem biomes. Based on the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and root-mean-squared error (RMSE), the MS-PT algorithm has high performance over both deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) (0.81, 25.4 W/m(2)) and mixed forest (MF) (0.62, 25.3 W/m(2)) sites, the RRS-PM algorithm has high performance over evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF) (0.4, 28.1 W/m(2)) sites, and the UMD-SEMI algorithm has high performance over both deciduous needleleaf forest (DNF) (0.78, 17.1 W/m(2)) and evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) (0.51, 28.1 W/m(2)) sites. Perhaps the lower uncertainties in the required forcing data for the MS-PT algorithm, the complicated algorithm structure for the RRS-PM algorithm, and the calibrated coefficients of the UMD-SEMI algorithm based on ground-measured data may explain these differences.

  6. Array-Based Transcript Profiling and Limiting-Dilution Reverse Transcription-PCR Analysis Identify Additional Latent Genes in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chandriani, Sanjay; Ganem, Don

    2010-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a B-lymphotropic herpesvirus strongly linked to both lymphoproliferative diseases and Kaposi's sarcoma. The viral latency program of KSHV is central to persistent infection and plays important roles in the pathogenesis of KSHV-related tumors. Up to six polypeptides and 18 microRNAs are known to be expressed in latency, but it is unclear if all major latency genes have been identified. Here, we have employed array-based transcript profiling and limiting-dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methodologies to explore this issue in several KSHV-infected cell lines. Our results show that RNAs encoding the K1 protein are found at low levels in most latently infected cell lines. The gene encoding v-IL-6 is also expressed as a latent transcript in some contexts. Both genes encode powerful signaling molecules with particular relevance to B cell biology: K1 mimics signaling through the B cell receptor, and v-IL-6 promotes B cell survival. These data resolve earlier controversies about K1 and v-IL-6 expression and indicate that, in addition to core latency genes, some transcripts can be expressed in KSHV latency in a context-dependent manner. PMID:20219929

  7. Global patterns of land-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance, satellite, and meteorological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Margolis, Hank A.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Richardson, Andrew D.; Arain, M. Altaf; Arneth, Almut; Bernhofer, Christian; Bonal, Damien; Chen, Jiquan; Gianelle, Damiano; Gobron, Nadine; Kiely, Gerald; Kutsch, Werner; Lasslop, Gitta; Law, Beverly E.; Lindroth, Anders; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy J.; Papale, Dario; Sottocornola, Matteo; Vaccari, Francesco; Williams, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    We upscaled FLUXNET observations of carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes to the global scale using the machine learning technique, model tree ensembles (MTE). We trained MTE to predict site-level gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climate and meteorological data, and information on land use. We applied the trained MTEs to generate global flux fields at a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution and a monthly temporal resolution from 1982 to 2008. Cross-validation analyses revealed good performance of MTE in predicting among-site flux variability with modeling efficiencies (MEf) between 0.64 and 0.84, except for NEE (MEf = 0.32). Performance was also good for predicting seasonal patterns (MEf between 0.84 and 0.89, except for NEE (0.64)). By comparison, predictions of monthly anomalies were not as strong (MEf between 0.29 and 0.52). Improved accounting of disturbance and lagged environmental effects, along with improved characterization of errors in the training data set, would contribute most to further reducing uncertainties. Our global estimates of LE (158 ± 7 J × 1018 yr-1), H (164 ± 15 J × 1018 yr-1), and GPP (119 ± 6 Pg C yr-1) were similar to independent estimates. Our global TER estimate (96 ± 6 Pg C yr-1) was likely underestimated by 5-10%. Hot spot regions of interannual variability in carbon fluxes occurred in semiarid to semihumid regions and were controlled by moisture supply. Overall, GPP was more important to interannual variability in NEE than TER. Our empirically derived fluxes may be used for calibration and evaluation of land surface process models and for exploratory and diagnostic assessments of the biosphere.

  8. Global patterns of land-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance, satellite, and meteorological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Reichstein, M.

    2012-12-01

    We upscaled FLUXNET observations of carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes to the global scale using the machine learning technique, Model Tree Ensembles (MTE). We trained MTE to predict site-level gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climate and meteorological data, and information on land use. We applied the trained MTEs to generate global flux fields at a 0.5° x 0.5o spatial resolution and a monthly temporal resolution from 1982-2008. Cross-validation analyses revealed good performance of MTE in predicting among-site flux variability with modeling efficiencies (MEf) between 0.64 and 0.84, except for NEE (MEf = 0.32). Performance was also good for predicting seasonal patterns (MEf between 0.84 and 0.89, except for NEE (0.64)). By comparison, predictions of monthly anomalies were weak. Our products are increasingly used to evaluate global land surface models. However, depending on the flux of interest (e.g. gross primary production, terrestrial ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange, evapotranspiration) and the pattern of interest (mean annual map, seasonal cycles, interannual variability, trends) the robustness and uncertainty of these products varies considerably. To avoid pitfalls, this talk also aims at providing an overview of uncertainties associated with these products, and to provide recommendations on the usage for land surface model evaluations. Finally, we present FLUXCOM - an ongoing activity that aims at generating an ensemble of data-driven FLUXNET based products based on diverse approaches.

  9. Latent fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  10. The Simulation of the Opposing Fluxes of Latent Heat and CO2 over Various Land-Use Types: Coupling a Gas Exchange Model to a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyers, Mark; Krüger, Andreas; Werner, Christiane; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Zacharias, Stefan; Kerschgens, Michael

    2011-04-01

    A mesoscale meteorological model (FOOT3DK) is coupled with a gas exchange model to simulate surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O under field conditions. The gas exchange model consists of a C3 single leaf photosynthesis sub-model and an extended big leaf (sun/shade) sub-model that divides the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions. Simulated CO2 fluxes of the stand-alone version of the gas exchange model correspond well to eddy-covariance measurements at a test site in a rural area in the west of Germany. The coupled FOOT3DK/gas exchange model is validated for the diurnal cycle at singular grid points, and delivers realistic fluxes with respect to their order of magnitude and to the general daily course. Compared to the Jarvis-based big leaf scheme, simulations of latent heat fluxes with a photosynthesis-based scheme for stomatal conductance are more realistic. As expected, flux averages are strongly influenced by the underlying land cover. While the simulated net ecosystem exchange is highly correlated with leaf area index, this correlation is much weaker for the latent heat flux. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is associated with transpirational water loss via the stomata, and the resulting opposing surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O are reproduced with the model approach. Over vegetated surfaces it is shown that the coupling of a photosynthesis-based gas exchange model with the land-surface scheme of a mesoscale model results in more realistic simulated latent heat fluxes.

  11. The Linkages between Latent Heating to Cloud and Precipitation Profiles in WRF Model Simulations of Typhoon Chaba (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Guo, J.; Fu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Despite its fundamental role in driving the genesis and evolution of tropical cyclones as well as large scale atmospheric waves including ENSO, monsoon and MJO, the spatial and temporal distribution of latent heating (LH) remains one of the largest uncertainties in weather and climate modeling. With the rapid advance in satellite active sensors such as the TRMM PR, CloudSat CPR and the coming GPM DPR, more comprehensive and reliable observations of cloud and precipitation profiles provide great opportunities to improve the accuracy of estimating LH from space. However, LH is released through the 'processes' of water phase change in the atmosphere while satellite observations provide the estimation of the 'state' of cloud and precipitation, the physical linkages between LH to cloud and precipitation profiles are required to develop next generation physical-based LH algorithms. In this study, we examined the relationships among the condensations heating (LHcon), cloud water content (CWC) and rain rate (Rr) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations of typhoon Chaba (2004) under five different microphysical schemes including Purdue Lin, Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model, WSM6, Thompson et al. and Morrison et al. 2-Moment schemes, respectively. Firstly, the LHcon has the highest correlations (~ 0.85 for convective rains) with the term of Rr αCWC which represents the rate of rain formation from auto-conversion and accretion. Although cloud and precipitation, as the ultimate outcomes of water vapor condensation process, also have inherent correlations to LHcon, the connections are significantly weaker than the LHcon - Rr αCWC linkages. Such findings are valid in all selected microphysical schemes in both 2-D CRM (Min et al 2013; Li et al 2013) and 3-D WRF simulations. Secondly, the sensitivity of maximum explained variances of LHcon by Rr αCWC to different microphysical schemes are relatively low. The associated optimal exponential of α is

  12. Transient thermal analysis of three fast-charging latent heat storage configurations for a space-based power system

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Arimilli, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based thermal storage application must accept large quantities of heat in a short period of time at an elevated temperature. A model of a lithium hydride phase change energy storage system was used to estimate reasonable physical dimensions for this application which included the use of a liquid metal heat transfer fluid. A finite difference computer code was developed and used to evaluate three methods of enhancing heat transfer in the PCM energy storage system. None of these three methods, inserting thin fins, reticulated nickel, or liquid lithium, significantly improved the system performance. The use of a 95% void fraction reticulated nickel insert was found to increase the storage capacity (total energy stored) of the system slightly with only a small decrease in the system energy density (energy storage/system mass). The addition of 10% liquid lithium was found to cause minor increases in both storage density and storage capacity with the added benefit of reducing the hydrogen pressure of the lithium hydride. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Impact of different eddy covariance sensors and set-up on the annual balance of CO2 and fluxes of CH4 and latent heat in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Zona, D.; Gioli, B.; Murphy, P.; Burba, G. G.; Oechel, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Expanding eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the Arctic is critical for refining the global C budget. Continuous measurements are particularly challenging because of the remote locations, low power availability, and extreme weather conditions. The necessity for tailoring instrumentation at different sites further complicates the interpretation of results and may add uncertainty to estimates of annual CO2 budgets. We investigated the influence of different sensor combinations on FCO2, latent heat (LE), and FCH4, and assessed the differences in annual FCO2 estimated with different instrumentation at the same sites. Using data from four sites across the North Slope of Alaska, we resolved FCO2 and FCH4 to within 5% using different combinations of open- and closed-path gas analyzers and within 10% using heated and non-heated anemometers. A continuously heated anemometer increased data coverage relative to non-heated anemometers while resulting in comparable annual FCO2, despite over-estimating sensible heat fluxes by 15%. We also implemented an intermittent heating strategy whereby activation only when ice or snow blockage of the transducers was detected. This resulted in comparable data coverage (~ 60%) to the continuously heated anemometer, while avoiding potential over-estimation of sensible heat and gas fluxes. We found good agreement in FCO2 and FCH4 from two closed-path and one open-path gas analyzer, despite the need for large spectral corrections of closed-path fluxes and density and temperature corrections to open-path sensors. However, data coverage was generally greater when using closed-path, especially during cold seasons (36-40% vs 10-14% for the open path), when fluxes from Arctic regions are particularly uncertain and potentially critical to annual C budgets. Measurement of Arctic LE remains a challenge due to strong attenuation along sample tubes, even when heated, that could not be accounted for with spectral corrections.

  14. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  15. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  16. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  17. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg... monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  19. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg... monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  1. Phase-field model of solid-liquid phase transition with density difference and latent heat in velocity and elastic fields.

    PubMed

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2011-04-01

    We present a phase-field model of solid-liquid transitions with inhomogeneous temperature in one-component systems, including hydrodynamics and elasticity. Our model can describe plastic deformations at large elastic strains. We use it to investigate the melting of a solid domain, accounting for the latent heat effect, where there appears a velocity field in liquid and an elastic field in solid. We present simulation results in two dimensions for three cases of melting. First, a solid domain is placed on a heated wall, which melts mostly near the solid-liquid-wall contact region. Second, a solid domain is suspended in a warmer liquid under shear flow, which rotates as a whole because of elasticity and melts gradually. Cooling of the surrounding liquid is accelerated by convection. Third, a solid rod is under high compression in liquid, where slips appear from the solid-liquid interface, leading to a plastic deformation. Subsequently, melting starts in the plastically deformed areas, eventually resulting in the fracture of the rod into pieces. In these phase-transition processes, the interface temperature is kept nearly equal to the coexisting temperature T(cs)(p) away from the heated wall, but this local equilibrium is not attained near the the contact region. We also examine a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition under heating from a boundary in one-component liquids.

  2. Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Strawn, J. A.; Prestwich, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.

  3. The relationship between latent heating, vertical velocity, and precipitation processes: The impact of aerosols on precipitation in organized deep convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen

    2016-06-01

    A high-resolution, two-dimensional cloud-resolving model with spectral-bin microphysics is used to study the impact of aerosols on precipitation processes in both a tropical oceanic and a midlatitude continental squall line with regard to three processes: latent heating (LH), cold pool dynamics, and ice microphysics. Evaporative cooling in the lower troposphere is found to enhance rainfall in low cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration scenarios in the developing stages of a midlatitude convective precipitation system. In contrast, the tropical case produced more rainfall under high CCN concentrations. Both cold pools and low-level convergence are stronger for those configurations having enhanced rainfall. Nevertheless, latent heat release is stronger (especially after initial precipitation) in the scenarios having more rainfall in both the tropical and midlatitude environment. Sensitivity tests are performed to examine the impact of ice and evaporative cooling on the relationship between aerosols, LH, and precipitation processes. The results show that evaporative cooling is important for cold pool strength and rain enhancement in both cases. However, ice microphysics play a larger role in the midlatitude case compared to the tropics. Detailed analysis of the vertical velocity-governing equation shows that temperature buoyancy can enhance updrafts/downdrafts in the middle/lower troposphere in the convective core region; however, the vertical pressure gradient force (PGF) is of the same order and acts in the opposite direction. Water loading is small but of the same order as the net PGF-temperature buoyancy forcing. The balance among these terms determines the intensity of convection.

  4. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heating in TRMM: Validation and Assimilation in the GEOS Data Assimilation System. [Year 2001 Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming-Hua

    2001-01-01

    I have derived the vertical profiles of apparent heating Q and Q2 by using 3-hourly balloon sounding data from the ARM SGP sounding array for three IOPs in 2000. These IOPs cover the periods from 3/1 to 3/22, from 9/25 to 10/8, and from 11/27 to 12/22. These heating profiles will be collocated with the TRMM heating profiles for validation studies once the TRMM profiles become available to the investigators. I have also produced the objective analyses of Q1, Q2 and forcing fields for the international GCSS Case 3 Intercomparison project. The GSFC CRM participated in study, based on which TRMM heating profiles are derived. I have also studied to assimilate the vertical heating profile by constraining the cloud-base mass flux in the cumulus convection scheme using the CCM3. I first derive the vertical heating profile for each convective plume of unit cloud-base mass flux. The observed heating profile form ARM is then de-convoluted to derive the cloud base mass fluxes of all individual plumes. These fluxes are compared with those derived from the quasi-equilibrium hypothesis. They are shown to improve many other aspects of the model behavior.

  5. Models to predict both sensible and latent heat transfer in the respiratory tract of Morada Nova sheep under semiarid tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Vinícius Carvalho; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; da Silva, Josinaldo Araújo; Pereira, Walter Esfraim; Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti Pimenta; Almeida, Maria Elivânia Vieira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to build a prediction model both sensible and latent heat transfer by respiratory tract for Morada Nova sheep under field conditions in a semiarid tropical environment, using easily measured physiological and environmental parameters. Twelve dry Morada Nova ewes with an average of 3 ± 1.2 years old and average body weight of 32.76 ± 3.72 kg were used in a Latin square design 12 × 12 (12 days of records and 12 schedules). Tidal volume, respiratory rate, expired air temperature, and partial vapor pressure of the expired air were obtained from the respiratory facial mask and using a physiological measurement system. Ewes were evaluated from 0700 to 1900 h in each day under shade. A simple nonlinear model to estimate tidal volume as a function of respiratory rate was developed. Equation to estimate the expired air temperature was built, and the ambient air temperature was the best predictor together with relative humidity and ambient vapor pressure. In naturalized Morada Nova sheep, respiratory convection seems to be a mechanism of heat transfer of minor importance even under mild air temperature. Evaporation from the respiratory system increased together with ambient air temperature. At ambient air temperature, up to 35 °C respiratory evaporation accounted 90 % of the total heat lost by respiratory system, on average. Models presented here allow to estimate the heat flow from the respiratory tract for Morada Nova sheep bred in tropical region, using easily measured physiological and environmental traits as respiratory rate, ambient air temperature, and relative humidity.

  6. Diurnal to annual changes in latent, sensible heat, and CO2 fluxes over a Laurentian Great Lake: A case study in Western Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Changliang; Chen, Jiquan; Stepien, Carol A.; Chu, Housen; Ouyang, Zutao; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Becker, Richard H.; John, Ranjeet

    2015-08-01

    To understand the carbon and energy exchange between the lake surface and the atmosphere, direct measurements of latent, sensible heat, and CO2 fluxes were taken using the eddy covariance (EC) technique in Western Lake Erie during October 2011 to September 2013. We found that the latent heat flux (LE) had a marked one-peak seasonal change in both years that differed from the diurnal course and lacked a sinusoidal dynamic common in terrestrial ecosystems. Daily mean LE was 4.8 ± 0.1 and 4.3 ± 0.2 MJ m-2 d-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. The sensible heat flux (H) remained much lower than the LE, with a daily mean of 0.9 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 MJ m-2 d-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. As a result, the Bowen ratio was <1 during most of the 2 year period, with the lowest summer value at 0.14. The vapor pressure deficit explained 35% of the variation in half hourly LE, while the temperature difference between the water surface and air explained 65% of the variation in half hourly H. Western Lake Erie acted as a small carbon sink holding -19.0 ± 5.4 and -40.2 ± 13.3 g C m-2 in the first and second summers (May-September) but as an annual source of 77.7 ± 18.6 and 49.5 ± 17.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. The CO2 flux (FCO2) rate varied from -0.45 g C m-2 d-1 to 0.98 g C m-2 d-1. Similar to LE, FCO2 had noticeable diurnal changes during the months that had high chlorophyll a months but not during other months. A significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) was found between FCO2 and chlorophyll a on monthly fluxes. Three gap-filling methods, including marginal distribution sampling, mean diurnal variation, and monthly mean, were quantitatively assessed, yielding an uncertainty of 4%, 6%, and 10% in LE, H, and FCO2, respectively.

  7. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ∼2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output. PMID:21777052

  8. Heat transfer characteristics for some coolant additives used for water cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ziyan, H.Z.; Helali, A.H.B.

    1996-12-31

    Engine coolants contain certain additives to prevent engine overheating or coolant freezing in cold environments. Coolants, also, contain corrosion and rust inhibitors, among other additives. As most engines are using engine cooling solutions, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of engine coolants on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. This has its direct impact on radiator size and environment. This paper describes the apparatus and the measurement techniques. Also, it presents the obtained boiling heat transfer results at different parameters. Three types of engine coolants and their mixtures in distilled water are evaluated, under sub-cooled and saturated boiling conditions. A profound effect of the presence of additives in the coolant, on heat transfer, was clear since changes of heat transfer for different coolants were likely to occur. The results showed that up to 180% improvement of boiling heat transfer coefficient is experienced with some types of coolants. However, at certain concentrations other coolants provide deterioration or not enhancement in the boiling heat transfer characteristics. This investigation proved that there are limitations, which are to be taken into consideration, for the composition of engine coolants in different environments. In warm climates, ethylene glycol should be kept at the minimum concentration required for dissolving other components, whereas borax is beneficial to the enhancement of the heat transfer characteristics.

  9. The effect of latent heat release on synoptic-to-planetary wave interactions and its implication for satellite observations: Theoretical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Lee E.; Bleck, Rainer; Obrien, Enda

    1990-01-01

    The project objectives are to develop process models to investigate the interaction of planetary and synoptic-scale waves including the effects of latent heat release (precipitation), nonlinear dynamics, physical and boundary-layer processes, and large-scale topography; to determine the importance of latent heat release for temporal variability and time-mean behavior of planetary and synoptic-scale waves; to compare the model results with available observations of planetary and synoptic wave variability; and to assess the implications of the results for monitoring precipitation in oceanic-storm tracks by satellite observing systems. Researchers have utilized two different models for this project: a two-level quasi-geostrophic model to study intraseasonal variability, anomalous circulations and the seasonal cycle, and a 10-level, multi-wave primitive equation model to validate the two-level Q-G model and examine effects of convection, surface processes, and spherical geometry. It explicitly resolves several planetary and synoptic waves and includes specific humidity (as a predicted variable), moist convection, and large-scale precipitation. In the past year researchers have concentrated on experiments with the multi-level primitive equation model. The dynamical part of that model is similar to the spectral model used by the National Meteorological Center for medium-range forecasts. The model includes parameterizations of large-scale condensation and moist convection. To test the validity of results regarding the influence of convective precipitation, researchers can use either one of two different convective schemes in the model, a Kuo convective scheme or a modified Arakawa-Schubert scheme which includes downdrafts. By choosing one or the other scheme, they can evaluate the impact of the convective parameterization on the circulation. In the past year researchers performed a variety of initial-value experiments with the primitive-equation model. Using initial

  10. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  11. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  12. Airborne flux measurements of CO{sub 2}, sensible, and latent heat over the Hudson Bay lowland

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, R.L.; Hayhoe, H.N.; MacPherson, J.I.; Schuepp, P.H.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of aerial surveys conducted in 1990 over the Hudson Bay Lowland as part of the Northern Wetlands Study by the National Research Council of Ottawa, Canada. Two aerial runs of approximately 100 kilometers in length were completed from James Bay to the Kinosheo Lake area. Atmospheric research aircraft was used to measure the spatial and temporal variations in carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes over the wetlands areas. The data collected as part of this study and interpretation of the results are presented in this paper. 27 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Thermal energy storage – overview and specific insight into nitrate salts for sensible and latent heat storage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Thomas; Martin, Claudia; Eck, Markus; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thermal energy storage (TES) is capable to reduce the demand of conventional energy sources for two reasons: First, they prevent the mismatch between the energy supply and the power demand when generating electricity from renewable energy sources. Second, utilization of waste heat in industrial processes by thermal energy storage reduces the final energy consumption. This review focuses mainly on material aspects of alkali nitrate salts. They include thermal properties, thermal decomposition processes as well as a new method to develop optimized salt systems. PMID:26199853

  14. Quantification and attribution of errors in the simulated annual gross primary production and latent heat fluxes by two global land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Q.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Divergence among the predictions by different global land models has not decreased over the last three assessment reports by the International Panel on Climate Change. Quantification and attribution of the uncertainties of global land surface models are important for the next phase of model improvement and development, is therefore the focus of this study. There are three sources of model uncertainties: model inputs, parameter values and model structure. Here we focus on the errors in model parameters by comparing the differences between the simulated global gross primary productivity (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) by two global land surface models and model-data products of global GPP and LE from 1982-2005. We found that the performance of simulated annual GPP or LE by both models is most sensitive to 2 to 9 model parameters screened out by Morris method for each plant functional type (PFT). Using ensemble simulations, we applied RS-HDMR method to verify the Morris sensitivity results, and implied that about 60% of the variances of model errors in some PFTs are attributed to the sensitive parameters. We selected the combination of key parameter values that minimized the monthly errors of GPP and LE for each. Our study shows that significant improvement of model predictions can be made through parameter optimization using observations.

  15. Interannual Variations and Recurrent Seasonal Discrepancies in Land Surface Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes from Satellite Data and a Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, A.; Liang, P.; Jimenez, C.; Moncet, J. L.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Lynch, R.; d'Entremont, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variability of land surface latent and sensible heat fluxes has been analyzed at seasonal and sub-seasonal time scales for flux estimates derived from satellite data and from a land surface model. The satellite-derived estimates were produced with a neural network operating on a combination of microwave, visible, and infrared satellite data products. Properties of these flux datasets were assessed by subjective and statistical methods, including comparisons with data from flux towers. The agreement with tower fluxes is closer for the satellite-derived fluxes than for the LSM fluxes with respect to overall temporal variability. For interannual variations of sub-seasonal fluxes, the satellite/NN and LSM fluxes have similar, moderate correlations (~0.4) with the tower fluxes. Driving factors contributing to the interannual variability and recurrent discrepancies between these flux estimates were identified. These factors include the sensitivity of satellite-derived fluxes to the satellite inputs and the responses of modeled fluxes to changes in soil moisture induced by prior precipitation.

  16. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  17. Satellite evidence for no change in terrestrial latent heat flux in the Three-River Headwaters region of China over the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunjun; Zhao, Shaohua; Wan, Huawei; Zhang, Yuhu; Jiang, Bo; Jia, Kun; Liu, Meng; Wu, Jinhui

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrial latent heat flux (LE) in the Three-River Headwaters region (TRHR) of China plays an essential role in quantifying the amount of water evaporation and carbon sink over the high altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP). Global warming is expected to accelerate terrestrial hydrological cycle and to increase evaporation. However, direct field observations are lacking in this region and the long-term variability in LE remains uncertain. In this study, we have revised a semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm based on ground eddy covariance (EC) observations from an alpine grass site and provided new satellite-based evidence to assess LE change in the TRHR during 1982-2010. Our results show that the average annual terrestrial LE in the TRHR is about 38.8 W/m 2 and there is no statistically significant change in annual LE from 1982 to 2010. We also found that during the same time period, terrestrial LE over the east region of the TRHR significantly decreased, on average, by 0.7 W/m 2 per decade, which was driven primarily by the surface incident solar radiation ( R s ) limitation, offsetting the increased LE over the west region of the TRHR caused by the increased precipitation ( P) and soil moisture ( SM).

  18. Satellite evidence for no change in terrestrial latent heat flux in the Three-River Headwaters region of China over the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunjun; Zhao, Shaohua; Wan, Huawei; Zhang, Yuhu; Jiang, Bo; Jia, Kun; Liu, Meng; Wu, Jinhui

    2016-08-01

    Terrestrial latent heat flux (LE) in the Three-River Headwaters region (TRHR) of China plays an essential role in quantifying the amount of water evaporation and carbon sink over the high altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP). Global warming is expected to accelerate terrestrial hydrological cycle and to increase evaporation. However, direct field observations are lacking in this region and the long-term variability in LE remains uncertain. In this study, we have revised a semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm based on ground eddy covariance (EC) observations from an alpine grass site and provided new satellite-based evidence to assess LE change in the TRHR during 1982-2010. Our results show that the average annual terrestrial LE in the TRHR is about 38.8 W/m 2 and there is no statistically significant change in annual LE from 1982 to 2010. We also found that during the same time period, terrestrial LE over the east region of the TRHR significantly decreased, on average, by 0.7 W/m 2 per decade, which was driven primarily by the surface incident solar radiation (R s ) limitation, offsetting the increased LE over the west region of the TRHR caused by the increased precipitation (P) and soil moisture (SM).

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Overview of Heat Addition and Efficiency Predictions for an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Reid, Terry V.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. Microporous bulk insulation is used in the ground support test hardware to minimize the loss of thermal energy from the electric heat source to the environment. The insulation package is characterized before operation to predict how much heat will be absorbed by the convertor and how much will be lost to the environment during operation. In an effort to validate these predictions, numerous tasks have been performed, which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs. This test and modeling effort included: (a) making thermophysical property measurements of test setup materials to provide inputs to the numerical models, (b) acquiring additional test data that was collected during convertor tests to provide numerical models with temperature profiles of the test setup via thermocouple and infrared measurements, (c) using multidimensional numerical models (computational fluid dynamics code) to predict net heat input of an operating convertor, and (d) using validation test hardware to provide direct comparison of numerical results and validate the multidimensional numerical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This effort produced high fidelity ASC net heat input predictions, which were successfully validated using

  1. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds; Haffner; Tufte

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of approximately 1x10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne less, similar0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S ii]/Halpha and [N ii]/Halpha intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S ii]/[N ii], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply approximately 10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  2. Investigation of the stability of paraffin-exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet composites for latent heat thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Mallow, Anne; Graham, Samuel; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Organic materials, such as paraffin wax, are sought as stable and environmentally friendly phase change materials (PCM) for thermal energy storage, but they suffer from low thermal conductivity which limits the rate at which thermal energy flows into and out of the material. A common method to improve the PCM thermal behavior is through loading with high thermal conductivity particulate fillers. However, the stability of these composites in the molten state is a concern as settling of the fillers will change the effective thermal conductivity. In this work, we investigate the stability of wax loaded with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets either of 1 m (xGnP-1) or 15 m (xGnP-15) diameter. The effect of dispersants, oxidation of the wax, viscosity of the wax, mixing time, and hydrocarbon chain length on stability is reported. It was found that the addition of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) is an effective dispersant for xGnP in paraffin and microcrystalline wax. In addition, mixing time, viscosity, and oxidation of the wax influence stability in the molten state. Overall, it was found that a mixing time of 24 hours for xGnP-15 along with ODPA mixed in a high viscosity, oxidized microcrystalline wax results in composite PCM systems with the greatest stability determined at 80 C in the molten state.

  3. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-01

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  4. Simulation of MLI concerning the influence of an additional heat load on intermediate layers

    SciTech Connect

    Funke, Thomas; Golle, Steffen; Haberstroh, Christoph

    2014-01-29

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used in most cryogenic devices such as LHe cryostats or storage vessels. Numerical and experimental studies of such insulation systems are known from literature. The temperature distribution of intermediate layers has been investigated as well. Experiments using temperature sensors, for example thermocouples, to determine the temperature of intermediate layers had been described. Naturally such wiring causes additional heat load on the respective layer and influences the equilibrium temperature. A mathematical model of heat transfer through MLI has been developed to investigate the temperature distribution across the MLI layers. The model comprises a combination of radiation, residual gas conduction and conductive heat flux. An analysis for variable cold and warm boundary temperatures and various residual gases and pressures is carried out. In addition to the model an experimental test rig will be built for the verification of the model. The paper presents the influence of an additional heat load on an intermediate layer on the temperature distribution and on the overall thermal performance of MLI.

  5. Effect of ionic additive on pool boiling critical heat flux of titania/water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    TiO2/water nanofluids were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of an ionic additive (i.e., nitric acid in this study) on the critical heat flux (CHF) behavior in pool boiling. Experimental results showed that the ionic additive improved the dispersion stability but reduced the CHF increase in the nanofluid. The additive affected the self-assembled nanoparticle structures formed on the heater surfaces by creating a more uniform and smoother structure, thus diminishing the CHF enhancement in nanofluids.

  6. Influence of Alumina Addition to Aluminum Fins for Compact Heat Exchangers Produced by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjam, Aslan; Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    In this work, aluminum and aluminum-alumina powder mixtures were used to produce pyramidal fin arrays on aluminum substrates using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Using aluminum-alumina mixtures instead of pure aluminum powder could be seen as a cost-effective measure, preventing nozzle clogging or the need to use expensive polymer nozzles that wear out rapidly during cold spray. The fin geometries that were produced were observed using a 3D digital microscope to determine the flow passages width and fins' geometric details. Heat transfer and pressure drop tests were carried out using different ranges of appropriate Reynolds numbers for the sought commercial application to compare each fin array and determine the effect of alumina content. It was found that the presence of alumina reduces the fins' performance when compared to pure aluminum fins but that they were still outperforming traditional fins. Numerical simulations were performed to model the fin arrays and were used to predict the pressure loss in the fin array and compare these results with experimental values. The numerical model opens up new avenues in predicting different applicable operating conditions and other possible fin shapes using the same fin composition, instead of performing costly and time-consuming experiments.

  7. Analysis of leaf area index in the ECMWF land surface model and impact on latent heat and carbon fluxes: Application to West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlan, L.; Balsamo, G.; Lafont, S.; Beljaars, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Mougin, E.

    2008-12-01

    A new version of the land surface model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (Carbon-TESSEL, or CTESSEL) includes a vegetation growth model. This study describes a leaf area index (LAI) data assimilation system (LDAS) based on CTESSEL and satellite LAI for operational Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) predictions. The LDAS is evaluated over West Africa. A preliminary experiment shows a significant impact of the LAI on the CTESSEL NEE. The LAI is compared to two satellite products: the predicted annual cycle is delayed over the Sahel and savannah, and the LAI values differ from the satellite products. Preliminary to their use in the LDAS, the LAI products are rescaled to the CTESSEL predictions. The LDAS simulations are confronted to measurements of biomass and LAI for a site in Mali. The LAI analysis is shown to improve the predicted biomass and the annual cycles of the water (latent heat flux, or LE) and carbon (NEE) fluxes. Afterward, the LDAS is run over West Africa with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products (2001-2005). The analysis of LAI shows a limited impact on LE, but it impacts strongly on NEE. Finally, the CTESSEL NEE are compared to two other models' outputs (simple biosphere (SIB) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford (CASA)). The order of magnitude of the three data sets agrees well, and the shift in annual cycle of CTESSEL is reduced by the LDAS. It is concluded that a LAI data assimilation system is essential for NEE prediction at seasonal and interannual timescales, while a LAI satellite-based climatology may be sufficient for accurate LE predictions.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  9. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  10. Model Scramjet Inlet Unstart Induced by Mass Addition and Heat Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Seong-Kyun; Baccarella, Damiano; McGann, Brendan; Liu, Qili; Wermer, Lydiy; Do, Hyungrok

    2015-11-01

    The inlet unstart phenomena in a model scramjet are investigated at an arc-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. The unstart induced by nitrogen or ethylene jets at low or high enthalpy Mach 4.5 freestream flow conditions are compared. The jet injection pressurizes the downstream flow by mass addition and flow blockage. In case of the ethylene jet injection, heat release from combustion increases the backpressure further. Time-resolved schlieren imaging is performed at the jet and the lip of the model inlet to visualize the flow features during unstart. High frequency pressure measurements are used to provide information on pressure fluctuation at the scramjet wall. In both of the mass and heat release driven unstart cases, it is observed that there are similar flow transient and quasi-steady behaviors of unstart shockwave system during the unstart processes. Combustion driven unstart induces severe oscillatory flow motions of the jet and the unstart shock at the lip of the scramjet inlet after the completion of the unstart process, while the unstarted flow induced by solely mass addition remains relatively steady. The discrepancies between the processes of mass and heat release driven unstart are explained by flow choking mechanism.

  11. A review on augmentation of heat transfer in boiling using surfactants/additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anil; Pise, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    Studies of heat transfer enhancement in boiling under various conditions and configurations have given different results. Understanding the boiling behaviour from these studies, literature is reviewed in terms of surface texture, heater geometry and orientation, experimental and numerical studies in presence of surfactant/additives. After understanding different behaviour in boiling, the effect of environment friendly surfactant is studied through literature review. Benchmarking of experimental procedure is done by experimenting and comparing some surfactants studied in literature.

  12. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  14. Measuring the Heats of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, James L.; Tegart, Tracy L.

    1994-01-01

    Uses common equipment (tea kettle and vacuum bottles) to precisely measure the specific heat, latent heat of fusion, and latent heat of vaporization of water. Provides descriptions for all three experiments. (MVL)

  15. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    were compared with three reanalyses (MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR). Although the MMF tends to produce a higher precipitation rate over some topical regions, it actually well captures the variations in the zonal and meridional means. Among the three reanalyses, ERA-Interim seems to have values close to those of the satellite retrievals especially for GPCP. It is interesting to note that the MMF obtained the best results in the rain forest of Africa even better than those of CFSR and ERA-Interim, when compared to CMORPH. MERRA fails to capture the precipitation in this region. We are now collaborating with Steve Rutledge (CSU) to validate the model results for AMMA 6. MC3E and the diurnal variation of precipitation processes The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a joint field campaign between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. It took place in central Oklahoma during the period April 22 _ June 6, 2011. Some of its major objectives involve the use of CRMs in precipitation science such as: (1) testing the fidelity of CRM simulations via intensive statistical comparisons between simulated and observed cloud properties and latent heating fields for a variety of case types, (2) establishing the limits of CRM space-time integration capabilities for quantitative precipitation estimates, and (3) supporting the development and refinement of physically-based GMI, DPR, and DPR-GMI combined retrieval algorithms using ground-based GPM GV Ku-Ka band radar and CRM simulations. The NASA unified WRF model (nu-WRF) was used for real time forecasts during the field campaign, and ten precipitation events were selected for post mission simulations. These events include well-organized squall lines, scattered storms and quasi-linear storms. A paper focused on the diurnal variation of precipitation will be

  16. Heat transfer and material flow during laser assisted multi-layer additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2014-09-28

    A three-dimensional, transient, heat transfer, and fluid flow model is developed for the laser assisted multilayer additive manufacturing process with coaxially fed austenitic stainless steel powder. Heat transfer between the laser beam and the powder particles is considered both during their flight between the nozzle and the growth surface and after they deposit on the surface. The geometry of the build layer obtained from independent experiments is compared with that obtained from the model. The spatial variation of melt geometry, cooling rate, and peak temperatures is examined in various layers. The computed cooling rates and solidification parameters are used to estimate the cell spacings and hardness in various layers of the structure. Good agreement is achieved between the computed geometry, cell spacings, and hardness with the corresponding independent experimental results.

  17. Latent variable models with nonparametric interaction effects of latent variables.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinyuan; Lu, Zhaohua; Feng, Xiangnan

    2014-05-10

    Renal disease is one of the common complications of diabetes, especially for Asian populations. Moreover, cardiovascular and renal diseases share common risk factors. This paper proposes a latent variable model with nonparametric interaction effects of latent variables for a study based on the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry, which was established in 1995 as part of a continuous quality improvement program at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. Renal outcome (outcome latent variable) is regressed in terms of cardiac function and diabetes (explanatory latent variables) through an additive structural equation formulated using a series of unspecified univariate and bivariate smooth functions. The Bayesian P-splines approach, along with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, is proposed to estimate smooth functions, unknown parameters, and latent variables in the model. The performance of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a simulation study. The effect of the nonparametric interaction of cardiac function and diabetes on renal outcome is investigated using the proposed methodology. PMID:24338916

  18. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  19. Latent Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Thaddeus; Petkova, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Finite mixture models have come to play a very prominent role in modelling data. The finite mixture model is predicated on the assumption that distinct latent groups exist in the population. The finite mixture model therefore is based on a categorical latent variable that distinguishes the different groups. Often in practice distinct sub-populations do not actually exist. For example, disease severity (e.g. depression) may vary continuously and therefore, a distinction of diseased and not-diseased may not be based on the existence of distinct sub-populations. Thus, what is needed is a generalization of the finite mixture's discrete latent predictor to a continuous latent predictor. We cast the finite mixture model as a regression model with a latent Bernoulli predictor. A latent regression model is proposed by replacing the discrete Bernoulli predictor by a continuous latent predictor with a beta distribution. Motivation for the latent regression model arises from applications where distinct latent classes do not exist, but instead individuals vary according to a continuous latent variable. The shapes of the beta density are very flexible and can approximate the discrete Bernoulli distribution. Examples and a simulation are provided to illustrate the latent regression model. In particular, the latent regression model is used to model placebo effect among drug treated subjects in a depression study. PMID:20625443

  20. Evaluation of heat-cured resin bases following the addition of denture teeth using a second heat cure.

    PubMed

    Polukoshko, K M; Brudvik, J S; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1992-04-01

    This study compared heat-cured acrylic resin denture baseplate distortions following a second heat cure used to add the denture teeth. The second heat cure was done with three different water-bath curing temperatures. The distortions were evaluated in three planes by use of a measuring microscope. Recorded distortions were not clinically significant.

  1. Precipitation of sword bean proteins by heating and addition of magnesium chloride in a crude extract.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Kaho; Masuda, Tetsuya; Takenaka, Yasuyuki; Masui, Hironori; Tani, Fumito; Arii, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) seeds are a traditional food in Asian countries. In this study, we aimed to determine the optimal methods for the precipitation of sword bean proteins useful for the food development. The soaking time for sword beans was determined by comparing it with that for soybeans. Sword bean proteins were extracted from dried seeds in distilled water using novel methods. We found that most proteins could be precipitated by heating the extract at more than 90 °C. Interestingly, adding magnesium chloride to the extract at lower temperatures induced specific precipitation of a single protein with a molecular weight of approximately 48 kDa. The molecular weight and N-terminal sequence of the precipitated protein was identical to that of canavalin. These data suggested that canavalin was precipitated by the addition of magnesium chloride to the extract. Our results provide important insights into the production of processed foods from sword bean.

  2. Experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms for cylinders in water and FC-72

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M.; Hong, Y.S.

    1995-12-31

    A recently developed photographic method is used to quantify vapor volumetric flow rate above a boiling wire. The volumetric flow rate is combined with additional analyses to determine the overall contributions to the total heat flux from four nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms (latent heat, natural convection, Marangoni flow, and micro-convection). This technique is used to quantify the boiling heat transfer mechanisms versus heat flux for a 510-{micro}m wire immersed in saturated water and in water with a small amount of liquid soap added. These data are compared with similar data taken for a 75-{micro}m wire boiling in saturated FC-72. For all cases, latent heat is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the fully developed nucleate boiling regime. In addition, the latent heat component is significantly increased by the addition of small amounts of soap (surfactant).

  3. Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz model: impact of an additional heating term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the streamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, which appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): "If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can

  4. Nonlinear feedback in a six-dimensional Lorenz Model: impact of an additional heating term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional Lorenz model (6DLM) is derived, based on a recent study using a five-dimensional (5-D) Lorenz model (LM), in order to examine the impact of an additional mode and its accompanying heating term on solution stability. The new mode added to improve the representation of the steamfunction is referred to as a secondary streamfunction mode, while the two additional modes, that appear in both the 6DLM and 5DLM but not in the original LM, are referred to as secondary temperature modes. Two energy conservation relationships of the 6DLM are first derived in the dissipationless limit. The impact of three additional modes on solution stability is examined by comparing numerical solutions and ensemble Lyapunov exponents of the 6DLM and 5DLM as well as the original LM. For the onset of chaos, the critical value of the normalized Rayleigh number (rc) is determined to be 41.1. The critical value is larger than that in the 3DLM (rc ~ 24.74), but slightly smaller than the one in the 5DLM (rc ~ 42.9). A stability analysis and numerical experiments obtained using generalized LMs, with or without simplifications, suggest the following: (1) negative nonlinear feedback in association with the secondary temperature modes, as first identified using the 5DLM, plays a dominant role in providing feedback for improving the solution's stability of the 6DLM, (2) the additional heating term in association with the secondary streamfunction mode may destabilize the solution, and (3) overall feedback due to the secondary streamfunction mode is much smaller than the feedback due to the secondary temperature modes; therefore, the critical Rayleigh number of the 6DLM is comparable to that of the 5DLM. The 5DLM and 6DLM collectively suggest different roles for small-scale processes (i.e., stabilization vs. destabilization), consistent with the following statement by Lorenz (1972): If the flap of a butterfly's wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can

  5. Additions to compact heat exchanger technology: Jet impingement cooling & flow & heat transfer in metal foam-fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstad, Andrew J.

    Compact heat exchangers have been designed following the same basic methodology for over fifty years. However, with the present emphasis on energy efficiency and light weight of prime movers there is increasing demand for completely new heat exchangers. Moreover, new materials and mesoscale fabrication technologies offer the possibility of significantly improving heat exchanger performance over conventional designs. This work involves fundamental flow and heat transfer experimentation to explore two new heat exchange systems: in Part I, large arrays of impinging jets with local extraction and in Part II, metal foams used as fins. Jet impingement cooling is widely used in applications ranging from paper manufacturing to the cooling of gas turbine blades because of the very high local heat transfer coefficients that are possible. While the use of single jet impingement results in non-uniform cooling, increased and more uniform mean heat transfer coefficients may be attained by dividing the total cooling flow among an array of smaller jets. Unfortunately, when the spent fluid from the array's central jets interact with the outer jets, the overall mean heat transfer coefficient is reduced. This problem can be alleviated by locally extracting the spent fluid before it is able to interact with the surrounding jets. An experimental investigation was carried out on a compact impingement array (Xn/Djet = 2.34) utilizing local extraction of the spent fluid (Aspent/Ajet = 2.23) from the jet exit plane. Spatially resolved measurements of the mean velocity field within the array were carried out at jet Reynolds numbers of 2300 and 5300 by magnetic resonance velocimetry, MRV. The geometry provided for a smooth transition from the jet to the target surface and out through the extraction holes without obvious flow recirculation. Mean Nusselt number measurements were also carried out for a Reynolds number range of 2000 to 10,000. The Nusselt number was found to increase with the

  6. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... also monitor and report heat input at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  7. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... also monitor and report heat input at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  8. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... also monitor and report heat input at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  9. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... also monitor and report heat input at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  10. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... heat input data for allocations purposes. 96.76 Section 96.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... to provide heat input data for allocations purposes. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that elects... also monitor and report heat input at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  11. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  12. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p < 0.001) and 77% (p < 0.001), respectively. No differences in the PM2.5 emissions were observed when other additives were added to soybean oil. Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  13. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  14. Latent Variable Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny

    2008-01-01

    This paper formulates a metatheoretical framework for latent variable modeling. It does so by spelling out the difference between observed and latent variables. This difference is argued to be purely epistemic in nature: We treat a variable as "observed" when the inference from data structure to variable structure can be made with certainty and as…

  15. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  16. Multimethod latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Correct and, hence, valid classifications of individuals are of high importance in the social sciences as these classifications are the basis for diagnoses and/or the assignment to a treatment. The via regia to inspect the validity of psychological ratings is the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach. First, a latent variable model for the analysis of rater agreement (latent rater agreement model) will be presented that allows for the analysis of convergent validity between different measurement approaches (e.g., raters). Models of rater agreement are transferred to the level of latent variables. Second, the latent rater agreement model will be extended to a more informative MTMM latent class model. This model allows for estimating (i) the convergence of ratings, (ii) method biases in terms of differential latent distributions of raters and differential associations of categorizations within raters (specific rater bias), and (iii) the distinguishability of categories indicating if categories are satisfyingly distinct from each other. Finally, an empirical application is presented to exemplify the interpretation of the MTMM latent class model. PMID:26441714

  17. Overview of Heat Addition and Efficiency Predictions for an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Reid, Terry; Schifer, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    Past methods of predicting net heat input needed to be validated. Validation effort pursued with several paths including improving model inputs, using test hardware to provide validation data, and validating high fidelity models. Validation test hardware provided direct measurement of net heat input for comparison to predicted values. Predicted value of net heat input was 1.7 percent less than measured value and initial calculations of measurement uncertainty were 2.1 percent (under review). Lessons learned during validation effort were incorporated into convertor modeling approach which improved predictions of convertor efficiency.

  18. Latent palmprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  19. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  20. Processes involved in the development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L A; Smithwick, R W; Devault, G L; Bolinger, B; Lewis, S A

    2001-03-01

    Chemical processes involved in the development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method have been studied. Two major types of latent prints have been investigated-clean and oily prints. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used as a tool for determining the morphology of the polymer developed separately on clean and oily prints after cyanoacrylate fuming. A correlation between the chemical composition of an aged latent fingerprint, prior to development, and the quality of a developed fingerprint has been observed in the morphology. The moisture in the print prior to fuming has been found to be more important than the moisture in the air during fuming for the development of a useful latent print. In addition, the amount of time required to develop a high quality latent print has been found to be within 2 min. The cyanoacrylate polymerization process is extremely rapid. When heat is used to accelerate the fuming process, typically a period of 2 min is required to develop the print. The optimum development time depends upon the concentration of cyanoacrylate vapors within the enclosure.

  1. Laser heat treatment of aerosol-jet additive manufactured graphene patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabari, Elahe; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a laser processing protocol for heat treatment of micro-scale printed graphene patterns is developed, and the results are compared with the counterpart results obtained by the conventional heat treatment process carried out in a furnace. A continuous-wave Erbium fiber laser is used to enhance electrical properties of the aerosol-jet printed graphene patterns through removing solvents and a stabilizer polymer. The laser power and the process speed are optimized to effectively treat the printed patterns without compromising the quality of the graphene flakes. Furthermore, a heat transfer model is developed and its results are utilized to optimize the laser treatment process. It is found that the laser heat treatment process with a laser speed of 0.03 mm s-1, a laser beam diameter ~50 μm, and a laser power of 10 W results in pure graphene patterns with no excessive components. The ratio of D to G bands ({{I}\\text{D}}/{{I}\\text{G}}) in Raman graph of the laser treated pure graphene, which is an indicator of the level of the active defects in graphene structures, is 0.52. The laser treated pure graphene structures also have a C/O ratio and an electrical resistivity of ~4.5 and 0.022 Ω cm, respectively. These values are fairly comparable with the results of samples treated in a furnace. The results suggest that the laser processing has the capability of removing stabilizer polymers and solvents through a localized moving heat source, which is preferable for flexible electronics with low working temperature substrates.

  2. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory to investigate the absorption of water vapor into a falling-film of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). A mini-absorber test stand was used to test smooth tubes and a variety of advanced tube surfaces placed horizontally in a single-row bundle. The bundle had six copper tubes; each tube had an outside diameter of 15.9-mm and a length of 0.32-m. A unique feature of the stand is its ability to operate continuously and support testing of LiBr brine at mass fractions {ge} 0.62. The test stand can also support testing to study the effect of the failing film mass flow rate, the coolant mass flow rate, the coolant temperature, the absorber pressure and the tube spacing. Manufacturers of absorption chillers add small quantities of a heat and mass transfer additive to improve the performance of the absorbers. The additive causes surface stirring which enhances the transport of absorbate into the bulk of the film. Absorption may also be enhanced with advanced tube surfaces that mechanically induce secondary flows in the falling film without increasing the thickness of the film. Several tube geometry's were identified and tested with the intent of mixing the film and renewing the interface with fresh solution from the tube wall. Testing was completed on a smooth tube and several different externally enhanced tube surfaces. Experiments were conducted over the operating conditions of 6.5 mm Hg absorber pressure, coolant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 C and LiBr mass fractions ranging from 0.60 through 0.62. Initially the effect of tube spacing was investigated for the smooth tube surface, tested with no heat and mass transfer additive. Test results showed the absorber load and the mass absorbed increased as the tube spacing increased because of the improved wetting of the tube bundle. However, tube spacing was not a critical factor if heat and mass transfer additive was active in the mini-absorber. The additive dramatically affected

  3. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.

  4. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  5. Solar heat storage in phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1984-02-28

    The objective of this project was to develop a chemical heat storage system that had a phase change with release of latent heat at about 105/sup 0/F. The primary reason this kind on system was sought was that heat storage capacity of commonly used storage systems do not match the heat collection capacity of open air collectors. In addition to the phase change three other factors were considered: the cost of the material, the amount of heat the system would hold per unit volume, and the rate at which the system released sensible and latent heat. One hundred nineteen tests were made on 32 systems. Only data on six of the more promising are presented. In the six systems, borax was used as the major component with other materials used as nucleating agents toraise the temperature of phase change.

  6. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  7. Latent Toxoplasmosis and Human

    PubMed Central

    Dalimi, A; Abdoli, A

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. Although estimated that one third of the world's population are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, but the most common form of the disease is latent (asymptomatic). On the other hand, recent findings indicated that latent toxoplasmosis is not only unsafe for human, but also may play various roles in the etiology of different mental disorders. This paper reviews new findings about importance of latent toxoplasmosis (except in immunocompromised patients) in alterations of behavioral parameters and also its role in the etiology of schizophrenia and depressive disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's diseases and Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, headache and or migraine, mental retardation and intelligence quotients, suicide attempt, risk of traffic accidents, sex ratio and some possible mechanisms of T. gondii that could contribute in the etiology of these alterations. PMID:23133466

  8. Latent toxoplasmosis and human.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, A; Abdoli, A

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. Although estimated that one third of the world's population are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, but the most common form of the disease is latent (asymptomatic). On the other hand, recent findings indicated that latent toxoplasmosis is not only unsafe for human, but also may play various roles in the etiology of different mental disorders. This paper reviews new findings about importance of latent toxoplasmosis (except in immunocompromised patients) in alterations of behavioral parameters and also its role in the etiology of schizophrenia and depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's diseases and Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, headache and or migraine, mental retardation and intelligence quotients, suicide attempt, risk of traffic accidents, sex ratio and some possible mechanisms of T. gondii that could contribute in the etiology of these alterations.

  9. Use of multi-platform and frequency remote sensing data for mapping latent and sensible heat flux over the Gourma Region in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, L.; Entekhabi, D.; Salvucci, G.; Sun, J.

    2010-12-01

    A new approach to the estimation of key unknown parameters of water and energy balance equation (moisture and heat diffusion equation) and the closure function which links these two equations is introduced. Parameters of the system (water balance and energy balance) are estimated by developing objective functions that link atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface state and unknown parameters. This approach is based on conditional averaging of heat and moisture diffusion equations on land surface temperature and moisture states respectively. Based on conditional averaging, a single objective function is posed that measures the moisture and temperature dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings (e.g. precipitation, radiation) and surface states (moisture and temperature). This objective function can be minimized with respect to parameters to identify evaporation and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. The accuracy of this method has previously been examined through the use of synthetic data and field data. In this presentation the proposed methodology is applied to the arid sahara-sahelian climate of Gourma region in West Africa. Evaporative fraction as a function of soil moisture (EF(s)), neutral turbulent heat Coefficient (CH) as a function of vegetation phenology and Drainage as a function of soil moisture are obtained using the proposed methodology.

  10. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  11. On the effect of BUM generation enhancement revealed using the scheme of additional heating of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Erukhimov, L. M.; Komrakov, G. P.; Sergeev, E. N.; Thidé, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Goldstein, J. A.; Selcher, G.

    1997-05-01

    We present measured characteristics of the artificial ionospheric radio emission (AIRE), which were obtained experimentally using additional heating of the ionospheric F-region by O-polarized waves. It is shown that the observed enhancement of intensity of the broad upshifted maximum (BUM) of the AIRE can result from the influence of electrons accelerated in the plasma: esonance region on its generation. An empirical model of the phenomenon observed is developed. It is concluded from experimental results that the BUM has a complex structure and only one of its components produces the above emission enhancement. We show the possibility of using the AIRE in additional heating of ionospheric plasma for diagnostics of artificial ionospheric turbulence and investigation of the features of perturbation propagation along the geomagnetic field lines.

  12. Addition of simultaneous heat and solute transport and variable fluid viscosity to SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, D.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    SEAWAT is a finite-difference computer code designed to simulate coupled variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. This paper describes a new version of SEAWAT that adds the ability to simultaneously model energy and solute transport. This is necessary for simulating the transport of heat and salinity in coastal aquifers for example. This work extends the equation of state for fluid density to vary as a function of temperature and/or solute concentration. The program has also been modified to represent the effects of variable fluid viscosity as a function of temperature and/or concentration. The viscosity mechanism is verified against an analytical solution, and a test of temperature-dependent viscosity is provided. Finally, the classic Henry-Hilleke problem is solved with the new code. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  14. Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacker, Randall E.

    2002-01-01

    Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…

  15. Measuring Latent Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2011-01-01

    A distinction is proposed between measures and predictors of latent variables. The discussion addresses the consequences of the distinction for the true-score model, the linear factor model, Structural Equation Models, longitudinal and multilevel models, and item-response models. A distribution-free treatment of calibration and…

  16. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie; Satake, Akira; Yoshie, Ryuichiro; Mitamura, Tiruaki; Baba, Seizo

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COP{sub Latent}, COP{sub Sensible} and COP{sub Total} predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. (author)

  17. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  18. Latent effects decision analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J. Arlin; Werner, Paul W.

    2004-08-24

    Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

  19. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  20. Reactivation of latent melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Ali, N

    1990-09-01

    Reports of melioidosis in residents of European countries are rare. We describe a case of reactivation of latent melioidosis in a United Kingdom resident. The case demonstrates the lack of clinical response to chemotherapy despite proven in vitro sensitivity of the organism to the drugs used. It is important to consider melioidosis as a cause of septicaemic illness in patients who have travelled to, or been resident in South-East Asia.

  1. Reactivation of latent melioidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. B.; Ali, N.

    1990-01-01

    Reports of melioidosis in residents of European countries are rare. We describe a case of reactivation of latent melioidosis in a United Kingdom resident. The case demonstrates the lack of clinical response to chemotherapy despite proven in vitro sensitivity of the organism to the drugs used. It is important to consider melioidosis as a cause of septicaemic illness in patients who have travelled to, or been resident in South-East Asia. PMID:2235805

  2. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  3. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  4. Effects of Heat and Momentum Addition Inside and Outside the Compound Sonic Point of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Webb, G. M.; McKenzie, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the effect of heat and momentum addition to the solar wind for a model including the effects of Alfven waves and plasma pressure (proton plus electron pressure). The mass flux per unit area in 1D flow maximizes when the flow speed equals the compound sound speed, including the effects of the Alfven wave pressure. We discuss the analogue of the Laval nozzle for the solar wind flow, and the dependence of the effective nozzle area as a function of radial distance, and the relationship of the nozzle area to the momentum equation and the Mach number of the flow. An analysis is carried out of the effects of heat and momentum addition to the wind, using a thin slice approximation, which leads to Rankine Hugoniot relations for weak deflagrations and detonations (i.e. the combustion Hugoniot). The linearized Hugoniot is used to analyze the effects of small momentum and energy addition to the wind in the thin slice approximation. We obtain the fully nonlinear Rankine Hugoniot equation solutions. The analysis also holds in the presence of Alfven waves, in which the wave energy exchange equation yields the wave action flux conservation law when their contribution to the compound sound speed is taken into account. The effective polytropic index γgamma and flow speed relative to the compound flow speed ahead of the slice play crucial roles in determining whether local acceleration or deceleration results. Some results are at first sight unexpected since γgamma for Alfven waves ranges from -1/2 (in sub-Alfvenic flow) to 3/2 in super-Alfvenic flow.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  6. Latent heat characteristics of biobased oleochemical carbonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleochemical carbonates represent biobased materials that can be readily prepared through a carbonate interchange reaction between renewably available C10-C18 fatty alcohols. Although these carbonates have commercial use in cosmetics and lubricant applications, they have not been examined as phase ...

  7. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  8. Latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    PubMed

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  10. Latent Supervised Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Susan; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A new machine learning task is introduced, called latent supervised learning, where the goal is to learn a binary classifier from continuous training labels which serve as surrogates for the unobserved class labels. A specific model is investigated where the surrogate variable arises from a two-component Gaussian mixture with unknown means and variances, and the component membership is determined by a hyperplane in the covariate space. The estimation of the separating hyperplane and the Gaussian mixture parameters forms what shall be referred to as the change-line classification problem. A data-driven sieve maximum likelihood estimator for the hyperplane is proposed, which in turn can be used to estimate the parameters of the Gaussian mixture. The estimator is shown to be consistent. Simulations as well as empirical data show the estimator has high classification accuracy. PMID:24319303

  11. The effect of additives on the speed of the crystallization front of xylitol with various degrees of supercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Seppaelae, Ari; Merilaeinen, Arttu; Wikstroem, Lisa; Kauranen, Pertti

    2010-07-15

    Some liquids can be kept in a supercooled or supersaturated metastable state for substantially long periods. Such liquids can be applied as long-term heat storage where the latent heat can be released when needed. As xylitol possesses a relatively high value of latent heat and as it can be easily supercooled, it has promising properties for this application. However, the speed of the crystallization of xylitol is low, leading to a low release rate of latent heat. Several additives have been experimentally tested for the purpose of accelerating the crystallization speed. The effect of the additives on the latent heat, on the melting temperatures, and on the long-term durability of the supercooled state was also measured. The highest speeds of the crystallization front, at a temperature of 22 C, were achieved with methanol as an additive leading to speeds 33 times higher in vertical experiments and in 170 times higher in horizontal ones than with pure xylitol. The improved speed of the crystallization front is mostly caused by the methanol flow currents generated as a result of the separation of methanol during crystallization, and to a lesser extent, as a result of the increase in the speed of the growth of the crystals. (author)

  12. Impaired IL-2 expression in latent HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Shin, YoungHyun; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Hoyong; Park, Jihwan; Roh, Tae-Young; Kang, Chun; Choi, Byeong-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Regarding the T cell function in HIV-1 infection, activation of T cells is enhanced in acutely HIV-1-infected T cells upon stimuli. However, T cell immune responses underlying the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling molecules and interleukin (IL)-2 production in latently HIV-1-infected cells are poorly understood. The expression and activation of TCR components and its downstream molecules in acutely and latently HIV-1-infected T cells were compared using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for levels of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin M (PHA-M). The levels of T cell surface molecules and TCR signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were greatly decreased without changes in their mRNA levels. In addition, downstream TCR-signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were not activated even in the presence of PHA-M. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the presence of PHA-M was weakly induced in latently HIV-1-infected cells but was greater in acutely HIVNL4-3-infected cells. Finally, the production of IL-2 was significantly decreased in latently HIV-1-infected cells compared with uninfected parent cells. Thus, IL-2-related immunological functions in latently HIV-1-infected T cells were markedly impaired even in the presence of stimuli.

  13. Effect of additional heat treatment of 2024-T3 on the growth of fatigue crack in air and in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louwaard, E. P.

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of ductility on the fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum alloys, fatigue tests were carried out on central notched specimens of 2024-T3 and 2024-T8 sheet material. The 2024-T8 material was obtained by an additional heat treatment applied on 2024-T3 (18 hours at 192 C), which increased the static yield strength from 43.6 to 48.9 kgf/sq mm. A change in the ultimate strength was not observed. Fatigue tests were carried out on both materials in humid air and in high vacuum. According to a new crack propagation model, crack extension is supported to be caused by a slip-related process and debonding triggered by the environment. This model predicts an effect of the ductility on the crack growth rate which should be smaller in vacuum than in humid air; however, this was not confirmed. In humid air the crack-growth rate in 2024-T8 was about 2 times faster than in 2024-T3, while in vacuum the ratio was about 2.5. Crack closure measurements gave no indications that crack closure played a significant role in both materials. Some speculative explanations are briefly discussed.

  14. Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jie; Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wen; Ma, Li-Juan; Lei, Xiao-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.

  15. The heat dissipation model and desensitizing mechanism of the HMX/additive interfaces: a theoretical investigation based on linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a high-energy explosive with high sensitivity. The heat dissipation of the HMX/additive interface is a key issue in understanding the hot spot formation and desensitizing mechanism of mixture explosive. In this work, we derive new formulae to calculate the heat dissipation rate for a set of HMX/additive interfaces, and build a physical model to describe the energy dissipation time and distance in mixture explosive. Four kinds of additives are considered: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, graphite, paraffin and fluoropolymers. At low strength loading, we prove that the heat dissipation rate is proportional to the square of frequency, and suggest a way to decrease the sensitivity of the explosive. At medium strength loading, the viscosity coefficient and friction coefficient of interface are calculated. The desensitizing abilities of additives to HMX are discussed systematically.

  16. A Magnetically Responsive Polydiacetylene Precursor for Latent Fingerprint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosub; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-03-01

    A magnetically responsive diacetylene (DA) powder was developed for the visualization of latent fingerprints. A mixture of the DA and magnetite nanoparticles, applied to a surface containing latent fingermarks, becomes immobilized along the ridge patterns of the fingerprints when a magnetic field is applied. Alignment along the ridge structures is a consequence of favorable hydrophobic interactions occurring between the long alkyl chains in the DAs and the lipid-rich, sebaceous latent fingermarks. UV irradiation of the DA-magnetite composite immobilized on the latent fingerprint results in the generation of blue-colored PDAs. Heat treatment of the blue-colored image promotes a blue-to-red transition as well as fluorescence turn-on. A combination of the aligned pale brown-colored monomeric state, UV irradiation generated blue-colored PDA state, as well as the heat treatment generated red-colored and fluorescent PDA state enables efficient visual imaging of a latent fingerprint, which is deposited on various colored solid surfaces.

  17. Flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of phase-change emulsion in a coiled double-tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, H.; Morita, S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper dealt with the flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C{sub 14}H{sub 30}, freezing point 278.9 K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. A coiled double-tube heat exchanger was used for the cold heat storage experiment. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient, and the finishing time of cold heat storage in the coiled tube were measured as experimental parameters. It was understood that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid had an important role in the present cold heat storage. The useful nondimensional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient, and the cold heat storage time were derived in terms of modified Dean number and heat capacity ratio. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  19. Detecting Mixtures from Structural Model Differences Using Latent Variable Mixture Modeling: A Comparison of Relative Model Fit Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, James M.; Reise, Steven P.; Kim, Kevin H.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of structural model parameter estimates in latent variable mixture modeling was explored with a 3 (sample size) [times] 3 (exogenous latent mean difference) [times] 3 (endogenous latent mean difference) [times] 3 (correlation between factors) [times] 3 (mixture proportions) factorial design. In addition, the efficacy of several…

  20. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  1. Multistage sampling for latent variable models.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duncan C

    2007-12-01

    I consider the design of multistage sampling schemes for epidemiologic studies involving latent variable models, with surrogate measurements of the latent variables on a subset of subjects. Such models arise in various situations: when detailed exposure measurements are combined with variables that can be used to assign exposures to unmeasured subjects; when biomarkers are obtained to assess an unobserved pathophysiologic process; or when additional information is to be obtained on confounding or modifying variables. In such situations, it may be possible to stratify the subsample on data available for all subjects in the main study, such as outcomes, exposure predictors, or geographic locations. Three circumstances where analytic calculations of the optimal design are possible are considered: (i) when all variables are binary; (ii) when all are normally distributed; and (iii) when the latent variable and its measurement are normally distributed, but the outcome is binary. In each of these cases, it is often possible to considerably improve the cost efficiency of the design by appropriate selection of the sampling fractions. More complex situations arise when the data are spatially distributed: the spatial correlation can be exploited to improve exposure assignment for unmeasured locations using available measurements on neighboring locations; some approaches for informative selection of the measurement sample using location and/or exposure predictor data are considered.

  2. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: A latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation program in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours, and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Results Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 8 genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all 8 genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid, and cholinergic signaling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. Conclusions This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential “co-action” of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the etiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may

  3. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  4. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  5. Additional heat treatment of non-porous coatings obtained on medium carbon steel substrates by electron beam cladding of a Ti-Mo-C powder composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, D. O.; Drobyaz, E. A.; Zimoglyadova, T. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Shevtsova, L. I.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and microhardness of surface layers, obtained by non-vacuum electron beam cladding of Ti-Mo-C powder mixture on a steel substrate after different types of heat treatment, were investigated. After cladding samples were heat treated in a furnace at 200...500 °C, as well as quenched at 860 ° C and then underwent high-temperature tempering. Heat treatment of cladded coatings induced tempering of martensite and precipitation of cementite particles (Fe3C). Transmission electron microscopy of the samples after heating and holding at 300 ° C revealed precipitation of nanosized cubical TiC particles. The formation of hard nanosized particles led to the surface layer microhardness growth. The highest level of microhardness (which was 1.2...1.5-fold higher in comparison with coating microhardness after heat treatment) was achieved after heating of the claded material at 300 °C and 400 °C Additional quenching of samples at 860 °C did not increase the microhardness level.

  6. Incorporating comorbidities into latent treatment pattern mining for clinical pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Ji, Lei; He, Chunhua; Duan, Huilong

    2016-02-01

    In healthcare organizational settings, the design of a clinical pathway (CP) is challenging since patients following a particular pathway may have not only one single first-diagnosis but also several typical comorbidities, and thus it requires different disciplines involved to put together their partial knowledge about the overall pathway. Although many data mining techniques have been proposed to discover latent treatment information for CP analysis and reconstruction from a large volume of clinical data, they are specific to extract nontrivial information about the therapy and treatment of the first-diagnosis. The influence of comorbidities on adopting essential treatments is crucial for a pathway but has seldom been explored. This study proposes to extract latent treatment patterns that characterize essential treatments for both first-diagnosis and typical comorbidities from the execution data of a pathway. In particular, we propose a generative statistical model to extract underlying treatment patterns, unveil the latent associations between diagnosis labels (including both first-diagnosis and comorbidities) and treatments, and compute the contribution of comorbidities in these patterns. The proposed model extends latent Dirichlet allocation with an additional layer for diagnosis modeling. It first generates a set of latent treatment patterns from diagnosis labels, followed by sampling treatments from each pattern. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed model on a real clinical dataset containing 12,120 patient traces, which pertain to the unstable angina CP. Three treatment patterns are discovered from data, indicating latent correlations between comorbidities and treatments in the pathway. In addition, a possible medical application in terms of treatment recommendation is provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed model. Experimental results indicate that our approach can discover not only meaningful latent treatment patterns exhibiting

  7. Latent fingermark pore area reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Buckley, K; Sutton, R

    2008-08-01

    The study of the reproducibility of friction ridge pore detail in fingermarks is a measure of their usefulness in personal identification. Pore area in latent prints developed using cyanoacrylate and ninhydrin were examined and measured by photomicrography using appropriate software tools. The data were analysed statistically and the results showed that pore area is not reproducible in developed latent prints, using either of the development techniques. The results add further support to the lack of reliability of pore area in personal identification. PMID:18617339

  8. [Effects of technological additives and heating range on some chemical and physical changes in canned meat. 2. Changes in redox potentials and selected quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, J; Pikul, J; Janitz, W

    1976-01-01

    The influence of technological additives and the range of heating on the redox potential, as well as on some quality features of canned meat was examined. The experiments showed, that the time of storage and the degree of heating of model preserves of meat influence on the redox potential. The technological additions as polyphosphates, ascorbic acid, gelatine and mixtures of these substances influence less on the redox potential. The analysis of each experimental factor showed, that on the secretion of meat juice occurring during can pasteurization or sterilization influence all experimental factors, as the kind of heating, the time of storage as well as the kind and the quantity of technological additives. The highest secretion of meat juice was found in cans with addition of ascorbic acid. Cans with addition of gelatine had the smallest content of jelly and consequently the lowest secretion of meat juice. It was also found a certain relation between the level of redox potential and the tested quality features of the model meat preserves.

  9. Measured effects of retrofits -- a refrigerant oil additive and a condenser spray device -- on the cooling performance of a heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Sand, J.R.; Baxter, V.D.; Linkous, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water-spray device and retested. Results at standard ARI cooling rating conditions (95 F outdoor dry bulb and 80/67 F indoor dry bulb/wet bulb temperatures) showed the capacity increased by about 7%, and the electric power demand dropped by about 8%, resulting in a steady-state EER increase of 17%. Suction and discharge pressures were reduced by 7 and 37 psi, respectively. A refrigerant oil additive formulated to enhance refrigerant-side heat transfer was added at a dose of one ounce per ton of rated capacity, and the unit was tested for several days at the same 95 F outdoor conditions and showed essentially no increase in capacity, and a slight 3% increase in steady-state EER. Adding more additive lowered the EER slightly. Suction and discharge pressures were essentially unchanged. The short-term testing showed that the condenser-spray device was effective in increasing the cooling capacity and lowering the electrical demand on an old and relatively inefficient heat pump, but the refrigerant additive had little effect on the cooling performance of the unit. Sprayer issues to be resolved include the effect of a sprayer on a new, high-efficiency air conditioner/heat pump, reliable long-term operation, and economics.

  10. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  11. Phase Change Heat Transfer Device for Process Heat Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to approx.1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (=50MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  12. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  13. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella senftenberg in liquid whole egg using generally recognized as safe additives, ionizing radiation, and heat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ignacio; Niemira, Brendan A; Fan, Xuetong; Sommers, Christopher H

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining irradiation and heat (i.e., irradiation followed by heat [IR-H]) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Senftenberg inoculated into liquid whole egg (LWE) with added nisin, EDTA, sorbic acid, carvacrol, or combinations of these GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives was investigated. Synergistic reductions of Salmonella populations were observed when LWE samples containing GRAS additives were treated by gamma radiation (0.3 and 1.0 kGy), heat (57 and 60 degrees C), or IR-H. The presence of additives reduced the initial radiation Dgamma -values (radiation doses required to eliminate 90% of the viable cells) by 1.2- to 1.5-fold, the thermal decimal reduction times (D,-values) by up to 3.5- and 1.8-fold at 57 and 60 degrees C, respectively, and the thermal D,-values after irradiation treatments by up to 3.4- and 1.5-fold at 57 and 60 degrees C, respectively, for both Salmonella serovars. Of all the additives investigated, nisin at a concentration of 100 IU/ml was the most effective at reducing the heat treatment times needed to obtain a 5-log reduction of Salmonella. Thus, while treatments of 21.6 min at 57 degrees C or of 5 min at 60 degrees C should be applied to achieve a 5-log reduction for Salmonella in LWE, only 5.5 min at 57 degrees C or 2.3 min at 60 degrees C after a 0.3-kGy radiation pretreatment was required when nisin at a concentration of 100 IU/ml was used. The synergistic reduction of Salmonella viability by IR-H treatments in the presence of GRAS additives could enable LWE producers to reduce the temperature or processing time of thermal treatments (current standards are 60'C for 3.5 min in the United States) or to increase the level of Salmonella inactivation.

  14. Diabatic heating fields and the generation of available potential energy during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.; Rosen, Richard D.; Baker, Wayman E.; Kalnay, Eugenia

    1986-01-01

    Global diabatic heating is estimated using fields of directly computed heating components, in particular those due to shortwave radiation, longwave radiation, sensible heating, and latent heating produced every 6 hours. The role of average fields of diabatic heating in the generation of available potential energy is examined. It is observed that latent heating is most significant in generating available potential energy.

  15. Mechanism of coercivity enhancement by Ag addition in FePt-C granular films for heat assisted magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K. Wang, J.; Hono, K.; Ina, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ueno, W.; Nitta, K.; Uruga, T.

    2014-06-02

    We investigated the Ag distribution in a FePtAg-C granular film that is under consideration for a heat assisted magnetic recording medium by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. Ag is rejected from the core of FePt grains during the deposition, forming Ag-enriched shell surrounding L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt grains. Since Ag has no solubility in both Fe and Pt, the rejection of Ag induces atomic diffusions thereby enhancing the kinetics of the L1{sub 0}-order in the FePt grains.

  16. Latent Growth Modeling for Logistic Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jaehwa; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout much of the social and behavioral sciences, latent growth modeling (latent curve analysis) has become an important tool for understanding individuals' longitudinal change. Although nonlinear variations of latent growth models appear in the methodological and applied literature, a notable exclusion is the treatment of growth following…

  17. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  18. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS.

  19. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  20. Chemical TOPAZ: Modifications to the heat transfer code TOPAZ: The addition of chemical reaction kinetics and chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III.

    1990-06-07

    This is a report describing the modifications which have been made to the heat flow code TOPAZ to allow the inclusion of thermally controlled chemical kinetics. This report is broken into parts. The first part is an introduction to the general assumptions and theoretical underpinning that were used to develop the model. The second section describes the changes that have been implemented into the code. The third section is the users manual for the input for the code. The fourth section is a compilation of hints, common errors, and things to be aware of while you are getting started. The fifth section gives a sample problem using the new code. This manual addenda is written with the presumption that most readers are not fluent with chemical concepts. Therefore, we shall in this section endeavor to describe the requirements that must be met before chemistry can occur and how we have modeled the chemistry in the code.

  1. A Dynamic Model for Induced Reactivation of Latent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, G.M.; Nguyen, H.K.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.; Banks, H.T.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a deterministic mathematical model to describe reactivation of latent virus by chemical inducers. This model is applied to the reactivation of latent KSHV in BCBL-1 cell cultures with butyrate as the inducing agent. Parameters for the model are first estimated from known properties of the exponentially growing, uninduced cell cultures. Additional parameters that are necessary to describe induction are determined from fits to experimental data from the literature. Our initial model provides good agreement with two independent sets of experimental data, but also points to the need for a new class of experiments which are required for further understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:17045614

  2. Accuracy and reliability of forensic latent fingerprint decisions

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. The National Research Council of the National Academies and the legal and forensic sciences communities have called for research to measure the accuracy and reliability of latent print examiners’ decisions, a challenging and complex problem in need of systematic analysis. Our research is focused on the development of empirical approaches to studying this problem. Here, we report on the first large-scale study of the accuracy and reliability of latent print examiners’ decisions, in which 169 latent print examiners each compared approximately 100 pairs of latent and exemplar fingerprints from a pool of 744 pairs. The fingerprints were selected to include a range of attributes and quality encountered in forensic casework, and to be comparable to searches of an automated fingerprint identification system containing more than 58 million subjects. This study evaluated examiners on key decision points in the fingerprint examination process; procedures used operationally include additional safeguards designed to minimize errors. Five examiners made false positive errors for an overall false positive rate of 0.1%. Eighty-five percent of examiners made at least one false negative error for an overall false negative rate of 7.5%. Independent examination of the same comparisons by different participants (analogous to blind verification) was found to detect all false positive errors and the majority of false negative errors in this study. Examiners frequently differed on whether fingerprints were suitable for reaching a conclusion. PMID:21518906

  3. Interrater Agreement Evaluation: A Latent Variable Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; von Eye, Alexander; Marcoulides, George A.

    2013-01-01

    A latent variable modeling method for evaluation of interrater agreement is outlined. The procedure is useful for point and interval estimation of the degree of agreement among a given set of judges evaluating a group of targets. In addition, the approach allows one to test for identity in underlying thresholds across raters as well as to identify…

  4. The Evolution of Latent Genes in Subdivided Populations

    PubMed Central

    Moody, M. E.; Basten, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    We define latent genes as phenotypically silent DNA sequences which may be reactivated by various genetic mechanisms. Of interest is how they and their functional counterparts can be maintained at high frequency in the face of mutation and selection pressure. We propose a two-deme, three-allele model incorporating viability selection, mutation and migration in haploid populations. It is shown that polymorphism for the three alleles can be easily maintained for a wide range of biologically meaningful parameter values. Computer simulations were employed to gain qualitative insight into the global dynamics of the system. It was found that the dynamics of the latent allele is closely correlated with that of the functional allele. In addition, bias in the migration rates can strengthen or weaken selective conditions for preservation of the functional and latent alleles. PMID:2307354

  5. Latent Viruses: A Space Travel Hazard??

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, P. D.; Peng, R. S.; Pierson, D.; Lednicky, J.; Butel, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A major issue associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious disease causing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. Our proposal is designed to gain information that addresses several issues outlined in the Immunology/Infectious disease critical path. The major hypothesis addressed is that space flight causes alterations in the immune system that may allow latent viruses which are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal which can affect the health of crew members during a long term space-flight mission. We will initially focus our studies on the human herpesviruses and human polyomaviruses which are important pathogens known to establish latent infections in the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with this group of viruses can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and occasionally mortality of infected individuals. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and the vaccine itself can still reactivate from latent infection. Available antivirals are of limited use and are effective against only a few of the human herpesviruses. Although most individuals display little if any clinical consequences from latent infection, events which alter immune function such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation are known to increase the risk of developing complications as a result of latent virus reactivation. This proposal will measure both the frequency and magnitude of viral shedding and genome loads in the blood from humans participating in activities that serve as ground based models of space flight conditions. Our initial goal is to develop sensitive quantitative competitive PCR- based assays (QC-PCR) to detect the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the polyomaviruses SV40, BKV, and JCV. Using these assays we will establish baseline patterns of viral genome load in

  6. Optimization of microwave heating in an existing cubicle cavity by incorporating additional wave guide and control components

    SciTech Connect

    Erle, R.R.; Eschen, V.G.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-04-01

    The use of microwave energy to thermally treat Low Level (LLW), Transuranic (TRU), and mixed waste has been under development at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) since 1986. During that time, the technology has progressed from bench-scale tests, through pilot-scale tests, and finally to a full-scale demonstration unit. Experimental operations have been conducted on a variety of non-radioactive surrogates and actual radioactive waste forms. Through these studies and development efforts, the Microwave Vitrification Engineering Team (MVET) at Rocky Flats has successfully proven the application of microwave energy for waste treatment operations. In the microwave solidification process, microwave energy is used to heat a mixture of waste and glass frit to produce a vitrified product that meets all the current acceptance criteria at the final disposal sites. All of the development to date has utilized a multi-mode microwave system to provide the energy to treat the materials. Currently, evaluations are underway on modifications to the full-scale demonstration system that provide a single-mode operation as a possible method to optimize the system. This poster presentation describes the modifications made to allow the single-mode operation.

  7. Tuberculosis Infection and Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1–5 µm in diameter, containing 1–10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors. Infection controls to reduce TB transmission consist of managerial activities, administrative control, engineering control, environmental control, and personal protective equipment provision. However, diagnosis and treatment for LTBI as a national TB control program is an important strategy on the precondition that active TB is not missed. Therefore, more concrete evidences for LTBI management based on clinical and public perspectives are needed. PMID:27790271

  8. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah's coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-01

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  9. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Carasso, Alfred S.

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing1 of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology. PMID:26601028

  10. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology.

  11. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology. PMID:26601028

  12. [Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults].

    PubMed

    Maioli, M; Puddu, L; Pes, G M

    2006-01-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a disorder with onset after age 30, insulin independence for at least 6 months after diagnosis, and the presence of circulating pancreatic islet autoantibodies. The prevalence of LADA varies substantially across ethnic groups and ranges approximately from 1% to 10% among patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review we discuss the nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, immunologic and genetic markers, metabolic alterations and therapy of this form of diabetes.

  13. On the one-dimensional theory of steady compressible fluid flow in ducts with friction and heat addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Bruce L; Montgomery, Donald; Wasserman, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    Steady, diabatic (nonadiabatic), frictional, variable-area flow of a compressible fluid is treated in differential form on the basis of the one-dimensional approximation. The basic equations are first stated in terms of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity of the fluid. Considerable simplification and unification of the equations are then achieved by choosing the square of the local Mach number as one of the variables to describe the flow. The transformed system of equations thus obtained is first examined with regard to the existence of a solution. It is shown that, in general, a solution exists whose calculation requires knowledge only of the variation with position of any three of the dependent variables of the system. The direction of change of the flow variables can be obtained directly from the transformed equations without integration. As examples of this application of the equations, the direction of change of the flow variables is determined for two special flows. In the particular case when the local Mach number m = 1, a special condition must be satisfied by the flow if a solution is to exist. This condition restricts the joint rate of variation of heating, friction, and area at m = 1. Further analysis indicates that when a solution exists at this point it is not necessarily unique. Finally it is shown that the physical phenomenon of choking, which is known to occur in certain simple flow situations, is related to restrictions imposed on the variables by the form of the transformed equations. The phenomenon of choking is thus given a more general significance in that the transformed equations apply to a more general type of flow than has hitherto been treated. (author)

  14. A Herpesviral Lytic Protein Regulates the Structure of Latent Viral Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Priya; Lee, Jennifer S.; Pan, Dongli; Pesola, Jean M.; Coen, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent infections by viruses usually involve minimizing viral protein expression so that the host immune system cannot recognize the infected cell through the viral peptides presented on its cell surface. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), for example, is thought to express noncoding RNAs such as latency-associated transcripts (LATs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) as the only abundant viral gene products during latent infection. Here we describe analysis of HSV-1 mutant viruses, providing strong genetic evidence that HSV-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is expressed during establishment and/or maintenance of latent infection in murine sensory neurons in vivo. Studies of an ICP0 nonsense mutant virus showed that ICP0 promotes heterochromatin and latent and lytic transcription, arguing that ICP0 is expressed and functional. We propose that ICP0 promotes transcription of LATs during establishment or maintenance of HSV latent infection, much as it promotes lytic gene transcription. This report introduces the new concept that a lytic viral protein can be expressed during latent infection and can serve dual roles to regulate viral chromatin to optimize latent infection in addition to its role in epigenetic regulation during lytic infection. An additional implication of the results is that ICP0 might serve as a target for an antiviral therapeutic acting on lytic and latent infections. PMID:27190217

  15. Additional ECR heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma via the absorption of satellite harmonics of the surface flute modes in a rippled magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Girka, V. O.; Girka, I. O.

    2006-12-15

    A theoretical study is made of the possibility of additional heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma in confinement systems with a rippled magnetic field via the absorption of satellite harmonics of the surface flute modes with frequencies below the electron gyrofrequency in the local resonance region, {epsilon}{sub 1} (r{sub 1}) = [2{pi}c/({omega}L)]{sup 2}, where {epsilon}{sub 1} is the diagonal element of the plasma dielectric tensor in the hydrodynamic approximation, L is the period of a constant external rippled magnetic field, and the radical coordinate r{sub 1} determines the position of the local resonance. It is found that the high-frequency power absorbed near the local resonance is proportional to the square of the ripple amplitude of the external magnetic field. The mechanism proposed is shown to ensure the absorption of the energy of surface flute modes and, thereby, the heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma.

  16. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  17. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  18. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  19. Immune parameters differentiating active from latent tuberculosis infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jung, Young Won; Jeong, Ina; Joh, Joon-Sung; Sim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Boram; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis remains a highly prevalent infectious disease worldwide. Identification of the immune parameters that differentiate active disease from latent infection will facilitate the development of efficient control measures as well as new diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the cytokine production profiles of monocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon encountering mycobacterial antigens. In addition, cytokines and lipid mediators with immune-modulating activities were examined in plasma samples ex vivo. Comparison of these parameters in active tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects with latent infection revealed that, active tuberculosis was associated with diminished Th1-type cytokine secretion from CD4(+) T cells and less augmented inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes induced by IFN-γ than that in latent tuberculosis infection. In addition, a higher plasma concentration of lipoxin A4 and lower ratio of prostaglandin E2 to lipoxin A4 were observed in active cases than in latent infections. These findings have implications for preparing new therapeutic strategies and for differential diagnosis of the two types of tuberculosis infection.

  20. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share.

  1. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    PubMed

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. PMID:26025643

  2. Effectiveness: N(sub TU) relationships for the design and performance evaluation of additional shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-11-01

    This Data Item 88021, an addition to the Sub-series on Heat Transfer, complements ESDU 86018 by extending the range of configurations covered there and in particular considering the effect of using small numbers of baffles for E- and J-shells and the use of J-shells in series. It also explores the limitations of the assumptions associated with the effectiveness - N(sub TU) method and shows where those assumptions break down. The curves presented for each exchanger geometry show the locus of designs for which a temperature cross may occur and the locus of 95 percent heat transfer effectiveness which indicates the region of uneconomic design. The method assumes a linear temperature/enthalpy relationship (constant specific heat capacity) for both streams. It applies to boiling or condensing flow of a single component with no temperature change, or boiling and condensing flow of a mixture that is always two-phase. It excludes conditions in which transition from single- to two-phase flow occurs. However, by use of average property values, it is possible to extend the method to apply to cases where there is some variation of physical and thermodynamic properties with temperature.

  3. Toward Surface-Enhanced Raman Imaging of Latent Fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Connatser, Raynella M; Prokes, Sharka M.; Glembocki, Orest; Schuler, Rebecca A.; Gardner, Charles W.; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lewis, Linda A

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to light or heat, or simply a dearth of fingerprint material, renders some latent fingerprints undetectable using conventional methods. We begin to address such elusive fingerprints using detection targeting photo- and thermally stable fingerprint constituents: surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS can give descriptive vibrational spectra of amino acids, among other robust fingerprint constituents, and good sensitivity can be attained by improving metal-dielectric nanoparticle substrates. With SERS chemical imaging, vibrational bands intensities recreate a visual of fingerprint topography. The impact of nanoparticle synthesis route, dispersal methodology-deposition solvent, and laser wavelength are discussed, as are data from enhanced vibrational spectra of fingerprint components. SERS and Raman chemical images of fingerprints and realistic contaminants are shown. To our knowledge, this represents the first SERS imaging of fingerprints. In conclusion, this work progresses toward the ultimate goal of vibrationally detecting latent prints that would otherwise remain undetected using traditional development methods.

  4. Preparation of a biphasic porous bioceramic by heating bovine cancellous bone with Na4P2O7.10H2O addition.

    PubMed

    Lin, F H; Liao, C J; Chen, K S; Sun, J S

    1999-03-01

    Sintered bovine cancellous bone exhibited excellent biocompatiblity, high porosity and have an interconnecting porous structure allowing for bone ingrowth. However, the main mineral constitution of sintered bovine bone-hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) seems to be too stable in vivo. For improving its bioactivity, the calcined bovine bone removing the organic substance by burning process-with different quantities of sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7.10H2O, NP) addition was heated to a high temperature to transform its crystalline phase constitution from HAP into TCP/HAP biphasic or other multiphasic structures. Results revealed that the calcined bovine bone without NP addition, exhibited a pure form of HAP characterized pattern during heating. Its thermal behavior was similar to stoichiometric HAP, it gradually lost its OH- ions and transformed into oxyhydroxyapatite at high temperature. After being doped into calcined bovine bone, NP would react with HAP to form betaBTCP and NaCaPO4 around 600 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, doped NP would completely react with HAP and the NaCaPO4 would further react with HAP to form more betaBTCP in the system. With NP increasing in the calcined bovine bone, HAP would gradually convert into different crystalline phase compositions of TCP/HAP, TCP/HAP/NaCaPO4 or TCP/NaCaPO4 at high temperature. By heating calcined bovine cancellouse bone with different quantities of NP we could obtain different crystalline phase compositions of natural porous bioceramic in this study.

  5. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  6. Information-Theoretic Latent Distribution Modeling: Distinguishing Discrete and Continuous Latent Variable Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinguishing between discrete and continuous latent variable distributions has become increasingly important in numerous domains of behavioral science. Here, the authors explore an information-theoretic approach to latent distribution modeling, in which the ability of latent distribution models to represent statistical information in observed…

  7. Optimization-Based Model Fitting for Latent Class and Latent Profile Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Guan-Hua; Wang, Su-Mei; Hsu, Chung-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians typically estimate the parameters of latent class and latent profile models using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. This paper proposes an alternative two-stage approach to model fitting. The first stage uses the modified k-means and hierarchical clustering algorithms to identify the latent classes that best satisfy the…

  8. Semi-Nonparametric Methods for Detecting Latent Non-Normality: A Fusion of Latent Trait and Ordered Latent Class Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, J. Eric; Mehta, Paras D.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered latent class analysis (OLCA) can be used to approximate unidimensional latent distributions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the method of OLCA in detecting non-normality of an unobserved continuous variable (i.e., a common factor) used to explain the covariation between dichotomous item-level responses. Using simulation,…

  9. Extracting Low-Dimensional Latent Structure from Time Series in the Presence of Delays.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Karthik C; Sadtler, Patrick T; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Batista, Aaron P; Yu, Byron M

    2015-09-01

    Noisy, high-dimensional time series observations can often be described by a set of low-dimensional latent variables. Commonly used methods to extract these latent variables typically assume instantaneous relationships between the latent and observed variables. In many physical systems, changes in the latent variables manifest as changes in the observed variables after time delays. Techniques that do not account for these delays can recover a larger number of latent variables than are present in the system, thereby making the latent representation more difficult to interpret. In this work, we introduce a novel probabilistic technique, time-delay gaussian-process factor analysis (TD-GPFA), that performs dimensionality reduction in the presence of a different time delay between each pair of latent and observed variables. We demonstrate how using a gaussian process to model the evolution of each latent variable allows us to tractably learn these delays over a continuous domain. Additionally, we show how TD-GPFA combines temporal smoothing and dimensionality reduction into a common probabilistic framework. We present an expectation/conditional maximization either (ECME) algorithm to learn the model parameters. Our simulations demonstrate that when time delays are present, TD-GPFA is able to correctly identify these delays and recover the latent space. We then applied TD-GPFA to the activity of tens of neurons recorded simultaneously in the macaque motor cortex during a reaching task. TD-GPFA is able to better describe the neural activity using a more parsimonious latent space than GPFA, a method that has been used to interpret motor cortex data but does not account for time delays. More broadly, TD-GPFA can help to unravel the mechanisms underlying high-dimensional time series data by taking into account physical delays in the system. PMID:26079746

  10. Extracting Low-Dimensional Latent Structure from Time Series in the Presence of Delays

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Karthik C.; Sadtler, Patrick T.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Batista, Aaron P.; Yu, Byron M.

    2015-01-01

    Noisy, high-dimensional time series observations can often be described by a set of low-dimensional latent variables. Commonly-used methods to extract these latent variables typically assume instantaneous relationships between the latent and observed variables. In many physical systems, changes in the latent variables manifest as changes in the observed variables after time delays. Techniques that do not account for these delays can recover a larger number of latent variables than are present in the system, thereby making the latent representation more difficult to interpret. In this work, we introduce a novel probabilistic technique, time-delay Gaussian-process factor analysis (TD-GPFA), that performs dimensionality reduction in the presence of a different time delay between each pair of latent and observed variables. We demonstrate how using a Gaussian process to model the evolution of each latent variable allows us to tractably learn these delays over a continuous domain. Additionally, we show how TD-GPFA combines temporal smoothing and dimensionality reduction into a common probabilistic framework. We present an Expectation/Conditional Maximization Either (ECME) algorithm to learn the model parameters. Our simulations demonstrate that when time delays are present, TD-GPFA is able to correctly identify these delays and recover the latent space. We then applied TD-GPFA to the activity of tens of neurons recorded simultaneously in the macaque motor cortex during a reaching task. TD-GPFA is able to better describe the neural activity using a more parsimonious latent space than GPFA, which is a method that has been used to interpret motor cortex data, but does not account for time delays. More broadly, TD-GPFA can help to unravel the mechanisms underlying high-dimensional time series data by taking into account physical delays in the system. PMID:26079746

  11. A Vernacular for Linear Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Gregory R.; Choi, Jaehwa

    2006-01-01

    In its most basic form, latent growth modeling (latent curve analysis) allows an assessment of individuals' change in a measured variable X over time. For simple linear models, as with other growth models, parameter estimates associated with the a construct (amount of X at a chosen temporal reference point) and b construct (growth in X per unit…

  12. Insidious Structural Errors in Latent Variable Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships and latent variable assumptions can lead to serious specification errors in structural models. A quadratic relationship, described by a linear structural model with a latent variable, is shown to have less predictive validity than a simple manifest variable regression model. Advocates the use of simpler preliminary…

  13. Latent Memory for Sensitization in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Gary T.; Tzvetkova, Ekaterina I.; Marinesco, Stephane; Carew, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of memory it is commonly observed that, even after a memory is apparently forgotten, its latent presence can still be revealed in a subsequent learning task. Although well established on a behavioral level, the mechanisms underlying latent memory are not well understood. To begin to explore these mechanisms, we have used "Aplysia,"…

  14. Consequences of Fitting Nonidentified Latent Class Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Beau; Loken, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Latent class models are becoming more popular in behavioral research. When models with a large number of latent classes relative to the number of manifest indicators are estimated, researchers must consider the possibility that the model is not identified. It is not enough to determine that the model has positive degrees of freedom. A well-known…

  15. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of dense AlN sintered with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.; Dutta, G.; Dutta, I.

    1995-09-01

    The secondary phase constitution in two sintered AlN ceramics (1.8% and 4.2% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions) was studied as a function of heat treatment temperatures between 1,750 and 1,900 C under pure nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of the phase constitution on the physical properties, such ad density, thermal conductivity (K), and lattice constants, and on the mechanical properties in three-point bending, was also investigated. Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} was found to getter dissolved oxygen from the AlN lattice below 1,850 C, but evaporated at 1,850 C and above. Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} appeared to sublimate below 1,850 C in the atmosphere used in this study. Depending on the secondary phase constitution, heat treatment affected thermal conductivity favorably or adversely. Occasionally, samples with similar lattice oxygen contents were found to have different thermal conductivities, suggesting that factors besides dissolved oxygen can also influence K. Lattice parameter measurements indicated that, within the small range of lattice oxygen concentrations in the AlN samples studied, the c-axis was more sensitive than the a-axis to oxygen content.

  16. Simplified numerical description of latent storage characteristics for phase change wallboard

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1995-05-01

    Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, down-size the cooling systems and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the short-comings of alternative cooling sources or to avoid high demand charges. With the advent of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, thermal storage can be part of the building structure even for light-weight buildings. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows to store large amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the sheathing. As heat storage takes place in the building part where the loads occur, rather than externally (e.g., ice or chilled water storage), additional transport energy is not needed. To numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard, RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation model based on the finite difference approach, will be used. RADCOOL has been developed in the SPARK environment in order to be compatible with the new family of simulation tools being developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As logical statements are difficult to use in SPARK, a continuous function for the specific heat and the enthalpy had to be found. This report covers the development of a simplified description of latent storage characteristics for wallboard treated with phase change material.

  17. Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Raghavan, Narendran; Dehoff, Ryan; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kirka, Michael; Turner, John; Carlson, Neil; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-04-26

    The fabrication of 3-D parts from CAD models by additive manufacturing (AM) is a disruptive technology that is transforming the metal manufacturing industry. The correlation between solidification microstructure and mechanical properties has been well understood in the casting and welding processes over the years. This paper focuses on extending these principles to additive manufacturing to understand the transient phenomena of repeated melting and solidification during electron beam powder melting process to achieve site-specific microstructure control within a fabricated component. In this paper, we have developed a novel melt scan strategy for electron beam melting of nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 718) andmore » also analyzed 3-D heat transfer conditions using a parallel numerical solidification code (Truchas) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of temperature gradient (G) and growth velocity (R) at the liquid-solid interface of the melt pool were calculated as a function of electron beam parameters. By manipulating the relative number of voxels that lie in the columnar or equiaxed region, the crystallographic texture of the components can be controlled to an extent. The analysis of the parameters provided optimum processing conditions that will result in columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) during the solidification. Furthermore, the results from the numerical simulations were validated by experimental processing and characterization thereby proving the potential of additive manufacturing process to achieve site-specific crystallographic texture control within a fabricated component.« less

  18. Epstein–Barr virus latent genes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Soo; Kieff, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has a substantial role in causing many human disorders. The persistence of these viral genomes in all malignant cells, yet with the expression of limited latent genes, is consistent with the notion that EBV latent genes are important for malignant cell growth. While the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP-2A) are critical, the EBNA-leader proteins, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3C and LMP-1, are individually essential for in vitro transformation of primary B cells to lymphoblastoid cell lines. EBV-encoded RNAs and EBNA-3Bs are dispensable. In this review, the roles of EBV latent genes are summarized. PMID:25613728

  19. Latent classiness and other mixtures.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to laud Lindon Eaves' role in the development of mixture modeling in genetic studies. The specification of models for mixture distributions was very much in its infancy when Professor Eaves implemented it in his own FORTRAN programs, and extended it to data collected from relatives such as twins. It was his collaboration with the author of this article which led to the first implementation of mixture distribution modeling in a general-purpose structural equation modeling program, Mx, resulting in a 1996 article on linkage analysis in Behavior Genetics. Today, the popularity of these methods continues to grow, encompassing methods for genetic association, latent class analysis, growth curve mixture modeling, factor mixture modeling, regime switching, marginal maximum likelihood, genotype by environment interaction, variance component twin modeling in the absence of zygosity information, and many others. This primarily historical article concludes with some consideration of some possible future developments. PMID:24477932

  20. A calibration test for latent fingerprint development on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Caroline A; Bond, John W

    2014-11-01

    A calibration test is described for monitoring the operation of equipment used to develop latent fingerprints on thermal paper by the application of either controlled or uncontrolled heat. A working solution of a water/glycerol emulsion and butylene glycol is applied to thermal paper by means of either a vinyl stamp and pad, or a marker pen. Varying the amount of butylene glycol enables the thermal paper to change color at different temperatures between approximately 40 and 60°C, which is below the normal color change temperature of the paper. The described test may be used to verify the correct operation, at different temperatures, of a controlled heat source during and after fingerprint development (such as the Hot Print System) or to monitor the paper temperature with an uncontrolled heat source (such as a warm air blower), thereby avoiding unintentional coloring of the entire paper surface.

  1. Reduction of acrylamide and its kinetics by addition of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) and extract of green tea (EGT) in asparagine-glucose microwave heating system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Ying, Tiejin; Zhang, Ying

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) and extract of green tea (EGT) on the formation and kinetics of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine-glucose model system. The substrates spiked with AOB and EGT were microwave-heated at 180 degrees C and the acrylamide content in final reaction products was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that both AOB and EGT could effectively reduce the formation of acrylamide in an asparagine-glucose microwave heating model system and achieved a maximum reduction rate when the addition levels of AOB and EGT were both 10(-6) mg/mL reaction solution. To describe the kinetic behavior of acrylamide, a simplified kinetic model was optimized and relative kinetic rate constants were evaluated under isothermal conditions. The results indicated that the reduction effect of AOB and EGT on the acrylamide formation may partly be ascribed to the decrease of the formation rate constant (k(F)) in both AOB and EGT-spiked systems (43.4% and 32.3% of decrease, respectively, P < 0.05). The kinetic parameter k(E), which represents the elimination rate of acrylamide in both AOB and EGT-spiked systems, was not significantly different (6.9% of increase and 10.9% of decrease, respectively, P > 0.05). The results of the kinetic study indicated that addition of AOB and EGT could significantly reduce the formation rate constant (k(F)) of acrylamide, but could not significantly affect the elimination rate constant (k(E)) of acrylamide.

  2. Limits of the lab: diagnosing "latent gonorrhea," 1872-1910.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    One of the most heatedly contested disease entities in turn-of-the-century medicine was "latent gonorrhea," a condition first discussed in an 1872 paper published by the German-born gynecologist Emil Noeggerath. Although none of the bacteriological discoveries of the next few decades-including the isolation of the gonococcus in 1879-provided much evidence of its existence, by the 1890s most Western physicians and medical scientists had nonetheless come to believe that latent gonorrhea was a real, diagnosable disease. While in the wake of its resolution, leading gynecologists contended that laboratory science had cleared up the controversy over latent gonorrhea, in reality it was through more "traditional" diagnostic methods (especially the taking of case histories) that Noeggerath's once-debatable theory gained acceptance. As such, this episode challenges the idea that turn-of-the-century Western medicine witnessed a "laboratory revolution," and that with the rise of bacteriology "the clinic" no longer informed the processes by which doctors defined and diagnosed disease.

  3. Latent fingermark development using low-vacuum vaporization of ninhydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Chao-Kai; Liao, Jeh-Shane; Wang, Sheng-Meng

    2015-12-01

    The vacuum technique is a method of vaporizing a solid material to its gas phase, helping deposit reagents gently on target surfaces to develop latent fingermarks. However, this application is rarely reported in the literature. In this study, a homemade fume hood with a built-in vacuum control system and programmable heating system designed by the Taiwan Criminal Investigation Bureau is introduced. Factors that affect the instrument's performance in developing fingermarks are discussed, including the quantity of chemicals for vaporization, heating program arrangement, and paper of different materials. The results show that fingermarks are effectively developed by vaporizing solid ninhydrin. This would be an alternative application in selecting a solvent-free method for protecting the environment and reducing health hazards in the lab. In terms of the heating program, the result indicates that under a low-vacuum condition (50 mTorr), 80-90 °C is a suitable temperature range for ninhydrin vaporization, allowing ninhydrin to be vaporized without bumping and waste. In terms of the performance on different material papers, this instrument demonstrates its capacity by developing latent fingermarks on thermal paper without discoloration or damaging the original writing, and the same results are also observed on Taiwan and United States banknotes. However, a coherent result could be hardly obtained using the same vaporization setting because different banknotes have their own surface features and water absorption ability or other unique factors may influence the effect of ninhydrin deposition. This study provides a reliable application for developing latent fingermarks without using solvents, and it is also expected to contribute to environmental protection along with the trend of green chemistry technology.

  4. Latent fingermark development using low-vacuum vaporization of ninhydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Chao-Kai; Liao, Jeh-Shane; Wang, Sheng-Meng

    2015-12-01

    The vacuum technique is a method of vaporizing a solid material to its gas phase, helping deposit reagents gently on target surfaces to develop latent fingermarks. However, this application is rarely reported in the literature. In this study, a homemade fume hood with a built-in vacuum control system and programmable heating system designed by the Taiwan Criminal Investigation Bureau is introduced. Factors that affect the instrument's performance in developing fingermarks are discussed, including the quantity of chemicals for vaporization, heating program arrangement, and paper of different materials. The results show that fingermarks are effectively developed by vaporizing solid ninhydrin. This would be an alternative application in selecting a solvent-free method for protecting the environment and reducing health hazards in the lab. In terms of the heating program, the result indicates that under a low-vacuum condition (50 mTorr), 80-90 °C is a suitable temperature range for ninhydrin vaporization, allowing ninhydrin to be vaporized without bumping and waste. In terms of the performance on different material papers, this instrument demonstrates its capacity by developing latent fingermarks on thermal paper without discoloration or damaging the original writing, and the same results are also observed on Taiwan and United States banknotes. However, a coherent result could be hardly obtained using the same vaporization setting because different banknotes have their own surface features and water absorption ability or other unique factors may influence the effect of ninhydrin deposition. This study provides a reliable application for developing latent fingermarks without using solvents, and it is also expected to contribute to environmental protection along with the trend of green chemistry technology. PMID:26451774

  5. (Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1990-12-19

    Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

  6. A solar-thermal energy harvesting scheme: enhanced heat capacity of molten HITEC salt mixed with Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Chung; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhiming M; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ∼29 J g(-1) for Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g(-1) K(-1) for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants.

  7. A novel approach for latent print identification using accurate overlays to prioritize reference prints.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Daniel T; Gantz, Donald T; Walch, Mark A; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-12-01

    A novel approach to automated fingerprint matching and scoring that produces accurate locally and nonlinearly adjusted overlays of a latent print onto each reference print in a corpus is described. The technology, which addresses challenges inherent to latent prints, provides the latent print examiner with a prioritized ranking of candidate reference prints based on the overlays of the latent onto each candidate print. In addition to supporting current latent print comparison practices, this approach can make it possible to return a greater number of AFIS candidate prints because the ranked overlays provide a substantial starting point for latent-to-reference print comparison. To provide the image information required to create an accurate overlay of a latent print onto a reference print, "Ridge-Specific Markers" (RSMs), which correspond to short continuous segments of a ridge or furrow, are introduced. RSMs are reliably associated with any specific local section of a ridge or a furrow using the geometric information available from the image. Latent prints are commonly fragmentary, with reduced clarity and limited minutiae (i.e., ridge endings and bifurcations). Even in the absence of traditional minutiae, latent prints contain very important information in their ridges that permit automated matching using RSMs. No print orientation or information beyond the RSMs is required to generate the overlays. This automated process is applied to the 88 good quality latent prints in the NIST Special Database (SD) 27. Nonlinear overlays of each latent were produced onto all of the 88 reference prints in the NIST SD27. With fully automated processing, the true mate reference prints were ranked in the first candidate position for 80.7% of the latents tested, and 89.8% of the true mate reference prints ranked in the top ten positions. After manual post-processing of those latents for which the true mate reference print was not ranked first, these frequencies increased to 90

  8. Polymer alloys with balanced heat storage capacity and engineering attributes and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soroushian, Parviz

    2002-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer of relatively low melt temperature is blended with at least one of thermosets, elastomers, and thermoplastics of relatively high melt temperature in order to produce a polymer blend which absorbs relatively high quantities of latent heat without melting or major loss of physical and mechanical characteristics as temperature is raised above the melting temperature of the low-melt-temperature thermoplastic. The polymer blend can be modified by the addition of at least one of fillers, fibers, fire retardants, compatibilisers, colorants, and processing aids. The polymer blend may be used in applications where advantage can be taken of the absorption of excess heat by a component which remains solid and retains major fractions of its physical and mechanical characteristics while absorbing relatively high quantities of latent heat.

  9. Numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured bone scaffolds fabricated by FDM: The effect of layer penetration and post-heating.

    PubMed

    Naghieh, S; Karamooz Ravari, M R; Badrossamay, M; Foroozmehr, E; Kadkhodaei, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, thanks to additive manufacturing technology, researchers have gone towards the optimization of bone scaffolds for the bone reconstruction. Bone scaffolds should have appropriate biological as well as mechanical properties in order to play a decisive role in bone healing. Since the fabrication of scaffolds is time consuming and expensive, numerical methods are often utilized to simulate their mechanical properties in order to find a nearly optimum one. Finite element analysis is one of the most common numerical methods that is used in this regard. In this paper, a parametric finite element model is developed to assess the effects of layers penetration׳s effect on inter-layer adhesion, which is reflected on the mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. To be able to validate this model, some compression test specimens as well as bone scaffolds are fabricated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic acid using fused deposition modeling. All these specimens are tested in compression and their elastic modulus is obtained. Using the material parameters of the compression test specimens, the finite element analysis of the bone scaffold is performed. The obtained elastic modulus is compared with experiment indicating a good agreement. Accordingly, the proposed finite element model is able to predict the mechanical behavior of fabricated bone scaffolds accurately. In addition, the effect of post-heating of bone scaffolds on their elastic modulus is investigated. The results demonstrate that the numerically predicted elastic modulus of scaffold is closer to experimental outcomes in comparison with as-built samples.

  10. Numerical investigation of the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured bone scaffolds fabricated by FDM: The effect of layer penetration and post-heating.

    PubMed

    Naghieh, S; Karamooz Ravari, M R; Badrossamay, M; Foroozmehr, E; Kadkhodaei, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, thanks to additive manufacturing technology, researchers have gone towards the optimization of bone scaffolds for the bone reconstruction. Bone scaffolds should have appropriate biological as well as mechanical properties in order to play a decisive role in bone healing. Since the fabrication of scaffolds is time consuming and expensive, numerical methods are often utilized to simulate their mechanical properties in order to find a nearly optimum one. Finite element analysis is one of the most common numerical methods that is used in this regard. In this paper, a parametric finite element model is developed to assess the effects of layers penetration׳s effect on inter-layer adhesion, which is reflected on the mechanical properties of bone scaffolds. To be able to validate this model, some compression test specimens as well as bone scaffolds are fabricated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic acid using fused deposition modeling. All these specimens are tested in compression and their elastic modulus is obtained. Using the material parameters of the compression test specimens, the finite element analysis of the bone scaffold is performed. The obtained elastic modulus is compared with experiment indicating a good agreement. Accordingly, the proposed finite element model is able to predict the mechanical behavior of fabricated bone scaffolds accurately. In addition, the effect of post-heating of bone scaffolds on their elastic modulus is investigated. The results demonstrate that the numerically predicted elastic modulus of scaffold is closer to experimental outcomes in comparison with as-built samples. PMID:26874065

  11. Orientation field estimation for latent fingerprint enhancement.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie; Jain, Anil K

    2013-04-01

    Identifying latent fingerprints is of vital importance for law enforcement agencies to apprehend criminals and terrorists. Compared to live-scan and inked fingerprints, the image quality of latent fingerprints is much lower, with complex image background, unclear ridge structure, and even overlapping patterns. A robust orientation field estimation algorithm is indispensable for enhancing and recognizing poor quality latents. However, conventional orientation field estimation algorithms, which can satisfactorily process most live-scan and inked fingerprints, do not provide acceptable results for most latents. We believe that a major limitation of conventional algorithms is that they do not utilize prior knowledge of the ridge structure in fingerprints. Inspired by spelling correction techniques in natural language processing, we propose a novel fingerprint orientation field estimation algorithm based on prior knowledge of fingerprint structure. We represent prior knowledge of fingerprints using a dictionary of reference orientation patches. which is constructed using a set of true orientation fields, and the compatibility constraint between neighboring orientation patches. Orientation field estimation for latents is posed as an energy minimization problem, which is solved by loopy belief propagation. Experimental results on the challenging NIST SD27 latent fingerprint database and an overlapped latent fingerprint database demonstrate the advantages of the proposed orientation field estimation algorithm over conventional algorithms.

  12. Predictive Inference Using Latent Variables with Covariates*

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Lynne Steuerle; Junker, Brian; Taylor, Lowell J.; Black, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    Plausible Values (PVs) are a standard multiple imputation tool for analysis of large education survey data that measures latent proficiency variables. When latent proficiency is the dependent variable, we reconsider the standard institutionally-generated PV methodology and find it applies with greater generality than shown previously. When latent proficiency is an independent variable, we show that the standard institutional PV methodology produces biased inference because the institutional conditioning model places restrictions on the form of the secondary analysts’ model. We offer an alternative approach that avoids these biases based on the mixed effects structural equations (MESE) model of Schofield (2008). PMID:25231627

  13. Heating Structures Derived from Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Adler, R.; Haddad, Z.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.; Meneghini, R.; Olson, W.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the hydrologic cycle and is a primary heat source for the atmosphere. The vertical distribution of latent-heat release, which is accompanied by rainfall, modulates the large-scale circulations of the tropics and in turn can impact midlatitude weather. This latent heat release is a consequence of phase changes between vapor, liquid, and solid water. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, was launched in November 1997. It provides an accurate measurement of rainfall over the global tropics which can be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of latent heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. This paper describes several different algorithms for estimating latent heating using TRMM observations. The strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm as well as the heating products are also discussed. The validation of heating products will be exhibited. Finally, the application of this heating information to global circulation and climate models is presented.

  14. Reactivation of Latent Viruses in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Tyring, S. K.; Lugg, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is an important health risk for people working and living in physically isolated extreme environments such as Antarctica and space. Preflight quarantine does not significantly reduce the risk associated with latent viruses, however, pharmaceutical countermeasures are available for some viruses. The molecular basis of latency is not fully understood, but physical and psychosocial stresses are known to initiate the reactivation of latent viruses. Presumably, stress induced changes in selected hormones lead to alterations in the cell- mediated immune (CMI) response resulting in increased shedding of latent viruses. Limited access to space makes the use of ground-based analogs essential. The Australian Antarctic stations serve as a good stress model and simulate many aspects of space flight. Closed environmental chambers have been used to simulate space flight since the Skylab missions and have also proven to be a valuable analog of selected aspects of space flight.

  15. Greedy learning of binary latent trees.

    PubMed

    Harmeling, Stefan; Williams, Christopher K I

    2011-06-01

    Inferring latent structures from observations helps to model and possibly also understand underlying data generating processes. A rich class of latent structures is the latent trees, i.e., tree-structured distributions involving latent variables where the visible variables are leaves. These are also called hierarchical latent class (HLC) models. Zhang and Kocka proposed a search algorithm for learning such models in the spirit of Bayesian network structure learning. While such an approach can find good solutions, it can be computationally expensive. As an alternative, we investigate two greedy procedures: the BIN-G algorithm determines both the structure of the tree and the cardinality of the latent variables in a bottom-up fashion. The BIN-A algorithm first determines the tree structure using agglomerative hierarchical clustering, and then determines the cardinality of the latent variables as for BIN-G. We show that even with restricting ourselves to binary trees, we obtain HLC models of comparable quality to Zhang's solutions (in terms of cross-validated log-likelihood), while being generally faster to compute. This claim is validated by a comprehensive comparison on several data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our methods are able to estimate interpretable latent structures on real-world data with a large number of variables. By applying our method to a restricted version of the 20 newsgroups data, these models turn out to be related to topic models, and on data from the PASCAL Visual Object Classes (VOC) 2007 challenge, we show how such treestructured models help us understand how objects co-occur in images. For reproducibility of all experiments in this paper, all code and data sets (or links to data) are available at http://people.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/harmeling/code/ltt-1.4.tar.

  16. A study on the carcinogenicity of human diets in rats: the influence of heating and the addition of vegetables and fruit.

    PubMed

    Alink, G M; Kuiper, H A; Beems, R B; Koeman, J H

    1989-07-01

    The influence of dietary factors such as total composition, thermal processing, and the addition of vegetables and fruit on the tumour rate in rats was studied in a long-term experiment. Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets: a semi-synthetic animal diet (A, control); diet A to which vegetables and fruit were added (B); an uncooked human diet (meat, bread and eggs) supplemented with semi-synthetic compounds (C); diet C with fried or baked products (D); a complete human diet consisting of heated products, vegetables and fruit prepared according to mean consumption figures in The Netherlands (E). The animal diets (A and B) contained 26.0 energy (E)% protein, 21.6 E% fat, 52.4 E% carbohydrate and 10.7% (w/w) fibre. The human diets contained 13.2 E% protein, 40.6 E% fat, 46.2 E% carbohydrate and 5% (w/w) fibre. The rats were fed ad lib. for 142 wk. In males and females fed human diets (C, D or E) hepatocellular vacuolization was observed. Male rats (but not female) fed the human diet had a significantly (P less than 0.02) higher incidence of epithelial tumours than those fed the animal diet. This increase was mainly due to tumours of the pituitary and thyroid. Frying and baking of food products (diet D) and the addition of vegetables and fruit (diet E) induced minor differences in tumour rate, but they were not statistically significant. PMID:2777146

  17. A study on the carcinogenicity of human diets in rats: the influence of heating and the addition of vegetables and fruit.

    PubMed

    Alink, G M; Kuiper, H A; Beems, R B; Koeman, J H

    1989-07-01

    The influence of dietary factors such as total composition, thermal processing, and the addition of vegetables and fruit on the tumour rate in rats was studied in a long-term experiment. Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar rats were fed one of the following diets: a semi-synthetic animal diet (A, control); diet A to which vegetables and fruit were added (B); an uncooked human diet (meat, bread and eggs) supplemented with semi-synthetic compounds (C); diet C with fried or baked products (D); a complete human diet consisting of heated products, vegetables and fruit prepared according to mean consumption figures in The Netherlands (E). The animal diets (A and B) contained 26.0 energy (E)% protein, 21.6 E% fat, 52.4 E% carbohydrate and 10.7% (w/w) fibre. The human diets contained 13.2 E% protein, 40.6 E% fat, 46.2 E% carbohydrate and 5% (w/w) fibre. The rats were fed ad lib. for 142 wk. In males and females fed human diets (C, D or E) hepatocellular vacuolization was observed. Male rats (but not female) fed the human diet had a significantly (P less than 0.02) higher incidence of epithelial tumours than those fed the animal diet. This increase was mainly due to tumours of the pituitary and thyroid. Frying and baking of food products (diet D) and the addition of vegetables and fruit (diet E) induced minor differences in tumour rate, but they were not statistically significant.

  18. Latent phenotypes pervade gene regulatory circuits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Latent phenotypes are non-adaptive byproducts of adaptive phenotypes. They exist in biological systems as different as promiscuous enzymes and genome-scale metabolic reaction networks, and can give rise to evolutionary adaptations and innovations. We know little about their prevalence in the gene expression phenotypes of regulatory circuits, important sources of evolutionary innovations. Results Here, we study a space of more than sixteen million three-gene model regulatory circuits, where each circuit is represented by a genotype, and has one or more functions embodied in one or more gene expression phenotypes. We find that the majority of circuits with single functions have latent expression phenotypes. Moreover, the set of circuits with a given spectrum of functions has a repertoire of latent phenotypes that is much larger than that of any one circuit. Most of this latent repertoire can be easily accessed through a series of small genetic changes that preserve a circuit’s main functions. Both circuits and gene expression phenotypes that are robust to genetic change are associated with a greater number of latent phenotypes. Conclusions Our observations suggest that latent phenotypes are pervasive in regulatory circuits, and may thus be an important source of evolutionary adaptations and innovations involving gene regulation. PMID:24884746

  19. The Latent Structure of Dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Massé, Alexandre Blondin; Lopes, Marcos; Lord, Mélanie; Marcotte, Odile; Harnad, Stevan

    2016-07-01

    How many words-and which ones-are sufficient to define all other words? When dictionaries are analyzed as directed graphs with links from defining words to defined words, they reveal a latent structure. Recursively removing all words that are reachable by definition but that do not define any further words reduces the dictionary to a Kernel of about 10% of its size. This is still not the smallest number of words that can define all the rest. About 75% of the Kernel turns out to be its Core, a "Strongly Connected Subset" of words with a definitional path to and from any pair of its words and no word's definition depending on a word outside the set. But the Core cannot define all the rest of the dictionary. The 25% of the Kernel surrounding the Core consists of small strongly connected subsets of words: the Satellites. The size of the smallest set of words that can define all the rest-the graph's "minimum feedback vertex set" or MinSet-is about 1% of the dictionary, about 15% of the Kernel, and part-Core/part-Satellite. But every dictionary has a huge number of MinSets. The Core words are learned earlier, more frequent, and less concrete than the Satellites, which are in turn learned earlier, more frequent, but more concrete than the rest of the Dictionary. In principle, only one MinSet's words would need to be grounded through the sensorimotor capacity to recognize and categorize their referents. In a dual-code sensorimotor/symbolic model of the mental lexicon, the symbolic code could do all the rest through recombinatory definition. PMID:27424842

  20. Modeling healthcare data using multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin-Min; Wei, Chih-Ping; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Information and communications technologies have enabled healthcare institutions to accumulate large amounts of healthcare data that include diagnoses, medications, and additional contextual information such as patient demographics. To gain a better understanding of big healthcare data and to develop better data-driven clinical decision support systems, we propose a novel multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation (MCLDA) approach for modeling diagnoses, medications, and contextual information in healthcare data. The proposed MCLDA model assumes that a latent health status group structure is responsible for the observed co-occurrences among diagnoses, medications, and contextual information. Using a real-world research testbed that includes one million healthcare insurance claim records, we investigate the utility of MCLDA. Our empirical evaluation results suggest that MCLDA is capable of capturing the comorbidity structures and linking them with the distribution of medications. Moreover, MCLDA is able to identify the pairing between diagnoses and medications in a record based on the assigned latent groups. MCLDA can also be employed to predict missing medications or diagnoses given partial records. Our evaluation results also show that, in most cases, MCLDA outperforms alternative methods such as logistic regressions and the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) model for two prediction tasks, i.e., medication and diagnosis prediction. Thus, MCLDA represents a promising approach to modeling healthcare data for clinical decision support.

  1. Modeling healthcare data using multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin-Min; Wei, Chih-Ping; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Information and communications technologies have enabled healthcare institutions to accumulate large amounts of healthcare data that include diagnoses, medications, and additional contextual information such as patient demographics. To gain a better understanding of big healthcare data and to develop better data-driven clinical decision support systems, we propose a novel multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation (MCLDA) approach for modeling diagnoses, medications, and contextual information in healthcare data. The proposed MCLDA model assumes that a latent health status group structure is responsible for the observed co-occurrences among diagnoses, medications, and contextual information. Using a real-world research testbed that includes one million healthcare insurance claim records, we investigate the utility of MCLDA. Our empirical evaluation results suggest that MCLDA is capable of capturing the comorbidity structures and linking them with the distribution of medications. Moreover, MCLDA is able to identify the pairing between diagnoses and medications in a record based on the assigned latent groups. MCLDA can also be employed to predict missing medications or diagnoses given partial records. Our evaluation results also show that, in most cases, MCLDA outperforms alternative methods such as logistic regressions and the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) model for two prediction tasks, i.e., medication and diagnosis prediction. Thus, MCLDA represents a promising approach to modeling healthcare data for clinical decision support. PMID:26898516

  2. Joint modeling of repeated multivariate cognitive measures and competing risks of dementia and death: a latent process and latent class approach.

    PubMed

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2016-02-10

    Joint models initially dedicated to a single longitudinal marker and a single time-to-event need to be extended to account for the rich longitudinal data of cohort studies. Multiple causes of clinical progression are indeed usually observed, and multiple longitudinal markers are collected when the true latent trait of interest is hard to capture (e.g., quality of life, functional dependency, and cognitive level). These multivariate and longitudinal data also usually have nonstandard distributions (discrete, asymmetric, bounded, etc.). We propose a joint model based on a latent process and latent classes to analyze simultaneously such multiple longitudinal markers of different natures, and multiple causes of progression. A latent process model describes the latent trait of interest and links it to the observed longitudinal outcomes using flexible measurement models adapted to different types of data, and a latent class structure links the longitudinal and cause-specific survival models. The joint model is estimated in the maximum likelihood framework. A score test is developed to evaluate the assumption of conditional independence of the longitudinal markers and each cause of progression given the latent classes. In addition, individual dynamic cumulative incidences of each cause of progression based on the repeated marker data are derived. The methodology is validated in a simulation study and applied on real data about cognitive aging obtained from a large population-based study. The aim is to predict the risk of dementia by accounting for the competing death according to the profiles of semantic memory measured by two asymmetric psychometric tests.

  3. Latent Curve Models and Latent Change Score Models Estimated in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghisletta, Paolo; McArdle, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the use of the latent curve model (LCM) among researchers in social sciences has increased noticeably, probably thanks to contemporary software developments and the availability of specialized literature. Extensions of the LCM, like the the latent change score model (LCSM), have also increased in popularity. At the same time, the R…

  4. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  5. Latent heat solar collection and storage: application to agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Benard, C.; Gobin, D.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental results presented here have been obtained on a solar chicken breeder built in the Peruvian mountains. This installation is made of adobe and part of its roof is a solar collection-storage system consisting of two tanks of paraffin-wax located below glass panes. 4 refs.

  6. Demonstration of Super Cooled Ice as a Phase Change Material Heat Sink for Portable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a nontoxic, nonflammable PCM is being developed. The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented along with recommendations for further development of this technology.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Healthcare Workers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important occupational risks for healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea. Many policies regarding the control and prevention of TB in healthcare settings recommend that HCWs are tested for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in addition to active TB. Moreover, the Korean Tuberculosis Prevention Act also recommends that HCWs receive regular testing for LTBI. However, there are no specific or detailed guidelines for dealing with LTBI in HCWs. Herein, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of LTBI in HCWs and focus particularly on the baseline screening of hired HCWs, routine follow-up, and contact investigation. PMID:27433172

  8. The Influence of the Sensible Heat of Rain and Subsurface Heat Transport on the Energy Balance at the Land Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, S.; Cvijanovic, I.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Maxwell, R. M.; Moene, A. F.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    In land many surface models, which account for the energy balance at the land surface, subsurface heat transport is an important component that reciprocally influences ground, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and net radiation. The applied subsurface heat transport parameterizations are commonly simplified for computational efficiency. A major simplification is the disregard of the sensible heat of rain and convective subsurface heat flow, i.e. the transport of heat through moisture redistribution, which basically decouples heat transport from moisture transport at the land surface and in the subsurface. In the presented analysis, the influence of sensible heat of rain and convection on the energy balance is studied using a coupled model that integrates a subsurface moisture and energy transport model with a land surface model. It is shown that all components of the land surface energy balance depend on the sensible heat of rain. The strength of the dependence is related to the rain rate, and the temperature difference between the rain water and the soil surface. The rain water temperature is a parameter rarely measured in the field that introduces uncertainty in the calculations and is approximated using the either the air or wet bulb temperatures in different simulations. In addition it is shown that the lower boundary condition for closing the problem of subsurface heat transport has strong implications on the energy balance under dynamic equilibrium conditions. Comparison with measured data from the Meteostation Haarweg, Wageningen, The Netherlands, shows good agreement and suggests the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  9. Intractable diarrhoea of infancy and latent otomastoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar de Sousa, J; da Silva, A; da Costa Ribeiro, V

    1980-01-01

    In 16 infants with intractable diarrhoea, latent otomastoiditis was found in 9 (3 at necropsy and 6 at myringotomy-antrotomy). In 5 of the 6 operated group, surgery was followed by a striking cessation of the diarrhoea and with weight gain. It is concluded that (1) latent otomastoiditis may be a perpetuating factor in intractable diarrhoea; (2) myringotomy-antrotomy should be considered if other forms of treatment have failed, and especially if there is leucocytosis; (3) mastoiditis with diffuse osteitis seems to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:7458392

  10. Learning Minimal Latent Directed Information Polytrees.

    PubMed

    Etesami, Jalal; Kiyavash, Negar; Coleman, Todd

    2016-09-01

    We propose an approach for learning latent directed polytrees as long as there exists an appropriately defined discrepancy measure between the observed nodes. Specifically, we use our approach for learning directed information polytrees where samples are available from only a subset of processes. Directed information trees are a new type of probabilistic graphical models that represent the causal dynamics among a set of random processes in a stochastic system. We prove that the approach is consistent for learning minimal latent directed trees. We analyze the sample complexity of the learning task when the empirical estimator of mutual information is used as the discrepancy measure. PMID:27391682

  11. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  12. Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars.

  13. Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars. PMID:26353151

  14. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  15. Regression Mixture Models: Does Modeling the Covariance Between Independent Variables and Latent Classes Improve the Results?

    PubMed

    Lamont, Andrea E; Vermunt, Jeroen K; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    Regression mixture models are increasingly used as an exploratory approach to identify heterogeneity in the effects of a predictor on an outcome. In this simulation study, we tested the effects of violating an implicit assumption often made in these models; that is, independent variables in the model are not directly related to latent classes. Results indicate that the major risk of failing to model the relationship between predictor and latent class was an increase in the probability of selecting additional latent classes and biased class proportions. In addition, we tested whether regression mixture models can detect a piecewise relationship between a predictor and outcome. Results suggest that these models are able to detect piecewise relations but only when the relationship between the latent class and the predictor is included in model estimation. We illustrate the implications of making this assumption through a reanalysis of applied data examining heterogeneity in the effects of family resources on academic achievement. We compare previous results (which assumed no relation between independent variables and latent class) to the model where this assumption is lifted. Implications and analytic suggestions for conducting regression mixture based on these findings are noted.

  16. Latent TGF-β-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian B.; Horiguchi, Masahito; Zilberberg, Lior; Dabovic, Branka; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The LTBPs (or latent transforming growth factor β binding proteins) are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that interact with fibrillin microfibrils and have a number of different roles in microfibril biology. There are four LTBPs isoforms in the human genome (LTBP-1, -2, -3, and -4), all of which appear to associate with fibrillin and the biology of each isoform is reviewed here. The LTBPs were first identified as forming latent complexes with TGFβ by covalently binding the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) via disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum. LAP in turn is cleaved from the mature TGFβ precursor in the trans golgi network but LAP and TGFβ remain strongly bound through non-covalent interactions. LAP, TGFβ, and LTBP together form the large latent complex (LLC). LTBPs were originally thought to primarily play a role in maintaining TGFβ latency and targeting the latent growth factor to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but it has also been shown that LTBP-1 participates in TGFβ activation by integrins and may also regulate activation by proteases and other factors. LTBP-3 appears to have a role in skeletal formation including tooth development. As well as having important functions in TGFβ regulation, TGFβ-independent activities have recently been identified for LTBP-2 and LTBP-4 in stabilizing microfibril bundles and regulating elastic fiber assembly. PMID:25960419

  17. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  18. Confirmatory Measurement Model Comparisons Using Latent Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsap, Roger E.; Everson, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with nonzero latent means in testing six different measurement models from classical test theory is discussed. Implications of the six models for observed mean and covariance structures are described, and three examples of the use of CFA in testing the models are presented. (SLD)

  19. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  20. Immune Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, Janet S.

    1999-01-01

    A major concern associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious diseases posing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. One major hypothesis addressed in this project is that space flight will cause alterations in the immune system that will allow latent viruses that are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal, which may affect the health of crew members. The second major hypothesis being examined is that the effects of space flight will alter the mucosal immune system, the first line of defense against many microbial infections, including herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, and gastroenteritis viruses, rendering crew members more susceptible to virus infections across the mucosa. We are focusing the virus studies on the human herpesviruses and polyomaviruses, important pathogens known to establish latent infections in most of the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with these groups of viruses (especially certain herpesviruses) can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Both herpesviruses and polyomaviruses have been associated with human cancer, as well. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and available antivirals are of limited use. Whereas normal individuals display minimal consequences from latent viral infections, events which alter immune function (such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation) are known to increase the risk of complications as a result of viral reactivations.

  1. Extended Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segawa, Eisuke; Emery, Sherry; Curry, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized linear latent and mixed modeling (GLLAMM framework) includes many models such as hierarchical and structural equation models. However, GLLAMM cannot currently accommodate some models because it does not allow some parameters to be random. GLLAMM is extended to overcome the limitation by adding a submodel that specifies a…

  2. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  3. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Linda Anne; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  4. Class Evolution Tree: A Graphical Tool to Support Decisions on the Number of Classes in Exploratory Categorical Latent Variable Modeling for Rehabilitation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriston, Levente; Melchior, Hanne; Hergert, Anika; Bergelt, Corinna; Watzke, Birgit; Schulz, Holger; von Wolff, Alessa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a graphical tool that can be used in addition to standard statistical criteria to support decisions on the number of classes in explorative categorical latent variable modeling for rehabilitation research. Data from two rehabilitation research projects were used. In the first study, a latent profile analysis was…

  5. Assessment of input uncertainty by seasonally categorized latent variables using SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Haw; Su, Yu-Wen; Wolfe, June E.; Chen, Shien-Tsung; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Tseng, Wen-Hsiao; Brady, Dawn M.; Jeong, Jaehak; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2015-12-01

    Watershed processes have been explored with sophisticated simulation models for the past few decades. It has been stated that uncertainty attributed to alternative sources such as model parameters, forcing inputs, and measured data should be incorporated during the simulation process. Among varying uncertainty sources, input uncertainty attributed to precipitation data exhibits a dominant role, as it is the source driving most hydrologically-related processes. In previous studies, latent variables (normally distributed random noise) have been implemented to explicitly incorporate input uncertainty from precipitation data. However, it may not be appropriate to apply the same set of latent variables throughout temporal series without considering seasonal effects. In this study, seasonally categorized latent variables were defined to investigate potential effects on model predictions and associated predictive uncertainty. Results show that the incorporation of seasonal latent variables resulted in better statistical solutions (NSE, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient) for both calibration (0.58[streamflow]/0.73[sediment]/0.59[ammonia]) and validation (0.57[streamflow]/0.45[sediment]/0.53[ammonia]) periods. Alternative definitions of Dry/Wet seasonality (two definitions are defined in this study) also affected model predictions. In addition, it was determined that predictive uncertainty can be enhanced by incorporating more latent variables during model calibration. The implementations of proposed seasonal latent variables have further substantiated the importance of incorporating seasonal effects when conducting comparable approaches. Applications of latent variables on future work should evaluate potential effects on model predictions before performing associated scientific studies or relevant decision making processes.

  6. A Note on Cluster Effects in Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Keller, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the effects of clustering in latent class analysis. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted, which begins by specifying a true multilevel latent class model with varying within- and between-cluster sample sizes, varying latent class proportions, and varying intraclass correlations. These models are then estimated under…

  7. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  8. A General Approach to Defining Latent Growth Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Axel; Steyer, Rolf; Mueller, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We present a 3-step approach to defining latent growth components. In the first step, a measurement model with at least 2 indicators for each time point is formulated to identify measurement error variances and obtain latent variables that are purged from measurement error. In the second step, we use contrast matrices to define the latent growth…

  9. Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 27 contains latent fingerprints from crime scenes and their matching rolled fingerprint mates. This database can be used to develop and test new fingerprint algorithms, test commercial and research AFIS systems, train latent examiners, and promote the ANSI/NIST file format standard.

  10. Bayesian Semiparametric Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Mingan; Dunson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation models (SEMs) with latent variables are widely useful for sparse covariance structure modeling and for inferring relationships among latent variables. Bayesian SEMs are appealing in allowing for the incorporation of prior information and in providing exact posterior distributions of unknowns, including the latent variables. In…

  11. Latent structure modeling underlying theophylline tablet formulations using a Bayesian network based on a self-organizing map clustering.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and design space. In this article, we integrate thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation, Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) and a Bayesian network (BN) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared using a standard formulation. We measured the tensile strength and disintegration time as response variables and the compressibility, cohesion and dispersibility of the pretableting blend as latent variables. We predicted these variables quantitatively using nonlinear TPS, generated a large amount of data on pretableting blends and tablets and clustered these data into several clusters using a SOM. Our results show that we are able to predict the experimental values of the latent and response variables with a high degree of accuracy and are able to classify the tablet data into several distinct clusters. In addition, to visualize the latent structure between the causal and latent factors and the response variables, we applied a BN method to the SOM clustering results. We found that despite having inserted latent variables between the causal factors and response variables, their relation is equivalent to the results for the SOM clustering, and thus we are able to explain the underlying latent structure. Consequently, this technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulation.

  12. Integrated Evaluation of Latent Viral Reactivation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This application proposes a continuation of our current effort, which has provided the first demonstration of viral reactivation during space flight. We have used the herpesvirus EBV as a model for latent viral reactivation and have shown that increased amounts of EBV DNA were shed by astronauts during space flight. Analysis of the Antarctic space flight analog indicated that the frequency of viral shedding may also increase (along with the increased numbers of virus) during long periods of isolation. However, a number of critical questions remain before the findings may be considered a significant health risk during extended space flight. These include: Are other latent viruses (e.g., other herpesviruses and polyornaviruses) in addition to EBV also reactivated and shed more frequently and/or in higher numbers during space flight? Is the viral reactivation observed in space flight and ground-based analogs mediated through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in a decreased cell-mediated immune response? How does detection of viral DNA by PCR analysis correlate with infectious virus? How does the amount of virus found during flight compare with viral levels observed in acute/chronic viral illnesses and in control individuals? This expanded study will examine the phenomenon of viral reactivation from the initiating stress through the HPA axis with the accompanying suppression of the immune system resulting in viral reactivation. This information is essential to determine if latent viral reactivation among crewmembers represents a sufficient medical risk to space travel to require the development of suitable countermeasures.

  13. Latent Class Analysis of college women's Thursday drinking.

    PubMed

    Ward, Rose Marie; Cleveland, Michael J; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2013-01-01

    College students drink in consistent patterns over the course of the academic semester and year (Beets et al., 2009; Del Boca et al., 2004). However, it is unclear if there are naturally occurring groups of female Thursday drinkers who display their own unique patterns of drinking across the semester. In a fall semester 10-week mixed online- and paper-based study of college female drinking, classes of Thursday drinkers were identified using Repeated Measures Latent Class Analysis. The 424 participants were recruited via flyers and advertisements in the student newspaper. It was determined that three latent classes provided optimal fit to the data: 1. Unlikely to report Thursday drinking; 2. Normal probability of Thursday drinkers; and 3. High probability of Thursday drinkers. The proportion of students within the latent classes differed across academic year in school. Seniors were least likely to be in the Unlikely group, and juniors and seniors were not in the Normal group. An additional analysis indicated that women in a sorority were four times more likely to be in the Normal or High groups compared to the Unlikely group. A final set of analyses indicated that women who enrolled in Friday morning classes were more likely to be in the Unlikely or Normal groups compared to the High group. Results indicated that the Unlikely group consumed significantly less alcohol at baseline, had lower levels of negative alcohol-related consequences prior to and during the study, and drank less on the weekends (Friday and Saturday). Female students who report drinking on Thursdays tend to be older, to be part of sororities, to have later classes or no classes on Friday, and to experience more negative alcohol-related consequences. Female students whose "weekends" start early are high-risk drinkers and might be targeted for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  14. Effects of dietary addition of heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei on growth performance, immune status and anti-oxidative capacity in early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin-Feng; Wu, Wei-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Wei; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Fang, Re-Jun

    2016-08-01

    The contradiction between high susceptibility of early weaned piglets to enteric pathogens and rigid restriction of antibiotic use in the diet is still prominent in the livestock production industry. To address this issue, the study was designed to replace dietary antibiotics partly or completely by an immunostimulant, namely heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei). Piglets (n = 192) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: (1) basal diet (Group A), (2) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (80 mg/kg diet, Group B), (3) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (same as in Group B, but 40 mg/kg diet) + heat-killed M. phlei (1.5 g/kg diet) (Group C) and (4) basal diet + heat-killed M. phlei (3 g/kg diet) (Group D). All piglets received the respective diets from days 21 to 51 of age and were weaned at the age of 28 d. Compared with the Control (Group A), in all other groups the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, small intestinal villus height:crypt depth ratio and protein levels of occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunal mucosa were increased. A decreased incidence of diarrhoea in conjunction with an increased sIgA concentration in the intestinal mucosa and serum IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrations was found in groups supplemented with heat-killed M. phlei (Groups C and D), but not in Group B. Groups C and D also showed decreased IL-2 concentrations in the intestinal mucosa with lower TLR4 and phosphor-IκB protein levels. The antioxidant capacity was reinforced in Groups C and D, as evidenced by the reduction in malondialdehyde and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. These data indicate that heat-killed M. phlei is a promising alternative to antibiotic use for early weaned piglets via induction of protective immune responses. PMID:27216553

  15. Application of mercaptosuccinic acid capped CdTe quantum dots for latent fingermark development.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Yu, Yingchun; Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin

    2013-09-10

    The aqueous synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) solution for quickly and sensitively developing latent fingermarks is described. The rapid growth mechanism of CdTe/MSA QDs, which depends on the molecule structure of MSA, is briefly discussed and compared with that of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe QDs. Development of latent fingermarks with the synthesized CdTe/MSA QDs was faster and the ridge details were clearer compared with CdTe/TGA QDs. In addition, latent fingermarks developed with CdTe/MSA QDs showed less background and better contrast than that of gentian violet or rhodamine 6G. Latent fingermarks could be well developed on black tape, scotch tape, tinfoil, aluminum alloy, stainless steel as well as on the adhesive side of yellow tape, even when the latter were aged up to seven days. As immersion time greatly reduced to 10 s by using CdTe/MSA QDs, a preliminary result of latent fingermark development by spraying was presented also.

  16. Modeling Nonlinear Change via Latent Change and Latent Acceleration Frameworks: Examining Velocity and Acceleration of Growth Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Mazzocco, Michele

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of the latent change and latent acceleration frameworks for modeling nonlinear growth in structural equation models. Moving to these frameworks allows for the direct identification of "rates of change" and "acceleration" in latent growth curves--information available indirectly through traditional growth curve models when change…

  17. Patterns of Psychopathology in Children with ADHD: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Rick; Herman, Keith; Sikorski, Jason; Mascendaro, Phil; Lambert, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This study used latent profile modeling (LPA) with a community sample that included an enriched sampling of children (aged 6-11) diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 271). Six classes of ADHD emerged from our LPA; only 17% of children fell into a class without significant co-occurring symptoms. In addition, nearly…

  18. Two Studies of Specification Error in Models for Categorical Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Depaoli, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the problem of specification error in 2 models for categorical latent variables; the latent class model and the latent Markov model. Specification error in the latent class model focuses on the impact of incorrectly specifying the number of latent classes of the categorical latent variable on measures of model adequacy as…

  19. Blocking of potentiation of latent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We present a theory of latent inhibition based on the Pearce-Hall (Pearce & Hall, 1980) model for classical conditioning. Its central features are (1) that the associability of a stimulus declines as it comes to predict its consequences and (2) that nonreinforced exposure to a stimulus engages an associative learning process that makes the stimulus an accurate predictor of its consequences (in this case, the occurrence of no event). A formalization of this theory is shown to accommodate the finding that preexposure in compound with another cue can potentiate latent inhibition to the target cue. It further predicts that preexposure to the added cue will eliminate the potentiation effect. An experiment using rats and the flavor-aversion procedure confirmed this prediction.

  20. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    PubMed

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

    2012-06-01

    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  1. Identification of promising antigenic components in latent fingermark residues.

    PubMed

    Drapel, Valérie; Becue, Andy; Champod, Christophe; Margot, Pierre

    2009-01-30

    An analysis of latent fingermark residues by Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining allowed the detection of different proteins, from which two major bands, corresponding to proteins of 56 and 64 kDa molecular weight, could be identified. Two other bands, corresponding to proteins of 52 and 48 kDa were also visualizable along with some other weaker bands of lower molecular weights. In order to identify these proteins, three antibodies directed against human proteins were tested on western blots of fingermarks residues: anti-keratin 1 and 10 (K1/10), anti-cathepsin-D (Cat.D) and anti-dermcidin (Derm.). The corresponding antigens are known to be present in the stratum corneum of desquamating stratified epithelium (K1/10, Cat.D) and/or in eccrine sweat (Cat.D, Derm.). The two major bands were identified as consistent with keratin 1 and 10. The pro-form and the active form of the cathepsin-D have also been identified from two other bands. Dermcidin could not be detected in the western blot. In addition, these antibodies have been tested on latent fingermarks left on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, as well as on whitened and non-whitened paper. The detection of fingermarks was successful with all three antibodies. PMID:19147311

  2. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields. PMID:18464053

  3. Clinical implication of latent myofascial trigger point.

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable points located within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia, which cause referred pain, local tenderness and autonomic changes when compressed. There are fundamental differences between the effects produced by the two basic types of MTrPs (active and latent). Active trigger points (ATrPs) usually produce referred pain and tenderness. In contrast, latent trigger points (LTrPs) are foci of hyperirritability in a taut band of muscle, which are clinically associated with a local twitch response, tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. LTrPs may be found in many pain-free skeletal muscles and may be "activated" and converted to ATrPs by continuous detrimental stimuli. ATrPs can be inactivated by different treatment strategies; however, they never fully disappear but rather convert to the latent form. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of LTrPs is important. This review highlights the clinical implication of LTrPs.

  4. Estimates of zonally averaged tropical diabatic heating in AMIP GCM simulations. PCMDI report No. 25

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    An understanding of the processess that generate the atmospheric diabatic heating rates is basic to an understanding of the time averaged general circulation of the atmosphere and also circulation anomalies. Knowledge of the sources and sinks of atmospheric heating enables a fuller understanding of the nature of the atmospheric circulation. An actual assesment of the diabatic heating rates in the atmosphere is a difficult problem that has been approached in a number of ways. One way is to estimate the total diabatic heating by estimating individual components associated with the radiative fluxes, the latent heat release, and sensible heat fluxes. An example of this approach is provided by Newell. Another approach is to estimate the net heating rates from consideration of the balance required of the mass and wind variables as routinely observed and analyzed. This budget computation has been done using the thermodynamic equation and more recently done by using the vorticity and thermodynamic equations. Schaak and Johnson compute the heating rates through the integration of the isentropic mass continuity equation. The estimates of heating arrived at all these methods are severely handicapped by the uncertainties in the observational data and analyses. In addition the estimates of the individual heating components suffer an additional source of error from the parameterizations used to approximate these quantities.

  5. Influence of self heating and Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} addition on the microstructural development of calcium aluminate cement

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, Christophe Gallucci, Emmanuel; Scrivener, Karen

    2010-10-15

    Hydrated Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC) is known to have a complex microstructure involving different phase assemblages strongly dependant on the temperature. This work presents an experimental approach to study the microstructure of CAC pastes from the first minute of hydration with controlled time-temperature histories up to several months of curing. The self heating usually occurring in the CAC concrete is considered and its influence on the growth and assemblage of the hydration products and subsequent space filling is shown. Quantification of the degree of CA hydration by BSE image analysis is used to understand the evolution of phases throughout the hydration process. Lithium sulphate is commonly used to control the setting time of CAC based materials. It is shown that this promotes the formation of more stable hydrates, but slightly reduces the extent of CA hydration.

  6. Visualization of latent fingerprint corrosion of metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2008-07-01

    Chemical reactions between latent fingerprints and a variety of metal surfaces are investigated by heating the metal up to temperatures of approximately 600 degrees C after deposition of the fingerprint. Ionic salts present in the fingerprint residue corrode the metal surface to produce an image of the fingerprint that is both durable and resistant to cleaning of the metal. The degree of fingerprint enhancement appears independent of the elapsed time between deposition and heating but is very dependent on both the composition of the metal and the level of salt secretion by the fingerprint donor. Results are presented that show practical applications for the enhancement to fingerprints deposited in arson crime scenes, contaminated by spray painting, or deposited on brass cartridge cases prior to discharge. The corrosion of the metal surface is further exploited by the demonstration of a novel technique for fingerprint enhancement based on the electrostatic charging of the metal and then the preferential adherence of a metallic powder to the corroded part of the metal surface.

  7. Microwave selective thermal development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces: potentialities of the method and preliminary experimental results.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    The thermal development of latent fingerprints on paper surfaces is a simple, safe, and chemicals-free method, based on the faster heating of the substrate underlying the print residue. Microwave heating is proposed for the first time for the development of latent fingerprints on cellulose-based substrate, in order to add to the thermal development mechanism the further characteristic of being able to heat the fingerprint residues to a different extent with respect to the substrate, due to the intrinsic difference in their dielectric properties. Numerical simulation was performed to confirm and highlight the selectivity of microwaves, and preliminary experimental results point out the great potentialities of this technique, which allowed developing both latent sebaceous-rich and latent eccrine-rich fingerprints on different porous surfaces, in less than 30 sec time with an applied output power of 500 W. Microwaves demonstrated more effectiveness in the development of eccrine-rich residues, aged up to 12 weeks.

  8. Solar heating system

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  9. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  10. Non-destructive forensic latent fingerprint acquisition with chromatic white light sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, Marcus; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2011-02-01

    Non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition is an emerging field of research, which, unlike traditional methods, makes latent fingerprints available for additional verification or further analysis like tests for substance abuse or age estimation. In this paper a series of tests is performed to investigate the overall suitability of a high resolution off-the-shelf chromatic white light sensor for the contact-less and non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition. Our paper focuses on scanning previously determined regions with exemplary acquisition parameter settings. 3D height field and reflection data of five different latent fingerprints on six different types of surfaces (HDD platter, brushed metal, painted car body (metallic and non-metallic finish), blued metal, veneered plywood) are experimentally studied. Pre-processing is performed by removing low-frequency gradients. The quality of the results is assessed subjectively; no automated feature extraction is performed. Additionally, the degradation of the fingerprint during the acquisition period is observed. While the quality of the acquired data is highly dependent on surface structure, the sensor is capable of detecting the fingerprint on all sample surfaces. On blued metal the residual material is detected; however, the ridge line structure dissolves within minutes after fingerprint placement.

  11. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  12. Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Ribik B.; Atwell, Matt; Cheek, Ann; Agarwal, Muskan; Hong, Steven; Patel, Aashini,; Nguyen, Lisa; Posada, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft’s radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a “topper” to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. Studies conducted in this paper investigate utilizing water’s high latent heat of formation as a PCM, as opposed to traditional waxes, and corresponding complications surrounding freezing water in an enclosed volume. Work highlighted in this study is primarily visual and includes understanding ice formation, freeze front propagation, and the solidification process of water/ice. Various test coupons were constructed of copper to emulate the interstitial pin configuration (to aid in conduction) of the proposed water PCM HX design. Construction of a prototypic HX was also completed in which a flexible bladder material and interstitial pin configurations were tested. Additionally, a microgravity flight was conducted where three copper test articles were frozen continuously during microgravity and 2-g periods and individual water droplets were frozen during microgravity.

  13. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  15. A finite element analysis of the freeze/thaw behavior of external artery heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, X. J.; Peterson, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model was used to determine the freeze/thaw characteristics of an external artery heat pipe. During startup, the working fluid, which was located in the liquid channel and the circumferential wall grooves, experienced a phase transformation from a solid to a liquid state. The transient heat conduction equations with moving interfacial conditions were solved using the appropriate initial boundary conditions. The modelling results include the cross-sectional temperature distribution and the interfacial or melt front position as a function of time. A fixed grid approach was adopted in the model for the phase-change process during thawing of frozen working fluid. The interfacial position between the liquid and solid regions was found by balancing the latent heat caused by interfacial movement with the heat addition or extraction at the related grid points.

  16. Targeting the latent reservoir to achieve functional HIV cure

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Daniele C.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2016-01-01

    While highly active anti-retroviral therapy has greatly improved the lives of HIV-infected individuals, current treatments are unable to completely eradicate the virus. This is due to the presence of HIV latently infected cells which harbor transcriptionally silent HIV. Latent HIV does not replicate or produce viral proteins, thereby preventing efficient targeting by anti-retroviral drugs. Strategies to target the HIV latent reservoir include viral reactivation, enhancing host defense mechanisms, keeping latent HIV silent, and using gene therapy techniques to knock out or reactivate latent HIV. While research into each of these areas has yielded promising results, currently no one mechanism eradicates latent HIV. Instead, combinations of these approaches should be considered for a potential HIV functional cure. PMID:27303638

  17. Studies on the development of latent fingerprints by the method of solid-medium ninhydrin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqin; Lian, Jie

    2014-09-01

    A new series of fingerprint developing membrane were prepared using ninhydrin as the developing agent, and pressure-sensitive emulsifiers as the encapsulated chemicals. The type of emulsifier, plastic film, concentration of the developing agent, modifying ions and thickness of the membrane were studied in order to get the optimized fingerprint developing effect. The membrane can be successfully applied to both latent sweat fingerprints and blood fingerprint on many different surfaces. The sensitivity of the method toward the latent sweat fingerprint is 0.1 mg/L amino acid. The membrane can be applied to both porous and non-porous surfaces. Fingerprints that are difficult to develop on surfaces such as leather, glass and heat-sensitive paper using traditional chemical methods can be successfully developed with this membrane. PMID:25047220

  18. Studies on the development of latent fingerprints by the method of solid-medium ninhydrin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiqin; Lian, Jie

    2014-09-01

    A new series of fingerprint developing membrane were prepared using ninhydrin as the developing agent, and pressure-sensitive emulsifiers as the encapsulated chemicals. The type of emulsifier, plastic film, concentration of the developing agent, modifying ions and thickness of the membrane were studied in order to get the optimized fingerprint developing effect. The membrane can be successfully applied to both latent sweat fingerprints and blood fingerprint on many different surfaces. The sensitivity of the method toward the latent sweat fingerprint is 0.1 mg/L amino acid. The membrane can be applied to both porous and non-porous surfaces. Fingerprints that are difficult to develop on surfaces such as leather, glass and heat-sensitive paper using traditional chemical methods can be successfully developed with this membrane.

  19. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Simon, H.D.

    1999-10-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  20. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, H.D.; Zha, H.

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  1. Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Latent Curve Models with Nonlinear Longitudinal Latent Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies, investigators often measure multiple variables at multiple time points and are interested in investigating individual differences in patterns of change on those variables. Furthermore, in behavioral, social, psychological, and medical research, investigators often deal with latent variables that cannot be observed directly…

  2. Dimensionality of the Latent Structure and Item Selection via Latent Class Multidimensional IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, F.; Montanari, G. E.; Pandolfi, S.

    2012-01-01

    With reference to a questionnaire aimed at assessing the performance of Italian nursing homes on the basis of the health conditions of their patients, we investigate two relevant issues: dimensionality of the latent structure and discriminating power of the items composing the questionnaire. The approach is based on a multidimensional item…

  3. Functional networks underlying latent inhibition learning in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Puga, Frank; Barrett, Douglas W; Bastida, Christel C; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2007-10-15

    The present study reports the first comprehensive map of brain networks underlying latent inhibition learning and the first application of structural equation modeling to cytochrome oxidase data. In latent inhibition, repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a latent form of learning that inhibits subsequent associations with that stimulus. As neuronal energy demands to form learned associations changes, so does the induction of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Therefore, cytochrome oxidase can be used as an endpoint metabolic marker of the effects of experience on regional brain metabolic capacity. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to map brain regions in mice trained on a tone-footshock fear conditioning paradigm with either tone preexposure (latent inhibition), conditioning only (acquisition), conditioning followed by tone alone (extinction), or no handling or conditioning (naive). The ventral cochlear nucleus, medial geniculate, CA1 hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex showed modified metabolic capacity due to latent inhibition. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the causal influences in an anatomical network of these regions and others thought to mediate latent inhibition, including the accumbens and entorhinal cortex. An uncoupling of ascending influences between auditory regions was observed in latent inhibition. There was also a reduced influence on the accumbens from the perirhinal cortex in both latent inhibition and extinction. The results suggest a specific network with a neural mechanism of latent inhibition that appears to involve sensory gating, as evidenced by modifications in metabolic capacity and effective connectivity between auditory regions and reduced perirhinal cortex influence on the accumbens.

  4. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO) and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD) in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  5. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  6. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  7. Visualization of latent fingerprint corrosion of brass.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2009-09-01

    Visualization of latent fingerprint deposits on metals by enhancing the fingerprint-induced corrosion is now an established technique. However, the corrosion mechanism itself is less well understood. Here, we describe the apparatus constructed to measure the spatial variation (DeltaV) in applied potential (V) over the surface of brass disks corroded by latent fingerprint deposits. Measurement of DeltaV for potential of 1400 V has enabled visualization of fingerprint ridges and characteristics in terms of this potential difference with DeltaV typically of a few volts. This visualization is consistent with the formation of a Schottky barrier at the brass-corrosion product junction. Measurement of the work function of the corroded brass of up to 4.87 +/- 0.03 eV supports previous results that suggested that the corrosion product is composed of p-type copper oxides. A model for the galvanic corrosion of brass by ionic salts present in fingerprint deposits is proposed that is consistent with these experimental results.

  8. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  9. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Engineered TALE Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Pedro; Gaj, Thomas; Santa-Marta, Mariana; Barbas, Carlos F; Goncalves, Joao

    2016-01-01

    The presence of replication-competent HIV-1 -which resides mainly in resting CD4+ T cells--is a major hurdle to its eradication. While pharmacological approaches have been useful for inducing the expression of this latent population of virus, they have been unable to purge HIV-1 from all its reservoirs. Additionally, many of these strategies have been associated with adverse effects, underscoring the need for alternative approaches capable of reactivating viral expression. Here we show that engineered transcriptional modulators based on customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can induce gene expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter, and that combinations of TALE transcription factors can synergistically reactivate latent viral expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further show that complementing TALE transcription factors with Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances HIV-1 expression in latency models. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE transcription factors are a potentially effective alternative to current pharmacological routes for reactivating latent virus and that combining synthetic transcriptional activators with histone deacetylase inhibitors could lead to the development of improved therapies for latent HIV-1 infection.

  10. A solar-thermal energy harvesting scheme: enhanced heat capacity of molten HITEC salt mixed with Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chih-Chung; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ~29 J g-1 for Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g-1 K-1 for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants.We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ~29 J g-1 for Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g-1 K-1 for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental results are included for the following: SEM images of the HITEC molten salt with and without a mixture of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs; statistical diameter distribution of pure Sn and Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs; the HAADF image and EDS linescan profile of a Sn/SiOx core-shell NP; XRD analysis for Sn NPs annealing at different heating

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. A Latent Model for Prioritization of SNPs for Functional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fridley, Brooke L.; Iversen, Ed; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jenkins, Gregory D.; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    One difficult question facing researchers is how to prioritize SNPs detected from genetic association studies for functional studies. Often a list of the top M SNPs is determined based on solely the p-value from an association analysis, where M is determined by financial/time constraints. For many studies of complex diseases, multiple analyses have been completed and integrating these multiple sets of results may be difficult. One may also wish to incorporate biological knowledge, such as whether the SNP is in the exon of a gene or a regulatory region, into the selection of markers to follow-up. In this manuscript, we propose a Bayesian latent variable model (BLVM) for incorporating “features” about a SNP to estimate a latent “quality score”, with SNPs prioritized based on the posterior probability distribution of the rankings of these quality scores. We illustrate the method using data from an ovarian cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). In addition to the application of the BLVM to the ovarian GWAS, we applied the BLVM to simulated data which mimics the setting involving the prioritization of markers across multiple GWAS for related diseases/traits. The top ranked SNP by BLVM for the ovarian GWAS, ranked 2nd and 7th based on p-values from analyses of all invasive and invasive serous cases. The top SNP based on serous case analysis p-value (which ranked 197th for invasive case analysis), was ranked 8th based on the posterior probability of being in the top 5 markers (0.13). In summary, the application of the BLVM allows for the systematic integration of multiple SNP “features” for the prioritization of loci for fine-mapping or functional studies, taking into account the uncertainty in ranking. PMID:21687685

  13. High levels of acute phase proteins and soluble 70 kDa heat shock proteins are independent and additive risk factors for mortality in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, Judit; Mészáros, Tamás; Madaras, Balázs; Tóth, Éva Katalin; Kamondi, Szilárd; Gál, Péter; Varga, Lilian; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we reported that high soluble Hsp70 (sHsp70) level was a significant predictor of mortality during an almost 3-year-long follow-up period in patients with colorectal cancer. This association was the strongest in the group of <70-year-old female patients as well as in those who were in a less advanced stage of the disease at baseline. According to these observations, measurement of the serum level of sHsp70 is a useful, stage-independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer, especially in patients without distant metastasis. Since many literature data indicated that measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other acute phase proteins (APPs) may also be suitable for predicting the mortality of patients with colorectal cancer, it seemed reasonable to study whether the effect of sHsp70 and other APPs are related or independent. In order to answer this question, we measured the concentrations of CRP as well as of other complement-related APPs (C1 inhibitor, C3, and C9) along with that of the MASP-2 complement component in the sera of 175 patients with colorectal cancer and known levels of sHsp70, which have been used in our previous study. High (above median) levels of CRP, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), and sHsp70 were found to be independently associated with poor patient survival, whereas no such association was observed with the other proteins tested. According to the adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis, the additive effect of high sHsp70, CRP, and C1-INH levels on the survival of patients exceeded that of high sHsp70 alone, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.83 (1.13–70.9). In some subgroups of patients, such as in females [HR 4.80 (1.07–21.60)] or in ≤70-year-old patients [HR 11.53 (2.78–47.70)], even greater differences were obtained. These findings indicate that the clinical mortality–prediction value of combined measurements of sHsp70, CRP, and C1-INH with inexpensive methods can be very high, especially in specific subgroups of

  14. Two-Pipe Heat-Transfer Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Device like heat pipe transports heat over long distance with negligible loss in temperature, though with considerably smaller total weight. Uses no pumps or other mechanical means to move working fluid: Instead converts part of available thermal energy to kinetic energy upon vaporization. Vapor carries thermal energy in form of latent heat of vaporization. Delivers thermal energy with drop in temperature of only fraction of degree from source sink.

  15. A Bayesian Semiparametric Latent Variable Model for Mixed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Raach, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a latent variable model (LVM) for mixed ordinal and continuous responses, where covariate effects on the continuous latent variables are modelled through a flexible semiparametric Gaussian regression model. We extend existing LVMs with the usual linear covariate effects by including nonparametric components for nonlinear…

  16. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  17. Nonlinear Latent Curve Models for Multivariate Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Conger, Katherine J.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Latent curve models have become a useful approach to analyzing longitudinal data, due in part to their allowance of and emphasis on individual differences in features that describe change. Common applications of latent curve models in developmental studies rely on polynomial functions, such as linear or quadratic functions. Although useful for…

  18. An Importance Sampling EM Algorithm for Latent Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Reporting methods used in large-scale assessments such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) rely on latent regression models. To fit the latent regression model using the maximum likelihood estimation technique, multivariate integrals must be evaluated. In the computer program MGROUP used by the Educational Testing Service for…

  19. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  20. Modeling Heterogeneity of Latent Growth Depending on Initial Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andreas G.; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a heterogeneous latent growth curve model for modeling heterogeneity of growth rates is proposed. The suggested model is an extension of a conventional growth curve model and a complementary tool to mixed growth modeling. It allows the modeling of heterogeneity of growth rates as a continuous function of latent initial status and…

  1. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

    2008-01-01

    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  2. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  3. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  4. Transforming Selected Concepts into Dimensions in Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos, Ricardo; Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; León, José Antonio; Escudero, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new approach for transforming the latent representation derived from a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) space into one where dimensions have nonlatent meanings. These meanings are based on lexical descriptors, which are selected by the LSA user. The authors present three analyses that provide examples of the utility of this…

  5. A Review of the Latent and Manifest Benefits (LAMB) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Juanita; Waters, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The latent and manifest benefits (LAMB) scale (Muller, Creed, Waters & Machin, 2005) was designed to measure the latent and manifest benefits of employment and provide a single scale to test Jahoda's (1981) and Fryer's (1986) theories of unemployment. Since its publication in 2005 there have been 13 studies that have used the scale with 5692…

  6. On the Utilization of Sample Weights in Latent Variable Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Ferguson, Aaron J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of sample weights in latent variable models in the case where a simple random sample is drawn from a population containing a mixture of strata through a bootstrap simulation study. Results show that ignoring weights can lead to serious bias in latent variable model parameters and reveal the advantages of using sample weights. (SLD)

  7. Use of Latent Profile Analysis in Studies of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammadov, Sakhavat; Ward, Thomas J.; Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Cross, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    To date, in gifted education and related fields various conventional factor analytic and clustering techniques have been used extensively for investigation of the underlying structure of data. Latent profile analysis is a relatively new method in the field. In this article, we provide an introduction to latent profile analysis for gifted education…

  8. Evaluating Intercept-Slope Interactions in Latent Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ronghua; Willson, Victor L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of misspecifying intercept-covariate interactions in a 4 time-point latent growth model were the focus of this investigation. The investigation was motivated by school growth studies in which students' entry-level skills may affect their rate of growth. We studied the latent interaction of intercept and a covariate in predicting growth…

  9. The Latent Variable Approach as Applied to Transitive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the limitations of hypothesis testing using (quasi-) experiments in the study of cognitive development and suggest latent variable modeling as a viable alternative to experimentation. Latent variable models allow testing a theory as a whole, incorporating individual differences with respect to developmental processes or abilities in the…

  10. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  11. Spurious Latent Classes in the Mixture Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexeev, Natalia; Templin, Jonathan; Cohen, Allan S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixture Rasch models have been used to study a number of psychometric issues such as goodness of fit, response strategy differences, strategy shifts, and multidimensionality. Although these models offer the potential for improving understanding of the latent variables being measured, under some conditions overextraction of latent classes may…

  12. Experimental Investigation of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for spacecraft thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments. Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. This can result in a decreased turndown ratio for the radiator and a reduced system mass. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents an overview of the results of this investigation from the past three years.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for spacecraft thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments. Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. This can result in a decreased turndown ratio for the radiator and a reduced system mass. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents an overview of the results of this investigation from the past three years.

  14. Direct contact heat transfer for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J. D.

    1980-11-01

    Direct contact heat exchange offers the potential for increased efficiency and lower heat transfer costs in a variety of thermal energy storage sytems. SERI models of direct contact heat transfer based on literature information have identified dispersed phase drop size, the mechanism of heat transfer within the drop, and dispersed phase holdup as the parameters controlling direct contact system performance. However, current information is insufficient to predict these factors a priori. Therefore, tests have been defined and equipment constructed to provide independent determination of drop size, heat transfer mechanism, and hold up. In experiments with heptane dispersed in water, the equation of Kagen et. al. was found to most closely predict the drop size. The velocity at which drop formation changes from dropwise to jetting was overpredicted by all literature correlations. Further experiments are needed to conclusively determine whether the salt in a salt hydrate melt acts to block internal circulation. In addition, the potential of low temperature oil/salt hydrate latent heat storage systems is being evaluated in the laboratory.

  15. Theoretical Design of Thermosyphon for Process Heat Transfer from NGNP to Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ~ 1300K) and industrial scale power transport (=50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via ‘pumping a fluid’, a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization / condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e. without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) or vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  16. On the Sensitivity of Atmospheric Model Implied Ocean Heat Transport to the Dominant Terms of the Surface Energy Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P J

    2004-11-03

    The oceanic meridional heat transport (T{sub o}) implied by an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) can help evaluate a model's readiness for coupling with an ocean GCM. In this study we examine the T{sub o} from benchmark experiments of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, and evaluate the sensitivity of T{sub o} to the dominant terms of the surface energy balance. The implied global ocean TO in the Southern Hemisphere of many models is equatorward, contrary to most observationally-based estimates. By constructing a hybrid (model corrected by observations) T{sub o}, an earlier study demonstrated that the implied heat transport is critically sensitive to the simulated shortwave cloud radiative effects, which have been argued to be principally responsible for the Southern Hemisphere problem. Systematic evaluation of one model in a later study suggested that the implied T{sub o} could be equally as sensitive to a model's ocean surface latent heat flux. In this study we revisit the problem with more recent simulations, making use of estimates of ocean surface fluxes to construct two additional hybrid calculations. The results of the present study demonstrate that indeed the implied T{sub o} of an atmospheric model is very sensitive to problems in not only the surface net shortwave, but the latent heat flux as well. Many models underestimate the shortwave radiation reaching the surface in the low latitudes, and overestimate the latent heat flux in the same region. The additional hybrid transport calculations introduced here could become useful model diagnostic tests as estimates of implied ocean surface fluxes are improved.

  17. A latent classification of male batterers.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Anne M; Lopez, Frederick G

    2009-01-01

    Regression latent class analysis was used to identify batterer subgroups with distinct violence patterns and to examine associations between class membership and adult attachment orientations as well as antisocial and borderline personality disorders. Results supported three batterer subgroups, with classes varying on frequency and severity of violence. The high-level violence class represented 40% of batterers, and both anxious and avoidant adult attachment orientations as well as borderline personality characteristics predicted membership in this class. The moderate-level violence class represented 35% of the batterers, and adult anxious attachment orientation was associated with membership in this class. The low-level violence class represented 25% of the sample and reported significantly less violence than other classes. Neither adult attachment orientations nor personality disorders predicted membership in this class.

  18. Diagnosis of latent forms of labyrinthine affections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaslilyeva, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Features and significance of individual vestibular symptoms for the diagnosis of latent labyrinthitis and limited forms of labyrinthine affections offering considerable difficulties are discussed. Vestibular symptoms are indistinct. In case of the negative fistular symptom the greatest significance is acquired by the study of posture nystagmus according to the results of electronystagmograms, changes of tonic reactions and statics, as well as data of experimental vestibular tests. The necessity of evaluation of all the vestibular symptoms from the point of view of their vector characteristics and in a complex of evidence obtained by otoneurological examination of the patient is emphasized. Delicate topic and differential diagnosis of vestibular disturbances is of great importance and significance in the choice of the conservative or surgical method of treatment.

  19. Latent laser-induced graphitization of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononenko, V. V.; Gololobov, V. M.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Basic features and mechanism of femtosecond laser graphitization of diamond surface were studied in the two regimes of irradiation: (1) by an intensive (>10 J/cm2) single shot and (2) by a train of pulses with near-threshold intensity (~1-10 J/cm2). Special attention was paid to the so-called accumulative regime, when multipulse laser treatment results in prolonged delay of an appearance of crystal modification of the crystal. The light absorption mechanisms dominating in each regime are discussed. The experiments with fundamental (800 nm), second (400 nm) and third (266 nm) harmonics of Ti-sapphire laser (100 fs) have revealed that thermally stimulated processes play an essential role in latent diamond graphitization.

  20. Targeting latent TGFβ release in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ceco, Ermelinda; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon; Miller, Tamari; DeJesus, Adam; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Smith, Lucas R; Barton, Elisabeth R; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-10-22

    Latent transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) binding proteins (LTBPs) bind to inactive TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. In mice, muscular dystrophy symptoms are intensified by a genetic polymorphism that changes the hinge region of LTBP, leading to increased proteolytic susceptibility and TGFβ release. We have found that the hinge region of human LTBP4 was also readily proteolysed and that proteolysis could be blocked by an antibody to the hinge region. Transgenic mice were generated to carry a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the human LTBP4 gene. These transgenic mice displayed larger myofibers, increased damage after muscle injury, and enhanced TGFβ signaling. In the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the human LTBP4 transgene exacerbated muscular dystrophy symptoms and resulted in weaker muscles with an increased inflammatory infiltrate and greater LTBP4 cleavage in vivo. Blocking LTBP4 cleavage may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce TGFβ release and activity and decrease inflammation and muscle damage in muscular dystrophy.