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Sample records for additional ldl-c lowering

  1. HMGCR rs17671591 SNP Determines Lower Plasma LDL-C after Atorvastatin Therapy in Chilean Individuals.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Alejandro; Fernández, César; Ferrada, Luis; Zambrano, Tomás; Rosales, Alexy; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    Lipid-lowering response to statin therapy shows large interindividual variability. At a genome-wide significance level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCSK9 and HMGCR have been implicated in this differential response. However, the influence of these variants is uncertain in the Chilean population. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of PCSK9 rs7552841 and HMGCR rs17671591 SNPs as genetic determinants of atorvastatin response in Chilean hypercholesterolaemic individuals. One hundred and one hypercholesterolaemic patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) was determined before and after statin treatment, and SNPs were identified by allelic discrimination using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Adjusted univariate and multivariate analyses' models were used for statistical analyses, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. From baseline (week 0) to the study end-point (week 4), significant reductions were observed in plasma TC, LDL-C and TG (p < 0.001), while HDL-C levels were increased (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed no association between lipid levels and atorvastatin therapy for the PCSK9 variant. However, the HMGCR rs17671591 T allele contributed to basal HDL-C concentration variability along with a higher increase in this lipid fraction after statin medication. In addition, this allele determined greater plasma LDL-C reductions after therapy with atorvastatin. Our data suggest that the HMGCR rs17671591 polymorphism can constitute a genetic marker of lower plasma LDL-C and enhanced HDL-C concentration after atorvastatin therapy in the Chilean population. PMID:26408409

  2. Unmet Needs in LDL-C Lowering: When Statins Won't Do!

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, Stephan; Pavik-Mezzour, Ivana; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering medications has led to a significant reduction of cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. Statin therapy, one of the cornerstones for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been demonstrated to be effective in lowering LDL-C levels and in reducing the risk for CVD and is generally well-tolerated. However, compliance with statins remains suboptimal. One of the main reasons is limitations by adverse events, notably myopathies, which can lead to non-compliance with the prescribed statin regimen. Reducing the burden of elevated LDL-C levels is critical in patients with CVD as well as in patients with very high baseline levels of LDL-C (e.g. patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia), as statin therapy is insufficient for optimally reducing LDL-C below target values. In this review, we discuss alternative treatment options after maximally tolerated doses of statin therapy, including ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. Difficult-to-treat patients may benefit from combination therapy with ezetimibe or a PCSK9 inhibitor (evolocumab or alirocumab, which are now available). Updates of treatment guidelines are needed to guide the management of patients who will best benefit from these new treatments. PMID:27456066

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of LDL-C Lowering With Evolocumab in Patients With High Cardiovascular Risk in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gandra, Shravanthi R; Villa, Guillermo; Fonarow, Gregg C; Lothgren, Mickael; Lindgren, Peter; Somaratne, Ransi; van Hout, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Randomized trials have shown marked reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), when evolocumab is administered. We hypothesized that evolocumab added to standard of care (SOC) vs SOC alone is cost-effective in the treatment of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) with or without statin intolerance and LDL-C >100 mg/dL. Using a Markov cohort state transition model, primary and recurrent CVD event rates were predicted considering population-specific trial-based mean risk factors and calibrated against observed rates in the real world. The LDL-C-lowering effect from population-specific phase 3 randomized studies for evolocumab was used together with estimated LDL-C-lowering effect on CVD event rates per 38.67-mg/dL LDL-C lowering from a statin-trial meta-analysis. Costs and utilities were included from published sources. Evolocumab treatment was associated with both increased cost and improved quality-adjusted life-years (QALY): HeFH (incremental cost: US$153 289, incremental QALY: 2.02, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: US$75 863/QALY); ASCVD (US$158 307, 1.12, US$141 699/QALY); and ASCVD with statin intolerance (US$136 903, 1.36, US$100 309/QALY). Evolocumab met both the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds in each population evaluated. Sensitivity and scenario analyses confirmed that model results were robust to changes in model parameters. Among patients with HeFH and ASCVD with or without statin intolerance, evolocumab added to SOC may provide a cost-effective treatment option for lowering LDL-C using ACC/AHA intermediate/high value and WHO cost-effectiveness thresholds. More definitive information on the clinical and economic value of evolocumab will be available from the forthcoming CVD outcomes study. PMID:27092712

  4. Effect of Ezetimibe on LDL-C Lowering and Atherogenic Lipoprotein Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Poorly Controlled by Statins

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kentaro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kohro, Takahide; Omura, Masao; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ashidate, Keiko; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Hara, Hidehiko; Sekine, Nobuo; Chin, Rina; Tsujino, Motoyoshi; Hiyoshi, Toru; Tagami, Motoki; Tanaka, Akira; Mori, Yasumichi; Inazawa, Takeshi; Hirano, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Shiba, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Background There exists a subpopulation of T2DM in whom first-line doses of statin are insufficient for optimally reducing LDL-C, representing a major risk of CVD. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles leading to residual risks. Methods Lipid changes were assessed in a randomized, multicenter, 12-week, open-label study comparing a high-potency statin (10mg of atorvastatin or 1mg of pitavastatin) plus ezetimibe (EAT: n = 53) with a double dose of statin (20mg of atorvastatin or 2mg of pitavastatin) (DST: n = 56) in DM subjects who had failed to achieve the optimal LDL-C targets. Lipid variables were compared with a primary focus on LDL-C and with secondary focuses on the percentage of patients who reached the LDL-C targets and changes in the levels of RLP-C (remnant like particle cholesterol) and sd-LDL-C, two characteristic atherogenic risks of DM. Results The reduction of LDL-C (%), the primary endpoint, differed significantly between the two groups (-24.6 in EAT vs. -10.9 in DST). In the analyses of the secondary endpoints, EAT treatment brought about significantly larger reductions in sd-LDL-C (-20.5 vs. -3.7) and RLP-C (-19.7 vs. +5.5). In total, 89.4% of the patients receiving EAT reached the optimized treatment goal compared to 51.0% of the patients receiving DST. The changes in TC (-16.3 vs. -6.3) and non-HDL-C (-20.7 vs. -8.3) differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to high-potency statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) was more effective than the intensified-dose statin (20 mg of atorvastatin or 2 mg of pitavastatin) treatment not only in helping T2DM patients attain more LDL-C reduction, but also in improving their atherogenic lipid profiles, including their levels of sd-LDL-C and RLP-C. We thus recommend the addition of ezetimibe to high-potency statin as a first line strategy for T2DM patients with insufficient statin response

  5. Limitations of real-world treatment with atorvastatin monotherapy for lowering LDL-C in high-risk cardiovascular patients in the US

    PubMed Central

    Marrett, Elizabeth; Zhao, Changgeng; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Ramey, Dena R; Tomassini, Joanne E; Tershakovec, Andrew M; Neff, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background Guidelines endorse statin therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to recommended levels, in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, if needed, after lifestyle changes. Atorvastatin is a common statin with greater LDL-C lowering efficacy than most other statins; its availability in generic form will likely increase its use. This study assessed attainment of guideline-recommended LDL-C levels in high-risk CVD patients treated with atorvastatin monotherapy. Methods Analyses of two retrospective US cohorts of patients who received a prescription for atorvastatin monotherapy between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010 (index date defined as first prescription date) in the GE Centricity Electronic Medical Record (EMR) (N=10,693) and Humana Medicare (N=16,798) databases. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with coronary heart disease or atherosclerotic vascular disease, with ≥1 LDL-C measurement between 3 months and 1 year postindex date, and continuously enrolled for 1 year prior to and following the index date. Results Of the eligible patients, 21.8%, 29.6%, 29.9%, and 18.7% (GE Centricity EMR) and 25.4%, 32.9%, 27.8%, and 14.0% (Humana Medicare) received 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg doses of atorvastatin, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) follow-up LDL-C levels were 2.1±0.8 mmol/L (83±30 mg/dL) and 2.3±0.8 mmol/L (88±31 mg/dL) for the GE Centricity EMR and Humana Medicare cohorts, respectively. Regardless of dose, only 28.3%–34.8% of patients had LDL-C levels <1.8 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL), and 72.0%–78.0% achieved LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) in both cohorts. As many as 41% and 13% of patients had LDL-C levels ≥0.5 mmol/L (≥20 mg/dL) above LDL-C 1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) and 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL), respectively, in both cohorts; these percentages were generally similar across atorvastatin doses. Conclusion In this real-world US setting, a large number of high-risk CVD patients did not attain

  6. Lower Intensified Target LDL-c Level of Statin Therapy Results in a Higher Risk of Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Rongrong; Yuan, Yang; Zhou, Yi; Xia, Wenqing; Wang, Pin; Sun, Haixia; Yang, Yue; Huang, Rong; Wang, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis has reported that intensive-dose statin drug increases the risk of incident diabetes. However, doubling of the statin dose generates only a further 6% decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) on average. This study aimed to determine whether statin therapy with lower intensive-target LDL-c level contributes to higher risk of new-onset diabetes. Methods Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled endpoint trials of statins conducted from 1966 to 2012. We included trials with more than 1000 participants who were followed up for at least 2 years. The included trials were stratified by the target LDL-c level. I2 statistic was used to measure heterogeneity between trials. We further calculated risk estimates with random-effect meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to identify the potential risk factors of statin-induced diabetes. Results Fourteen trials with a total of 95 102 non-diabetic participants were included. The risks elevated by 33% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.56; I2 = 7.7%] and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.06–1.28; I2 = 0.0%) when the intensified target LDL-c levels were ≤1.8 mmol/L and 1.8–2.59 mmol/L, respectively. The risk of incident diabetes did not increase when the target LDL-c level was ≥2.59 mmol/L. Apart from age, female, and baseline level of total cholesterol, meta-regression analysis showed that the target and baseline levels of LDL-c and relative LDL-c reduction were predictors of statin-induced diabetes. Conclusion A lower intensified target LDL-c level of statin therapy resulted in a higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:25122464

  7. Innovative pharmaceutical interventions in cardiovascular disease: Focusing on the contribution of non-HDL-C/LDL-C-lowering versus HDL-C-raising: A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant preclinical studies and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kühnast, Susan; Fiocco, Marta; van der Hoorn, José W A; Princen, Hans M G; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-09-15

    Non-HDL-cholesterol is well recognised as a primary causal risk factor in cardiovascular disease. However, despite consistent epidemiological evidence for an inverse association between HDL-C and coronary heart disease, clinical trials aimed at raising HDL-C (AIM-HIGH, HPS2-THRIVE, dal-OUTCOMES) failed to meet their primary goals. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of established and novel treatment strategies, specifically targeting HDL, on inhibition of atherosclerosis in cholesteryl ester transfer protein-expressing animals, and the prevention of clinical events in randomised controlled trials. Linear regression analyses using data from preclinical studies revealed associations for TC and non-HDL-C and lesion area (R(2)=0.258, P=0.045; R(2)=0.760, P<0.001), but not for HDL-C (R(2)=0.030, P=0.556). In clinical trials, non-fatal myocardial infarction risk was significantly less in the treatment group with pooled odd ratios of 0.87 [0.81; 0.94] for all trials and 0.85 [0.78; 0.93] after excluding some trials due to off-target adverse events, whereas all-cause mortality was not affected (OR 1.05 [0.99-1.10]). Meta-regression analyses revealed a trend towards an association between between-group differences in absolute change from baseline in LDL-C and non-fatal myocardial infarction (P=0.066), whereas no correlation was found for HDL-C (P=0.955). We conclude that the protective role of lowering LDL-C and non-HDL-C is well-established. The contribution of raising HDL-C on inhibition of atherosclerosis and the prevention of cardiovascular disease remains undefined and may be dependent on the mode of action of HDL-C-modification. Nonetheless, treatment strategies aimed at improving HDL function and raising apolipoprotein A-I may be worth exploring. PMID:25989133

  8. Lipid-Lowering Drug Therapy for CVD Prevention: Looking into the Future.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan A; Raal, Frederick J

    2015-11-01

    Over the past three decades, statins have become first-line treatment for reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). They have provided a clear, robust, and reproducible relationship between the absolute LDL-C reduction and the decrease in CVD; every 1 mmol/L (~40 mg/dL) in LDL-C reduction results in a 22 % decrease in CVD events. This relationship has recently been extended to reduction in LDL-C with a non-statin, ezetimibe, on top of statin therapy, further consolidating LDL-C as the cornerstone in CVD risk reduction. Despite these two effective and safe LDL-C-lowering drugs, there remains a need for additional drugs to reduce LDL-C, the focus of this review which covers agents which produce sufficient LDL-C reduction to potentially help address this unmet need and are either recently approved or currently in clinical trials. PMID:26385394

  9. Association of Apolipoprotein B, LDL-C and vascular stiffness in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Nguyen, Nhung; Reinick, Christina; Maahs, David M.; Bishop, Franziska K.; Clements, Scott A.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Lieberman, Rachel; Pyle, Laura P.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is the current lipid standard for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in type 1 diabetes. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) may be helpful to further stratify CVD-risk. We explored the association between apoB and pulse wave velocity (PWV) to determine if apoB would improve CVD-risk stratification, especially in type 1 diabetes adolescents with borderline LDL-C (100-129mg/dL). We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes adolescents with borderline LDL-C and elevated apoB (≥90mg/dL) would have increased PWV compared to those with borderline LDL-C and normal apoB (<90mg/dL), and that apoB would explain more of the variability of PWV than alternative lipid indices. Methods Fasting lipids, including apoB, were collected in 267 adolescents, age 12-19 years, with diabetes-duration >5 years and HbA1c 8.9±1.6%. Triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and nonHDL-cholesterol (nonHDL-C) were calculated. PWV was measured in the carotid-femoral segment. Results ApoB, nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C correlated with PWV (p<0.0001). ApoB, nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C remained significantly associated with PWV in fully-adjusted models. In adolescents with borderline LDL-C (n=61), PWV was significantly higher in those with elevated apoB than in those with normal apoB (5.6±0.6 vs. 5.2±0.6m/s, p<0.01), and also remained significant after adjustment for CVD-risk factors (p=0.0002). Moreover, in those with borderline LDL-C, apoB explained more of the variability of PWV than nonHDL-C and TG/HDL-C. Conclusion Elevated apoB is associated with increased arterial stiffness in type 1 diabetes adolescents. Measurement of apoB in addition to LDL-C may be helpful in stratifying CVD-risk in type 1 diabetes adolescents, especially in those with borderline LDL-C. PMID:25539881

  10. Measurement of LDL-C after treatment with the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib[S

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Michael; Liu, Sherry Xueyu; Barter, Philip; Brinton, Eliot A.; Cannon, Christopher P.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Leary, Elizabeth T.; Shah, Sukrut; Stepanavage, Michael; Mitchel, Yale; Dansky, Hayes M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) using the Friedewald (FR) formula is often inaccurate when triglycerides are elevated or VLDL particle composition is altered. We hypothesized that LDL-C estimation by the FR formula and other measurement methods might also be inaccurate in individuals treated with a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor. An assay comparison study was conducted using pre and posttreatment serum samples from 280 of the 811 patients treated with the CETP inhibitor anacetrapib in the DEFINE study (determining the ef ficacy and tolerability of CETP in hibition with anac e trapib). After 24 weeks of treatment with anacetrapib, mean LDL-C values by FR formula, Roche direct method (RDM) and Genzyme direct method (GDM) deviated from that measured by the β-quantification (BQ) reference method by –12.2 ± 7.5, –10.2 ± 6.6, –10.8 ± 8.8 mg/dl, respectively. After treatment with anacetrapib, the FR formula and detergent-based direct methods provided lower LDL-C values than those obtained by the BQ reference method. The bias by the FR formula appeared to be due to an overestimation of VLDL-C by the TG/5 component of the formula. Evaluation of the clinical significance of these findings awaits comprehensive lipid and cardiovascular outcome data from ongoing Phase III clinical studies of anacetrapib. PMID:23172660

  11. Determinants for Achieving the LDL-C Target of Lipid Control for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Li-Ting; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Li, Yi-Heng; Huang, Lien-Chi; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Fang, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia. Method This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD)) from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report. Result Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins. Conclusion Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved

  12. Refinement of variant selection for the LDL-C genetic risk score in the diagnosis of the polygenic form of clinical Familial Hypercholesterolemia and replication in samples from six countries

    PubMed Central

    Futema, Marta; Shah, Sonia; Cooper, Jackie A; Li, KaWah; Whittall, Ros A; Sharifi, Mahtab; Goldberg, Olivia; Drogari, Euridiki; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Wiegman, Albert; Defesche, Joep; D’Agostino, Maria N; D’Angelo, Antonietta; Rubba, Paolo; Fortunato, Giuliana; Walus-Miarka, Małgorzata; Hegele, Robert A; Bamimore, Mary Aderayo; Durst, Ronen; Leitersdorf, Eran; Mulder, Monique T; Roeters van Lennep, Janine E; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Whittaker, John C; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in one of three genes. In the 60% of patients who are mutation-negative we have recently shown that the clinical phenotype can be associated with an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles using a 12-SNP score. The aims of the study were to improve the selection of SNPs, and to replicate the results in additional samples. Methods Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimum number of LDL-C SNPs. For replication analysis, we genotyped patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH from six countries for six LDL-C-associated alleles. We compared the weighted SNP score among patients with no confirmed mutation (FH/M-), those with a mutation (FH/M+), and controls from an UK population sample (WHII). Results Increasing the number of SNPs to 33 did not improve the ability of the score to discriminate between FH/M- and controls, while sequential removal of SNPs with smaller effects/lower frequency showed a weighted score of six SNPs performed as well as the 12-SNP score. Meta-analysis of the weighted 6-SNP score, based on polymorphisms in CELSR2, APOB, ABCG5/8, LDLR and APOE loci, in the independent FH/M- cohorts showed a consistently higher score in comparison to the WHII population (P<2.2×10-16). Modeling in individuals with a 6-SNP score in the top three quarters of the score distribution, indicated a >95% likelihood of a polygenic explanation of their increased LDL-C. Conclusion A 6-SNP LDL-C score consistently distinguishes FH/M- patients from healthy subjects. The hypercholesterolemia in 88% of mutation-negative patients is likely to have a polygenic basis. PMID:25414277

  13. Implication of Low HDL-c Levels in Patients with Average LDL-c Levels: A Focus on Oxidized LDL, Large HDL Subpopulation, and Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Marado, Daniela; Palavra, Filipe; Pinto, Rui; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) on patients with LDL-c average levels, focusing on oxidative, lipidic, and inflammatory profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) and control subjects (n = 73) were divided into 2 subgroups, one of normal HDL-c and the other of low HDL-c levels. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized LDL, total HDL-c and subpopulations (small, intermediate, and large), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF-α, adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. In the control subgroup with low HDL-c levels, significantly higher values of BP and TGs and lower values of PON1 activity and adiponectin were found, versus control normal HDL-c subgroup. However, differences in patients' subgroups were clearly more pronounced. Indeed, low HDL-c subgroup presented increased HbA1c, TGs, non-HDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, VEGF, and small HDL-c and reduced adiponectin and large HDL. In addition, Ox-LDL, large-HDL-c, and adiponectin presented interesting correlations with classical and nonclassical markers, mainly in the normal HDL-c patients' subgroup. In conclusion, despite LDL-c average levels, low HDL-c concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, which is better evidenced by traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including Ox-LDL, large HDL-c, and adiponectin. PMID:24282340

  14. Identification of candidate genes encoding an LDL-C QTL in baboons[S

    PubMed Central

    Karere, Genesio M.; Glenn, Jeremy P.; Birnbaum, Shifra; Hafizi, Sussan; Rainwater, David L.; Mahaney, Michael C.; VandeBerg, John L.; Cox, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CVD. We previously identified a cluster of quantitative trait loci (QTL) on baboon chromosome 11 for multiple, related quantitative traits for serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Here we report differentially regulated hepatic genes encoding an LDL-C QTL that influences LDL-C levels in baboons. We performed hepatic whole-genome expression profiling for LDL-C-discordant baboons fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat (HCHF) diet for seven weeks. We detected expression of 117 genes within the QTL 2-LOD support interval. Three genes were differentially expressed in low LDL-C responders and 8 in high LDL-C responders in response to a HCHF diet. Seven genes (ACVR1B, CALCOCO1, DGKA, ERBB3, KRT73, MYL6B, TENC1) showed discordant expression between low and high LDL-C responders. To prioritize candidate genes, we integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiles using network tools and found that four candidates (ACVR1B, DGKA, ERBB3, TENC1) were miRNA targets and that the miRNAs were inversely expressed to the target genes. Candidate gene expression was validated using QRT-PCR and Western blotting. This study reveals candidate genes that influence variation in LDL-C in baboons and potential genetic mechanisms for further investigation. PMID:23596326

  15. Serum PCSK9 Levels Distinguish Individuals Who Do Not Respond to High-Dose Statin Therapy with the Expected Reduction in LDL-C

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Beth A.; Panza, Gregory; Pescatello, Linda S.; Chipkin, Stuart; Gipe, Daniel; Shao, Weiping; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to examine whether proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels differ in individuals who do not exhibit expected reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin therapy. Eighteen nonresponder subjects treated with 80 mg atorvastatin treatment for 6 months without substantial reductions in LDL-CLDL-C: 2.6 ± 11.4%) were compared to age- and gender-matched atorvastatin responders (ΔLDL-C: 50.7 ± 8.5%) and placebo-treated subjects (ΔLDL-C: 9.9 ± 21.5%). Free PCSK9 was marginally higher in nonresponders at baseline (P = 0.07) and significantly higher in atorvastatin responders after 6 months of treatment (P = 0.04). The change in free PCSK9 over 6 months with statin treatment was higher (P < 0.01) in atorvastatin responders (134.2 ± 131.5 ng/mL post- versus prestudy) than in either the nonresponders (39.9 ± 87.8 ng/mL) or placebo subjects (27.8 ± 97.6 ng/mL). Drug compliance was not lower in the nonresponders as assessed by pill counts and poststudy plasma atorvastatin levels. Serum PCSK9 levels, both at baseline and in response to statin therapy, may differentiate individuals who do versus those who do not respond to statin treatment. PMID:25136459

  16. Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a) [S

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Johnson, Toby; McKeigue, Paul M.; Betteridge, D. John; Durrington, Paul N.; Fuller, John H.; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Neil, Andrew; Poulter, Neil; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Stanton, Alice V.; Chatterjee, Aurobindo; Hyde, Craig; Calle, Roberto A.; DeMicco, David A.; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Caulfield, Mark; Hitman, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of LDL-c response to statin using data from participants in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; n = 1,156), the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT; n = 895), and the observational phase of ASCOT (n = 651), all of whom were prescribed atorvastatin 10 mg. Following genome-wide imputation, we combined data from the three studies in a meta-analysis. We found associations of LDL-c response to atorvastatin that reached genome-wide significance at rs10455872 (P = 6.13 × 10−9) within the LPA gene and at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the APOE region (rs445925; P = 2.22 × 10−16 and rs4420638; P = 1.01 × 10−11) that are proxies for the ϵ2 and ϵ4 variants, respectively, in APOE. The novel association with the LPA SNP was replicated in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial (P = 0.009). Using CARDS data, we further showed that atorvastatin therapy did not alter lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and that Lp(a) levels accounted for all of the associations of SNPs in the LPA gene and the apparent LDL-c response levels. However, statin therapy had a similar effect in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients in the top quartile for serum Lp(a) levels (HR = 0.60) compared with those in the lower three quartiles (HR = 0.66; P = 0.8 for interaction). The data emphasize that high Lp(a) levels affect the measurement of LDL-c and the clinical estimation of LDL-c response. Therefore, an apparently lower LDL-c response to statin therapy may indicate a need for measurement of Lp(a). However, statin therapy seems beneficial even in those with high Lp(a). PMID:22368281

  17. Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a).

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Harshal A; Colhoun, Helen M; Johnson, Toby; McKeigue, Paul M; Betteridge, D John; Durrington, Paul N; Fuller, John H; Livingstone, Shona; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Neil, Andrew; Poulter, Neil; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C; Stanton, Alice V; Chatterjee, Aurobindo; Hyde, Craig; Calle, Roberto A; Demicco, David A; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Caulfield, Mark; Hitman, Graham A

    2012-05-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of LDL-c response to statin using data from participants in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; n = 1,156), the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT; n = 895), and the observational phase of ASCOT (n = 651), all of whom were prescribed atorvastatin 10 mg. Following genome-wide imputation, we combined data from the three studies in a meta-analysis. We found associations of LDL-c response to atorvastatin that reached genome-wide significance at rs10455872 (P = 6.13 × 10(-9)) within the LPA gene and at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the APOE region (rs445925; P = 2.22 × 10(-16) and rs4420638; P = 1.01 × 10(-11)) that are proxies for the ε2 and ε4 variants, respectively, in APOE. The novel association with the LPA SNP was replicated in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial (P = 0.009). Using CARDS data, we further showed that atorvastatin therapy did not alter lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and that Lp(a) levels accounted for all of the associations of SNPs in the LPA gene and the apparent LDL-c response levels. However, statin therapy had a similar effect in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients in the top quartile for serum Lp(a) levels (HR = 0.60) compared with those in the lower three quartiles (HR = 0.66; P = 0.8 for interaction). The data emphasize that high Lp(a) levels affect the measurement of LDL-c and the clinical estimation of LDL-c response. Therefore, an apparently lower LDL-c response to statin therapy may indicate a need for measurement of Lp(a). However, statin therapy seems beneficial even in those with high Lp(a). PMID:22368281

  18. Management of hyperlipidemia: new LDL-C targets for persons at high-risk for cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Balbisi, Ebrahim A

    2006-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of mortality in the United States, and is associated with significant health care costs. Current evidence overwhelmingly confirms the role of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the risk of CHD events. The approach to the management of hyperlipidemia has evolved dramatically over the past decade. Randomized clinical trails have provided strong evidence that lowering plasma cholesterol with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly in high-risk patients, irrespective of baseline cholesterol levels. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) report was released in July 2004. The report examined the results of recently concluded clinical trials and provided consensus recommendations on the management of hyperlipidemia. The report expands on the core content of the previously published guidelines. However, it is by far the most aggressive approach to date for reducing CHD risk. A focal element of the report is the modification of LDL-C goal in high-risk patients to <70 mg/dL. This goal is provided as a therapeutic option and is based on findings of recently concluded clinical trials. The more aggressive recommendations add challenges to the health care system, as the number of patients requiring drug therapy is likely to increase. In spite of the challenges, there are ample opportunities for improving the management of hyperlipidemia. Adherence to the recommendations will vastly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CHD. PMID:16449961

  19. Statin under-use and low prevalence of LDL-C control among U.S. adults at high risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Christopher M.; Safford, Monika M.; Levitan, Emily B.; Mann, Devin M.; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Steve; Woolley, J. Michael; Rosenson, Robert; Farkouh, Michael; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with a history of CHD or risk equivalents. A 10-year CHD risk >20% is considered a risk equivalent but is frequently not detected. Statin use and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control were examined among participants with CHD or risk equivalents in the nationwide Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study (n=8,812). Methods Participants were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive groups: (1) history of CHD (n=4,025), (2) no history of CHD but with a history of stroke and/or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n=946), (3) no history of CHD or stroke/AAA but with diabetes mellitus (n=3,134), or (4) no history of the conditions in (1) through (3) but with 10-year Framingham CHD risk score (FRS) >20% calculated using the ATP-III point scoring system (n=707). Results Statins were used by 58.4% of those in the CHD group and 41.7%, 40.4%, and 20.1% of those in the stroke/AAA, diabetes, and FRS>20% groups, respectively. Among those taking statins, 65.1% had LDL-C <100mg/dL, with no difference between the CHD, stroke/AAA, or diabetes groups. However, compared to those in the CHD group, LDL-C <100mg/dL was less common among participants in the FRS>20% group (multivariable adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62 – 0.85). Results were similar using the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol treatment guideline. Conclusions These data suggest many people with high CHD risk, especially those with a FRS>20%, do not receive guideline-concordant lipid-lowering therapy and do not achieve an LDL-C <100mg/dL. PMID:24892511

  20. Unresolved issues in lipid-lowering treatment.

    PubMed

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, treatment with statins reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality both in patients without and with established CVD. However, there still exist unresolved issues in the management of dyslipidemia. First, which are the optimal LDL-C levels? Second, do low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and should they also represent treatment targets? In the present review, we discuss these two pertinent questions. Accumulating data, both from observational studies and from interventional studies with statins and other lipid-lowering agents, suggest that lowering LDL-C levels considerably below the currently recommended targets is both safe and further reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These benefits are particularly relevant for patients at very high cardiovascular risk, i.e. those with established CVD. On the other hand, it is questionable whether HDL-C is causally related to atherosclerosis and whether increasing HDL-C levels will translate into reduced cardiovascular risk. This uncertainty is even more pronounced in patients who achieve very low LDL-C levels with statin treatment. PMID:27035401

  1. [Differences in Measured Values among Homogenous Assay Reagents of LDL-C in LP-X Positive Serum Samples].

    PubMed

    Abe, Misako; Kurosawa, Hideo; Sato, Ryo; Ito, Kumie; Tomono, Yoshiharu; Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The LDL-C level measures with homogeneous (direct) assays in almost of clinical laboratories. Several reports however showed differences in measured values among the assay reagents. We investigated the differences in LDL-C values among direct assays and Friedewald formula (F-f) in 58 LP-X positive serum samples from jaundice patients by comparing LDL-C values measured by anion-exchange chromatography (AEX-HPLC), largely comparable to ultracentrifugation method. Changes in LDL-C values during the treatment of 8 patients were also investigated. Direct assay reagents from Sekisui Medical (S-r), Denka-Seiken (D-r), Wako Chemical (W-r), and Kyowa Medics (K-r) were used for comparison. F-f, S-r, and D-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r values < 0.6 while W-r and K-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r-vales > 0.6. Two samples in which F-f values provided 500 mg/dL plus bias to AEX-HPLC (LDL-C value of 220 mg/dL) demonstrated increased levels of IDL-C before treatment. LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) of the 2 samples were relatively high and near to F-f data while LDL-C values (W-r and K-r) were relatively low and close to AEX-HPLC data. The jaundice treatment decreased LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) and converged to 220 mg/dL, indicating that S-r and D-r might react markedly to IDL. These changes were consistent with decreases in serum free cholesterol and phospholipid in support of LP-X. By contrast, W-r and K-r data showed upward tendency and also converged to 220 mg/dL. These results suggest that LDL-C direct assay reagents would be classified into 2 groups with respect to the reagent reactivity to LP-X. PMID:26524853

  2. [ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AND LIPID-LOWERING THERAPY. DOES THE IMPROVE-IT STUDY MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE?].

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, P; Pierard, L A; Scheen, A J

    2015-09-01

    Statins reduce both LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with and without cardiovascular disease. Intensive statin therapy, compared with moderate-dose statin therapy, incrementally lowers LDL-C levels and rates of cardiovascular events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. Ezetimibe, by diminishing the absorption of cholesterol from the intestine, additionally reduces LDL-C when added to statins. In this article, we discuss the potential benefits of the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe for the long-term management of patients with acute coronary syndrome through an analysis of the IMPROVE-IT results (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). This randomised double blind trial included 18,144 patients with a LDL-C of 50 to 100 (with statin) or 125 (without statin) mg/dl and had a median follow-up of 6 years. The objective of the study was to test the efficacy of simvastatin 40 mg versus simvastatin 40 mg and 10 mg ezetimibe. The primary endpoint included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina and coronary revascularization. The addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin resulted in an incremental lowering of LDL-C (reached value 53.2 versus 69.9 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and a further improvement of the patient prognosis (relative reduction of primary endpoint: -6.4%, p = 0.016). In addition, the combined therapy showed no significant adverse effects, particularly regarding the risk of cancers, which confirms the safety of ezetimibe. In acute coronary syndrome, the prescription of ezetimibe should be considered (class HA, level of evidence B) in patients with a LDL-C a 70 mg/dl despite maximally tolerated dose of statin. PMID:26638446

  3. Emergent Biomarkers of Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Low HDL-c and/or High Triglycerides and Average LDL-c Concentrations: Focus on HDL Subpopulations, Oxidized LDL, Adiponectin, and Uric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Freitas, Isabel; Isabel-Mendonça, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Teixeira, Frederico

    2013-01-01

    This study intended to determine the impact of HDL-c and/or TGs levels on patients with average LDL-c concentration, focusing on lipidic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) were divided into 4 subgroups, combining normal and low HDL-c with normal and high TGs patients. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose, Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized-LDL, total HDL-c and HDL subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF-α, adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. The two populations with increased TGs levels, regardless of the normal or low HDL-c, presented obesity and higher waist circumference, Total-c, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, and uric acid. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower and VEGF was higher in the population with cumulative low values of HDL-c and high values of TGs, while HDL quality was reduced in the populations with impaired values of HDL-c and/or TGs, viewed by reduced large and increased small HDL subfractions. In conclusion, in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, low HDL-c and/or high TGs concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile, despite average LDL-c levels. This condition, often called residual risk, is better evidenced by using both traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including large and small HDL subfractions, Ox-LDL, adiponectin, VEGF, and uric acid. PMID:24319364

  4. Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Jie; Lai, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bang-Dang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhai, Hui; He, Chun-Hui; Pan, Shuo; Luo, Jun-Yi; Gao, Jing; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang. PMID:26907312

  5. Emerging innovative therapeutic approaches targeting PCSK9 to lower lipids.

    PubMed

    Shantha, G P S; Robinson, J G

    2016-01-01

    Statins are established therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and ezetimibe has recently been shown to modestly reduce cardiovascular events when added to background statin therapy. Yet here remains a clear unmet need for additional therapies aimed at lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to further reduce cardiovascular risk. Multiple strategies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition have emerged as effective modalities for LDL-C lowering. PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies are the farthest along in clinical development and alirocumab and evolocumab were approved for clinical use by regulatory agencies in 2015. In addition to robust LDL-C lowering (nearly 50-65% from baseline), they improve other lipid parameters as well. Adverse events associated with these medications are minimal. Importantly, they improve clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes, although long-term study results are awaited. Cost may be an important limiting factor in their use and we propose two possible solutions which can potentially curtail cost. PMID:26492546

  6. Pharmacogenetics of apolipoprotein E gene during lipid-lowering therapy: lipid levels and prevention of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kähönen, Mika; Viiri, Leena E; Grönroos, Paula; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2008-10-01

    A non-optimal plasma concentration of lipids is among the major modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular disease by means of lipid-lowering therapy with statins and other agents is of great importance for patient groups where a lifestyle change, for example, diet modification, does not lead to adequately reduced lipid levels. The response of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to statin therapy is highly variable. This is partly attributed to hereditary variation in genes involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and lipid metabolism. The pharmacogenetics of lipid-lowering therapy have been investigated for more than 40 different genes. The gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been the most frequently studied, particularly regarding the epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 polymorphism. Those with the epsilon4 allele seem to have the poorest and those with the epsilon2 allele the strongest response to statins with regards to LDL-C levels. In addition, the epsilon2 carriers may reach the LDL-C treatment goals more frequently than epsilon4 carriers. Few studies have investigated the interaction of the APOE epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 polymorphism and lipid-lowering therapy in relation to the course of coronary heart disease; the results are contradictory and so far inconclusive. This review summarizes the pharmacogenetic findings related to the influence of APOE gene variation on lipid responses and the prevention of coronary heart disease during lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:18855536

  7. PCSK9 inhibitors: an overview on a new promising lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Denegri, Andrea; Petrova-Slater, Iveta; Pasotti, Elena; Rossi, Maria Grazia; Pedrazzini, Giovanni Battista; Moccetti, Tiziano; Moccetti, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by cholesterol deposition in the arterial intima, with subsequent plaque formation and arterial disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plays the most important role in the atherogenesis process, which is the substrate of cardiovascular disease and is the leading cause of death worldwide. Several studies show that a strict control of risk factors, particularly the reduction of LDL-C levels, is a cornerstone in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Statins are currently the most effective drugs for lowering LDL-C, but the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) has opened up new therapeutic options in lipid management. PCSK9 reduces LDL-receptors' recycling resulting in a decrease of LDL-C receptors on the surface of hepatocytes and an increase of LDL-C levels in plasma. Obviously, inhibition of PCSK9 has been associated with an increase of LDL-C receptors with subsequent lowering of plasma levels of LDL-C. The clinical development of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 has been achieved through phase I and II studies, and nowadays there are many ongoing phase III trials with promising preliminary results. The aim of this review is to update the evidence for PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, such as evolocumab, alirocumab and bococizumab, in LDL-C management and to discuss their therapeutic perspectives based on the most recent clinical studies, with attention to side-effects. PMID:26855411

  8. Gender differences in cholesterol-lowering medication prescribing in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Greenland, Philip; Reed, George; Mazor, Kathleen M; Merriam, Philip A; Graff, Rex; Tao, Huimin; Pagoto, Sherry; Manheim, Larry; Kibbe, Melina R; Ockene, Ira S

    2011-12-01

    Among 320 patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels > 70 mg/dl, we determined whether male sex, higher education, and greater self-efficacy for willingness to request therapy from one's physician were associated with increases in LDL-C-lowering medication and achievement of an LDL-C level < 70 mg/dl at 1-year follow-up. Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention can help PAD patients achieve an LDL-C level < 70 mg/dl, compared to usual care and attention control conditions, respectively. Adjusting for age, race, comorbidities, PAD severity, and other covariates, male sex (odds ratio = 3.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.64 to 6.77, p = 0.001) was associated with a higher likelihood of adding cholesterol-lowering medication during follow-up, but was not associated with achieving an LDL-C < 70 mg/dl (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 0.55 to 2.18). No associations of education level or self-efficacy with study outcomes were identified. In conclusion, male PAD patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≥ 70 mg/dl were more likely to intensify LDL-C-lowering medication during 1-year follow-up than female PAD patients. Despite greater increases in LDL-C-lowering medication among female PAD patients, there was no difference in the degree of LDL-C lowering during the study between men and women with PAD. PMID:22128042

  9. Intensive Lowering of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels for Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karalis, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and a high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for CAD. Current guidelines recommend the use of statins to lower LDL-C levels for the primary prevention of CAD based on an individual's risk factor profile and baseline LDL-C level. For moderaterisk individuals, those with 2 or more major risk factors for CAD and a Framingham risk score of 10% to 20%, the recommendation is to use a statin to lower LDL-C levels to less than 130 mg/dL. However, up to 40% of individuals who develop CAD have LDL-C levels lower than this cutoff. In 2004, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines were updated to include an LDL-C goal of less than 100 mg/dL for individuals at moderately high risk of developing CAD. The guidelines identified several risk factors that when present would favor the use of pharmacological therapy to achieve this more aggressive LDL-C goal. This review evaluates the evidence supporting an LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL for moderately high-risk individuals and reviews those risk factors that when present help identify patients who would benefit from achieving this lower LDL-C goal. English-language publications in MEDLINE and references from relevant articles published between January 1, 1980, and November 30, 2008, were reviewed. Main keywords searched were coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, statins, cardiac risk factors, inflammatory markers, metabolic syndrome, and coronary artery calcium. PMID:19339653

  10. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and its triacetylated derivative recovered from olive tree leaves in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Jemai, Hedya; Fki, Ines; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-04-23

    This study was designed to test the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of triacetylated hydroxytyrosol compared with its native compound, hydroxytyrosol, purified from olive tree leaves. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks were used. The serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as that of catalase (CAT) were examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hypercholesterolemia that was manifested in the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of hydroxytyrosol and triacetylated hydroxytyrosol (3 mg/kg of body weight) decreased the serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C significantly and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in liver, heart, kidney, and aorta decreased significantly when hydroxytyrosol and its triacetylated derivatives were orally administered to rats compared with those fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, triacetylated hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol increased CAT and SOD activities in the liver. These results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of triacetylated hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol might be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels as well as to their antioxidant activities preventing the lipid peroxidation process. PMID:18380465

  11. Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, S; Sonestedt, E; Ericson, U; Gullberg, B; Wirfält, E; Hedblad, B; Orho-Melander, M

    2012-06-01

    Polymorphisms of the FA desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with LDL, HDL, and triglyceride concentrations. Because FADS converts α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid into PUFAs, we investigated the interaction between different PUFA intakes and the FADS polymorphism rs174547 (T>C) on fasting blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. We included 4,635 individuals (60% females, 45-68 years) from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed by a modified diet history method including 7-day registration of cooked meals. The C-allele of rs174547 was associated with lower LDL concentration (P = 0.03). We observed significant interaction between rs174547 and long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes on LDL (P = 0.01); the C-allele was only associated with lower LDL among individuals in the lowest tertile of long-chain ω-3 PUFA intakes (P < 0.001). In addition, significant interaction was observed between rs174547 and the ratio of ALA and linoleic FA intakes on HDL (P = 0.03). However, no significant associations between the C-allele and HDL were detected within the intake tertiles of the ratio. Our findings suggest that dietary intake levels of different PUFAs modify the associated effect of genetic variation in FADS on LDL and HDL. PMID:22451038

  12. Raising highly desirable lipoprotein versus lowering deleterious lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bernard My; Kumana, Cyrus R

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of: Taylor AJ, Villines TC, Stanek EJ et al. Extended-release niacin or ezetimibe and carotid intima-media thickness. N. Engl. J. Med. 361(22), 2113-2122 (2009). Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are both factors causing coronary heart disease. These authors compared extended-release niacin, which raises HDL-C, with ezetimibe, which lowers LDL-C, in a study named Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies (ARBITER 6-HALTS). The study was terminated early and only 208 patients were included in the analysis. Ezetimibe decreased LDL-C by 19.2%, to 66 mg/dl (1.7 mmol/l), whereas niacin increased HDL-C by 18.4%. Ezetimibe did not reduce carotid intima-media thickness, whereas niacin decreased it significantly. Moreover, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 5% of the ezetimibe group but only 1% of the niacin group (p = 0.04). The study suggests that niacin may be more effective than ezetimibe as an adjunct to statin in regressing atherosclerosis and in preventing cardiovascular events. This small study of short duration reported a very large treatment effect, so the findings need to be confirmed in a larger longer trial. Nevertheless, it provides the evidence that we now have an additional class of drugs besides statins that can reduce atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. PMID:22111565

  13. Role of Ezetimibe in Lipid-Lowering and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan A; Wright, Charmaine; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    With the goal of decreasing low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) to mitigate risk of both primary and secondary cardiovascular outcomes, statins have been the cornerstone of therapy, significantly reducing the incidence of coronary atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies suggest that adding other non-statin LDL-lowering agents may further lower LDL-C without negative side effects. Recent guidelines support the hypothesis that driving the LDL-C level below previously recommended targets may have a beneficial effect. Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption blocker that inhibits the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) receptor, has been the focus of recent trials that support its use in cardiovascular risk reduction. For patients not at goal on statin therapy alone, ezetimibe has proven to be a safe, well-tolerated medication that may be used as an adjunct to statin therapy to further reduce LDL-C, resulting in a significant mortality benefit. PMID:26490081

  14. Targeting PCSK9 as a promising new mechanism for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Della Badia, Laura A; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-08-01

    Statins and other lipid-lowering drugs have dominated the market for many years for achievement of recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, a substantial number of high-risk patients are unable to achieve the LDL-C goal. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) has recently emerged as a new, promising key therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia. PCSK9 is a protease involved in chaperoning the low-density lipoprotein receptor to the process of degradation. PCSK9 inhibitors and statins effectively lower LDL-C. The PCSK9 inhibitors decrease the degradation of the LDL receptors, whereas statins mainly interfere with the synthetic machinery of cholesterol by inhibiting the key rate limiting enzyme, the HMG CoA reductase. PCSK9 inhibitors are currently being developed as monoclonal antibodies for their primary use in lowering LDL-C. They may be especially useful for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, who at present receive minimal benefit from traditional statin therapy. The monoclonal antibody PCSK9 inhibitors, recently granted FDA approval, show the most promising safety and efficacy profile compared to other, newer LDL-C lowering therapies. This review will primarily focus on the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody PCSK9 inhibitors in comparison to statins. The review will also address new, alternative PCSK9 targeting drug classes such as small molecules, gene silencing agents, apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotides, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors. PMID:27133571

  15. Process for lowering the dielectric constant of polyimides using diamic acid additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Linear aromatic polyimides with low dielectric constants are produced by adding a diamic acid additive to the polyamic acid resin formed by the condensation of an aromatic dianhydride with an aromatic diamine. The resulting modified polyimide is a better electrical insulator than state-of-the-art commercially available polyimides.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of ezetimibe 10 mg/day coadministered with statins in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who do not achieve target LDL-C while on statin monotherapy: A Canadian, multicentre, prospective study – the Ezetrol® Add-On Study

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Stéphane; Habib, Rafik; Sampalis, Fotini; Boukas, Stella; Sampalis, John S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND For patients who have above-target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels while on statin monotherapy, coadministration of a cholesterol absorption inhibitor with the statin may decrease serum LDL-C levels and improve overall lipid profiles. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness and safety of ezetimibe 10 mg/day coadministered with a statin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who have higher than recommended LDL-C levels while on statin monotherapy. METHODS A six-week, prospective, multicentre study of eligible patients who had above-target LDL-C levels while on monotherapy with any statin, regardless of dose, for a minimum of four weeks. All patients were treated for six weeks with 10 mg ezetimibe daily coad-ministered with their current statins. RESULTS A total of 1141 patients were screened, 953 (83.5%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and 837 (87.8%) completed the study. Reasons for withdrawal included: lost to follow-up (50 patients [5.2%]); protocol violations (45 patients [4.7%]); adverse events (19 patients [2.0%]); and withdrawal of consent (two patients [0.2%]). After six weeks of treatment, statistically significant (P=0.001) mean reductions were observed in LDL-C (30.05%), total cholesterol (20.84%), triglycerides (10.16%), apolipoprotein B (19.84%) and the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (19.88%). At six weeks, 674 patients (80.5%) achieved target LDL-C levels. Fifty predominantly mild, nonserious adverse events related to ezetimibe were reported by 32 patients (3.4%). Frequently reported adverse events included constipation (n=7 [0.7% of patients]), diarrhea (n=4 [0.4%]) and dizziness (n=4 [0.4%]). CONCLUSION Ezetimibe coadministered with statins is effective in reducing LDL-C in patients who do not attain target LDL-C levels while on statin monotherapy. PMID:17036098

  19. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy for slowing progression as well as inducing regression of atherosclerosis in Japanese patients: subanalysis of the JART study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Nohara, Ryuji; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hata, Mitsumasa; Kaku, Kohei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kishimoto, Junji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Masuda, Izuru; Sakuma, Ichiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a subanalysis of the JART Study comparing rosuvastatin and pravastatin treatment. A total of 314 subjects were analyzed in this subanalysis, 282 of whom were eligible for evaluation of the relationship between LDL-C and carotid mean-IMT change. In the subanalysis, we evaluated the extent to which intensive lipid-lowering therapy slowed the mean-IMT progression by a correlation analysis between LDL-C and mean-IMT change after 12 months of statin treatment. Nearly half were male (49.4%) and elderly (49.7%). The majority (84.4%) were treated for primary prevention. Patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus accounted for 65.3% and 44.0%, respectively. At the 12-month measurement point, mean-IMT change was correlated with LDL-C (R = 0.187; P = 0.0016), LDL-C/ HDL-C ratio (R = 0.152; P = 0.0105), and non-HDL-C (R = 0.132; P = 0.0259). Mean-IMT after 12 months was divided into 4 subgroups by LDL-C at 12 months; < 80, ≥ 80 to < 100, ≥ 100 to < 120, and ≥ 120 mg/dL. A trend analysis using the Jonckheere-Terpstra test showed statistical signifi cance (P = 0.0002). Even for prevention in Japanese patients who have lower risk of atherosclerotic disease than Western patients, lowering the LDL-C level to below the therapeutic target prevented mean-IMT progression after 12 months more strongly. These findings suggest that more intensive control of LDL-C to levels lower than those in current JAS guidelines should be required to achieve slowing of progression as well as induction of regression of atherosclerosis. PMID:23428922

  20. [Ultrasound mapping of lower-limb vascular system with regard to occurrence and anatomy of additional front great saphenous vein].

    PubMed

    Musil, D; Herman, J

    2006-12-01

    A primary survey study involving a set of 113 lower limbs of 66 patients was focused on the prevalence of additional front great saphenous vein (AFGSV) and the measurement of the distance between its start in the great saphenous vein (GSV) and the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ), the measurement of the distance between the passage of AFGSV through the saphenous fascia and its start in GSV, and compared the width of AFGSV anechogenous lumen with the calibre of GSV. The prevalence of AFGSV in the observed set was 42.5%. Reflux was proved in 6 AFGSVs (12.5%). The width of the AFGSV anechogenous lumen was on an average 0.29 cm (M 0.26 cm, SD +/- 0.15 cm), and the width of GSV anechogenous lumen measured on lower limbs with simultaneous occurrence of AFGSV was 0.38 cm (M 0.38 cm, SD +/- 0.11 cm) on an average. Comparison of the anechogenous lumen width of the two veins showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0,001). AFGSV in the observed set of lower limbs started in VS at an average distance of 0.8 cm from the saphenofemoral junction (M 0.8 cm, SD +/- 0.46 cm). The minimum start point distance was 0.1 cm, the maximum was 1.84 cm. In 3 cases (6.3%), AFGSV started directly in the common femoral vein (v. femoralis communis), which was the place where also the saphenous vein begins. The distance between the passage of AFGSV through saphenous fascia to upper subcutaneous layers and the start of the vein in GSV was on an average 13.2 cm (M 14.5 cm, SD +/- 6.5 cm). The maximum distance between the passage of AFGSV through saphenous fascia and the start of the vein in GSV was 4 cm, the maximum distance being 30 cm. PMID:17299907

  1. Cholesterol-lowering Action of BNA-based Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting PCSK9 in Atherogenic Diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Nakatani, Moeka; Wada, Shunsuke; Yasuhara, Hidenori; Narukawa, Keisuke; Sasaki, Kiyomi; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Torigoe, Hidetaka; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Imanishi, Takeshi; Obika, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in molecular biology implicate the involvement of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein regulation. The cholesterol-lowering potential of anti-PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) modified with bridged nucleic acids (BNA-AONs) including 2′,4′-BNA (also called as locked nucleic acid (LNA)) and 2′,4′-BNANC chemistries were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro transfection study revealed that all of the BNA-AONs induce dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels concomitantly with increases in LDLR protein levels. BNA-AONs were administered to atherogenic diet-fed C57BL/6J mice twice weekly for 6 weeks; 2′,4′-BNA-AON that targeted murine PCSK9 induced a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C); the 43% reduction of serum LDL-C was achieved at a dose of 20 mg/kg/injection with only moderate increases in toxicological indicators. In addition, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased. These results support antisense inhibition of PCSK9 as a potential therapeutic approach. When compared with 2′,4′-BNA-AON, 2′,4′-BNANC-AON showed an earlier LDL-C–lowering effect and was more tolerable in mice. Our results validate the optimization of 2′,4′-BNANC-based anti-PCSK9 antisense molecules to produce a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:23344002

  2. [Comparison of calculated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) versus measured LDL cholesterol (LDL-M) and potential impact in terms of therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    Reignier, Arnaud; Sacchetto, Emilie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Le Carrer, Didier; Delaroche, Odile; Bigot-Corbel, Edith

    2014-01-01

    LDL-cholesterol value is one of the criteria used by the Haute autorité de santé (HAS) in the management of patients in primary and secondary prevention with the aim to reduce cardiovascular mortality. In this respect, the recommendations have been established based on target to achieve LDL-cholesterol. Currently in France, the determination of LDL-cholesterol is mainly carried out by the Friedewald formula whose limits are well known. However, reliable methods for the determination of LDL-cholesterol exist. We compared the results of calculated and measured LDL-cholesterol obtained from 444 patients presenting normal triglyceridemia values in terms of ranking relative to the thresholds of the HAS. The correlation between the two methods is quite good, but a significant difference (p <0.0001) was observed between the calculated and measured values of LDL-cholesterol. On the other hand in 17% of cases the classification of subjects will be different, with a majority so overestimation of calculated LDL-cholesterol with respect to measured LDL-cholesterol. This overestimation is not proportional, in fact most values measured LDL-cholesterol, the higher the calculate-measured difference is important. The rating difference is particularly important when subjects have between 1 and 3 factors of cardiovascular risk where the target LDL-cholesterol to achieve is between 1.3 and 1.9 g/L. The management of patients with lipid lowering may potentially be dependent on the method used for the determination of LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25336132

  3. The Lipid-lowering Effects of R-bambuterol in Healthy Chinese Volunteers: A Randomized Phase I Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yanrui; Xu, Hang; Quan, Lei; Zhu, Long; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Ting; Zou, ChengJuan; Cheng, Qing; Bu, Shujie; Tan, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing treatments are inadequate for patients at high risk of coronary heart disease caused by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Bambuterol is a prodrug of β2-agonist commonly used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the advantage of once daily dosing and favorable side effect profile. The potential lipid-lowering effects of bambuterol were unclear, possibly due to the racemic bambuterol (rac-bambuterol) that was used in previous studies. Methods The lipid-lowering effects of R-bambuterol were examined in a randomized phase I trial in 48 healthy Chinese volunteers aged 18–45 years. Participants were randomly assigned to five groups to receive a single dose (2.5 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg) or multiple doses (5 mg) of oral medications of R-bambuterol, or a single dose of rac-bambuterol (10 mg). Plasma lipid levels were measured at baseline, time to peak concentration (Tmax) and 24 h after the treatment. Findings Administration of a single-dose of R-bambuterol resulted in dose-dependent reductions in the levels of plasma LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) at Tmax. Levels of LDL-C exhibited the most reductions, which were statistically significant in all three single-dose R-bambuterol groups (all P values < 0.05). R-bambuterol was more potent in LDL-C lowering compared to rac-bambuterol at Tmax (P = 0.08). At 24 h after dosing, the significant lipid lowering effects of R-bambuterol sustained for LDL-C (P = 0.01), ApoB (P = 0.001) and ApoA1 (P = 0.03), but not for HDL-C. The ratio of ApoA1/ApoB was marginally increased (P = 0.06). In the multiple-dose group, LDL-C levels again were significantly reduced (all P values < 0.05), whereas the ratios of ApoA1/ApoB were marginally increased. Interpretation R-bambuterol can lower the plasma levels of LDL-C, and marginally

  4. Simvastatin and Dipentyl Phthalate Lower Ex Vivo Testicular Testosterone Production and Exhibit Additive Effects on Testicular Testosterone and Gene Expression Via Distinct Mechanistic Pathways in the Fetal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Beverly, Brandiese E. J.; Lambright, Christy S.; Furr, Johnathan R.; Sampson, Hunter; Wilson, Vickie S.; McIntyre, Barry S.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Travlos, Gregory; Gray, L. Earl

    2014-01-01

    Sex differentiation of the male reproductive tract in mammals is driven, in part, by fetal androgen production. In utero, some phthalate esters (PEs) alter fetal Leydig cell differentiation, reducing the expression of several genes associated with steroid synthesis/transport, and consequently, lowering fetal androgen and Insl3 hormone levels. Simvastatin (SMV) is a cholesterol-lowering drug that directly inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. SMV may also disrupt steroid biosynthesis, but through a different mode of action (MOA) than the PEs. As cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormone biosynthesis, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to SMV during the critical period of sex differentiation would lower fetal testicular testosterone (T) production without affecting genes involved in cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport. Secondly, we hypothesized that a mixture of SMV and a PE, which may have different MOAs, would reduce testosterone levels in an additive manner. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were dosed orally with SMV, dipentyl phthalate (DPeP), or SMV plus DPeP from gestational days 14-18, and fetuses were evaluated on GD18. On GD18, SMV lowered fetal T production and serum triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels, and downregulated two genes in the fetal testis that were different from those altered by PEs. When SMV and DPeP were administered as a mixture, fetal T production was significantly reduced in an additive manner, thus demonstrating that a mixture of chemicals can induce additive effects on fetal T production even though they display different MOAs. PMID:25055962

  5. [Cholesterol goal attainment with lipid lowering drugs. The COMETA Mexico Trial].

    PubMed

    Meaney, Eduardo; Vela, Agustín; Ramos, Alma; Alemao, Evo; Yin, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In a retrospective study to determine rate of patients attaining therapeutic LDL-C goal values with lipid-lowering drugs, 20 specialists and general practitioners were selected who enrolled 120 patients whose lipids were measured after at least 12 weeks of treatment. They were grouped in three categories: group A (absolute risk of CHD in 10 years <10%); group B, with 10-20% risk, and group C, with >20% risk. Goal LDL-C values were <160 mg/dL for group A, <130 for group B, and <100 for group C. Mean age was 57 +/- 12 years, 59% were males, and 51% were in group C; 83% took statins, 12% fibrates alone, and 5%, combinations. Atorvastatin and simvastatin were the most used drugs, at medium doses (mean 12 and 27 mg/day). LDL-C was reduced 25%; overall, 22% of patient doses were adjusted. Therapeutic goals were attained in 29% with initial doses and 42% at the end of study. Goal values were better attained in groups with lower risk. No differences were noticed among distinct physician categories. Data show poor compliance with international guidelines and insufficient attainment of therapeutic goals. PMID:15559229

  6. [Evaluation of the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of pantethine in women in perimenopausal age].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, P; Cellina, G; Lo Cicero, G; Bruschi, F; Porcaro, E; Penotti, M

    1990-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death also in women. Their incidence, rapidly growing in the peri-menopausal period, is related to serum levels of total cholesterol and its LDL fraction. It was also shown that the peroxidation of LDL is an additional factor in the genesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease. As long-term treatments with synthetic lipid-lowering drugs may cause undesirable side effects, while pantethine is known to be well tolerated, we treated 24 hypercholesterolemic women (total serum cholesterol greater than or equal to 240 mg/dl), in perimenopausal age (range: 45-55 years, mean +/- SD = 51.6 +/- 2.4) with 900 mg/day of pantethine. This is a precursor of coenzyme A, with an antiperoxidation effect in vivo, and our aim was to confirm its lipid lowering activity in this particular type of patients. After 16 weeks of treatment, significant reductions of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could be observed. No remarkable changes of the main laboratory parameters (fasting blood sugar, B.U.N., creatinine, uric acid) were seen. Efficacy percentages of the treatment were about 80%. None of the patients complained of adverse reactions due to the treatment with pantethine. In conclusion, we suggest that pantethine should be considered in the long-term treatment of lipid derangements occurring in the perimenopausal age. PMID:2359503

  7. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  8. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  9. Effect of cholesterol lowering and cardiovascular risk factors on the progression of aortoiliac arteriosclerosis: a quantitative cineangiography study.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Lucien; Lespérance, Jacques; Bilodeau, Luc; Fortier, Annik; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Knatterud, Genell L

    2005-01-01

    The post-Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (Post-CABG) trial has shown that aggressive compared to moderate lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) delayed the progression of obstructive disease in aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts and in the left main coronary artery. Patients had been allocated to high-and low-dose lovastatin therapy for a 4-5 year period. The present study evaluated the effect of LDL-C lowering and the role of cardiovascular risk factors on the progression of arteriosclerosis in the distal abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries. From one of the participating centers of the post-CABG trial, 145 patients who had adequate imaging of the aortoiliac arteries at baseline and follow-up were included. Angiographic outcomes, presumed to reflect progression of arteriosclerosis and obtained from lumen diameter (LD) measurements using quantitative cineangiography, were as follows: significant decrease of the minimum lumen diameter (LD) and increase of the maximum LD, percent lumen stenosis, and percent lumen dilatation. These outcomes were not significantly less frequent in patients randomly allocated to aggressive compared to moderate LDL-C lowering. Of 9 cardiovascular risk factors, only 2 were significantly related to progression of aortoiliac arteriosclerosis. Current smoking predicted both percent lumen stenosis increase and, to a lesser degree, percent lumen dilatation increase (p = 0.010 and p = 0.055, respectively). Abnormally high body mass index (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) correlated with percent lumen dilatation increase (p = 0.006). Aggressive compared to moderate LDL-C lowering did not prevent or delay the progression of aortoiliac arteriosclerosis. Smoking predicted both lumen narrowing and dilatation presumably caused by arteriosclerosis. Abnormally high BMI, reflecting overweight or obesity, was strongly associated with vessel dilatation. PMID:15793608

  10. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide to angiotensin receptor blocker therapy can achieve a lower sodium balance with no acceleration of intrarenal renin angiotensin system in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michio; Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Sato, Ryo; Mizuno, Masashi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Michikawa, Makoto; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce a lower sodium (Na) balance, and the natriuretic effect is enhanced under Na deprivation, despite falls in blood pressure (BP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods The effect of additional hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg/day) to ARB treatment (valsartan; 80 mg/day) on glomerulotubular Na balance was evaluated in 23 patients with chronic kidney disease. Results Add-on HCTZ decreased GFR, tubular Na load, and tubular Na reabsorption (tNa), although 24-hour urinary Na excretion (UNaV) remained constant. Daily urinary angiotensinogen excretion (UAGTV, 152±10→82±17 μg/g Cre) reduced (p=0.02). Changes in tubular Na load (r2=0.26) and tNa (r2=0.25) correlated with baseline 24-hour UAGTV. Changes in filtered Na load correlated with changes in nighttime systolic BP (r2=0.17), but not with changes in daytime systolic BP. The change in the tNa to filtered Na load ratio was influenced by the change in daytime UNaV (β=−0.67, F=16.8), rather than the change in nighttime UNaV. Conclusions Lower Na balance was produced by add-on HCTZ to ARB treatment without an increase of intra-renal renin-angiotensin system activity, leading to restoration of nocturnal hypertension. A further study is needed to demonstrate that the reduction of UAGTV by additional diuretics to ARBs prevents the progression of nephropathy or cardiovascular events. PMID:27283968

  11. On the function and homeostasis of PCSK9: reciprocal interaction with LDLR and additional lipid effects.

    PubMed

    Tavori, Hagai; Rashid, Shirya; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulatory ligand that terminates the lifecycle of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) thus affecting plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Recent evidence shows that in addition to the straightforward mechanism of action, there are more complex interactions between PCSK9, LDLR and plasma lipoprotein levels, including: (a) the presence of both parallel and reciprocal regulation of surface LDLR and plasma PCSK9; (b) a correlation between PCSK9 and LDL-C levels dependent not only on the fact that PCSK9 removes hepatic LDLR, but also due to the fact that up to 40% of plasma PCSK9 is physically associated with LDL; and (c) an association between plasma PCSK9 production and the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The effect of PCSK9 on LDLR is being successfully utilized toward the development of anti-PCSK9 therapies to reduce plasma LDL-C levels. Current biochemical research has uncovered additional mechanisms of action and interacting partners for PCSK9, and this opens the way for a more thorough understanding of the regulation, metabolism, and effects of this interesting protein. PMID:25544176

  12. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  13. Lack of Effect of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Individual Data from 175,000 People in 27 Randomised Trials of Statin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Statin therapy reduces the risk of occlusive vascular events, but uncertainty remains about potential effects on cancer. We sought to provide a detailed assessment of any effects on cancer of lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with a statin using individual patient records from 175,000 patients in 27 large-scale statin trials. Methods and Findings Individual records of 134,537 participants in 22 randomised trials of statin versus control (median duration 4.8 years) and 39,612 participants in 5 trials of more intensive versus less intensive statin therapy (median duration 5.1 years) were obtained. Reducing LDL-C with a statin for about 5 years had no effect on newly diagnosed cancer or on death from such cancers in either the trials of statin versus control (cancer incidence: 3755 [1.4% per year [py

  14. LDL cholesterol goals in high-risk patients: how low do we go and how do we get there?

    PubMed

    Besseling, Joost; van Capelleveen, Julian; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

    2013-03-01

    It is widely recognised that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most important and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) have consistently been shown to decrease both LDL-C and CVD risk in almost all patient categories, with the exception of heart and kidney failure as well as advanced aortic stenosis. As a consequence, statins have become the cornerstone in current prevention guidelines. In patients who do not reach the LDL-C target, combination therapy with additional LDL-C lowering drugs (e.g. ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants or fibrates) should be considered. Guidelines provide different LDL-C levels to strive for, depending on the CVD risk. In this review, we describe the rationale for these LDL-C targets and how these goals might be reached by current and future therapies. PMID:23494186

  15. The Effect of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Vascular Access Patency: Post Hoc Analysis of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie; Blackwell, Lisa; Fellström, Bengt; Walker, Robert; Levin, Adeera; Hooi, Lai Seong; Massy, Ziad A.; Tesar, Vladimir; Reith, Christina; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized patients with CKD to 20 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe daily versus matching placebo. This study aimed to explore the effects of treatment on vascular access occlusive events, defined as any access revision procedure, access thrombosis, removal of an old dialysis access, or formation of new permanent dialysis access. Results Among 2353 SHARP participants who had functioning vascular access at randomization, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in a 13% proportional reduction in vascular access occlusive events (355 [29.7%] for simvastatin/ezetimibe versus 388 [33.5%] for placebo; risk ratio [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.00; P=0.05). There was no evidence that the effects of treatment differed for any of the separate components of this outcome. To test the hypothesis raised by SHARP, comparable analyses were performed using the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial cohort. AURORA did not provide independent confirmation (vascular access occlusive events: 352 [28.9%] for rosuvastatin versus 337 [27.6%] for placebo; RR, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.23; P=0.44). After combining the two trials, the overall effect of reducing LDL-C with a statin-based regimen on vascular access occlusive events was not statistically significant (707 [29.3%] with any LDL-C–lowering therapy versus 725 [30.5%] with placebo; RR, 0.95, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29). Conclusions Exploratory analyses from SHARP suggest that lowering LDL-C with statin-based therapy may improve vascular

  16. Bayesian inference for multivariate meta-analysis Box-Cox transformation models for individual patient data with applications to evaluation of cholesterol lowering drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Shah, Arvind K.; Lin, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation regression models with multidimensional random effects for analyzing multivariate responses for individual patient data (IPD) in meta-analysis. Our modeling formulation uses a multivariate normal response meta-analysis model with multivariate random effects, in which each response is allowed to have its own Box-Cox transformation. Prior distributions are specified for the Box-Cox transformation parameters as well as the regression coefficients in this complex model, and the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) is used to select the best transformation model. Since the model is quite complex, a novel Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) sampling scheme is developed to sample from the joint posterior of the parameters. This model is motivated by a very rich dataset comprising 26 clinical trials involving cholesterol lowering drugs where the goal is to jointly model the three dimensional response consisting of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), and Triglycerides (TG) (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG). Since the joint distribution of (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) is not multivariate normal and in fact quite skewed, a Box-Cox transformation is needed to achieve normality. In the clinical literature, these three variables are usually analyzed univariately: however, a multivariate approach would be more appropriate since these variables are correlated with each other. A detailed analysis of these data is carried out using the proposed methodology. PMID:23580436

  17. Comparison of Low-Dose Rosuvastatin with Atorvastatin in Lipid-Lowering Efficacy and Safety in a High-Risk Pakistani Cohort: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Background. Treatment of hyperlipidemia is helpful in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Aim. To compare lipid-lowering efficacy of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin. Methodology. This open-label randomized controlled trial was carried out at 1 Mountain Medical Battalion from September 2012 to August 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, or stroke, meriting treatment with a statin. Those with secondary causes of dyslipidemia were excluded. Blood samples for estimation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C were collected after a 12-hour fast. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg HS or rosuvastatin 5 mg HS daily. Lipid levels were rechecked after six weeks. Results. Atorvastatin was used in 63 patients and rosuvastatin in 66. There was a greater absolute and percent reduction in serum LDL-C levels with rosuvastatin as compared to atorvastatin (0.96 versus 0.54 mg/dL; P = 0.011 and 24.34 versus 13.66%; P = 0.045), whereas reduction in all other fractions was equal. Myalgias were seen in 5 (7.94%) patients treated with atorvastatin and 8 (12.12%) patients treated with rosuvastatin (P: 0.432). Conclusion. Rosuvastatin produces a greater reduction in serum LDL-C levels and should therefore be preferred over atorvastatin. PMID:24800084

  18. Combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker exerts pleiotropic therapeutic effects in addition to blood pressure lowering: amlodipine and candesartan trial in Yokohama (ACTY).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akinobu; Tamura, Kouichi; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Ohsawa, Masato; Haku, Sona; Azushima, Kengo; Dejima, Toru; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yanagi, Mai; Okano, Yasuko; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Tochikubo, Osamu; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines recommend combination antihypertensive therapy to achieve the target blood pressure (BP) and to suppress target organ damage. This study aimed to examine the beneficial effects of combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine on BP control and markers of target organ function in Japanese essential hypertensive patients (N = 20) who did not achieve the target BP level during the monotherapy period with either candesartan or amlodipine. After the monotherapy period, for patients already being treated with amlodipine, a once-daily 8 mg dose of candesartan was added on during the combination therapy period (angiotensin II receptor blocker [ARB] add-on group, N = 10), and a once-daily 5 mg dose of amlodipine was added on for those already being treated with candesartan (calcium channel blocker [CCB] add-on group, N = 10). Combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine for 12 weeks significantly decreased clinic and home systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In addition, the combination therapy was able to significantly reduce urine albumin excretion without decrease in estimated glomerular filtration ratio and resulted in significant improvements in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, central SBP, and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the CCB add-on group showed a significantly greater decrease in clinic and home DBP than the ARB add-on group. The calcium channel blocker add-on group also exhibited better improvements in vascular functional parameters than the ARB add-on group. These results suggest that combination therapy with candesartan and amlodipine is an efficient therapeutic strategy for hypertension with pleiotropic benefits. PMID:22571446

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin) versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Ho; Ko, Su-Kyoung; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin) might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin) in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (%) attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL) based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered). A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal). Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION: A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25773438

  20. Variation in prescribing of lipid-lowering medication in primary care is associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in people with screen-detected diabetes: findings from the ADDITION-Denmark trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, R K; Carlsen, A H; Griffin, S J; Charles, M; Christiansen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbæk, A; Lauritzen, T

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine variation between general practices in the prescription of lipid-lowering treatment to people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, and associations with practice and participant characteristics and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Methods Observational cohort analysis of data from 1533 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes aged 40–69 years from the ADDITION-Denmark study. One hundred and seventy-four general practices were cluster randomized to receive: (1) routine diabetes care according to national guidelines (623 individuals), or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (910 individuals). Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the proportion of individuals in each practice who redeemed prescriptions for lipid-lowering medication in the two years following diabetes diagnosis and a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent chronic disease, baseline CVD risk factors, smoking and lipid-lowering medication, and follow-up time. Results The proportion of individuals treated with lipid-lowering medication varied widely between practices (0–100%). There were 118 CVD events over 9431 person-years of follow-up. For the whole trial cohort, the risk of CVD was significantly higher in practices in the lowest compared with the highest quartile for prescribing lipid-lowering medication [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–7.3]. Similar trends were found for all-cause mortality. Conclusions More frequent prescription of lipid-lowering treatment was associated with a lower incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality. Improved understanding of factors underlying practice variation in prescribing may enable more frequent use of lipid-lowering treatment. The results highlight the benefits of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 00237549). What's new Despite

  1. Lipid-lowering efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R R; Agrawal, C G; Singh, G P; Ghatak, A

    1994-11-01

    The effect of the administration of 3.5 g of psyllium husk twice daily for 90 days was investigated in 24 patients of non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with hyperlipidaemia. After 90 days of treatment, psyllium was withdrawn and the patients were followed up for a further 90 days. Psyllium significantly decreased the levels of total cholesterol (TC; 19.7%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 23.7%), triglycerides (TG; 27.2%) and the ratio of LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 24.1%) and the lowering was sustained even up to 90 days after cessation of treatment. The level of HDL-C also showed a significant increase of 15.8 per cent but this effect was not sustained after cessation of treatment. The compliance was very good and no adverse effects were observed. This study indicated that psyllium husk is an effective and well tolerated adjunct to diet for the treatment of mild to moderate hyperlipidaemia in NIDDM patients. PMID:7829159

  2. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  3. African Nutmeg (Monodora Myristica) Lowers Cholesterol and Modulates Lipid Peroxidation in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Onyenibe, Nwozo Sarah; Fowokemi, Kasumu Titilayo; Emmanuel, Oyinloye Babatunji

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the cholesterol lowering potential and protective ability of aqueous extract of Monodora myristica experimental hypercholesterolemic rats, a short-term study was conducted. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by administering cholesterol orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg/0.3 ml. Plant extracts 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight and Questran 0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight weeks for amelioration. Hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by measuring total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in the serum, while the protective ability was measured by the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels in post mitochondrial fractions (PMF) of the hepatic and cardiac homogenates. Serum aminotransferases activities were also monitored. Results obtained shows that treatment with M. myristica elicited a significant reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels while there was concomitant increase in HDL-C of hypercholesterolemic rats. Elevations in serum aminotransferases activities and LPO level were reversed and a significant amelioration was noticed in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study suggests that M. myristica possess cholesterol lowering potentials and protective ability in experimental hypercholesterolemia rat model. PMID:26199582

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. Short-term treatment with a 2-carba analog of cyclic phosphatidic acid induces lowering of plasma cholesterol levels in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Murakmi-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2016-04-22

    Plasma cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. An elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a hallmark of hypercholesterolemia in metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggested that when acetylated LDL (AC-LDL) was co-applied with a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (ROSI), many oil red O-positive macrophages could be observed. However, addition of cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) to ROSI-stimulated macrophages completely abolished oil red O-stained cells, indicating that cPA inhibits PPARγ-regulated AC-LDL uptake. This study aimed to determine whether metabolically stabilized cPA, in the form of a carba-derivative of cPA (2ccPA), could reduce plasma cholesterol levels and affect the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. 2ccPA reduced LDL-C levels in these mice (n = 3) from 460 to 330 mg/ml, from 420 to 350 mg/ml, and 420 to 281 mg/ml under a western-type diet. 2ccPA also reduced expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, cytokines, and chemokines in ApoE-deficient mice on a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results suggest that 2ccPA governs anti-atherogenic activities in the carotid arteries of apoE-deficient mice. PMID:27012212

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  7. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  8. Alirocumab: First Global Approval.

    PubMed

    Markham, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Alirocumab (Praluent®) is a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi that has been approved in the US as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, who require additional lowering of LDL-C. It specifically binds proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)-a down regulator of liver low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptors-thereby increasing the ability of the liver to bind LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and reducing levels of LDL-C in blood. It has been shown to reduce LDL-C levels in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, including HeFH, both as monotherapy and in conjunction with statin therapy. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of alirocumab leading to this first approval. PMID:26370210

  9. Changes in attainment of lipid goals by general practitioners and specialists in patients at high cardiovascular risk in Hungary during 2004-2008

    PubMed Central

    Paragh, György; Karadi, Istvan; Reiber, Istvan; Pados, Gyula

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Lipid-lowering therapy should achieve target levels. We assessed the change of the achievement of targets and the mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in high-risk Hungarian patients. Material and methods Six studies performed with patients of general practitioners (GPs) and specialists between 2004 and 2008 were evaluated: 9,508 patients from GPs and 2809 from specialist practices (total 12,317). Results During this 4-year period the LDL-C level decreased by 0.73 mmol/l and the LDL-C goal achievement rate increased from 14 to 32% in patients treated by GPs. LDL-C showed a decrease of 0.48 mmol/l and the goal achievement rate changed from 20 to 43% in patients treated by specialists. In the majority of the patients not achieving the LDL-C goal (57% for specialists and 89% for GPs) there was no modification in the current therapy. In addition to emphasizing the priority of LDL-C lowering, we should also strive for residual risk reduction, which means raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lowering triglyceride levels. There was no significant improvement in HDL-C or triglyceride levels during the examined period. Conclusion More attention needs to be paid to changing treatment of patients to achieve target levels. PMID:22419927

  10. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  11. Harmonic Frequency Lowering

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. PMID:26834122

  12. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  13. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  14. Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

  15. Effect of media milling on lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of media milling on lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of chitosan was studied in rats fed high-fat diets. Results showed that media-milled chitosan was more effective than chitosan in reducing body weight gain and liver fat accumulation of rats. Compared with chitosan, the reducing effects of media-milled chitosan on serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were increased by 10.1, 7.5 and 10.2%, and liver TG and TC-reducing effects were increased by 16.2 and 14.6%, respectively. Rats fed media-milled chitosan showed decreased levels of free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The cholesterol and fat in feces of rats fed media-milled chitosan were higher than those of rats fed chitosan. These results suggested media milling enhanced the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of chitosan, and the reason might be partly due to its effect on strengthening the ability of chitosan in promoting fecal lipid excretions. PMID:25450554

  16. The PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Novel Therapeutic Target Enters Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Lepor, Norman E; Kereiakes, Dean J

    2015-12-01

    There is a critical need for alternative, potent agents that can reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in patients with heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia and statin intolerance and those not reaching lipid-lowering treatment goals who are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. The first proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor was approved in July 2015 by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia or clinical atherosclerotic CV disease, who require additional lowering of LDL-C levels. In clinical trials, PCSK9 inhibitors have been shown to reduce LDL-C levels by as much as 60% to 70% when administered as monotherapy or as an add-on treatment to statins and other lipid-lowering therapies. In studies of PCSK9 genetic mutations, loss of function in the PCSK9 allele was associated with a relative decrease of 88% in the risk for atherosclerotic CV events during 15 years of patient follow-up. The use of PCSK9 inhibitors may eventually support the LDL-C hypothesis that the lower the LDL-C level, the lower the CV risk. Although some recent clinical practice guidelines have deemphasized the importance of numeric LDL-C targets, many clinicians are reluctant to discard them, and this position is supported by recent clinical evidence. We eagerly await the results of the ODYSSEY, FOURIER, and SPIRE clinical outcome trials, which we anticipate will provide further validation that "lower is better" with respect to reducing LDL-C levels and improving clinical outcomes. PMID:26834934

  17. The PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Novel Therapeutic Target Enters Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Norman E.; Kereiakes, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical need for alternative, potent agents that can reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in patients with heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia and statin intolerance and those not reaching lipid-lowering treatment goals who are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. The first proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor was approved in July 2015 by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hyperlipidemia or clinical atherosclerotic CV disease, who require additional lowering of LDL-C levels. In clinical trials, PCSK9 inhibitors have been shown to reduce LDL-C levels by as much as 60% to 70% when administered as monotherapy or as an add-on treatment to statins and other lipid-lowering therapies. In studies of PCSK9 genetic mutations, loss of function in the PCSK9 allele was associated with a relative decrease of 88% in the risk for atherosclerotic CV events during 15 years of patient follow-up. The use of PCSK9 inhibitors may eventually support the LDL-C hypothesis that the lower the LDL-C level, the lower the CV risk. Although some recent clinical practice guidelines have deemphasized the importance of numeric LDL-C targets, many clinicians are reluctant to discard them, and this position is supported by recent clinical evidence. We eagerly await the results of the ODYSSEY, FOURIER, and SPIRE clinical outcome trials, which we anticipate will provide further validation that “lower is better” with respect to reducing LDL-C levels and improving clinical outcomes. PMID:26834934

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  20. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  1. The lowering effect of Gum Arabic on hyperlipidemia in Sudanese patients.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Rima E; Gadour, Mohammed O; Adam, Ishag

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia especially low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for developing ischemic heart disease. Soluble dietary fiber has lipid lowering characteristics. Gum Arabic (GA) is 95% soluble fiber calculated on dry bases. The beneficial effect of GA on lipid profile needs further verification. A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Hospital, Sudan to assess the effect of G A on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. Cases received a 20 mg tablet of atorvastatin /day plus 30 mg of GA for 4 weeks while the controls received atorvastatin only. Levels of lipids in serum were assessed according to conventional methods before and 1 month after the trial. There is no significant difference in the basic characteristics between the study and the control groups (55 patients in each arm of the study). While there was no significant difference in the levels of HDL, there was a significant reduction of the total cholesterol (25.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.001), triglyceride (38.2 vs. 2.9%, P < 0.001), and LDL (30.8 vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001) before and after the intervention in the study compared to the controls groups. PMID:26042049

  2. Effects of intensive atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin at maximal doses are both highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Rosuvastatin has been shown to be more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL-C, small dense LDL-C and in raising high-density lipoprote...

  3. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  4. The Effect of Almonds on Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation in Older Hyperlipidemic Subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nut consumption has been associated with reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, almonds have been shown to lower oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. However, little is known regarding their effects on other marker...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  6. Lower Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Holds, John B

    2016-05-01

    Lower eyelid defects are common, and a systematic approach to reconstruction of the lower eyelid is required. Attention to the bilaminar eyelid anatomy and canthal support structures, with efforts to maintain functionally important structures, such as the lacrimal canalicular system, is vital to appropriate lower eyelid reconstruction. Techniques of advancement and rotation flaps and grafting of skin and mucosa are mainstays of lower eyelid reconstruction. An appropriate armamentarium of techniques allows for optimal surgical results. PMID:27105804

  7. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of evolocumab for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction.

    PubMed

    Henry, Courtney A; Lyon, Ronald A; Ling, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Multiple categories of medications have been developed to manage lipid profiles and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with heart disease. However, currently marketed medications have not solved the problems associated with preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases completely. A substantial population of patients cannot take advantage of statin therapy due to statin intolerance, heart failure, or kidney hemodialysis, suggesting a need for additional effective agents to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was discovered in 2003 and subsequently emerged as a novel target for LDL-C-lowering therapy. Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) directed against human PCSK9. By inactivating PCSK9, evolocumab upregulates LDL receptors causing increased catabolism of LDL-C and the consequent reduction of LDL-C levels in blood. Overall, evolocumab has had notable efficacy, with LDL-C reduction ranging from 53% to 75% in monotherapy and combination therapies, and is associated with minor adverse effects. However, studies regarding the ability of evolocumab to reduce mortality as well as long-term safety concerns are limited. The fact that the drug was introduced at a cost much higher than the existing medications and shows a low incremental mortality benefit suggests that many payers will consider evolocumab to have an unfavorable cost-benefit ratio. PMID:27143910

  9. Clinical efficacy and safety of evolocumab for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Courtney A; Lyon, Ronald A; Ling, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Multiple categories of medications have been developed to manage lipid profiles and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with heart disease. However, currently marketed medications have not solved the problems associated with preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases completely. A substantial population of patients cannot take advantage of statin therapy due to statin intolerance, heart failure, or kidney hemodialysis, suggesting a need for additional effective agents to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was discovered in 2003 and subsequently emerged as a novel target for LDL-C-lowering therapy. Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) directed against human PCSK9. By inactivating PCSK9, evolocumab upregulates LDL receptors causing increased catabolism of LDL-C and the consequent reduction of LDL-C levels in blood. Overall, evolocumab has had notable efficacy, with LDL-C reduction ranging from 53% to 75% in monotherapy and combination therapies, and is associated with minor adverse effects. However, studies regarding the ability of evolocumab to reduce mortality as well as long-term safety concerns are limited. The fact that the drug was introduced at a cost much higher than the existing medications and shows a low incremental mortality benefit suggests that many payers will consider evolocumab to have an unfavorable cost–benefit ratio. PMID:27143910

  10. Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Branham, Gregory H

    2016-05-01

    The goal of lower eyelid blepharoplasty is to rejuvenate the lower lid while maintaining a natural, unoperated appearance. Successful lower eyelid blepharoplasty depends on knowledge of the anatomy and surgical techniques, accurate preoperative analysis, and attention to detail. Common issues of the lower eyelid such as malar descent, tear trough deformity, pseudoherniated fat, lid laxity, and skin texture changes as well as dermatochalasis and festoons must be recognized. Specific techniques to address these include transcutaneous and transconjunctival approaches, fat excision, fat transposition, orbicularis suspension, lateral canthal tightening, malar suspension, and skin excision/resurfacing. PMID:27105798

  11. New Frontiers in the Treatment of Diabetic Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Yi; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Tu, Shih-Te; Chuang, Chieh-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of diabetic vascular complications. However, LDL-C levels do not reflect all aspects of diabetic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Statins, nicotinic acid, and fibrates play a role in treating diabetic dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis is a major disorder of the blood vessel wall in patients with diabetes. A number of antihyperlipidemic agents may be beneficial and exhibit effects at the actual site of vascular disease and not only on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Several novel therapeutic compounds are currently being developed. These include additional therapeutics for LDL-C, triglycerides, HDL-C, and modulators of inflammation that can be used as possible synergic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis and irregularities in plasma lipoprotein concentrations. PMID:24380093

  12. High dose simvastatin exhibits enhanced lipid lowering effects relative to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Background: Statins are the frontline in cholesterol reduction therapies; however use in combination with agents that possess complimentary mechanisms of action may achieve further reduce in LDL-C. Methods and Results: Thirty-nine patients were treated with either 80mg simvasta...

  13. Venus lower atmosphere heat balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Pechmann, J. B.

    1980-12-01

    Pioneer Venus observations of temperatures and radiative fluxes are examined in an attempt to understand the thermal balance of the lower atmosphere. If all observations are correct and the probe sites are typical of the planet, the second law of thermodynamics requires that the bulk of the lower atmosphere heating must come from a source other than direct sunlight or a thermally driven atmospheric circulation. Neither the so-called greenhouse models nor the mechanical heating models are consistent with this interpretation of the observations. One possible interpretation is that two out of the three probe sites are atypical of the planet. Additional lower atmosphere heat sources provide another possible interpretation. These include a planetary heat flux that is 250 times the earth's, a secular cooling of the atmosphere, and a chemically energetic rain carrying solar energy from the clouds to the surface. Other data make these interpretations seem unlikely, so measurement error remains a serious possibility.

  14. Transconjunctival Lower Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Pack, Sean; Quereshy, Faisal A; Altay, Mehmet Ali; Baur, Dale A

    2016-09-01

    There is no secret to achieving successful results with lower belpharoplasties; as is the case with any surgical procedure, proper patient evaluation and development of a comprehensive, anatomic-based treatment plan are prerequisites for success. For situations in which a patient has little lid laxity and pseudoherniated periorbital fat, transconjunctival lower blepharoplasty is the treatment of choice. Transconjunctival lower blepharoplasty enables the surgeon to reposition fat, effectively blending the lid-cheek junction and filling the tear trough deformity. In order to better enable clinicians to achieve optimal outcomes, the authors advocate an anatomic-based approach for patient evaluation and treatment planning. PMID:27499473

  15. Lipid-lowering therapy using statins in patients with cardiovascular risk in clinical practice in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Silaruks, Songkwan; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Rawdaree, Petch; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhaya, Rapeephon; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the release in Thailand in 2001 of the Third Guidelines by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults or the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III), there have been no nationwide studies on the proportion of dyslipidaemic patients who have achieved the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. The authors therefore aimed to estimate the percentage achievement of LDL-C goals based on the modified NCEP ATP III guidelines in intermediate- to high-risk patients. Methods The authors conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey. Patients (1240) were selected consecutively from 50 hospitals across Thailand. Patients were included if they had been treated with statins for at least 3 months. Results Two-thirds were female, and the mean age was 61.7±9.5 years. The median duration of statin treatment was 21 months. Half (633/ 1240) of the patients achieved the LDL-C goal levels as defined by the NCEP guidelines (51.1%, 95% CI 48.3% to 53.8%). The very-high-risk group had the lowest percentage achievement (11.6%; 95% CI 1.6% to 21.6%), compared with 54.2% (95% CI 50.9% to 57.4%) for the high-risk group and 47.0% (95% CI 41.1% to 52.8%) for the moderate-risk group. More males achieved the LDL-C goals than females (55.6% vs 48.9%; p=0.029). Conclusions Overall, 51.1% of the patients with cardiovascular risk, on statins treatment, achieved the NCEP ATP III LDL-C goal levels. PMID:27326004

  16. Lower Extremity Radiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... images of the toes, feet, ankles, lower leg, knee, upper leg or hip. These types of examinations are performed to detect conditions such as fractures, soft tissue damage and arthritis. A physician will ...

  17. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  18. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  19. Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

  20. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  1. Characteristics of the Russian Lower Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhonova, N. E.

    2011-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic strata in Russia have their origins in both the former Soviet lower strata and economic decline of the 1990s. Part of the reason for their persistence is the geographic mismatch between jobs and the labor supply, in addition to lack of education, skills, and social support. The situation cannot be solved by just providing…

  2. [Chronic lower back pain].

    PubMed

    Werber, A; Schiltenwolf, M

    2012-02-01

    Poor efficiency in terms of treatment of unspecific back pain and related chronic pain syndromes has led to the necessity of general care guidelines addressing evidence-based strategies for treatment of lower back pain (LBP). Systematically validated and reviewed algorithms have been established for all kinds of unspecific back pain, covering both acute and chronic syndromes. Concerning the impact of psychosocial risk factors in the development of chronic LBP, multimodal treatment is preferred to monomodal strategies. Self-responsible acting on the part of the patient should be supported while invasive methods in particular, i.e. operative treatment, should be avoided due to lacking evidence in outcome efficiency. PMID:22349772

  3. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Silber, G

    1990-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in children can be reduced markedly simply by taking into account the age of the child. The clinical condition of the patient can further help narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Newborns and infants who are clinically unstable are more likely to have diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, volvulus, Hirschprung disease, intussusception, or Meckel diverticulum. A baby who appears healthy should be examined for swallowed blood, allergic colitis, anal fissures, or lymphonodular hyperplasia. An older child of healthy appearance with bleeding is likely to have a juvenile polyp or infectious colitis, but a child who appears sick may have hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, or inflammatory bowel disease. This information, along with that gleaned from the physical examination, can lead the pediatrician to determine the need for specific tests, such as abdominal radiographs, stool cultures, and an endoscopic evaluation. We have come a long way in our ability to diagnose the causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. With the availability of newer radiographic and nuclear medicine modalities and the ability to visualize the colon endoscopically, the need for exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis is rarer. While surgery may still be the therapy of choice, new diagnostic modalities give the surgeon much more preoperative information. PMID:2235771

  4. Tevatron lower temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    This year saw the completion of three accelerator improvement projects (AIP) and two capital equipment projects pertaining to the Tevatron cryogenic system. The projects result in the ability to operate the Tevatron at lower temperature, and thus higher energy. Each project improves a subsystem by expanding capabilities (refrigerator controls), ensuring reliability (valve box, subatmospheric hardware, and compressor D), or enhancing performance (cold compressors and coldbox II). In January of 1994, the Tevatron operated at an energy of 975 GeV for the first time. This was the culmination, of many years of R&D, power testing in a sector (one sixth) of the Tevatron, and final system installation during the summer of 1993. Although this is a modest increase in energy, the discovery potential for the Top quark is considerably improved.

  5. Crane Lowers Aeroshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    January 31, 2003

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, an overhead crane lowers the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) aeroshell toward a rotation stand. Set to launch in 2003, the MER Mission will consist of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards (100 meters) each Martian day. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. The rovers will be identical to each other, but will land at different regions of Mars. The first rover has a launch window opening May 30, and the second rover a window opening June 25, 2003.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  7. Nurse-Led, Telephone-Based, Secondary Preventive Follow-Up after Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Improves Blood Pressure and LDL Cholesterol: Results from the First 12 Months of the Randomized, Controlled NAILED Stroke Risk Factor Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irewall, Anna-Lotta; Ögren, Joachim; Bergström, Lisa; Laurell, Katarina; Söderström, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Enhanced secondary preventive follow-up after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is necessary for improved adherence to recommendations regarding blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up was more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels at 12 months after hospital discharge. Methods We randomized 537 patients to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C measurements were performed at 1 month (baseline) and 12 months post-discharge. Intervention group patients who did not meet target values at baseline received additional follow-up, including titration of medication and lifestyle counselling, to reach treatment goals (BP < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L). Results At 12 months, mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and LDL-C was 3.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 6.3) mmHg, 2.3 mmHg (95% CI 0.5 to 4.2) and 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) lower in the intervention group compared to controls. Among participants with values above the treatment goal at baseline, the difference in systolic BP and LDL-C was more pronounced (8.0 mmHg, 95% CI 4.0 to 12.1, and 0.6 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for systolic BP (68.5 vs. 56.8%, p = 0.008) and LDL-C (69.7% vs. 50.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusions Nurse-led, telephone-based secondary preventive follow-up, including medication adjustment, was significantly more efficient than usual care at improving BP and LDL-C levels by 12 months post-discharge. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN23868518 PMID:26474055

  8. Implications of Total to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Discordance With Alternative Lipid Parameters for Coronary Atheroma Progression and Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, Mohamed B; Nicholls, Stephen J; Nissen, Steven E; St John, Julie; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R; Quispe, Renato; Stegman, Brian; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Puri, Rishi

    2016-09-01

    The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio may quantify atherogenic lipoproteins beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We analyzed pooled data from 9 trials involving 4,957 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and 2-year major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates when TC/HDL-C levels were discordant with LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB. Discordance was investigated when lipid levels were stratified by LDL-C 80, non-HDL-C 107, and apoB 76 mg/dl) or LDL-C 70, non-HDL-C 89, and apoB 59 mg/dl). When stratified by median levels, TC/HDL-C was commonly observed to be discordant with LDL-C (26%), non-HDL-C (20%), and apoB (27%). In patients with LDL-C, non-HDL-C, or apoB LDL-C, non-HDL-C, or apoB ≥median, those with a discordant TC/HDL-C lower MACE (15.0%, 17.3%, 19.9%, respectively) compared with TC/HDL-C ≥median (24.7%, 24.2%, 26.4%; p <0.001, 0.003, 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, the TC/HDL-C ratio reclassifies atheroma progression and MACE rates when discordant with LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB within subjects. Thus, using the ratio, in addition to individual lipid parameters, may identify patients who may benefit from more intensive lipid modification. PMID:27392507

  9. PCSK9 inhibitors and cardiovascular disease: heralding a new therapeutic era

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M. John; Stock, Jane K.; Ginsberg, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The first monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have been approved for clinical use. This timely review highlights recent developments. Recent findings Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary driver of atherosclerosis and the key target for intervention. Yet despite best treatment including statins, attaining sufficient LDL-C lowering can be problematic for high cardiovascular risk patients. The development of PCSK9 inhibitors, driven by novel genetic and mechanistic insights, offers an answer. Removal of circulating PCSK9 increases LDL receptor availability, and thus markedly decreases plasma LDL-C levels (by ∼50–60%), and is additive to the lipid lowering effects of statins and ezetimibe. PCSK9 inhibition also reduces (by 25–30%) plasma levels of lipoprotein(a), a causal factor in atherosclerotic vascular disease, suggestive of partial catabolism of lipoprotein(a) by LDL receptors. The ODYSSEY and PROFICIO (Programme to Reduce LDL-C and Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Inhibition of PCSK9 In Different Populations) clinical trial programmes involving a wide range of high-risk patients, including statin intolerant patients, have confirmed the consistency of the LDL response, even with concomitant high-intensity statin or nonstatin therapy. Extensive evidence to date attests to a favourable safety and tolerability profile for these innovative agents. Summary The new pharmacotherapeutic era of PCSK9 inhibition is upon us, promising major reduction in cardiovascular events across a wide spectrum of high-risk patients. PMID:26780005

  10. Defining the Role of PCSK9 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Statins remain the mainstay of medical cardiovascular risk reduction because of their effectiveness in decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as some other potentially beneficial effects. The latest US 2013 lipid guidelines essentially recommend only the prescription of a high-dose statin for the high-risk patient. However, both quite old and quite new outcomes evidence, such as reported for ezetimibe, emphasize that LDL-C lowering is, in and of itself, quite important for cardiovascular risk reduction. It appears that the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors represent a major new contribution to this effort, especially for patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia, proven clinical cardiovascular disease, statin intolerance, or failure to attain an acceptably low LDL-C goal despite maximum available medical management. Very recent clinical trials have proven overwhelmingly the effectiveness and safety of PCSK9 inhibitors for lowering LDL-C. Both alirocumab and evolocumab have now been approved by the US FDA and there are some initial favorable outcomes data. This review is intended to summarize available evidence and emphasize the possible clinical role of these inhibitors following the approval of alirocumab and evolocumab. Understanding the negative receptor feedback of PCSK9 and the mechanism and beneficial effect of PCSK9 inhibitors for cardiovascular risk reduction is essential for the up-to-date practitioner of cardiovascular medicine. There is every reasonable hope for significant cardiovascular benefit from these new additions to our medical cardiovascular armamentarium. PMID:26596726

  11. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  12. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  13. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  16. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  17. Continuum lowering - A new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. J. B.

    2014-12-01

    What is meant by continuum lowering and ionization potential depression (IPD) in a Coulomb system depends very much upon precisely what question is being asked. It is shown that equilibrium (equation of state) phenomena and non-equilibrium dynamical processes like photoionization are characterized by different values of the IPD. In the former, the ionization potential of an atom embedded in matter is the difference in the free energy of the many-body system between states of thermodynamic equilibrium differing by the ionization state of just one atom. Typically, this energy is less than that required to ionize the same atom in vacuo. Probably, the best known example of this is the IPD given by Stewart and Pyatt (SP). However, it is a common misconception that this formula should apply directly to the energy of a photon causing photoionization, since this is a local adiabatic process that occurs in the absence of a response from the surrounding plasma. To achieve the prescribed final equilibrium state, in general, additional energy, in the form of heat and work, is transferred between the atom and its surroundings. This additional relaxation energy is sufficient to explain the discrepancy between recent spectroscopic measurements of IPD in dense plasmas and the predictions of the SP formula. This paper provides a detailed account of an analytical approach, based on SP, to calculating thermodynamic and spectroscopic (adiabatic) IPDs in multicomponent Coulomb systems of arbitrary coupling strength with Te ≠ Ti. The ramifications for equilibrium Coulomb systems are examined in order to elucidate the roles of the various forms of the IPD and any possible connection with the plasma microfield. The formulation embodies an analytical equation of state (EoS) that is thermodynamically self-consistent, provided that the bound and free electrons are dynamically separable, meaning that the system is not undergoing pressure ionization. Apart from this restriction, the model is

  18. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  19. PCSK9 inhibition in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Nihar R; Sabatine, Marc S

    2015-10-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease that plays an important role in modulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by targeting LDL-C receptors for lysosomal degradation. Genetic association studies have demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 are associated with low plasma LDL-C levels and a reduction in the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Monoclonal antibodies directed against PCSK9 have been developed and have been shown in phase 1, 2, and 3 trials to dramatically reduce LDL-C regardless of background lipid-lowering therapy, including in clinically challenging populations such as patients intolerant to statin therapy and those with familial hypercholesterolemia. To date, the clinical trials have not raised any significant safety concerns, with no appreciable excess of myalgias, elevation in aminotransferases, or other adverse events. Large, cardiovascular outcomes trials are underway to assess definitively the efficacy and safety of 3 monoclonal antibodies (evolocumab, alirocumab, and bococizumab), while additional non-monoclonal antibody approaches to inhibit PCSK9 continue in the early-phase development. PMID:25771732

  20. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  5. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  6. PCSK9 inhibition in the management of hyperlipidemia: focus on evolocumab

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Dirk J; Dent, Ricardo; Castro, Rita C; Toth, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations through interference with normal physiologic hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) recycling. Inhibiting PCSK9 results in improved LDLR recycling, increased LDLR availability on hepatocyte cell surfaces, and reduced blood LDL-C levels, making PCSK9 inhibition a novel therapeutic strategy for managing hypercholesterolemia. Monoclonal antibodies directed against PCSK9 have been developed for this purpose. A large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 yield substantial reductions in LDL-C when administered as monotherapy or in combination with statins to patients with nonfamilial and familial forms of hypercholesterolemia. Data from long-term trials demonstrate that the LDL-C-lowering effect of PCSK9 inhibitors is durable. These agents are generally well tolerated, and few patients discontinue treatment due to adverse events. Moreover, PCSK9 inhibitors do not appear to elicit the hepatic and muscle-related side effects associated with statin use. The ultimate value of PCSK9 inhibitors will be measured by their effect on clinical outcomes. Early evidence of a reduction in cardiovascular events after 1 year of treatment was shown in a prospective exploratory analysis of two ongoing long-term open-label extension evolocumab trials. Similarly, cardiovascular events were reduced in another exploratory analysis after >1 year of therapy with alirocumab. For the primary care physician, PCSK9 inhibitors represent a welcome additional option for lowering LDL-C in patients with familial forms of hypercholesterolemia and those with clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who are on maximally tolerated statin therapy. PMID:27274264

  7. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  8. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  9. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  10. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  11. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  12. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  13. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  14. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  15. Rosuvastatin: a highly effective new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Anders G; McTaggart, Fergus; Raza, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rosuvastatin, a new statin, has been shown to possess a number of advantageous pharmacological properties, including enhanced HMG-CoA reductase binding characteristics, relative hydrophilicity, and selective uptake into/activity in hepatic cells. Cytochrome p450 (CYP) metabolism of rosuvastatin appears to be minimal and is principally mediated by the 2C9 enzyme, with little involvement of 3A4; this finding is consistent with the absence of clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between rosuvastatin and other drugs known to inhibit CYP enzymes. Dose-ranging studies in hypercholesterolemic patients demonstrated dose-dependent effects in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (up to 63%), total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein (apo) B across a 1- to 40-mg dose range and a significant 8.4% additional reduction in LDL-C, compared with atorvastatin, across the dose ranges of the two agents. Rosuvastatin has also been shown to be highly effective in reducing LDL-C, increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and producing favorable modifications of other elements of the atherogenic lipid profile in a wide range of dyslipidemic patients. In patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, rosuvastatin has been shown to produce large decreases in LDL-C at starting doses, thus reducing the need for subsequent dose titration, and to allow greater percentages of patients to attain lipid goals, compared with available statins. The substantial LDL-C reductions and improvements in other lipid measures with rosuvastatin treatment should facilitate achievement of lipid goals and reduce the requirement for combination therapy in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. In addition, rosuvastatin's effects in reducing triglycerides, triglyceride-containing lipoproteins, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C and increasing HDL-C in patients with mixed dyslipidemia or elevated triglycerides should be of considerable value in enabling achievement of

  16. 31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube heater control panel at right, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 1. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT LOWER GATE RECESS AND LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT LOWER GATE RECESS AND LOWER GUIDE WALL FROM THE OHIO RIVER. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  18. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  19. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  20. Lower-Conductivity Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) that have both initial and post-exposure thermal conductivities lower than those of yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been developed. TBCs are thin ceramic layers, generally applied by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition, that are used to insulate air-cooled metallic components from hot gases in gas turbine and other heat engines. Heretofore, yttria-stabilized zirconia (nominally comprising 95.4 atomic percent ZrO2 + 4.6 atomic percent Y2O3) has been the TBC material of choice. The lower-thermal-conductivity TBCs are modified versions of yttria-stabilized zirconia, the modifications consisting primarily in the addition of other oxides that impart microstructural and defect properties that favor lower thermal conductivity.

  1. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  5. A VOYAGER Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Statin Therapy on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, defined by the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel as a TG level of 177 to 885 mg/dl (2.0 to 10.0 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction remains the primary treatment goal. Using data from the indiVidual patient meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin (VOYAGER) meta-analysis, we analyzed LDL-C and TG reductions in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Least squares mean percentage change from baseline in LDL-C and TG was compared using 15,800 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 5 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 10 to 80 mg, and simvastatin 10 to 80 mg in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Comparisons were made using mixed-effects models with data only from studies directly comparing treatments by randomized design. Mean LDL-C reductions ranged from -26.9% to -55.5%. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater LDL-C reductions than equal or double doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (p <0.05). Mean TG reductions ranged from -15.1% to -31.3%. Rosuvastatin 10 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than atorvastatin 10 mg (p <0.05). Rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg resulted in TG reductions similar to those with equal doses of atorvastatin. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than equal or double doses of simvastatin (p <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C reduction was substantial and dependent on the choice and dose of statin. TG reduction was numerically less than for LDL-C, and additional TG-lowering therapy may be considered to further reduce residual cardiovascular risk. PMID:26969416

  6. The Effect of Intensified Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction on Recurrent Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Tzu-Wen; Chiou, Kuan-Rau; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Feng-Yu; Chiang, Cheng-Hung; Yang, Jin-Shiou; Lin, Ko-Long; Hsiao, Shin-Hung; Yeh, Tong-Chen; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Hsiao, Hsiang-Chiang; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Chiou, Chuen-Wang; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid-lowering therapy plays an important role in preventing the recurrence of cardiovascular events in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to assess the effect of intensified low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality in patients after AMI. Method The 562 enrolled AMI patients (84.2% male) were divided into two groups according to 3-month LDL-C decrease percentage equal to or more than 40% (n = 165) and less than 40% (n = 397). To evaluate the long-term efficacy of LDL-C reduction, the 5-year outcomes were collected, including time to the first occurrence of myocardial infarction and time to cardiovascular death. Results The baseline characteristics and complication rates were not different between the two study groups. The patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had higher baseline LDL-C and lower 3-month, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year and 5-year LDL-C than the patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease < 40%. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, those patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had a higher rate of freedom from myocardial infarction (p = 0.006) and survival rate (p = 0.02) at 5-year follow-up. The 3-month LDL-C < 40% parameter was significantly related to cardiovascular death (HR: 9.62, 95% CI 1.18-78.62, p < 0.04). Conclusions After acute myocardial infarction, 3-month LDL-C decrease < 40% was identified to be a significant risk factor for predicting 5-year cardiovascular death. The patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had a higher rate of freedom from myocardial infarction and lower cardiovascular mortality, even though these patients had higher baseline LDL-C value. PMID:27122737

  7. Lower extremity muscle perforator flaps for lower extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2004-10-01

    A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower extremity donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower extremity defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower extremity muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower extremity coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower extremity muscle perforator flap for lower extremity reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022

  8. Enhanced erythrocyte suspension layer stability achieved by surface tension lowering additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.; Absolom, D. R.; Van Oss, C. J.; Neumann, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a fractionation procedure involving the separation of particles, a dilute suspension of these particles in a liquid is carefully layered on a dense liquid. Under ideal conditions, the suspension forms a zone of finite thickness with a 'sharp' interface between the suspension layer and the supporting liquid. Under an applied field, e.g., gravitational or electrical, the particles in the suspension layer migrate to form different layers according to their size and/or density or according to their electrophoretic mobilities. However, in many cases the ideal conditions necessary for the fractionation process are not obtained. Many studies have been conducted to explore the reasons for suspension layer 'instability'. The present investigation represents an extension of a study conducted by Omenyi et al. (1981). An electrostatic repulsion-van der Waals mechanism was used to study the stability of fixed erythrocyte suspensions layered on a D2O cushion.

  9. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P < .01). We conclude that 2 major roadblocks to designing successful lower limb robotic exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton. PMID:26694976

  10. Lower body negative pressure device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Lower Body Negative Pressure Device was used, in the space environment, to stress the astronaut's cardiovascular system, to determine the extent and time course of his cardiovascular deconditioning and to determine whether in-flight data from experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, would be useful in predicting postflight status of orthostatic tolerance. The lower portion of the subject's body was enclosed in this device for the purpose of applying regulated and controlled negative pressure. A description is given of the device.

  11. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. PMID:24461313

  12. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  13. Muscles of the Lower Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower Extremity Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  14. Does cholesterol lowering prevent stroke?

    PubMed

    Henry, R Y; Kendall, M J

    1998-10-01

    The importance of lowering plasma cholesterol to reduce the incidence of coronary events is well established. However, in the prevention of stroke disease, control of hypertension has been the main aim of treatment and lipid lowering therapy has not hitherto been considered to be desirable or necessary. In this review, the evidence from large multicentre trials, imaging studies and meta-analyses is presented. It shows convincingly that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins) reduce stroke risk. PMID:9875681

  15. Pharmacotherapy in lower back pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kenneth C

    2004-09-01

    In the US, back pain is the second most common cause of disability and the leading cause among men, with approximately 45% of the adult population experiencing lower back pain annually and a direct cost for diagnosis and treatment reported to be higher than 23 billion US dollars in 1990. However, despite the high prevalence of this condition, lower back pain diagnoses are commonly imprecise, and specific causes for lower back pain can only be determined in approximately 15% of patients. So, although for most patients with acute lower back pain, a simple cause-and-effect model can be described, often the result of a lumbar sprain or strain, clinicians must be alert to a variety of other conditions which may present in a similar fashion and require more emergent care. Pharmacotherapy and nondrug-related modalities have been shown to reduce pain and other related symptoms. Medication classes with known benefit include the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), skeletal muscle relaxants, opioids, acetaminophen and the newer cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. This review analyzes the different drugs available for treating lower back pain in light of the most recent evidence coming from clinical studies. More critical research is needed to further define the roles of these medications in treating pain associated with lower back injury. PMID:15538549

  16. Lower neurocognitive function in U-2 pilots

    PubMed Central

    Tate, David F.; Wood, Joe; Sladky, John H.; McDonald, Kent; Sherman, Paul M.; Kawano, Elaine S.; Rowland, Laura M.; Patel, Beenish; Wright, Susan N.; Hong, Elliot; Rasmussen, Jennifer; Willis, Adam M.; Kochunov, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether United States Air Force (USAF) U-2 pilots (U2Ps) with occupational exposure to repeated hypobaria had lower neurocognitive performance compared to pilots without repeated hypobaric exposure and whether U2P neurocognitive performance correlated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. Methods: We collected Multidimensional Aptitude Battery–II (MAB-II) and MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning (MicroCog) neurocognitive data on USAF U2Ps with a history of repeated occupational exposure to hypobaria and compared these with control data collected from USAF pilots (AFPs) without repeated hypobaric exposure (U2Ps/AFPs MAB-II 87/83; MicroCog 93/80). Additional comparisons were performed between U2Ps with high vs low WMH burden. Results: U2Ps with repeated hypobaric exposure had significantly lower scores than control pilots on reasoning/calculation (U2Ps/AFPs 99.4/106.5), memory (105.5/110.9), information processing accuracy (102.1/105.8), and general cognitive functioning (103.5/108.5). In addition, U2Ps with high whole-brain WMH count showed significantly lower scores on reasoning/calculation (high/low 96.8/104.1), memory (102.9/110.2), general cognitive functioning (101.5/107.2), and general cognitive proficiency (103.6/108.8) than U2Ps with low WMH burden (high/low WMH mean volume 0.213/0.003 cm3 and mean count 14.2/0.4). Conclusion: In these otherwise healthy, highly functioning individuals, pilots with occupational exposure to repeated hypobaria demonstrated lower neurocognitive performance, albeit demonstrable on only some tests, than pilots without repeated exposure. Furthermore, within the U2P population, higher WMH burden was associated with lower neurocognitive test performance. Hypobaric exposure may be a risk factor for subtle changes in neurocognition. PMID:25008397

  17. Genetic APOC3 mutation, serum triglyceride concentrations, and coronary heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent decades have witnessed an increased awareness of the importance of lowering triglyceride concentrations in conjunction with lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to achieve optimal reduction of the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Historically, LDL-C was the only target of pharmacologic ther...

  18. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  19. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  20. Slavery in the Lower South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Provides a detailed account of slave history within the Lower South region of the colonial United States. Focuses on the experiences of Africans in the colonies. Explores the role of the English, Spanish, and French in establishing slavery within the future United States. Addresses the systems of slavery used and treatment of the Africans. (CMK)

  1. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  2. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  3. Entrapment neuropathies III: lower limb.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Luis S; Bencardino, Jenny; Ghazikhanian, Varand; Beltran, Javier

    2010-11-01

    Clinicians frequently encounter compressive neuropathies of the lower extremity. The clinical history and physical examination, along with electrodiagnostic testing and imaging studies, lead to the correct diagnosis. The imaging characteristics of the compression neuropathies can include acute and chronic changes in the nerves and the muscles they innervate. We provide a detailed review of compression neuropathies of the lower extremity with an emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics. We discuss the clinical presentation, etiology, anatomical location, and MR imaging appearance of these neuropathies, including the piriformis syndrome, iliacus syndrome, saphenous neuropathy, obturator neuropathy, lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy (meralgia paresthetica), proximal tibial neuropathy, common peroneal neuropathy, deep peroneal neuropathy, superficial peroneal neuropathy, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Baxter's neuropathy, jogger's foot, sural neuropathy, and Morton's neuroma. PMID:21072728

  4. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  5. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082

  6. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence— Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared to non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet vs. non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor’s degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98, p=0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01, p=0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions Magnet hospitals have lower mortality than is fully accounted for by measured characteristics of nursing. Magnet recognition likely both identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:23047129

  7. Approach to lower back pain.

    PubMed

    Moosajee, F; Kalla, A A

    2015-12-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most common symptoms–and the most common musculoskeletal problem–seen by general practitioners. Iti s also a common cause of disability and an expensive condition in terms of economic impact because of absenteeism. This article discusses an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered, inflammatory back pain. PMID:26933725

  8. PCSK9 inhibitors--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Statins are the treatment of choice for lowering LDL-C but a considerable number of patients treated with statins are unable to achieve LDL-C target values and many are statin-intolerant. New LDL-C-lowering drugs--antibodies to PCSK9 (alirocumab, evolocumab and bococizumab)--have been developed and are being tested in large clinical trials. They further reduce LDL-C above maximally tolerated statin therapy by up to > 70%; they also reduce Lp(a), non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein-B, and modestly increase HDL-C. These drugs are well tolerated and even patients who achieved very low LDL-C ≤ 0.65 mmol/l (∼ 25 mg/dl) did not have any significant adverse effects. Treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors resulted in LDL-C target values in 70-90% of patients according to the guidelines. However, although PCSK9 inhibitors seem to be the most promising emerging therapeutic option for LDL-C lowering today, outcome data with endpoints on their effects are still lacking. Another important open question is their long-term safety. Their use in statin-intolerant patients also raises questions, as the criteria for statin-intolerance are neither clear nor generally accepted. The presumed high cost of PCSK9 inhibitors might be an obstacle for their broader use. PMID:26329686

  9. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  10. Nitriding iron at lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tong, W P; Tao, N R; Wang, Z B; Lu, J; Lu, K

    2003-01-31

    The microstructure in the surface layer of a pure iron plate was refined at the nanometer scale by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment that generates repetitive severe plastic deformation of the surface layer. The subsequent nitriding kinetics of the treated iron with the nanostructured surface layer were greatly enhanced, so that the nitriding temperature could be as low as 300 degrees C, which is much lower than conventional nitriding temperatures (above 500 degrees C). This enhanced processing method demonstrates the technological significance of nanomaterials in improving traditional processing techniques and provides a new approach for selective surface reactions in solids. PMID:12560546

  11. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S

    2011-10-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

  12. Porokeratosis of the lower lip.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Gloria; Bañuls, José; Botella, Rafael; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Belinchón, Isabel; Betlloch, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    The porokeratoses are defined as specific disorders of keratinization that are histologically characterised by the presence of a dense, parakeratotic column, well-circumscribed from the rest of the corneocytes, known as the cornoid lamella. In this article, we report two cases of porokeratosis of the lower lip, drawing attention to the unusual site. We also emphasize the clinical appearance of these lesions, which may easily be misdiagnosed if not examined correctly. As a consequence of this misdiagnosis, the prevalence of these lesions is probably greater than at present estimated. Moreover, a good response to cryotherapy is shown. PMID:12370146

  13. Acute lower motor neuron tetraparesis.

    PubMed

    Añor, Sònia

    2014-11-01

    Flaccid nonambulatory tetraparesis or tetraplegia is an infrequent neurologic presentation; it is characteristic of neuromuscular disease (lower motor neuron [LMN] disease) rather than spinal cord disease. Paresis beginning in the pelvic limbs and progressing to the thoracic limbs resulting in flaccid tetraparesis or tetraplegia within 24 to 72 hours is a common presentation of peripheral nerve or neuromuscular junction disease. Complete body flaccidity develops with severe decrease or complete loss of spinal reflexes in pelvic and thoracic limbs. Animals with acute generalized LMN tetraparesis commonly show severe motor dysfunction in all limbs and severe generalized weakness in all muscles. PMID:25441630

  14. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics: in vitro selection and in vivo testing of bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Boschetti, Elisa; Danesi, Francesca; Matteuzzi, Diego; Roncaglia, Lucia; Raimondi, Stefano; Rossi, Maddalena

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-four strains of bifidobacteria belonging to Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseu-docatenulatum were assayed in vitro for the ability to assimilate cholesterol and for bile salt hydrolase (BSH) against glycocholic and taurodeoxycholic acids (GCA and TDCA). Cholesterol assimilation was peculiar characteristic of two strains belonging to the species B. bifidum (B. bifidum MB 107 and B. bifidum MB 109), which removed 81 and 50 mg of cholesterol per gram of biomass, being the median of specific cholesterol absorption by bifidobacteria 19 mg/g. Significant differences in BSH activities were not established among bifidobacterial species. However, the screening resulted in the selection of promising strains able to efficiently deconjugate GCA and TDCA. No relationship was recognized between BSH phenotype and the extent of cholesterol assimilation. On the basis of cholesterol assimilation or BSHGCA and BSHTDCA activities, B. bifidum MB 109 (DSMZ 23731), B. breve MB 113 (DSMZ 23732), and B. animalis subsp. lactis MB 2409 (DSMZ 23733) were combined in a probiotic mixture to be fed to hypercholesterolemic rats. The administration of this probiotic formulation resulted in a significant reduction of total cholesterol and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas it did not affect high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio. PMID:23872958

  15. Current and future trends in the lipid lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Okopień, Bogusław; Bułdak, Łukasz; Bołdys, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that affects arterial wall. It leads to wall thickening and its instability. As a result a reduction in lumen diameter and blood flow is observed. This manifests predominantly as the affectation of vascular bed of coronary (myocardial infarction), cerebral, carotid (ischemic stroke) or peripheral arteries (limb amputation). One of the most important factors that accelerate atherosclerosis is hyperlipidemia. According to current guidelines the main attention should be focused on the treatment of hyperlipidemia (beside the prevention, which includes proper diet, physical activity and risk factors avoidance). Major attention is given to LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) level as primary, and triglyceride level as secondary targets of therapy. As a result of recent clinical findings and continuous research in the field of hypolipidemic drugs it seems practical to review recent data and show potential new pathways that may be useful in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The review is divided into several parts presenting the widely used and well-known hypolipidemic drugs. In the first part a brief review of contemporary drugs affecting LDL cholesterol is shown. The second part contains information regarding currently available drugs reducing triglycerides level. The third part describes several novel and promising groups of drugs that are still on various steps of clinical development. In the last part drugs affecting HDL (high-density lipoprotein) level were presented. PMID:27180022

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies for Lipid Management.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Matthew J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, biochemical and genetic studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a major mediator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and thereby a potential novel target for reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). These observations led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors, which lower LDL-c levels more than any other non-invasive lipid-lowering therapy presently available. The PCSK9 inhibitors furthest along in clinical trials are subcutaneously injected monoclonal antibodies. These PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated LDL-c-lowering efficacy with acceptable safety in phase III clinical trials and may offer a useful therapy in addition to maximally tolerated HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in certain patient groups. Longer-term data are required to ensure sustained efficacy and safety of this new class of medications. This review provides an overview of the biology, genetics, development, and clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit PCSK9. PMID:27221501

  17. [LDL cholesterol control in patients with very high cardiovascular risk. A simplified algorithm for achieving LDL cholesterol goals "in two steps"].

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. PMID:25048471

  18. [PCSK9 inhibitors : Recommendations for patient selection].

    PubMed

    Laufs, U; Custodis, F; Werner, C

    2016-06-01

    The 2 or 4‑week subcutaneous therapy with the recently approved antibodies alirocumab and evolocumab for inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in addition to statins and ezetimibe by 50-60 %. The therapy is well-tolerated. The safety profile in the published studies is comparable to placebo. Outcome data and information on long-term safety and the influence on cardiovascular events are not yet available but the results of several large trials are expected in 2016-2018. At present (spring 2016) PCSK9 inhibitors represent an option for selected patients with a high cardiovascular risk and high LDL-C despite treatment with the maximum tolerated oral lipid-lowering therapy. This group includes selected patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and high-risk individuals with statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). PMID:27207595

  19. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  20. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  1. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  2. Componentry for lower extremity prostheses.

    PubMed

    Friel, Karen

    2005-09-01

    Prosthetic components for both transtibial and transfemoral amputations are available for patients of every level of ambulation. Most current suspension systems, knees, foot/ankle assemblies, and shock absorbers use endoskeletal construction that emphasizes total contact and weight distribution between bony structures and soft tissues. Different components offer varying benefits to energy expenditure, activity level, balance, and proprioception. Less dynamic ambulators may use fixed-cadence knees and non-dynamic response feet; higher functioning walkers benefit from dynamic response feet and variable-cadence knees. In addition, specific considerations must be kept in mind when fitting a patient with peripheral vascular disease or diabetes. PMID:16148358

  3. Is the lower mantle stagnant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    I calculate geotherms for the lower mantle (LM) from the solution to Fourier's equation for spherical shells with heating internally and below, by utilizing new models and measurements of thermal diffusivity (D) at temperature (T) and pressure (P), available constraints from mineral physics, various distributions of radiogenic elements, and integrating outward from the core-mantle boundary (CMB). A perovskite-rich LM can conductively carry heat from below any given radius under a wide range of conditions, mainly due to high thermal conductivity associated with lattice compression. The base model uses recent experimental measurements of eutectic melting in the Fe-S system (Chudinovskikh and Boehler, 2007, EPSL, p. 97) which indicate CMB temperatures of 3000 K, and assumes that 2 TW emanates from the core, consistent with power attributed to the geodynamo. For the continental crust, a low estimate of 8 TW is used, for a total Q=30 TW, indicated by spherical harmonic analysis of heat flux data (Hamza et al. 2008, IJES). I use recent experimental measurements of D of perovskite-family minerals at high temperature using laser flash analysis (Hofmeister, in press, PEPI). For D(T) of MgO, dD/dP and estimation of the effects of Fe content and the transition to post-perovskite, we use the damped harmonic oscillator model (Hofmeister et al, 2007, Treatise in Geophysics). High temperature values for heat capacity are used and density from PREM. A small radiative contribution for 1 mm grains (Hofmeister (2005, J. Geodynamics) is assumed. Base model calculations provide T =1700 K at 670 km, which is consistent with phase equilibria. Effects on the geotherm are: negligible for ppv being present, minor for the amount of radiative transfer or of internal heating in the LM, moderate for proportion of perovskite or changes in core heat or CMB temperatures. For example, a pure perovskite LM without radiative transfer is conductive having T from 2000 to 4000 K from 670 km to the CMB

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. Russian Docking Module is lowered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-built Docking Module (DM) is lowered for installation into the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis while the spaceplane is in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles. The white structures attached to the module's sides are solar panels that will be attached to the Mir after the conclusion of the STS-74 mission.

  6. Lower hybrid wavepacket stochasticity revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, V.; Krlín, L.; Pánek, R.; Preinhaelter, J.; Seidl, J.; Urban, J.

    2014-02-12

    Analysis is presented in support of the explanation in Ref. [1] for the observation of relativistic electrons during Lower Hybrid (LH) operation in EC pre-heated plasma at the WEGA stellarator [1,2]. LH power from the WEGA TE11 circular waveguide, 9 cm diameter, un-phased, 2.45 GHz antenna, is radiated into a B≅0.5 T, Ðœ„n{sub e}≅5×10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3} plasma at T{sub e}≅10 eV bulk temperature with an EC generated 50 keV component [1]. The fast electrons cycle around flux or drift surfaces with few collisions, sufficient for randomizing phases but insufficient for slowing fast electrons down, and thus repeatedly interact with the rf field close to the antenna mouth, gaining energy in the process. Our antenna calculations reveal a standing electric field pattern at the antenna mouth, with which we formulate the electron dynamics via a relativistic Hamiltonian. A simple approximation of the equations of motion leads to a relativistic generalization of the area-preserving Fermi-Ulam (F-U) map [3], allowing phase-space global stochasticity analysis. At typical WEGA plasma and antenna conditions, the F-U map predicts an LH driven current of about 230 A, at about 225 W of dissipated power, in good agreement with the measurements and analysis reported in [1].

  7. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  8. Lipid-lowering therapy in older persons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Numerous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and observational studies have shown that statins reduce mortality and major cardiovascular events in older high-risk persons with hypercholesterolemia. The Heart Protection Study showed that statins reduced mortality and major cardiovascular events in high-risk persons regardless of the initial level of serum lipids, age, or gender. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program III guidelines state that in very high-risk persons, a serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of < 70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/l) is a reasonable clinical strategy for moderately high-risk persons (2 or more risk factors and a 10-year risk for coronary artery disease of 10% to 20%), and the serum LDL cholesterol should be reduced to < 100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/l). When LDL cholesterol-lowering drug therapy is used to treat high-risk persons or moderately high-risk persons, the serum LDL cholesterol should be reduced by at least 30% to 40%. The serum LDL cholesterol should be decreased to less than 160 mg/dl in persons at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Addition of other lipid-lowering drugs to statin therapy has not been demonstrated to further reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. PMID:25861289

  9. All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Association with Achieved Hemoglobin A1c, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hou-Hsien; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun; See, Ting-Ting; Chen, Hua-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify the ranges of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels which are associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. Methods A retrospective cohort of 12,643 type 2 diabetic patients (aged ≥18 years) were generated from 2002 to 2010, in Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei city, Taiwan. Patients were identified to include any outpatient diabetes diagnosis (ICD-9: 250), and drug prescriptions that included any oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin prescribed during the 6 months following their first outpatient visit for diabetes. HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-C levels were assessed by the mean value of all available data, from index date to death or censor date. Deaths were ascertained by matching patient records with the Taiwan National Register of Deaths. Results Our results showed general U-shaped associations, where the lowest hazard ratios occurred at HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL. The risk of mortality gradually increases if the patient's mean HbA1c, SBP, or LDL-C during the follow-up period was higher or lower than these ranges. In comparison to the whole population, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for patients with HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL were 0.69 (0.62–0.77), 0.80 (0.72–0.90), and 0.68 (0.61–0.75), respectively. Conclusions In our type 2 diabetic cohort, the patients with HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, or LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL had the lowest all-cause mortality. Additional research is needed to confirm these associations and to further investigate their detailed mechanisms. PMID:25347712

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  11. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  12. Lower Cost CPV 3-Sun Mirror Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Minkin, Leonid M; Huang, H,; Gehl, Anthony C; Maxey, L Curt

    2007-01-01

    In a series of patent applications filed between 2002 and 2005, JX Crystals Inc described a evolutionary lower-cost low-concentration planar solar photovoltaic module that uses multiple linear rows of silicon cells and standard one-sun circuit laminations incorporating glass and EVA weather proofing encapsulations. The three novel features that we described are interdependent and integrated together to yield lower cost PV modules. These 3 novel features are: (1) The use of rows of linear mirrors or linear Fresnel lenses aligned with the cell rows and concentrating the sunlight onto the cell rows. (2) The addition of a thin aluminum sheet heat spreader on the back of the circuit lamination to spread the heat away from the cell rows so that the cell operating temperature remains acceptably low. (3) The incorporation of slots in the back of the aluminum sheet heat spreader to accommodate the differences in thermal expansion between the silicon cells, the glass, and the aluminum so that the circuit interconnectivity is maintained over time. Various embodiments of this planar linear concentrator panel are shown in figures 1 to 5. Figures 1 and 2 show the original planar linear concentrator module concept from July of 2002 with either mirrors (figure 1) or linear Fresnel lenses (figure 2). The idea was expanded in 2003 with the idea of an aluminum sheet heat spreader added to the back of a standard PV circuit lamination as shown in figure 3. In 2003, we also transitioned from half cells to third cells using SunPower cells as shown in figure 4. JX Crystals Inc then received funding for the 3-sun PV mirror module concept from the Shanghai Science and Technology Commission in 2003 and from the Shanghai Flower Port and the Shanghai Import and Export Trading Company in 2005. This funding led to a 800 panel pilot production run of our JX Crystals designed 3-sun module in 2006. 672 of these panels were installed in a 100 kW demonstration and an additional 24 panels were

  13. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  15. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  16. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  17. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giuseppina; Pintaudi, Basilio; Giorda, Carlo; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Suraci, Concetta; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. PMID:25873960

  18. Age- and Gender-Related Differences in LDL-Cholesterol Management in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuseppina; Pintaudi, Basilio; Giorda, Carlo; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Nicolucci, Antonio; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Suraci, Concetta; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia contribute to the excess of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk observed in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major target for CHD prevention, and T2DM women seem to reach LDL-C targets less frequently than men. Aim. To explore age- and gender-related differences in LDL-C management in a large sample of outpatients with T2DM. Results. Overall, 415.294 patients (45.3% women) from 236 diabetes centers in Italy were included. Women were older and more obese, with longer diabetes duration, higher total-cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C serum levels compared to men (P < 0.0001). Lipid profile was monitored in ~75% of subjects, women being monitored less frequently than men, irrespective of age. More women did not reach the LDL-C target as compared to men, particularly in the subgroup treated with lipid-lowering medications. The between-genders gap in reaching LDL-C targets increased with age and diabetes duration, favouring men in all groups. Conclusions. LDL-C management is worst in women with T2DM, who are monitored and reach targets less frequently than T2DM men. Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. PMID:25873960

  19. High Dose Simvastatin Exhibits Enhanced Lipid Lowering Effects Relative to Simvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Settergren, Magnus; D'Alexandri, Fabio Luiz; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Fiehn, Oliver; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Newman, John W.; Orešič, Matej; Pernow, John; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Statins are the frontline in cholesterol reduction therapies; however use in combination with agents that possess complimentary mechanisms of action may achieve further reductions in LDL-C. Thirty-nine patients were treated with either 80mg simvastatin (n=20) or 10mg simvastatin plus 10mg ezetimibe (n=19) for 6 weeks. Dosing was designed to produce comparable LDL-C reductions, while enabling assessment of potential simvastatin-associated pleiotropic effects. Baseline and post-treatment plasma were analyzed for lipid mediators (e.g., eicosanoids, endocannabinoids) and structural lipids by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Following statistical analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) multivariate modeling, no changes were observed in lipid mediator levels, while global structural lipids were reduced in response to both mono- (R2Y=0.74, Q2=0.66, CV-ANOVA p=7.0×10-8) and combination therapy (R2Y=0.67, Q2=0.54, CV-ANOVA p=2.6×10−5). OPLS modeling identified a subset of 12 lipids that classified the two treatment groups after 6 weeks (R2Y=0.65, Q2=0.61, CV-ANOVA p=5.4×10−8). Decreases in the lipid species PC(15:0/18:2) and HexCer(d18:1/24:0) were the strongest discriminators of LDL-C reductions for both treatment groups (q<0.00005), while PE(36:3e) contributed most to distinguishing treatment groups (q=0.017). Shifts in lipid composition were similar for high-dose simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy, but the magnitude of the reduction was linked to simvastatin dosage. Simvastatin therapy did not affect circulating levels of lipid mediators, suggesting that pleiotropic effects are not associated with eicosanoid production. Only high-dose simvastatin reduced the relative proportion of sphingomyelin and ceramide to phosphatidylcholine (q=0.008), suggesting a pleiotropic effect previously associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25516625

  20. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  1. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  3. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  5. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  6. Lower Lid Malposition: Causes and Correction.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Desai, Shaun C

    2016-05-01

    Lower lid malposition is a common yet demanding problem that both functional and cosmetic eyelid surgeons will face. It encompasses a spectrum of lower eyelid conditions ranging from lower lid retraction to frank ectropion and entropion. The causes of lower lid malposition are numerous, and the problem can be challenging to correct even for experienced surgeons. Proper treatment of lower lid malpositioning requires a clear understanding of the lower eyelid anatomy, careful preoperative assessment, and appropriate selection of surgical and nonsurgical interventions to have a successful outcome. PMID:27105802

  7. Guidelines for Management of Hyperlipidemia: Implications for Treatment of Patients with Stroke Secondary to Atherosclerotic Disease.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Sudeepta; Robinson, Jennifer G

    2016-03-01

    After careful review of randomized cardiovascular outcomes trial data, the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline focused on using the appropriate intensity of statin therapy to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and moved away from recommending specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment targets. In patients who have had a stroke or other clinical ASCVD event, a high-intensity statin should be initiated up to age 75 years unless there are safety concerns, including a history of hemorrhagic stroke. A moderate-intensity statin is recommended if there are safety concerns or age is greater than 75 years. Atorvastatin 40-80 mg and rosuvastatin 20-40 mg are considered high-intensity statins. These new guidelines avoid unnecessary usage of non-statins to achieve specific LDL-C values, thus avoiding potential adverse effects or use of an inadequate statin intensity in patients who are "at goal." When non-statins are considered for additional LDL-C lowering, ezetimibe is the only non-statin clearly shown to further reduce ASCVD risk when added to background statin therapy. PMID:26838351

  8. Cholesterol: the good, the bad, and the ugly - therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Meyers, Harold V; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits is critical for decreasing the risk of heart disease. Dyslipidemia refers to the abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), also known as good cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), also known as bad cholesterol, and/or high TG levels that contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this article we reviewed some of the current therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia, with a primary focus on endothelial lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase for raising HDL-C, and the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the messenger RNA of apolipoprotein B for lowering LDL-C. In addition, we reviewed the role of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) in raising HDL-C, where we discuss three apoAI-based drugs under development. These are its mutated dimer (apoAI-Milano), a complex with phospholipids, and a mimetic peptide. Atherosclerosis, mainly because of dyslipidemia, is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Regarding the title of this article, the 'good' refers to HDL-C, the 'bad' refers to LDL-C, and the 'ugly' refers to atherosclerosis. PMID:24334831

  9. Therapeutic Management of Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Current and Emerging Drug Therapies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshni S; Scopelliti, Emily M; Savelloni, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by significantly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations that result from mutations of the LDL receptor, apolipoprotein B (apo B-100), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Early and aggressive treatment can prevent premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in these high-risk patients. Given that the cardiovascular consequences of FH are similar to typical hypercholesterolemia, traditional therapies are utilized to decrease LDL-C levels. Patients with FH should receive statins as first-line treatment; high-potency statins at high doses are often required. Despite the use of statins, additional treatments are often necessary to achieve appropriate LDL-C lowering in this patient population. Novel drug therapies that target the pathophysiologic defects of the condition are continuously emerging. Contemporary therapies including mipomersen (Kynamro, Genzyme), an oligonucleotide inhibitor of apo B-100 synthesis; lomitapide (Juxtapid, Aegerion), a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor; and alirocumab (Praluent, Sanofi-Aventis/Regeneron) and evolocumab (Repatha, Amgen), PCSK9 inhibitors, are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in FH. This review highlights traditional as well as emerging contemporary therapies with supporting clinical data to evaluate current recommendations and discuss the future direction of FH management. PMID:26684558

  10. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48–53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited. PMID:26566525

  11. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.

    1994-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1994 spring outmigration at migrant traps on the Snake River, Clearwater River, and Salmon River. The 1994 snowpack was among the lowest since the beginning of the present drought, and the subsequent runoff was very poor. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1994. Total annual (hatchery + wild) chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.5 times greater than in 1993. Hatchery and wild steelhead trout catches were similar to 1993. The Snake River trap collected 30 age 0 chinook salmon. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Clearwater River trap was 3.5 times higher than in 1993, and wild chinook salmon catch was 4.2 times higher. Hatchery steelhead trout trap catch was less than half of 1993 numbers because the trap was fishing near the north shore during the majority of the hatchery steelhead movement due to flow augmentations from Dworshak. Wild steelhead trout trap catch was 2 times higher than in 1993. The Salmon River trap was operated for about a month longer in 1994 than in 1993 due to extremely low flows. Hatchery chinook salmon catch was 1.4 times greater in 1994 than the previous year. Wild chinook salmon catch was slightly less in 1994. The 1994 hatchery steelhead trout collection did not change significantly from 1993 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1994 was 59% of the 1993 catch. Fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993, cumulative interrogation data is not comparable with the prior five years (1988-1992).

  12. 13. Enclosed porch at lower level of Clubhouse outside the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Enclosed porch at lower level of Clubhouse outside the original Clubhouse bar. Camera pointed S. Dark grated window on right is also seen from other side in photo WA-201-2-9. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  13. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  14. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  15. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  16. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  17. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  18. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  19. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  20. Evaluation of Sexual Dimorphism in the Efficacy and Safety of Simvastatin/Atorvastatin Therapy in a Southern Brazilian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smiderle, Lisiane; Lima, Luciana O.; Hutz, Mara Helena; der Sand, Cézar Roberto Van; der Sand, Luiz Carlos Van; Ferreira, Maria Elvira Wagner; Pires, Renan Canibal; Almeida, Silvana; Fiegenbaum, Marilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. Objective To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Methods Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men) were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Results Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with men (p < 0.0001). After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001), regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002), whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017). Conclusions Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations. PMID:25120083

  1. [Impact of lipid metabolism parameters on the development and progression of coronary artery disease : An update].

    PubMed

    Sinning, D; Leistner, D M; Landmesser, U

    2016-06-01

    Disorders of lipid metabolism play a major role in the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Dyslipidemia therefore plays a central role in therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events associated with coronary artery disease. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between various lipid metabolism parameters, the risk of developing coronary artery disease and progression of a pre-existing disease. In particular, increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as high levels of triglycerides and increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels can be taken into account when assessing the risk stratification of patients for primary prevention of coronary artery disease. Lifestyle and dietary changes, intensified statin therapy and possibly the addition of ezetimibe remain the major interventions in both primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, as they improve the prognosis particularly by lowering levels of LDL-C. Recently, genetic studies have contributed to extending our understanding of the relationship between lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease. A causal role for progression of coronary artery disease could be demonstrated for LDL-C, Lpa and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which could not be demonstrated for HDL-C in various studies. Furthermore, the effect of reduction of LDL-C by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition and by the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor anacetrapib on cardiovascular events is currently being investigated in large clinical outcome study programs. PMID:27215419

  2. 6th Hellenic Congress in Athens, of the Hellenic Atherosclerosis Society, on the 04-06 December 2014 Novel Pharmacologic Treatments of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Athyros, VG

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common inherited monogenic lipid disorder. It is caused by mutations of genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, apolipoprotein B or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Homozygous FH (HoFH; 1/400,000 births) is treated by LDL apheresis. Recently lomitapide has been used for the treatment of HoFH as a monotherapy or in addition to LDL apheresis. Heterozygous FH (HeFH), 1/250-1/200 births, is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The main treatment for HeFH has been high doses of high intensity statins plus ezetimibe. However, this is not usually enough to attain LDL-C targets, especially in those with overt CVD or equivalents (LDL-C goal of<70 mg/dl). Data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study showed that loss of function mutations of PCSK9 were associated with a 28% lower LDL-C level and an 88% reduction in the risk of CVD in blacks, while in whites these numbers were 15% and 47%, respectively. This led to the development of technology to block PCSK9 with monoclonal human antibodies (e.g. evolocumab and alirocumab). These antibodies have been shown in phase II and III trials to be safe and to produce reductions in LDL-C levels by around 60% either as monotherapy or on top of optimal therapy with statins and ezetimibe. These antibodies are administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks with an automatic device. Anti-PCSK9 antibodies are expected to be licensed soon (? in 2015) and are considered by many as “the statins of the 21st century”. PMID:26664657

  3. (Al, B)-ZSM-11 FCC additive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing, L.H.; O`Young, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    ZSM-5 additive has been used extensively in the petroleum refining industry to enhance the light olefins production from the FCCU operation. In this paper, an FCC additive, (Al, B)-ZSM-11 was evaluated for its performance on a circulated FCC pilot unit. This additive was prepared by partially replacing the frame-work aluminum with boron, which in turn, will alternate its acid characteristics and performance as an FCC additive in promoting light olefin production. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased C3=, C4=, and C5= yields, but was less effective in increasing C3=, C4= yields, particularly I-C4= than ZSM-5 additive. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased branched C5= and decreased linear C5= yields resulting from skeletal isomerization. C5= and FC naphtha yields with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive are higher than those obtained with ZSM-5 additive indicating lower cracking of FC naphtha and C%= to lower olefins with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive than ZSM-5. The product selectivity difference between ZSM-5 and (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additives can be correlated with their respective acidity.

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  5. Raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Abhay G.; Whiting, Bernard F.

    2016-06-01

    Differential operators for raising and lowering angular momentum for spherical harmonics are used widely in many branches of physics. Less well known are raising and lowering operators for both spin and the azimuthal component of angular momentum (Goldberg et al. in J Math Phys 8:2155, 1967). In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to operators linear-in-γ for spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics, where γ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. Constructing these operators has required using all the ℓ -, s- and m-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) for spin-weighted spherical harmonics, which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper. Following a well-defined procedure, the operators given could be generalized to higher powers in γ.

  6. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf

    1999-04-01

    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  7. Additive monitoring and interactions during copper electroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dale Wade

    The electrochemical deposition of copper has been a major focus of research for decades. Renewed interest in copper electroplating is not limited to the copper producers but is also a major concern of semiconductor manufacturers. The focus on copper electrochemistry by the semiconductor manufacturers has increased since IBM's announcement in 1997 that copper will be used for metallization in high speed/power semiconductors [1--3]. The desire to use copper instead of aluminum is simply a reflection on copper's superior conductivity (lower RC time constants) and resistance to electromigration (generally proportional to the melting point). This dissertation is the compilation of the research into analytical techniques for monitoring surface-active additives in common sulfuric acid/copper sulfate plating baths. Chronopotentiometric, DC and AC voltammetry were the major analytical techniques used in this research. Several interactions between the additives will also be presented along with their apparent decline in activity. The decline in activity is well known in the industry and is also detected by these methods as presented in chapters 4 and 5. Finally, a systemic approach for monitoring the additive Galactosal, which is commonly used in electrowinning, will be outlined. The monitoring system proposed herein would have to be adjusted for each electrowinning facility because each has a unique chemistry and cell configuration.

  8. Mars lower atmosphere - Some new implications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, W. H., Jr.; Wallio, H. A.; Levine, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Based on occultation data from the Mariner spacecraft, there are some preliminary indications of an apparent systematically higher surface pressure on the night side of Mars than on the day side. If confirmed by additional data currently becoming available, this apparent surface pressure difference could be attributed to several causes, including topography effects as has been assumed previously, an actual increase of pressure on the night side caused by diurnal effects, an apparent increase on the night side due to some mechanisms such as a dust layer, or an apparent lower pressure on the day side due to the existence of a low-lying electron layer. By calculating the effect of a low-lying electron layer on the combined neutral atmosphere and electron layer refractivity profile, it is found that the day side and night side surface pressures would be in agreement if a layer with maximum density of about 80,000 electrons per cu cm below 15 km altitude were present on the day side.

  9. Lower-dimensional black hole chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassino, Antonia M.; Mann, Robert B.; Mureika, Jonas R.

    2015-12-01

    The connection between black hole thermodynamics and chemistry is extended to the lower-dimensional regime by considering the rotating and charged Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) metric in the (2 +1 )-dimensional and (1 +1 )-dimensional limits of Einstein gravity. The Smarr relation is naturally upheld in both BTZ cases, where those with Q ≠0 violate the reverse isoperimetric inequality and are thus superentropic. The inequality can be maintained, however, with the addition of a new thermodynamic work term associated with the mass renormalization scale. The D →0 limit of a generic D +2 -dimensional Einstein gravity theory is also considered to derive the Smarr and Komar relations, although the opposite sign definitions of the cosmological constant and thermodynamic pressure from the D >2 cases must be adopted in order to satisfy the relation. The requirement of positive entropy implies an upper bound on the mass of a (1 +1 )-D black hole. Promoting an associated constant of integration to a thermodynamic variable allows one to define a "rotation" in one spatial dimension. Neither the D =3 nor the D →2 black holes exhibit any interesting phase behavior.

  10. Structure design of lower limb exoskeletons for gait training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ziqiang; Tao, Chunjing; Ji, Run

    2015-09-01

    Due to the close physical interaction between human and machine in process of gait training, lower limb exoskeletons should be safe, comfortable and able to smoothly transfer desired driving force/moments to the patients. Correlatively, in kinematics the exoskeletons are required to be compatible with human lower limbs and thereby to avoid the uncontrollable interactional loads at the human-machine interfaces. Such requirement makes the structure design of exoskeletons very difficult because the human-machine closed chains are complicated. In addition, both the axis misalignments and the kinematic character difference between the exoskeleton and human joints should be taken into account. By analyzing the DOF(degree of freedom) of the whole human-machine closed chain, the human-machine kinematic incompatibility of lower limb exoskeletons is studied. An effective method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons, which are kinematically compatible with human lower limb, is proposed. Applying this method, the structure synthesis of the lower limb exoskeletons containing only one-DOF revolute and prismatic joints is investigated; the feasible basic structures of exoskeletons are developed and classified into three different categories. With the consideration of quasi-anthropopathic feature, structural simplicity and wearable comfort of lower limb exoskeletons, a joint replacement and structure comparison based approach to select the ideal structures of lower limb exoskeletons is proposed, by which three optimal exoskeleton structures are obtained. This paper indicates that the human-machine closed chain formed by the exoskeleton and human lower limb should be an even-constrained kinematic system in order to avoid the uncontrollable human-machine interactional loads. The presented method for the structure design of lower limb exoskeletons is universal and simple, and hence can be applied to other kinds of wearable exoskeletons.

  11. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  12. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  13. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  15. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  16. Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoakley, D.M.; St.Clair, A.K. )

    1992-07-01

    Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The CTE's of conventional polyimides range from 30 to 60 ppm/C. Approaches that have been reported to lower their CTE's include linearizing the polymer molecular structure and orienting the polyimide film. This current study involves the incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides and has resulted in significantly lowered CTE's. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12% to over 100% depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

  17. 43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  20. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  1. Characterizing neuromorphologic alterations with additive shape functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, M. S.; Costa, L. Da F.; Bernardes, E. S.; Ramakers, G.; van Pelt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of a neuronal cell shape is known to be related to its function. Specifically, among other indicators, a decreased complexity in the dendritic trees of cortical pyramidal neurons has been associated with mental retardation. In this paper we develop a procedure to address the characterization of morphological changes induced in cultured neurons by over-expressing a gene involved in mental retardation. Measures associated with the multiscale connectivity, an additive image functional, are found to give a reasonable separation criterion between two categories of cells. One category consists of a control group and two transfected groups of neurons, and the other, a class of cat ganglionary cells. The reported framework also identified a trend towards lower complexity in one of the transfected groups. Such results establish the suggested measures as an effective descriptors of cell shape.

  2. Epiblepharon of the lower eyelid: classification and association with astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Khwarg, S I; Lee, Y J

    1997-12-01

    To determine a classification system for epiblepharon of the lower eyelid and to evaluate a possible correlation between lower lid epiblepharon and astigmatism. Three morphologic characteristics (skin fold, cilia touching the cornea and corneal erosion) were observed by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination and Polaroid pictures in 186 eyes of 102 patients with epiblepharon of the lower lid. In 112 eyes, cycloplegic refractions performed. A classification system reflecting the severity of epiblepharon was then sought, and the incidences and type of astigmatism were evaluated. Epiblepharon of the lower lid could be classified according to the height of skin fold, the area of cornea touched by cilia and the area of corneal erosion. There was significant agreement between these three classifications. The incidence of astigmatism of 0.5D or more was 54%; most was 'with-the-rule', regardless of a patient's age. In addition to the representative nature of other characteristics, skin fold height can be easily measured without the need for slit-lamp examination in children and is closely related with the amount of skin which should be excised during surgery to correct epiblepharon. A classification system using skin fold height may therefore be the most appropriate method. In addition, there may be a correlation between lower lid epiblepharon and astigmatism. PMID:9510654

  3. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  4. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  5. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  6. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  7. Reliability of Calculated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Snozek, Christine L; Baumann, Nikola A; Jaffe, Allan S; Saenger, Amy K

    2015-08-15

    Aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering strategies are recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. Guidelines recommend a 30% to 50% reduction in at-risk patients even when LDL-C concentrations are between 70 and 130 mg/dl (1.8 to 3.4 mmol/L). However, calculation of LDL-C by the Friedewald equation is the primary laboratory method for routine LDL-C measurement. We compared the accuracy and reproducibility of calculated LDL-C <130 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/L) to LDL-C measured by β quantification (considered the gold standard method) in 15,917 patients with fasting triglyceride concentrations <400 mg/dl (4.5 mmol/L). Both variation and bias of calculated LDL-C increased at lower values of measured LDL-C. The 95% confidence intervals for a calculated LDL-C of 70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/L) and 30 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/L) were 60 to 86 mg/dl (1.6 to 2.2 mmol/L) and 24 to 60 mg/dl (0.6 to 1.6 mmol/L), respectively. Previous recommendations have emphasized the requirement for a fasting sample with triglycerides <400 mg/dl (4.5 mmol/L) to calculate LDL-C by the Friedewald equation. However, no recommendations have addressed the appropriate lower reportable limit for calculated LDL-C. In conclusion, calculated LDL-C <30 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/L) should not be reported because of significant deviation from the gold standard measured LDL-C results, and caution is advised when using calculated LDL-CF values <70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/L) to make treatment decisions. PMID:26059865

  8. Management of dyslipidemia in the high-risk patient.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan A

    2002-12-01

    Lipid-lowering agents have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly in high-risk patients. The identification and treatment of these patients should therefore be a high priority for clinicians. Guidelines from medical organizations, such as the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), suggest that patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels > or =130 mg/dL, and perhaps even those with levels > or =100 mg/dL, should receive drug therapy. Optimal LDL-C levels have been set at <100 mg/dL and <115 mg/dL for high-risk patients by US and European guidelines, respectively. However, a recent survey shows that only about 20% of high-risk patients currently meet these goals. In order to achieve therapeutic targets for LDL-C, the statins are the foundation of treatment, as they are the most effective and best-tolerated form of lipid-lowering therapy. Other therapeutic options include bile acid sequestrants, niacin, and plant stanols, although seldom as monotherapy. Combination therapy with a statin and one of these other lipid-lowering agents can be useful in patients who are unable to achieve target lipid levels through monotherapy. There remains, however, a need for additional agents. Some of the new options for reducing LDL-C levels that may be available in the near future include 2 new statins, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin. In patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, rosuvastatin, which is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has been shown to produce significantly greater reductions in LDL-C than atorvastatin over its full dose range. In comparative clinical trials, it has also enabled more patients with primary hypercholesterolemia to meet lipid goals than atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin. Inhibitors of bile acid transport or cholesterol absorption may also

  9. A review of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, treatment strategies, and its impact on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Rishi K; Steen, Dylan L; Khan, Irfan; Giugliano, Robert P; Foody, JoAnne M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 31.4% of deaths globally in 2012. It is estimated that, from 1980 to 2000, reduction in total cholesterol accounted for a 33% decrease in coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths in the United States. In other developed countries, similar decreases in CHD deaths (ranging from 19%-46%) have been attributed to reduction in total cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has now largely replaced total cholesterol as a risk marker and the primary treatment target for hyperlipidemia. Reduction in LDL-C levels by statin-based therapies has been demonstrated to result in a reduction in the risk of nonfatal CV events and mortality in a continuous and graded manner over a wide range of baseline risk and LDL-C levels. This article provides a review of (1) the relationship between LDL-C and CV risk from a biologic, epidemiologic, and genetic standpoint; (2) evidence-based strategies for LDL-C lowering; (3) lipid-management guidelines; (4) new strategies to further reduce CV risk through LDL-C lowering; and (5) population-level and health-system initiatives aimed at identifying, treating, and lowering lifetime LDL-C exposure. PMID:27206934

  10. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    PubMed

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  11. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  12. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Role of the Kidney and SGLT-2 Inhibition in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin; Miller, Eden M

    2015-12-01

    SGLT-2 inhibitors provide a complementary mechanism of glucose lowering and can be used as monotherapy or in combination with other medications, including insulin. In addition to improved glycemic control, which generally is maintained over 2 years, SGLT-2 inhibitors provide reductions in body weight and systolic blood pressure. Increases in LDL-C and HDL-C also have been observed. A requirement for adequate renal function is a limitation in patients with CKD. A low incidence of hypoglycemia, ability to promote weight loss, and availability as an oral formulation diminish common barriers to glucose-lowering therapy. PMID:26845015

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  15. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  16. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C.F.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2000-03-23

    New bond additivity correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) Moller-Plesset (MP)2 method, BAC-hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-hybrid method is expected to scale well for large molecules. The BAC-hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 predictions as an indication of the method's accuracy, whereas the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to accomplish this. A statistical analysis of the error in each of the methods is presented on the basis of calculations performed for large sets (more than 120) of molecules.

  17. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  18. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  19. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  20. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  1. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  2. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  3. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  4. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  5. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  6. The Temperature of the Arctic and Antarctic Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The temperature of the polar lower stratosphere during spring is the key factor in changing the magnitude of ozone loss in the polar vortices. In this talk, we will review the results of Newman et al. [2000] that quantitatively demonstrate that the polar lower stratospheric temperature is primarily controlled by planetary-scale waves. In particular, the tropospheric eddy heat flux in middle to late winter (January--February) is highly correlated with the mean polar stratospheric temperature during March. Strong midwinter planetary wave forcing leads to a warmer spring Arctic lower stratosphere in early spring, while weak midwinter forcing leads to cooler spring Arctic temperatures. In addition, this planetary wave driving also has a strong impact on the strength of the polar vortex. These results from the Northern Hemisphere will be contrasted with the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. Paraxial WKB Method Applied to the Lower Hybrid Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, N; Poli, E; Harvey, R; Wright, J C; Bonoli, P T; Phillips, C K; Simov, A P; Valeo, E

    2012-07-12

    The paraxial WKB (pWKB) approximation, also called beam tracing method, has been employed in order to study the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in a tokamak plasma. Analogous to the well-know ray tracing method, this approach reduces Maxwell's equations to a set of ordinary differential equations, while, in addition, retains the effects of the finite beam cross-section, and, thus, the effects of diffraction. A new code, LHBEAM (Lower Hybrid BEAM tracing), is presented, which solves the pWKB equations in tokamak geometry for arbitrary launching conditions and for analytic and experimental plasma equilibria. In addition, LHBEAM includes linear electron Landau damping for the evaluation of the absorbed power density and the reconstruction of the wave electric field in both the physical and Fourier space. Illustrative LHBEAM calculations are presented along with a comparison with the ray tracing code GENRAY and the full wave solver TORIC-LH.

  8. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  9. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  10. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  11. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  12. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  13. Bringing the Humanities to the Lower Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a humanities program for senior high school basic classes. Notes that the course covers Greek drama, poetry, art, classical music, and Shakespearean plays. Asserts that giving lower-ability students a chance to study the classics makes them feel less alienated from the mainstream. (MM)

  14. Lower bound of concurrence for qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We study the concurrence of four-qubit quantum states and provide analytical lower bounds of concurrence in terms of the monogamy inequality of concurrence for qubit systems. It is shown that these lower bounds are able to improve the existing bounds and detect entanglement better. The approach is generalized to arbitrary qubit systems.

  15. Power of the pinch: pinch lower lid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Elizabeth M; Bucky, Louis P

    2008-05-01

    Lower lid blepharoplasty is performed with great variation in technique. Conventional lower lid blepharoplasty with anterior fat removal via the orbital septum has a potential lower lid malposition rate of 15% to 20%. Lower lid malposition and the stigma of obvious lower lid surgery have led plastic surgeons to continue to change their approach to lower lid rejuvenation. In recent years, some surgeons have come to rely on alternative procedures like laser resurfacing alone or in conjunction with transconjunctival fat removal and canthopexy in an effort to avoid such complications. The pinch blepharoplasty technique removes redundant skin without undermining. This allows for more controlled wound healing, predictable recovery, and potential for simultaneous laser resurfacing. The combination of pinch blepharoplasty with transconjunctival fat removal leaves the middle lamella intact and reduces the chance of scleral show or ectropion. The purpose of this series is to demonstrate that pinch excision of redundant lower eyelid skin can be safely performed and that it can be used with laser resurfacing and/or transconjunctival fat removal for optimal treatment of the aging eye. A retrospective review of 46 consecutive patients who underwent pinch blepharoplasty, either in isolation or with other periorbital procedures was performed. Follow-up was at least 4 months (range of 4-24 months). In addition, we performed a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients to quantify the amount of skin removed and evaluate results and complications. An average of 8 mm of skin was resected (range of 4-12 mm) with the pinch blepharoplasty technique. Of these patients, 5.6% also underwent transconjunctival blepharoplasty, laser resurfacing, and/or fat grafting of the nasojugal groove. Despite the addition of simultaneous laser resurfacing, we did not see an increase in lower lid malposition. Three of the 71 patients had temporary scleral show that resolved with lower lid massage. In

  16. 48 CFR 22.1019 - Additional classes of service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide a reasonable relationship (i.e., appropriate level of skill comparison) between the unlisted... establishment of a lower level through conformance is not permissible. Further, trainee classifications may not... of 1965, as Amended 22.1019 Additional classes of service employees. (a) If the contracting...

  17. 33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. JAMA Patient Page: Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... CoA reductase inhibitors ) are medications used to lower bad cholesterol, which is a waxy material that the ... work properly. There are 2 kinds of cholesterol. “Bad” cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or LDL-C) ...

  19. Simvastatin and dipentyl phthalate lower testosterone production and exhibit dose additive effects on the fetal testis via distinct mechanistic pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex differentiation of the mammalian reproductive tract is a highly regulated process that is driven, in part, by fetal testosterone (T) production. In utero exposure to phthalate esters (PE) during sex differentiation can result in reproductive tract malformations in rats. PE al...

  20. The therapeutic role of niacin in dyslipidemia management.

    PubMed

    Boden, William E; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Toth, Peter P

    2014-03-01

    There is abundant epidemiologic evidence to support the independent, inverse relationship between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and incident cardiovascular (CV) risk, the clinical importance of which is underscored by the high prevalence of low HDL-C in populations with coronary heart disease (CHD), with or without elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The National Cholesterol Education Program recommended that optimal treatment for high-risk patients includes both lowering LDL-C and non-HDL-C to risk stratified levels and raising HDL-C when it is <40 mg/dL, although no target level for the latter lipoprotein was suggested. Niacin is the most powerful agent currently available for raising low levels of HDL-C. It also induces significant reductions in triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), and LDL-C levels while also favorably altering LDL particle size and number. In the Coronary Drug Project, niacin treatment was associated with significant reductions in CV events and long-term mortality, similar to the reductions seen in the statin monotherapy trials. In combination trials, niacin plus a statin or bile acid sequestrant produces additive reductions in CHD morbidity and mortality and promotes regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Recently, 2 clinical outcome trials (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes [AIM-HIGH] and Second Heart Protection Study [HPS-2 THRIVE]) failed to show a reduction in CV events in patients treated to optimally low levels of LDL-C. Despite favorable effects on HDL-C and triglycerides, these studies did not demonstrate incremental clinical benefit with niacin when added to simvastatin, although notable limitations were identified in each of these trials. Thus, there is insufficient evidence from clinical trials to recommend HDL-targeted therapy for additional event reduction at the present time. However, niacin

  1. Predictive Neuromuscular Fatigue of the Lower Extremity Utilizing Computer Modeling.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Michael A; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Hans, Steven A; Bawab, Sebastian Y; Ringleb, Stacie I

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the modeling of lower extremity muscle forces and their correlation to neuromuscular fatigue. Two analytical fatigue models were combined with a musculoskeletal model to estimate the effects of hamstrings fatigue on lower extremity muscle forces during a side step cut. One of the fatigue models (Tang) used subject-specific knee flexor muscle fatigue and recovery data while the second model (Xia) used previously established fatigue and recovery parameters. Both fatigue models were able to predict hamstrings fatigue within 20% of the experimental data, with the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles demonstrating the largest (11%) and smallest (1%) differences, respectively. In addition, various hamstrings fatigue levels (10-90%) on lower extremity muscle force production were assessed using one of the analytical fatigue models. As hamstrings fatigue levels increased, the quadriceps muscle forces decreased by 21% (p < 0.01), while gastrocnemius muscle forces increased by 36% (p < 0.01). The results of this study validate the use of two analytical fatigue models in determining the effects of neuromuscular fatigue during a side step cut, and therefore, this model can be used to assess fatigue effects on risk of lower extremity injury during athletic maneuvers. Understanding the effects of fatigue on muscle force production may provide insight on muscle group compensations that may lead to altered lower extremity motion patterns as seen in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. PMID:26611439

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    began on March 6 and were terminated on May 17 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because of mechanical failure. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2005 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook but was unable to detect a relation for wild Chinook. The inability to detect a migration rate discharge relation for wild Chinook salmon was caused by a lack of data. For hatchery Chinook salmon there was a 1.8-fold increase in migration rate between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 2.2-fold and a 2.2-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2005 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon, wild Chinook salmon, hatchery steelhead trout, and wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.2-fold for hatchery Chinook salmon, 2.9-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.5-fold for hatchery steelhead, and 1.7-fold for wild steelhead as discharge increased between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with PIT tags at the Snake River and Salmon River traps were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monumental) in 1993 and the installation of the Removable Spillway Weir at Lower Granite Dam in 2001

  3. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  4. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  5. Apparatus for use in lowering casing strings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheshtawy, A.A.

    1981-06-16

    An apparatus is claimed for use in lowering casing strings or other parts from a floating unit to a subsea well which includes an expansion -type casing running tool employing extendible latches that have left-handed threads cut on their exterior for engagement with similar threads on the inside of the casing which is to be lowered. Tapered blocks are spring loaded for expanding the dogs into position and hydraulic pressure is used to retract the blocks thus disengaging the running tool from the equipment just lowered. If disengagement of the latches is not accomplished, the running tool can be removed from the casing by left-handed rotation.

  6. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremities.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tessa Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) of the lower extremities is an important and versatile, noninvasive tool for diagnosis as well as surgical or endovascular interventional planning. Although lower extremity CTA is most commonly performed in patients with peripheral artery disease or trauma affecting the lower extremities, it also plays a role in the workup of nonischemic etiologies such as vasculitis, aneurysms, and congenital vascular malformations. CT scan protocols should adjust bolus timing and multiphasic imaging to account for the clinical question of interest, and 3-dimensional postprocessing plays an important role in the visualization and interpretation of these high-resolution imaging examinations. PMID:26654395

  7. Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides, resulting in significantly lowered CTE's, has been studied. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12 percent to over 100 percent depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

  8. An update on lower urinary tract tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gilbert J; Shteynshlyuger, Alex

    2008-07-01

    Tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract presents with atypical manifestations. Only 20% to 30% of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis have a history of pulmonary infection. Tuberculosis often affects the lower genitourinary system rather than the kidney. Tuberculosis of the lower genitourinary tract most commonly affects the epididymis and the testis, followed by bladder, ureter, prostate, and penis. Use of bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for bladder cancer can cause symptomatic tubercular infections of the lower genitourinary tract. Tuberculosis of the lower genitourinary tract can present with irritative voiding symptoms, hematuria, epididymo-orchitis, prostatitis, and fistulas. Tuberculosis of the seminal vesicles, vas, fallopian tubes, and the uterus can cause infertility. Urinalysis may demonstrate sterile pyuria, hematuria, or albuminuria. Identification of acid-fast bacilli in culture or tissue or by polymerase chain reaction studies is diagnostic. Medical treatment may not result in resolution of symptoms. Surgical intervention and reconstruction of the urinary tract are frequently indicated. PMID:18765130

  9. Herniated Disk in the Lower Back

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. A high percentage of people will have low back and leg pain caused by a herniated disk. Although a herniated ... pressure against the outer ring may cause lower back pain. If the disk is very worn or injured, ...

  10. Lower Saccharide Nanometric Materials and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, Christopher H.; Tomasik, Piotr; Sikora, Marek

    2004-07-13

    A ceramic composition having at least one nanometric ceramic powder, at least one lower saccharide, and water. The composition is useful in many industrial applications, including preparation of stronger and substantially defect free green and sintered ceramic bodies.

  11. Surface Material Lowers School Maintenance Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    An experimental new surface material for schools, called "vitreous tile," is proving successful in lowering school maintenance costs by preventing destruction caused by vandalism, stains, and color fading. (Author)

  12. Compositional dependence of lower crustal viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinevar, William J.; Behn, Mark D.; Hirth, Greg

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust as a function of its bulk composition using multiphase mixing theory. We use the Gibbs free-energy minimization routine Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for the lower continental crust. The effective aggregate viscosities are then calculated using a rheologic mixing model and flow laws for the major crust-forming minerals. We investigate the viscosity of two lower crustal compositions: (i) basaltic (53 wt % SiO2) and (ii) andesitic (64 wt % SiO2). The andesitic model predicts aggregate viscosities similar to feldspar and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than that of wet quartz. The viscosity range calculated for the andesitic crustal composition (particularly when hydrous phases are stable) is most similar to independent estimates of lower crust viscosity in actively deforming regions based on postglacial isostatic rebound, postseismic relaxation, and paleolake shoreline deflection.

  13. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  14. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  15. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    PubMed

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees. PMID:26550913

  16. Treatment of acute lower limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-05-01

    Acute lower limb ischaemia poses a major threat to limb survival. For many years surgical thromboembolectomy was the mainstay of treatment. Recent years have brought an endovascular revolution in the management of acute lower limb ischaemia. A wide range of endovascular procedures can nowadays be employed, providing results at least as good as the traditional surgical approach. This paper is an overview of currently utilised endovascular options as well as recent modifications of standard surgical techniques. PMID:27129066

  17. Lower crustal mush generation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Ozge; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef; Wright, Heather; Mangan, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    Recent seismic, field, and petrologic studies on several active and fossil volcanic settings provide important constraints on the time, volume, and melt fraction of their lower crustal magma bodies. However, these studies provide an incomplete picture of the time and length scales involved during their thermal and compositional evolution. What has been lacking is a thermal model that explains the temporal evolution and state of the lower crustal magma bodies during their growth. Here we use a two-dimensional thermal model and quantify the time and length scales involved in the long-term thermal and compositional evolution of the lower crustal mush regions underlying the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (USA), Mt St Helens (USA), and the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (North Italy). Although a number of seismic, tectonic, petrologic, and field studies explained the tectonic and magmatic evolution of these regions, controversy remains on their lower crustal heat sources, melt fraction, and origin of erupted magmas. Our thermal modeling results suggest that given a geologically reasonable range of basalt fluxes (~10^-3 to 10^-4 km3/yr), a long-lived (>105 yr) crystalline mush is formed in the lower crust. The state of the lower crustal mush is strongly influenced by the magma flux, crustal thickness, and water content of intruded basalt, giving an average melt fraction of <0.2 in thin crust with dry injections (Salton Sea Geothermal Field) and up to 0.4-0.5 in thicker crust with wet injections (Mt St Helens and Ivrea Zone). The melt in the lower crustal mush is mainly evolving through fractional crystallization of basalt with minor crustal assimilation in all regions, in agreement with isotopic studies. Quantification of the lower crustal mush regions is key to understanding the mass and heat balance in the crust, evolution of magma plumbing systems, and geothermal energy exploration.

  18. Ceramic augmentation of the lower jaw.

    PubMed

    Bunte, M; Strunz, V

    1977-11-01

    Atrophy of the lower jaw is essentially a manifestation of vertical bone resorption and must be treated in a compensatory manner. Animal experiments have shown the value of the bioactive glass ceramic Ceravital as a bone replacement material. After box-shaped or step-shaped osteotomies, we perform interpositional plastic operations with glass ceramic in order to augment the atrophied human lower jaw. Results, advantages and dangers of the method are shown in 12 patients. PMID:271190

  19. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials. PMID:22760907

  20. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations. PMID:25052592

  1. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    in hatchery Chinook catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery production and differences in flow between years. Changes in hatchery and wild steelhead catch are probably due to differences in flow between years. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged Chinook salmon and steelhead trout marked at the Snake River trap were affected by discharge. Statistical analysis of 2002 data detected a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. For hatchery and wild Chinook salmon there was a 4.7-fold and a 3.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. For steelhead trout tagged at the Snake River trap, statistical analysis detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge. For hatchery and wild steelhead trout, there was a 1.8-fold and a 1.7-fold increase in migration rate, respectively, between 50 and 100 kcfs. Travel time and migration rate to Lower Granite Dam for fish marked at the Salmon River trap were calculated. Statistical analysis of the 2002 data detected a significant relation between migration rate and Lower Granite Reservoir inflow discharge for wild Chinook salmon and hatchery steelhead trout. The analysis was unable to detect a relation between migration rate and discharge for hatchery Chinook salmon. The lack of a detectable relation was probably a result of the migration rate data being spread over a very narrow range of discharge. Not enough data were available to perform the analysis for wild steelhead trout. Migration rate increased 4.3-fold for wild Chinook salmon and 2.2-fold for hatchery steelhead between 50 kcfs and 100 kcfs. Fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were interrogated at four dams with PIT tag detection systems (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth

  2. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    Monumental, and McNary dams). Because of the addition of the fourth interrogation site (Lower Monume

  3. My Approach to the Patient With Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Safarova, Maya S; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-06-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a relatively common Mendelian genetic disorder, is associated with a dramatically increased lifetime risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease due to elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The diagnosis of FH is based on clinical presentation or genetic testing. Early identification of patients with FH is of great public health importance because preventive strategies can lower the absolute lifetime cardiovascular risk and screening can detect affected relatives. However, low awareness, detection, and control of FH pose hurdles in the prevention of FH-related cardiovascular events. Of the estimated 0.65 million to 1 million patients with FH in the United States, less than 10% carry a diagnosis of FH. Based on registry data, a substantial proportion of patients with FH are receiving no or inadequate lipid-lowering therapy. Statins remain the mainstay of treatment for patients with FH. Lipoprotein apheresis and newly approved lipid-lowering drugs are valuable adjuncts to statin therapy, particularly when the LDL-C-lowering response is suboptimal. Monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 provide an additional approximately 60% lowering of LDL-C levels and are approved for use in patients with FH. For homozygous FH, 2 new drugs that work independent of the LDL receptor pathway are available: an apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotide (mipomersen) and a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor (lomitapide). This review attempts to critically examine the available data to provide a summary of the current evidence for managing patients with FH, including screening, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. PMID:27261867

  4. Continental Lower Crust: Wavespeeds, Composition, and Relamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of much of Earth's lower continental crust is enigmatic. The available heat-flow and wavespeed constraints can be satisfied if lower continental crust elsewhere contains anywhere from 49 to 62 wt% SiO2 (similar to andesite and dacite), with high to moderate concentrations of K, Th and U. Beneath shields and platforms, Vp suggests that 20-30% of lower crust is mafic. A large fraction of this material could be denser than peridotite. In these settings the underlying upper mantle is too cold to permit development of a convective instability. High Vp lithologies in these settings may be the result of mafic underplating, or slow metamorphic growth of large proportions of garnet. Vp from lower crust of Paleozoic-Mesozoic orogens indicates a smaller amount of mafic rock and little or no material that is denser than peridotite. Beneath rifts, arcs, and volcanic plateaux and beneath continent-collision zones, ~10-20% of lower crust is mafic, and about half that is denser than peridotite. The inferred gravitational instability and high Moho temperatures suggest that the mafic lower crust in these regions may be temporary. During sediment subduction, subduction erosion, arc subduction, and continent subduction, mafic rocks become eclogite and may continue to descend into the mantle, whereas more silica-rich rocks are transformed into felsic gneisses that are less dense than peridotite but more dense than continental upper crust. These more-felsic rocks may rise buoyantly, undergo decompression melting and melt extraction, and may be relaminated to the base of the crust. As a result of this refining/differentiation process, such relatively felsic rocks could form much of lower crust.

  5. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key points Greater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes. Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes. Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit. PMID

  6. The case for lower probabilities as measures of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B. ); Wagner, C. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the case for using lower probabilities as measures of uncertainty in expert systems. A debate has raged within the artificial intelligence community for years about how to represent uncertainty in expert systems. Several camps have emerged. One camp has focused on developing alternatives to probability theory, such as certainty factors, fuzzy sets, and endorsements. A second camp has focused on retrofitting classical, additive probability, for example, by developing a cautious approach to probabilistic reasoning and interpreting probability within a possible worlds framework. This paper falls into a third camp, which encompasses generalizations of probability theory. The most discussed generalization is known as Dempster-Shafer Theory, which is based on the combined work of Dempster and Shafer. Lower probabilities are actually a substantial generalization of DST. This paper has two parts. The first presents the definitions of lower probabilities, DST, and additive probability. This section includes a discussion of capacities, the most general type of uncertainty measure. The purpose of this section is to show the differences among the uncertainty measures.

  7. Does nicotinic acid (niacin) lower blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Bays, H E; Rader, D J

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a well-established treatment for dyslipidaemia - an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, niacin may also reduce blood pressure (BP), which is another important CVD risk factor. This review examines the limited publicly available data on niacin's BP effects. Acute administration of immediate-release niacin may lower BP because of niacin's acute vasodilatory effects. Although not always supported by clinical trial data, the package insert of a prescription, extended-release niacin describes niacin-induced acute hypotension. From a chronic standpoint, larger studies, such as the Coronary Drug Project, suggest that niacin may lower BP when administered over a longer period of time. Post hoc analyses of some of the more recent niacin clinical trials also support a more chronic, dose-dependent, BP-lowering effect of niacin. Because laropiprant [a prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) type 1 (DP1) receptor antagonist] does not attenuate niacin's BP-lowering effects, it is unlikely that any chronic lowering of BP by niacin is due to dilation of dermal vessels through activation of the DP1 receptor by PGD(2.) Further research is warranted to evaluate the extent and mechanisms of niacin's effects on BP. PMID:19054161

  8. Uric acid lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sposato, Barbara; Romeo, Franco

    2016-06-15

    Recent evidence would indicate that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels can be a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In the last few years an independent risk relationship between hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and mortality has also been reported. Hyperuricemia has been shown as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and an independent and conjoint association of either gout and SUA with total and cardiovascular mortality has been reported, with mortality impact in gout patients increasing with rising SUA concentrations, even for SUA levels in the normal to high range. These findings prompted a growing research interest on the possible benefits of uric acid lowering drugs in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, clinical studies have reported on the beneficial effects of uric acid lowering drugs, in particular of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, in hypertension, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Two main mechanisms have been claimed to explain the dangerous effects of hyperuricemia and, as a consequence, the benefits of uric acid lowering therapy: endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation. This brief review aims to summarize current evidence from human studies on the role of acid uric lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases for practical and clinical purposes. The possible mechanisms underlying the benefits of acid uric lowering therapy are also addressed. PMID:26386814

  9. Further observations on familial hypobetaliproteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Levtow, O; Lotan, D; Legum, C; Heldenberg, D; Werbin, B

    1976-02-01

    A family with hypobetalipoproteinaemia with 10 affected members is described. In six patients low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations were about 10 % of normal. In four LDL-c was reduced to about 50 % of normal; these four patients probably represent the "intermediate" form of hypobetalipoproteinaemia. This variation in total cholesterol concentration and LDL-c among the affected individuals of the same family could reflect differences of expression in a single aberrant gene or additive expression of a gene at a second locus. PMID:174851

  10. Lower-Limb Rehabilitation Robot Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhabba, E. M.; Shafie, A. A.; Khan, M. R.; Ariffin, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is a general assumption that robotics will play an important role in therapy activities within rehabilitation treatment. In the last decade, the interest in the field has grown exponentially mainly due to the initial success of the early systems and the growing demand caused by increasing numbers of stroke patients and their associate rehabilitation costs. As a result, robot therapy systems have been developed worldwide for training of both the upper and lower extremities. This paper investigates and proposes a lower-limb rehabilitation robot that is used to help patients with lower-limb paralysis to improve and resume physical functions. The proposed rehabilitation robot features three rotary joints forced by electric motors providing linear motions. The paper covers mechanism design and optimization, kinematics analysis, trajectory planning, wearable sensors, and the control system design. The design and control system demonstrate that the proposed rehabilitation robot is safe and reliable with the effective design and better kinematic performance.

  11. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Li Suo, Qi

    2015-04-15

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  12. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon-Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics.

  13. [Neurological lower torso function test. A new assessment].

    PubMed

    Merkert, J; Butz, S; Nieczaj, R; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Eckardt, R

    2013-02-01

    The neurological lower torso function test was developed in addition to the Berg Balance Scale as an assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of lower torso stability and functioning in neurological patients, used for example in subjects in the early rehabilitation phase or still showing low motoric recovery after suffering a stroke. Due to the ground effect for changes in severely affected neurological patients, other tests currently available do not provide an adequate level of sensitivity. The neurological function test was integrated into the study "Combined whole body vibration and balance training using Vibrosphere" with 66 inpatient/partial inpatient neurological subjects ≥ 60 years. Based on six tasks, a qualitative assessment of the selective function of movement and posture tone of the lower extremity, the muscular system around the hip, and the lower torso are performed. Analogous to the Berg Balance Scale, a 5 point scale is used. It shows a high degree of reliability and responsiveness and can be performed with little effort of time and personnel. PMID:22733479

  14. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Tyrone, Martha E.; Mauk, Claude E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech. PMID:20607146

  15. Progressive Thinning of Visual Motion Area in Lower Limb Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guangyao; Li, Chuanming; Wu, Jixiang; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Lu; Evans, Alan C.; Li, Lei; Ran, Shuhua; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation or deafferentation of a limb induces functional or structural reorganization in the visual areas. However, the extent of the visual areas involved after lower limb amputation remains uncertain. In this investigation, we studied 48 adult patients with unilateral lower limb amputation and 48 matched healthy controls using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Template-based regions of interest analysis was implemented to detect the changes of cortical thickness in the specific visual areas. Compared with normal controls, amputees exhibited significantly lower thickness in the V5/middle temporal (V5/MT+) visual area, as well as a trend of cortical thinning in the V3d. There was no significant difference in the other visual areas between the two groups. In addition, no significant difference of cortical thickness was found between patients with amputation at different levels. Across all amputees, correlation analyses revealed that the cortical thickness of the V5/MT+ was negatively correlated to the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of unilateral lower limb could induce changes in the motor-related visual cortex and provide an update on the plasticity of the human brain after limb injury. PMID:26973497

  16. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus particle number in middle school children

    PubMed Central

    Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Drews, Kimberly L.; Otvos, James D.; Willi, Steven M.; Foster, Gary D.; Jago, Russell; Buse, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize lipids and lipoproteins in a diverse school-based cohort and identify features associated with discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL particle (LDL-P). Study design Sixth grade children enrolled in the HEALTHY trial (n=2,384; mean age 11.3 ± 0.6 yr; 54.2% female) were evaluated for standard lipids, lipoprotein particles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Characteristics of subgroups with values of LDL-C and LDL-P discordant by >20 percentile units, an amount reasoned to be clinically significant, were compared. Results Four hundred twenty-eight (18%) of children were in the LDL-P < LDL-C subgroup and 375 (16%) in the LDL-P > LDL-C subgroup. Those with LDL-P > LDL-C had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflected a greater Hispanic ethnic composition but fewer of black race than both the concordant (LDL-P ≅ LDL-C) and opposite discordant (LDL-P < LDL-C) subgroups. Conclusions There is as much lipoprotein cholesterol compositional heterogeneity in 6th graders as has been described in adults and a discordant atherogenic phenotype of LDL-P > LDL-C, common in obesity, is often missed when only LDL-C is considered. Conversely, many children with moderate-risk cholesterol measures (75th to 99th percentile) have a lower LDL particle burden. PMID:23415622

  17. Uniquely designed nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes, specifically protists, often vary from those of yeasts and metazoans. Several studies have demonstrated the unique and fascinating features of these nuclear structures, such as a histone-independent condensed chromatin in dinoflagellates and two structurally distinct nuclear pore complexes in ciliates. Despite their unique molecular/structural features, functions required for formation of their cognate molecules/structures are highly conserved. This provides important information about the structure-function relationship of the nuclear structures. In this review, we highlight characteristic nuclear structures found in lower eukaryotes, and discuss their attractiveness as potential biological systems for studying nuclear structures. PMID:26963276

  18. Lower Hybrid to Whistler Wave Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, Dan

    2012-07-16

    In this presentation we discuss recent work concerning the conversion of whistler waves to lower hybrid waves (as well as the inverse process). These efforts have been motivated by the issue of attenuation of upward propagating whistler waves in the ionosphere generated by VLF transmitters on the ground, i.e., the 'Starks 20 db' problem, which affects the lifetimes of energetic electrons trapped in the geomagnetic field at low magnetic altitude (L). We discuss recent fluid and kinetic plasma simulations as well as ongoing experiments at UCLA to quantify linear and nonlinear mode conversion of lower hybrid to whistler waves.

  19. Studies in upper and lower atmosphere coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Rice, C. J.; Sharp, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and data-analytic work on upper and lower atmosphere coupling performed under a NASA Headquarters contract during the period April 1978 to March 1979 are summarized. As such, this report is primarily devoted to an overview of various studies published and to be published under this contract. Individual study reports are collected as exhibits. Work performed under the subject contract are in the following four areas of upper-lower atmosphere coupling: (1) Magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling in the aurora; (2) Troposphere-thermosphere coupling; (3) Ionosphere-neutral-atmosphere coupling; and (4) Planetary wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere.

  20. Lower body negative pressure, experiment M092

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Jackson, M. M.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of orthostatic intolerance has been achieved by the use of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The LBNP technique, though independent of gravity, simulates its effect by exposing the legs and the lower abdomen to reduced ambient pressures. This LBNP experiment, conducted during the 56-day simulation of the Skylab environment, was designed to supply baseline information on cardiovascular responses to periodic orthostatic stress. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, manifested by the increased heart rate, diminished systolic and pulse pressure, and increased tendency to syncope in the upright position, or during LBNP, was not observed in this experiment.

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  2. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. Computed tomography, anatomy and morphometry of the lower extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogewoud, H.M.; Rager, G.; Burch, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date information on CT imaging of the lower extremity. It includes an atlas correlating new, high-resolution CT scans with identical thin anatomical slices covering the lower extremity from the crista iliaca to the planta pedis. Additional figures, including CT arthrograms of the hip, knee and ankle, depict the anatomy in detail The technique and clinical relevance of CT measurements especially in orthopedic surgery are also clearly explained. Of special interest is the new method developed by the authors for assessing the coverage of the femoral head. The special morphometry software and a 3D program allowing representation in space make it possible to precisely and accurately measure the coverage with normal CT scans of the hip.

  5. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  6. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, Peter; Morrill, Charles; Mensik, Fred

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 fish collection season at Lower Granite was characterized by high spring flows and spill, low levels of debris, cool water temperatures, increased hatchery chinook numbers, and an overall decrease in numbers of smolts collected and transported. A total of 5,882,872 juvenile salmonids were collected at Lower Granite. Of these, 5,466,057 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,232,105 by barge and 233,952 by truck. An additional 339,398 fish were bypassed back to the river. A total of 117,609 salmonids were examined in daily samples. Nine research projects conducted by four agencies impacted a total of 440,810 smolts (7.5% of the total collected) of which 247,268 were PIT tagged and 572 were recorded as incidental mortalities.

  7. Lowering the threshold in the DAMA dark matter detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris

    2014-06-24

    We look at two improvements related to the DAMA/LIBRA dark matter detector. We show how using a more optimized binning scheme of the current data can lead to significantly tighter contraints on the compatible regions of the WIMP parameter space. In addition, the PMT’s of the detector were upgraded in 2010, allowing the low energy threshold to be lowered from 2 keVee to 1 keVee. We examine the implications for the dark matter interpretion of the DAMA modulation with data in this new energy region. Specifically, we focus on how well the degeneracy between the low mass and high mass regions can be removed by this new data. We find that the lower threshold data should rule out one of the two mass ranges in the spin-independent case at a minimum of the 2.6σ level in the worst case scenario.

  8. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Drake, Isabel; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Ericson, Ulrika; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Persson, Margaretha M.; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46–68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up. PMID:27171109

  9. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Drake, Isabel; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Ericson, Ulrika; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Persson, Margaretha M; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46-68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up. PMID:27171109

  10. Lipoprotein effects of combined ezetimibe and colesevelam hydrochloride versus ezetimibe alone in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Robert H; Tsunehara, Christine; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Nguyen, Hien; Anderson, Susan; Nguyen, Thuy

    2006-12-01

    Two drug classes act in the intestine to lower cholesterol. Ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption, whereas bile acid-binding resins enhance cholesterol excretion via enhanced conversion to bile acids. Combining these 2 classes may be beneficial, but cholestyramine binds ezetimibe, and the combined effect of colesevelam hydrochloride and ezetimibe was little studied. The aim of the study was to determine if adding colesevelam HCl to ezetimibe provides additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein- and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins or alters ezetimibe levels. Twenty subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of 130 mg/dL or higher were enrolled and taught a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet. At a second baseline visit, lipoproteins were measured and subjects were randomly allocated to (1) ezetimibe 10 mg daily with placebo colesevelam HCl twice daily (E) or (2) ezetimibe 10 mg daily with 1.875 g colesevelam HCl twice daily (E + C). Lipoproteins were measured 6 and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. Baseline characteristics (mean +/- SD) were statistically indistinguishable in E vs E + C: LDL-C (mg/dL), 167 +/- 26 and 158 +/- 27; triglyceride, 134 +/- 75 and 140 +/- 67; and BMI, 29.4 +/- 4.9 and 27.8 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Percent changes after 12 weeks in E vs E + C were as follows: LDL-C, -24 +/- 12 vs -30 +/- 11 (P = .102); triglyceride, -19 +/- 34 vs 36 +/- 85 (P = .054; at 6 weeks, P = .009); total cholesterol, -19 +/- 9 vs -15 +/- 8 (P = .50); non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -25 +/- 10 vs -21 +/- 11 (P = .70); apolipoprotein B, -31 +/- 14 vs -22 +/- 14 (P = .41). Plasma ezetimibe levels at 12 weeks were 21% lower in E + C vs E, a nonsignificant difference (P = .54). In conclusion, in the short term, colesevelam HCl may not consistently add cholesterol-lowering benefit to ezetimibe. This observation requires confirmation. PMID:17142146

  11. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  12. Sub-additivity in Electron Emission from GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunkow, Evan; Clayburn, Nathan; Becker, Maria; Jones, Eric; Batelaan, Herman; Gay, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    When two spatially-overlapped laser pulses (775 nm center wavelength, 75 fs duration) are incident on an untreated <100> GaAs crystal surface, the electron emission rate depends on the temporal separation between the two pulses. We have shown that for delays between 0.2 and 1000ps, the emission rate is ``sub-additive'', i.e., is lower than when the beams have separation >> 1 ns. We believe the cause of this sub-additivity is an increase in reflectance and transmittance due to electrons occupying the excited state of the GaAs. We are now able to manipulate the magnitude of the sub-additivity by changing the number of electrons that are in the excited state. Sub-additivity is not observed with tungsten tip surfaces which have no excited state. Funded by NSF PHY-1505794, EPSCoR IIIA-1430519, and NSF 1306565 (HB).

  13. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  14. [Backshifting of lower canines in occlusion regulation].

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Sarosiek, A; Wedrychowska-Szulc, B; Doniec-Zawidzka, I

    1990-08-01

    In 17 patients the lower canines were shifted back during treatment of prognathic malocclusion and cross-bites. Stable devices with retraction loops, rubber or spring traction were used. The duration of active treatment was about 3 months, on average. During the treatment gaps after the removed premolars were closed completely, although this is nearly impossible when removable devices are applied. PMID:2104380

  15. NCES Finds States Lowered "Proficiency" Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    With 2014 approaching as the deadline by which states must get all their students up to "proficient" levels on state tests, a study released last week by the U.S. Department of Education's top statistics agency suggests that some states may have lowered student-proficiency standards on such tests in recent years. For the 47-state study,…

  16. Hydrocarbon potential of lower Magdalena basin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, E.; Valderrama, R. )

    1989-03-01

    The Lower Magdalena basin complex of Colombia has an areal extent of more than 87,000 km{sup 2}. The geologic setting of the different subbasins of the Lower Magdalena presents attractive play concepts for the generation, entrapment, and production of hydrocarbons. The sedimentary sequence within the basin attains a thickness in excess of 12,200 m, with the preponderance of this section being of Tertiary age. This major thickness of section contains good source and reservoir rocks and seals and an abundance of structural and stratigraphic traps, which make the basin attractive for new interpretation and evaluation. The Plato, San Jorge, and Sinu subbasins lie within the Lower Magdalena complex. Each of these presents different geological conditions, thereby offering a variety of play concepts for hydrocarbon exploration. Previous exploration in the Lower Magdalena has resulted in the discovery of 10 small to moderate-size fields, which have produced nearly 200 million bbl of oil. The density of exploration drilling within the basin is one well/435 km{sup 2}, thereby allowing the opportunity for more discoveries to be realized. The existence of a thick Tertiary section with excellent source beds and a tectonic history that allows for both structural and stratigraphic traps presents an excellent opportunity for the application of modern exploration techniques to reevaluate the potential of a basin that has not been thoroughly evaluated due to complex exploration problems.

  17. Exploring the Limits of Frequency Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela E.; Arehart, Kathryn H.; Kates, James M.; Croghan, Naomi B. H.; Gehani, Namita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how frequency lowering affected sentence intelligibility and quality for adults with postlingually acquired, mild-to-moderate hearing loss. Method: Listeners included adults aged 60-92 years with sloping sensorineural hearing loss and a control group of similarly aged adults with normal hearing. Sentences were…

  18. Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.

  19. Dynamic modeling of lower hybrid current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ignat, D.W.; Valeo, E.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field is described and some results are given. Details of geometry, plasma profiles and circuit equations are treated carefully. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment.

  20. Use and Usefulness of Lower Limb Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buijk, Catharina A.

    1988-01-01

    Adults (n=181) in the Netherlands were surveyed concerning their use of lower limb prostheses. Results are analyzed in terms of age and sex of users, reason for amputation, level of amputation, description of prosthesis, amount of time able to walk or stand, satisfaction with the prosthesis, and user recommendations. (JDD)

  1. Lower limb trauma: primary treatment and reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements of lower limb trauma reconstruction are discussed with comment on the availability of plastic surgery services. The significance of early efficient soft tissue management is stressed and a plea is made for better cooperation between plastic and orthopaedic surgery in both training and practice. Images fig. 1 PMID:2589787

  2. THE LOWER STATUS PUERTO RICAN FAMILY. REVISED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAM, JOSEPH

    THIS SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIBES THE LOWER-STATUS URBAN AND RURAL FAMILIES IN PUERTO RICO. THE "JIBAROS," THE RURAL POOR OF THE HIGHLANDS, ARE LANDLESS AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO ARE MORE ISOLATED, LESS LITERATE, AND LESS ACCULTURATED TO URBAN LIFE THAN OTHER PUERTO RICANS. THEY TEND TO BE IDEALIZED AS THE PROTOTYPES OF THE ISLAND FOLK CULTURE.…

  3. Concordances for Lower-Level Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Relates how one teacher used a C-ROM encyclopedia, a concordancer, and a word processor to make concordances suitable for lower-level language learners. These concordances helped overcome the unfamiliarity of 80-character KWIC lines and the difficulties of obscure vocabulary, and were useful in the teaching of grammar and lexis. (Author/VWL)

  4. Lowering the Permanent Rate of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Martin S.

    The first section of the study on lowering the permanent rate of unemployment discusses the effects and limitations of increasing aggregate demand through fiscal and monetary policy and indicates the inability to achieve the desired level of unemployment simply by stimulating demand. Section 2 analyzes the characteristics and structure of our…

  5. LOWER MERRIMACK RIVER FISH TISSUE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was a collaborative effort between USEPA and the USFWS. This study measured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alpha chlordane, 4,4 DDD, 4,4 DDE, 4,4, DDT, dieldrin, cadmium, lead , mercury and percent lipids in fish tissue collected from five reaches of the Lower Merrimack R...

  6. School Support for Lower Achieving Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study in four Scottish schools (with differing socio-economic and school-effectiveness ratings) of how lower achieving students experience schooling. Emphasis is on the available pupil-support systems: learning support, behavioral support, and guidance services. (DB)

  7. A note on unparticle in lower dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro

    2008-10-01

    Using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism, we examine the effect of the space time dimensionality on a physical observable in the unparticle scenario. We explicitly show that long-range forces between particles mediated by unparticles are still present whenever we go over into lower dimensions.

  8. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  9. Evaluating Montbrillant Lower Secondary School in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simioni, Sandro

    2004-01-01

    Does Geneva's Montbrillant lower secondary school, which has now been in use for one year, meet the objectives targeted when it was designed? Does the new school respond to the needs and expectations of staff and students? Questions such as these serve to evaluate the quality of a school building once in use and tie in with work supported by PEB…

  10. Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications. PMID:25440742

  11. Explaining Lower Educated Workers' Training Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jos; Oomens, Shirley; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Hazelzet, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data from the Study on Life Long Learning and Employment…

  12. Case report of a 22-week fetus with 47,XXX karyotype and multiple lower mesodermal defects.

    PubMed

    Hoang, M P; Wilson, K S; Schneider, N R; Timmons, C F

    1999-01-01

    A 22-week stillborn fetus with 47,XXX karyotype had lower mesodermal defects consisting of irregular fusion of the sacral vertebrae, anal agenesis, multicystic dysplasia of a horseshoe kidney, a single umbilical artery, dysplastic ovaries, and uterine hypoplasia. This case provides additional evidence for an association between trisomy X and genitourinary defects including lower mesodermal defects sequence. PMID:9841707

  13. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  14. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  15. Factors Associated with Lipid Goal Attainment among Patients with Deployed Drug Eluting Stent

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min-I; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Yeh, Hung-I; Chen, Chun-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents (DES) have provided significant benefits for patients with complex coronary lesions. Intensive lipid control through statin therapy decreases the risk of late target lesion revascularization in patients with implanted DES. Therefore, we investigated lipid management in patients with implanted DES and analyzed the predictors for achieving target lipid goals. Methods A retrospective study was performed on consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES deployment from 2010 to 2012. Fasting lipid profiles were obtained for all patients both on the day of and 6 months after PCI. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict factors for achieving target lipid goals. Results A total of 419 patients (mean age: 62; 80% men) were included. Only 20.8% of patients achieved the target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of < 70 mg/dL, and 61.6% of patients achieved the target LDL-C level of < 100 mg/dL. An equivalent dose of statins was statistically significant in attaining LDL-C levels of < 70 mg/dL [adjusted odds radio (AOR): 1.30; p < 0.001] and < 100 mg/dL (AOR: 1.27; p < 0.001). In addition, a baseline LDL-C level < 130 mg/dL is a leading predictor of achieving target LDL-C levels (AOR: 2.3, p = 0.012 for LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; AOR: 2.01, p = 0.006 for LDL-C < 100 mg/dL). Conclusions Achievement of target LDL-C levels is difficult in patients with implanted DES and a baseline LDL-C level of ≥130 mg/dL who are not treated with statins. Therefore, these patients should be treated with more aggressive statin therapy. PMID:27122806

  16. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  17. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  18. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  19. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  20. 40 CFR 79.31 - Additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.31 Additives. (a) All additives produced or sold for use in motor vehicle gasoline and/or motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby designated... persons or property on a street or highway. For purposes of this registration, however,...

  1. A review of trials evaluating nonstatin lipid-lowering therapies.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Benjamin J

    2009-01-01

    Recently reported clinical trials raise doubts on the effectiveness of nonstatin lipid-lowering therapies in reducing the residual risk of cardiovascular events after statin monotherapy. Addition of -torcetrapib to statin therapy increased overall mortality in coronary patients despite a marked increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Combining ezetimibe with statin therapy neither further reduces carotid atherosclerosis nor slows aortic stenosis, and it has not been shown to be superior to statin monotherapy in reducing cardiovascular events. Clinical trials currently in progress will more clearly delineate the cardiovascular effects of adding either ezetimibe or extended-release niacin/laropiprant to statin therapy. PMID:19080730

  2. Ditches and Walls In The Lower City of Troia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, K.; Blindow, N.; Lange, M. A.; Jansen, H. G.

    In different epochs the area of the lower city of Troia was enclosed by defense con- structions whose form and position are geophysically prospected and archaeologically verified since 1994. There are some special features and problems for the geophysical investigation in Troia caused by: - multiphase use of the lower city (Bronze Age, Hellenistic, Roman periods) - wide extension and different conservation of the remains - influence of present agricultural cultivation. In three campaigns from 1998 to 2000 the University of Münster performed geophys- ical measurements mainly to trace the course of an inner and an outer Bronze Age ditch. These features were partly known from former prospection and excavations. We used a Cesium-magnetometer as a vertical gradiometer with an additional base- station for diurnal corrections to obtain the anomalies of the total field. We also tested electromagnetic profiling. Magnetograms of the total field measured in 0.4 m height depicted structural features of extended objects more clearly than those of the gradi- ent. The ditches and walls could partly be traced as expected. As a surprise for the archaeologists, a 400 m long part of the hellenistic citywall was discovered in the western part of the Lower City. It had been expected to exist about 100 m to the east. Verified by excavation in the same trench, a significant part of the Bronze Age ditch appeared. These findings extend the known area of the Lower City of Troia by about four hec- tars. For the first time, large structures outside the Citadel and the Lower City were detected including the former bed of the Simoeis river. In 2001 the prospected area was extended by seven more hectars.

  3. Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.

  4. Geomorphology of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    The Copper River, located in southcentral Alaska, drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. About 30 miles above its mouth, this large river enters Miles Lake, a proglacial lake formed by the retreat of Miles Glacier. Downstream from the outlet of Miles Lake, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier before it enters a large, broad, alluvial flood plain. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain and in 1995, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. These bridges cross parts of the Copper River and in recent years, some of these bridges have sustained serious damage due to the changing course of the Copper River. Although the annual mean discharge of the lower Copper River is 57,400 cubic feet per second, most of the flow occurs during the summer months from snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt. Approximately every six years, an outburst flood from Van Cleve Lake, a glacier-dammed lake formed by Miles Glacier, releases approximately 1 million acre-feet of water into the Copper River. When the outflow rate from Van Cleve Lake reaches it peak, the flow of the Copper River will increase between 150,000 to 190,000 cubic feet per second. Data collected by bedload sampling and continuous seismic reflection indicated that Miles Lake traps virtually all the bedload being transported by the Copper River as it enters the lake from the north. The reservoir-like effect of Miles Lake results in the armoring of the channel of the Copper River downstream from Miles Lake, past Childs Glacier, until it reaches the alluvial flood plain. At this point, bedload transport begins again. The lower Copper River transports 69 million tons per year of suspended sediment, approximately the same quantity as the Yukon River, which drains an area of more than 300,000 square miles. By correlating concurrent flows from a long-term streamflow-gaging station on the Copper River with a short-term streamflow-gaging station at the outlet of Miles Lake

  5. 45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Double crush syndrome in the lower extremity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Anthony V; Hruska, Jerome K; Braun, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Upton and McComas first described double crush syndrome in 1973. The theory behind double crush syndrome postulated that a proximal lesion in a nerve would make that same nerve more vulnerable to additional distal lesions. Many of the studies investigating the possibility of the double crush syndrome involve lesions in the upper extremity with very few articles written specifically about double crush syndrome in the lower extremity. We present the case of a 33-year-old massage therapist who uses her feet to provide therapy to clients who presented to our clinic with symptoms consistent with tarsal tunnel syndrome. Her failure to progress in a satisfactory manner after a variety of therapies made us search for additional etiologies for her foot pain. In cases where tarsal tunnel persists after surgical therapy, the treating physician should search for more proximal lesions along the course of the nerve. PMID:22826333

  7. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  8. Continental crustal composition and lower crustal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the upper crust is well established as being close to that of granodiorite. The upper crustal composition is reflected in the uniform REE abundances in shales which represent an homogenization of the various REE patterns. This composition can only persist to depths of 10-15 km, for heat flow and geochemical balance reasons. The composition of the total crust is model dependent. One constraint is that it should be capable of generating the upper granodioritic (S.L.) crust by partial melting within the crust. This composition is based on the andesite model, which assumes that the total crust has grown by accretion of island arc material. A representation of the growth rate of the continental crust is shown. The composition of the lower crust, which comprises 60-80% of the continental crust, remains a major unknown factor for models of terrestrial crustal evolution. Two approaches are used to model the lower crust.

  9. What Controls the Arctic Lower Stratosphere Temperature?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The temperature of the Arctic lower stratosphere is critical for understanding polar ozone levels. As temperatures drop below about 195 K, polar stratospheric clouds form, which then convert HCl and ClONO2 into reactive forms that are catalysts for ozone loss reactions. Hence, the lower stratospheric temperature during the March period is a key parameter for understanding polar ozone losses. The temperature is basically understood to be a result of planetary waves which drive the polar temperature away from a cold "radiative equilibrium" state. This is demonstrated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis calculations of the heat flux and the mean polar temperature. The temperature during the March period is fundamentally driven by the integrated impact of large scale waves moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere during the January through February period.

  10. Lower Stratospheric Measurement Issues Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeltekopf, Arthur L.

    1992-01-01

    The Lower Stratospheric Measurement Issues workshop was held on 17-19 Oct. 1990. The 3-day workshop was sponsored by the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Its purpose was to provide a scientific forum for addressing specific issues regarding chemistry and transport in the lower stratosphere, for which measurements are essential to an assessment of the environmental impact of a projected fleet of high speed civil transports (HSCTs). The objective of the workshop was to obtain vigorous and critical review of the following topics: (1) atmospheric measurements needed for the assessment; (2) present capability for making those measurements; and (3) areas in instrumentation or platform development essential to making the measurements.

  11. What Controls the Arctic Lower Stratosphere Temperature?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The temperature of the Arctic lower stratosphere is critical for understanding polar ozone levels. As temperatures drop below about 195 K, polar stratospheric clouds form, which then convert HCl and ClONO2 into reactive forms that are catalysts for ozone loss reactions. Hence, the lower stratospheric temperature during the March period is a key parameter for understanding polar ozone losses. The temperature is basically understood to be a result of planetary waves which drive the polar temperature away from a cold "radiative equilibrium" state. This is demonstrated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis calculations of the heat flux and the mean polar temperature. The temperature during the March period is fundamentally driven by the integrated impact of large scale waves moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere during the January through February period. We will further show that the recent cold years in the northern polar vortex are a result of this weakened wave driving of the stratosphere.

  12. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  13. Lower incisor retraction with a modified corticotomy.

    PubMed

    Germeç, Derya; Giray, Bahadir; Kocadereli, Ilken; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment facilitated with a new conservative corticotomy technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with protrusive profile, severe anterior crowding, an anterior crossbite, and Class III dental relationship. Orthodontic treatment consisted of the extraction of four first premolars with maximum anchorage. A modified corticotomy technique, in which the lingual vertical and subapical horizontal cuts were eliminated, was combined with orthodontic therapy for the retraction of the lower anterior teeth. Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics dramatically reduced the treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of the teeth. The main advantages of this modified corticotomy technique were the elimination of the lingual cuts and flap, the reduction of surgery time, and minimum discomfort to the patient. At the end of active orthodontic therapy, balanced occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved. PMID:17029527

  14. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications. PMID:19161121

  15. Lower-extremity ulcers: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, R S; Vivas, A C

    2015-08-01

    Chronic wounds of the lower extremities are occurring with increasing prevalence. They affect millions of individuals annually, representing both a significant health risk and a large economic burden. Chronic wounds are associated with increased mortality and substantial morbidity due to infection, pain, limitation of daily activities, and psychosocial consequences. To manage these wounds effectively, clinicians must be able to diagnose and manage their aetiology. Diagnosis starts with determining whether the wound is one of the four most common chronic wounds: venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and arterial ulcers. Moreover, despite many recent advances in wound care, the challenge of managing chronic wounds is complicated by the lack of consistently accepted diagnostic methods and wound-care standards. We present a comprehensive yet condensed approach to managing lower-extremity ulcers, from diagnosis to basic management. PMID:26257052

  16. A rare cause of lower GI bleeding.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Ali, A Mohamed; Saraj, Othman; Babu, Sathish; Morgan, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed due to GI amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma. A 79-year-old lady who presented with bloody diarrhoea for 4 weeks. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed slight oedematous mucosa extending up to the sigmoid colon. CT abdomen showed lytic lesions in the vertebral bodies. 24 h protein analysis and serum electrophoresis suggestive of multiple myeloma, which was confirmed with bone marrow biopsy, revealed plasma cell myeloma. PMID:22962379

  17. Ultrasound of lower limb sports injuries

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neeraj B

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound utilises high-frequency linear transducers to produce high-resolution images of soft tissue structures. It is an increasingly useful tool in the assessment of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries; it is relatively cheap, portable and can be used to facilitate targeted injections. In this review paper, we aim to provide a summary on the normal and abnormal appearances of skeletal tissue in the setting of acute and chronic lower limb sporting injuries. PMID:27433251

  18. Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein.

    PubMed

    Partridge, T C; Granger, D E; Caffee, M W; Clarke, R J

    2003-04-25

    Cosmogenic aluminum-26 and beryllium-10 burial dates of low-lying fossiliferous breccia in the caves at Sterkfontein, South Africa, show that associated hominid fossils accumulated in the Lower Pliocene. These dates indicate that the skeleton StW 573 and newly discovered specimens from Jacovec Cavern have much the same age: approximately 4 million years. These specimens are thus of an age similar to Australopithecus anamensis from East Africa. PMID:12714736

  19. Panafrican distribution of Lower Miocene Hominoidea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Pickford, Martin; Wessels, Dudley

    1997-11-01

    Palaeontological survey of the Neogene littoral deposits of the Namaqualand coastal strip, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, has resulted in the collection of the first Lower Miocene faunas from South Africa. Among the mammals from Ryskop and Hondeklip Bay is a gorilla-sized hominoid. This discovery greatly increases the geographic range of early Miocene hominoids and suggests that even at this remote epoch, the superfamily had a Panafrican distribution.

  20. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.

  1. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  2. Ultrasound of lower limb sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Neeraj B; King, Leonard J

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound utilises high-frequency linear transducers to produce high-resolution images of soft tissue structures. It is an increasingly useful tool in the assessment of both acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries; it is relatively cheap, portable and can be used to facilitate targeted injections. In this review paper, we aim to provide a summary on the normal and abnormal appearances of skeletal tissue in the setting of acute and chronic lower limb sporting injuries. PMID:27433251

  3. Lower body graduated negative pressure system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The first task concerning the Lower Body Negative Pressure Suit was to determine the best type construction for a leg section with these goals in mind: good mobility, minimum amount of bulk, ease of storage, lightweight, rigid enough to withstand atmospheric pressure, and minimum amount of preparation before donning and donning time. After a study of three systems, wire hoops (rings) separated on inch apart in an airtight material furnished by NASA were chosen.

  4. Early eutrophication in the lower great lakes:.

    PubMed

    Schelske, C L; Stoermer, E F; Conley, D J; Robbins, J A; Glover, R M

    1983-10-21

    New Evidence from Biogenic Silica in Sediments New evidence from studies of biogenic silica and diatoms in sediment cores indicates that eutrophication in the lower Great Lakes resulted from nutrient enrichment associated with early settlement and forest clearance. Diatom production peaked from 1820 to 1850 in Lake Ontario, at about 1880 in Lake Erie, but not until 1970 in Lake Michigan. This is the first reported sediment record of the silica-depletion sequence for the Great Lakes. PMID:17734831

  5. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities.

    PubMed

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension. PMID:27104688

  6. Soccer injury in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Wong, P; Hong, Y

    2005-08-01

    Information about soccer injuries is required to develop prevention and rehabilitation programmes. Most soccer injuries occur in the lower extremities. This type of injury is reviewed here. Definitions of injury, injury rate, injury percentage, mechanism of injury, anatomical region of injury, type of injury, and severity of injury are summarised. In each section, a description and summary of the data are provided. Finally, the limitations of the studies and suggestions to improve the investigation of soccer injuries are provided. PMID:16046325

  7. Perioperative lower extremity peripheral nerve traction injuries.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Chhatre, Akhil; Kotcharian, Ashot S

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve traction injuries may occur after surgical care and can involve any of the lower extremity large peripheral nerves. In this review, the authors discuss injuries after knee or hip surgical intervention. The diagnosis, including electrodiagnostic studies, is time sensitive and also relies on a detailed history and physical examination. Successful prevention and treatment involve familiarity with risk and predisposing factors as well as prophylactic measures. PMID:24267207

  8. Lower urinary tract development and disease.

    PubMed

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  9. Growth of the lower continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the largest uncertainties in crustal composition and growth models is the nature of the lower continental crust. Specifically, by what processes is it formed and modified, and when is it formed, particularly in reference to the upper crust? The main reason for this lack of information is the scarcity of lower crustal rock samples. These are restricted to two types: rocks which outcrop in granulite facies terrains and granulite facies xenoliths which are transported to the earth's surface by young volcanics. The important conclusions arising from the xenolith studies are: the majority of mafic lower crustal xenoliths formed through cumulate process, resitic xenoliths are rare; and formation and metamorphism of the deep crust is intimately linked to igneous activity and/or orogeny which are manifest in one form or another at the earth's surface. Therefore, estimates of crustal growth based on surface exposures is representative, although the proportion of remobilized pre-existing crust may be significantly greater at the surface than in the deep crust.

  10. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  11. Ferrous iron partitioning in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Joshua M. R.; Brodholt, John P.

    2016-08-01

    We used density functional theory (DFT) to examine the partitioning of ferrous iron between periclase and bridgmanite under lower mantle conditions. To study the effects of the three major variables - pressure, temperature and concentration - these have been varied from 0 to 150 GPa, from 1000 to 4000 K and from 0 to 100% total iron content. We find that increasing temperature increases KD, increasing iron concentration decreases KD, while pressure can both increase and decrease KD. We find that KD decreases slowly from about 0.32 to 0.06 with depth under lower mantle conditions. We also find that KD increases sharply to 0.15 in the very lowermost mantle due to the strong temperature increases near the CMB. Spin transitions have a large effect on the activity of ferropericlase which causes KD to vary with pressure in a peak-like fashion. Despite the apparently large changes in KD through the mantle, this actually results in relatively small changes in total iron content in the two phases, with XFefp ranging from about 0.20 to 0.35, before decreasing again to about 0.28 at the CMB, and XFebd has a pretty constant value of about 0.04-0.07 throughout the lower mantle. For the very high Fe concentrations suggested for ULVZs, Fe partitions very strongly into ferropericlase.

  12. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  13. Acidification of the lower Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.F.; Rutherford, D.A.; Walker-Bryan, B.

    1992-05-01

    Nonpoint-source pollutants are implicated in the global acidification of fresh waters. Our ability to differentiate the effects of point-source and nonpoint-source pollution on the acidification of large rivers is limited. Most studies of point-source discharges have been concerned with municipal programs for reducing biochemical oxygen demand, bacterial counts, and total phosphorus; few have addressed acidification of rivers. Because of the meager information on the role of nonpoint-source and industrial pollution in the acidification of large rivers, we examined long-term trends (and cyclic seasonal events) in pH, alkalinity, and selected ions in the lower Mississippi River basin from 1958 to 1986. Time-series analyses disclosed significant declines in pH and alkalinity and increases in strong acid anions in the lower 300 km (industrial corridor) of the lower Mississippi River. However, upstream from most industry on the Mississippi River and throughout the Atchafalaya River, where agricultural development has predominated, long-term trends in those characteristics were variable or nonsignificant. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Design and fabrication of the progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2011-11-01

    The use of progressive addition lenses (PALs) for the correction of presbyopia has increased dramatically in recent years. These lenses are now being used as the preferred alternative to bifocal and trifocal lenses in many parts of the world. Progressive addition lenses are a kind of opthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the Progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper area, to a maximum value in the lower area. Thus a PAL has a surface with three zones which have very small astigmatism: far-view zone, near-view zone, and intermediate zone. The far view zone and near view zone have relatively constant powers and connected by the intermediate zone with power varies progressively. The design and fabrication technologies of progressive addition lenses have fast progresses because of the massive development of the optical simulation software, multi-axis ultraprecision machining technologies and CNC machining technologies. The design principles of progressive addition lenses are discussed in a historic review. Several kinds of design methods are illustrated, and their advantages and disadvantages are also represented. In the current study, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the different progressive addition lenses designs are significantly different from one another. The different fabrication technologies of Progressive addition lenses are also discussed in the paper. Plastic injection molding and precision-machine turning are the common fabrication technologies for exterior PALs and Interior PALs respectively.

  15. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  16. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  17. Hypolipidimic and antioxidant activities of oleuropein and its hydrolysis derivative-rich extracts from Chemlali olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Jemai, Hedya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Fki, Ines; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-11-25

    Oleuropein-rich extracts from olive leaves and their enzymatic and acid hydrolysates, respectively rich in oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol, were prepared under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were examined by a series of models in vitro. In this study the lipid-lowering and the antioxidative activities of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet were tested. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The serum lipid levels, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, as indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were examined. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hyperlipidemia resulting in the elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts significantly lowered the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS in liver, heart, kidneys and aorta decreased significantly after oral administration of polyphenol-rich olive leaf extracts compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. In addition, these extracts increased the serum antioxidant potential and the hepatic CAT and SOD activities. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts might be due to their abilities to lower serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels as well as slowing the lipid peroxidation process and enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:18823963

  18. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  19. Harnessing publicly available genetic data to prioritize lipid modifying therapeutic targets for prevention of coronary heart disease based on dysglycemic risk.

    PubMed

    Tragante, Vinicius; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Palmer, Tom M; Moore, Jason H; de Bakker, Paul I W; Keating, Brendan J; Holmes, Michael V

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic interventions that lower LDL-cholesterol effectively reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, statins, the most widely prescribed LDL-cholesterol lowering drugs, increase diabetes risk. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in the public domain to investigate the relationship of LDL-C and diabetes and identify loci encoding potential drug targets for LDL-cholesterol modification without causing dysglycemia. We obtained summary-level GWAS data for LDL-C from GLGC, glycemic traits from MAGIC, diabetes from DIAGRAM and CAD from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortia. Mendelian randomization analyses identified a one standard deviation (SD) increase in LDL-C caused an increased risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.63 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.55, 1.71), which was not influenced by removing SNPs associated with diabetes. LDL-C/CAD-associated SNPs showed consistent effect directions (binomial P = 6.85 × 10(-5)). Conversely, a 1-SD increase in LDL-C was causally protective of diabetes (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.81, 0.91), however LDL-cholesterol/diabetes-associated SNPs did not show consistent effect directions (binomial P = 0.15). HMGCR, our positive control, associated with LDL-C, CAD and a glycemic composite (derived from GWAS meta-analysis of four glycemic traits and diabetes). In contrast, PCSK9, APOB, LPA, CETP, PLG, NPC1L1 and ALDH2 were identified as "druggable" loci that alter LDL-C and risk of CAD without displaying associations with dysglycemia. In conclusion, LDL-C increases the risk of CAD and the relationship is independent of any association of LDL-C with diabetes. Loci that encode targets of emerging LDL-C lowering drugs do not associate with dysglycemia, and this provides provisional evidence that new LDL-C lowering drugs (such as PCSK9 inhibitors) may not influence risk of diabetes. PMID:26946290

  20. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  1. Drier Air, Lower Temperatures, and Triggering of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Link, Mark S.; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Laden, Francine; Schwartz, Joel; Wessler, Benjamin S.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Gold, Diane R.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The few previous studies on the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and meteorologic conditions have focused on outdoor temperature and hospital admissions, but hospital admissions are a crude indicator of atrial fibrillation incidence, and studies have found other weather measures in addition to temperature to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Two hundred patients with dual chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were enrolled and followed prospectively from 2006 to 2010 for new onset episodes of atrial fibrillation. The date and time of arrhythmia episodes documented by the implanted cardioverter-defibrillators were linked to meteorologic data and examined using a case-crossover analysis. We evaluated associations with outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, air pressure, and three measures of humidity (relative humidity, dew point, and absolute humidity). Results Of the 200 enrolled patients, 49 patients experienced 328 atrial fibrillation episodes lasting ≥30 seconds. Lower temperatures in the prior 48 hours were positively associated with atrial fibrillation. Lower absolute humidity (ie, drier air) had the strongest and most consistent association: each 0.5 g/m3 decrease in the prior 24 hours increased the odds of atrial fibrillation by 4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%, 7%) and by 5% (95% CI: 2%, 8%) for exposure in the prior 2 hours. Results were similar for dew point but slightly weaker. Conclusions Recent exposure to drier air and lower temperatures were associated with the onset of atrial fibrillation among patients with known cardiac disease, supporting the hypothesis that meteorologic conditions trigger acute cardiovascular episodes. PMID:25756220

  2. [Blood pressure limits--the lower, the better?].

    PubMed

    Leibundgut, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Arterial hypertension is a widespread risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The benefit of a consistent drug therapy is proportionally associated with the degree of blood pressure reduction. By extrapolating the data, the assumption arose “the lower the better” and was widely accepted. However, several studies found an increase in morbidity and mortality with an excessive reduction of blood pressure (J-curve). This seems to affect mainly cardiac risk, and only at lower blood pressures<60 mmHg also the cerebral risk. An important factor here is the diastolic blood pressure. Others found a linear correlation. Overall, a j-shaped connection remains controversial and is not considered equally for all organ systems. At the same time cardiovascular risk seems not to increase with additional reduction in blood pressure of <140 mm Hg to <120 mmHg. This has led to the latest guidelines of all societies recommending higher target values. Reasons for higher targets in drug therapy of arterial hypertension, are increased adverse drug reactions or increased healthcare costs with few additional benefit. The current recommendations of the ESH/ESC, AHA/ACC/ASH and the JNC 8 set a higher target value for some subgroups, but remain inconsistent among themselves. PMID:26098188

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. Focus on PCSK9 Inhibitors: From Genetics to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sabatine, Marc S; Underberg, James A; Koren, Michael; Baum, Seth J

    2016-10-01

    Elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Over the years, clinical outcome studies with LDL-C lowering agents have revealed that reducing LCL-C levels is effective in reducing rates of major ASCVD events. Although secondary factors play a role in clinical expression, severe lipid disorders often have a strong genetic component. Genetic revelations have provided novel targets for improving LDL-C management in high-risk individuals. Most recently, researchers have explored how the inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) alters LDL metabolism and lowers LDL-C levels to achieve lipid goals and potentially reduce ASCVD risk in patients with severe lipid disorders, including familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). This CMHC Spotlight article summarizes the clinical evidence demonstrating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in lowering LDL-C levels. Reductions in LDL-C levels by PCSK9 inhibitors alone in patients who are statin intolerant or combined with maximally tolerated statins in patients with severe lipid disorders demonstrate the potential for reduced morbidity and mortality associated with ASCVD. PMID:27422124

  5. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional information. 25.111 Section 25.111... Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.111 Additional information. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any time additional information concerning any application, or...

  6. 20 CFR 901.72 - Additional rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional rules. 901.72 Section 901.72... Additional rules. The Joint Board may, in notice or other guidance of general applicability, provide additional rules regarding the enrollment of actuaries. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 17776, Mar. 31,...

  7. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  8. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  9. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  10. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  11. 77 FR 49783 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/22/2012 (77 FR 37659-37660), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  12. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  13. 20 CFR 802.215 - Additional briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional briefs. 802.215 Section 802.215 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prereview Procedures Initial Processing § 802.215 Additional briefs. Additional briefs may be filed or ordered in...

  14. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to determine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section...

  15. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/30/2012 (77 FR 71400-71401), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  16. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/31/2013 (78 FR 32631-32632); 6/7/2013 (78 FR 34350-34351); and 6/14/2013 (78 FR... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 34 CFR 75.231 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional information. 75.231 Section 75.231 Education... Make A Grant § 75.231 Additional information. After selecting an application for funding, the Secretary may require the applicant to submit additional information. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)...

  18. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The... activity to submit additional information....

  19. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  20. 10 CFR 725.13 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional information. 725.13 Section 725.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Applications § 725.13 Additional information. The... and before the termination of the permit, require additional information in order to enable the...

  1. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  2. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  3. 12 CFR 1249.19 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional provisions. 1249.19 Section 1249.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 1249.19 Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under this part, an Enterprise may require such...

  4. 75 FR 33269 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  5. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  6. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  9. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/16/2009 (74 FR 58949-58950), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 75 FR 54114 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/2/2010 (75 FR 38467-38468) and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  12. 77 FR 53180 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/15/2012 (77 FR 35942-35944) and 6/29/2012 (77 FR 38775-38776), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  13. 76 FR 19751 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  15. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition to those established in...

  16. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  17. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  18. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  19. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  20. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  1. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  2. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  3. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 1/13/2012 (77 FR 2048), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  4. 75 FR 39497 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 5/14/2010 (75 FR 27313), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  5. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 7/26/2013 (78 FR 45183); 8/9/2013 (78 FR 48656-48657) and 8/16/ 2013 (78 FR 50040... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  6. 77 FR 12816 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/24/2011 (76 FR 37069-37070) and 1/6/2012 (77 FR 780), the Committee for Purchase... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  7. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 10/14/2011 (76 FR 63905-63906) and 10/28/2011 (76 FR 66913- 66914), the Committee... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  8. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/26/2010 (75 FR 8927), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  9. 75 FR 43152 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995) and 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  10. 75 FR 29995 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 12/18/2009 (74 FR 67176-67177), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List....

  12. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 2/25/2011 (76 FR 10571), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  13. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 7/9/2012 (77 FR 40344-40345) and 7/20/2012 (77 FR 42701-42702), the... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  14. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 4/29/2011 (76 FR 23998), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 11/9/2012 (77 FR 67343-67344), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  16. 75 FR 72815 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769) and 10/1/2010 (75 FR 60739-60740), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 16476 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...: Additions On 1/18/2013 (78 FR 4133-4134), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  18. 75 FR 70908 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 9/24/2010 (75 FR 58367), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  19. 75 FR 58366 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271) and 7/16/2010 (75 FR 41451), the Committee for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  20. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... INFORMATION: Addition On 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do not... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  2. 47 CFR 74.28 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 74.28 Section 74.28... Services in Part 74 § 74.28 Additional orders. In case the rules contained in this part do not cover all... additional orders in each case as may be deemed necessary....

  3. 27 CFR 19.967 - Additional security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional security. 19..., Equipment and Security § 19.967 Additional security. If the appropriate TTB officer finds that security is... diversion of spirits to unauthorized purposes, additional security measures may be required. Such...

  4. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  5. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  6. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the...

  7. Spectral energetics of the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A spectral energetics analysis of the lower thermosphere is carried out using simulated data from the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere General Circulation Model (TIGCM). The results clarify the physical processes through which upwardly propagating semidiurnal tides dissipate and release their energy into the lower thermosphere. Energy residing within the study region is partitioned into reservoirs of available potential energy, irrotational kinetic energy, and nondivergent kinetic energy at four vertical levels. A definition of available potential energy is used that is appropriate for regions of variable mean molecular weight. The reservoirs are further subdivided by vector spherical harmonic wave numbers, and an energy budget is computed for each mode. The source, sink, and transformation terms are obtained using a post-processor that reproduces the contribution of each term in the momentum and thermodynamic equations. The loss terms for the zonal wave number two modes represent the dissipating forces for the semidiurnal tides. Viscosity, heat conduction, and ion drag represent the primary dissipative forces. Numerical smoothing within the TIGCM, representing the subgrid-scale diffusion, is found to have a non-negligible contribution to the tidal dissipation. A small terdiurnal tide that is excited by ion drag is also observed in the model. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to ascertain the effects of the seasonal cycle, solar cycle, UT, and geomagnetic activity. At solar maximum, solar heating at the trough of the tide is an important dissipative force; the altitude of tidal dissipation is correspondingly lower. At high values of geomagnetic forcing, the propagating semidiurnal tide is completely dissipated within the study region.

  8. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age {+-} 95% confidence interval = 70 {+-} 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 {+-} 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 {+-} 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding.

  9. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives... of a color additive petition to change a provisionally listed color additive to permanent listing...

  10. Structure and dynamics of Earth's lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Garnero, Edward J; McNamara, Allen K

    2008-05-01

    Processes within the lowest several hundred kilometers of Earth's rocky mantle play a critical role in the evolution of the planet. Understanding Earth's lower mantle requires putting recent seismic and mineral physics discoveries into a self-consistent, geodynamically feasible context. Two nearly antipodal large low-shear-velocity provinces in the deep mantle likely represent chemically distinct and denser material. High-resolution seismological studies have revealed laterally varying seismic velocity discontinuities in the deepest few hundred kilometers, consistent with a phase transition from perovskite to post-perovskite. In the deepest tens of kilometers of the mantle, isolated pockets of ultralow seismic velocities may denote Earth's deepest magma chamber. PMID:18451293

  11. [Sonography of the lower urogenital system].

    PubMed

    Schmoller, H; Forstner, R; Sattlegger, P

    1993-12-01

    A suprapubic transvesical sonography of the lower urogenital tract performed by a radiologist is part of a complete investigation of the abdomen. The application of endosonographical methods is mainly subject-related in gynecology and obstetrics as well as in urology. The ranking rate of suprapubic transvesical sonography is compared with endosonographical methods, and, as indicated, also with CT und MRI. Concerning pathological-sonographical details, it is referred to the relevant literature. The diagnostic accuracy depends on the experience and ability of the investigator. PMID:8118192

  12. Lower Three Runs Instream Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    An Instream Flow Study was conducted to identify the minimum discharge from PAR Pond that will support a balanced biological fish community in Lower Three Runs. Hydraulic and habitat models of the Physical Habitat simulation System (PHABSIM), the major component of the US Fish and Wildlife Service`s Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) were applied. Following calibration of the Water Surface Profile (WSP)Model for three study reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to develop relationships between discharge and reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to development relationship between discharge and available habitat.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of lower urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is routinely performed in small animals with lower urinary tract disease. Survey radiographs allow identification of radiopaque calculi, gas within the urinary tract, and lymph node or bone metastases. Cystography and urethrography remain useful in the evaluation of bladder or urethral rupture, abnormal communication with other organs, and lesions of the pelvic or penile urethra. Ultrasonography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of most disorders. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in evaluating the ureterovesical junction and intrapelvic lesions, monitoring the size of lesions, and evaluating lymph nodes and osseous structures for metastases. PMID:25813401

  14. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.

    1982-01-01

    Partial substitution of a p-aminostyrene end-cap for the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid lowered the final cure temperature of typical PMR resins from 600 F to 500 F. The weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites prepared by using the mixed end-cap approach were determined at 600 F. The room temperature and short-time elevated temperature mechanical properties of the composites at 550 F and 600 F were determined. The mechanical property retention characteristics of the composites at 550 F and 600 F are discussed.

  15. Geophysical - new technology, lower cost gearing search

    SciTech Connect

    Heitman, L.B.

    1985-12-01

    Seismic companies will remain competitive only if they reduce costs and at the same time increase the technological capabilities of their products. Overcapacity and lower prices plague geophysical films. Several key improvements in offshore seismic data collection were made during 1985, e.g., wide-tow seismic source arrays that improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by reducing various unwanted noise compounds have become standard and seismic source levels have also been increased by a wider variety of air and water gun offering. These improvement in data collection are discussed.

  16. Lower San Fernando corrugated metal pipe failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bardet, J.P.; Davis, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    During the January 17, 1994, Northridge earthquake, a 2.4 m diameter corrugated metal pipe was subjected to 90 m of extensive lateral crushing failure at the Lower San Fernando Dam. The dam and outlet works were reconstructed after the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake. In 1994, the dam underwent liquefaction upstream of the reconstructed berm. The pipe collapsed on the west side of the liquefied zone and a large sinkhole formed over the drain line. The failure of this drain line provides a unique opportunity to study the seismic response of buried drains and culverts.

  17. Whistle lower-better late than never

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Arjun; Sivaramakrishnan, Mahadevan; Vallandramam, Pattabhi Raman R; Yadav, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    16 years old boy with childhood history of chronic respiratory symptoms requiring several admissions presented with recent worsening of symptoms. Chest x-ray showed left lower lobe collapse and flexible bronchoscopy revealed stenosis of left main bronchus. Foreign body was seen beyond the stenosis, which was removed after dilatation of narrowed bronchus under general anesthesia using rigid bronchoscopy. Patient's father gave a history of aspiration of whistle 14 years ago, which had then been removed. Patient is now free of symptoms after removal of foreign body. PMID:27185996

  18. Pediatric CT: Strategies to Lower Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Claudia; Alessio, Adam M.; Otto, Randolph K.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Philips, Grace S.; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Thapa, Mahesh M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The introduction of MDCT has increased the utilization of CT in pediatric radiology along with concerns for radiation sequelae. This article reviews general principles of lowering radiation dose, the basic physics that impact radiation dose, and specific CT integrated dose-reduction tools focused on the pediatric population. CONCLUSION The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature regarding CT dose reduction methods, their limitations, and an outlook on future developments with a focus on the pediatric population. The discussion will initially focus on general considerations that lead to radiation dose reduction, followed by specific technical features that influence the radiation dose. PMID:23617474

  19. Titania nanorods curve to lower their energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengzhong; Finnegan, Michael P; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous formation of curved nanorods is generally unexpected, since curvature introduces strain energy. However, electron microscopy shows that under hydrothermal conditions, some nanorods grown by oriented attachment of small anatase particles on {101} surfaces are curved and dislocation free. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the lattice energy of a curved anatase rod is actually lower than that of a linear rod due to more attractive long-range interatomic Coulombic interactions among atoms in the curved rod. The thermodynamic driving force stemming from lattice energy could be harnessed to produce asymmetric morphologies unexpected from classical Ostwald ripening with unusual shapes and properties. PMID:23794056

  20. A modified lower hybrid coupler for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.; Goranson, P.; Swain, D.

    1995-07-01

    Efforts have concentrated on redesigning the configuration of the Lower Hybrid coupler for TPX tokamak. Several concerns motivated this redesign: reduce the effect of thermal incompatibility between coupler and rf-window material, reduce weight, reduce the risk of wind failure and address the problem of replaceability, increase the reliability by reducing the number connections and finally, reduce the total cost. The result is a highly compact, light and easily serviceable coupler which incorporates some of the simplicity of the multifunction coupler but preserves the spectral flexibility of a conventional coupler.

  1. Fluvial terraces of the lower Susquehanna River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Gardner, Thomas W.

    1993-11-01

    Fluvial terraces of the lower Susquehanna River offer a unique opportunity to investigate the late stage geologic and geomorphic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic passive margin. Petrography and elevation distinguish and provide a basis for correlation of two groups of terraces, the upland terraces and lower terraces, through the Piedmont, Newark Basin, and Great Valley. Downstream correlation to dated upper Coastal Plain and Fall Zone fluvial deposits, relative weathering, and soil profile development characteristics establish terrace age. Upland terraces (Tg1, Tg2, and Tg3), middle to late Miocene strath terraces 80 to 140 m above the present channel, occur only along the Piedmont reach. They are underlain by unstratified, texturally-mature, quartz-dominated roundstone diamictons. Lower terraces (QTg, Qt1-Qt6), Pliocene and Pleistocene strath and thin aggradational terraces within 45 m of the present channel, are underlain by stratified and unstratified, texturally and compositionally immature sand, gravel, and pebbly silt. Terrace age and longitudinal profiles suggest complex interactions among relative base level, long-term flexural isostatic processes, climate, and river grade. Our model for terrace genesis requires the Susquehanna River to attain and maintain a characteristics graded longitudinal profile over graded time. For the U.S. Atlantic margin, we propose that straths are continually cut along this graded profile during periods of relative base level stability, achieved by slow, steady, isostatic continental uplift acting in concert with eustatic rise. Change in an external modulating factor, such as eustatic fall or climate change, results in fluvial incision and subsequent genesis of strath terraces. Longitudinal profiles of lower Susquehanna River terraces, which converge at the river mouth, diverge through the Piedmont, and reconverge north of the Piedmont, contrast with their hypothesized, original concave-up profiles. Progressive and cumulative

  2. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    PubMed

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline. PMID:24062875

  3. Consequences and Costs of Lower Extremity Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR

    2004-01-01

    Lower extremity injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more important as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data provide a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134

  4. Advanced sensors, technology lower costs, boost productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Altpeter, L.L.; Kothari, K.

    1997-04-01

    Lower costs and higher productivity for the maintenance and repair of gas distribution systems has become an ever-increasing challenge to local distribution companies throughout the United States. A significant portion of costs for operations such as pipe location, leak pinpointing and leak surveying, arise from the inadequacies of their sensing technologies, some of which have not changed significantly in nearly 30 years. After reviewing the basic costs of pipe location, leak pinpointing, and leak surveying operations, the paper describes several advanced sensors for gas leak detection, and several sensors for pipe location and leak pinpointing.

  5. Lateral variations in lower mantle seismic velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Thomas S.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a theoretical model which provides a rationale for the observed high values of velocity variations, the effect of a 0.1 to 0.2 percent partially molten volatile-rich material in various geometries which are heterogeneously dispersed in the lower mantle is examined. Data obtained indicate that, depending on aspect ratio and geometry, 0.1-0.2 percent partial melting in conjunction with about 100 K thermal anomalies can explain the seismic variations provided the compressibility of the melt differs by less than about 20 percent from the surrounding solid.

  6. Polymeric additives for antistatic treatment of sheet molding composites (SMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedan-Smolka, Michaela; Schubert, Katrin; Taeger, Antje; Marks, Hagen

    2016-03-01

    Novel oligomeric/polymeric additives with ionic units were synthesized in a one pot procedure in order to enhance the specific surface resistivity of SMC-materials. In contrast to industrially used inorganic salts or carbon materials, such as carbon black or CNT's, these substances are nearly colorless and matrix compatible and, resulting from that, easy to homogenize with the SMC-matrix. Furthermore, it was found, that additives which can be covalently bonded to the matrix during the molding procedure are preferred compared to physically mixed substances. The effectiveness of chemically bonded substances regarding with the lowering of the specific surface resistivity is higher and selected additives do not change the reactivity and resulting mechanical properties of the molded material.

  7. Development of new addition-type composite resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kray, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising of a number of new addition type polyimides and polyaromatic melamine (NCNS) resins for use in high performance composite materials. Three different cure temperature ranges were of interest: 530-560 K (500-550 F), 475-530 K (400-500 F), and 450 K (350 F). Examined were a wide variety of polyimide precursors terminated with 5 norbornene groups and addition polymerized at 560 K similar to PMR-15 and LARC-160 polyimides. In addition, a number of lower curing cinnamal end capped polyimides and a bismaleimide were investigated but were not found promising. A group of NCNS resins were investigated and some were found to be superior to current epoxy resins in moisture resistance, oxidative aging and flame and smoke properties.

  8. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  9. Sources of suspended sediment in the Lower Roanoke River, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowska, A. M.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Laceby, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Roanoke River, NC, extends 220 km from the fall line to the bayhead delta front in the Albemarle Sound. The Lower Roanoke is almost completely disconnected from the upper reaches by a series of dams, with the furthest downstream dam located at the fall line. The dams effectively restrict the suspended sediment delivery from headwaters, making soils and sediments from the Lower Roanoke River basin, the sole source of suspended sediment. In flow-regulated rivers, bank erosion, especially mass wasting, is the major contributor to the suspended matter. Additional sources of the suspended sediment considered in this study are river channel, surface soils, floodplain surface sediments, and erosion of the delta front and prodelta. Here, we examine spatial and temporal variations in those sources. This study combined the use of flow and grain size data with a sediment fingerprinting method, to examine the contribution of surface and subsurface sediments to the observed suspended sediment load along the Lower Roanoke River. The fingerprinting method utilized radionuclide tracers 210Pb (natural atmospheric fallout), and 137Cs (produced by thermonuclear bomb testing). The contributions of surface and subsurface sources to the suspended sediment were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a Monte-Carlo numerical mixing model. Our results show that with decreasing river slope and changing hydrography along the river, the contribution of surface sediments increases and becomes a main source of sediments in the Roanoke bayhead delta. At the river mouth, the surface sediment contribution decreases and is replaced by sediments eroded from the delta front and prodelta. The area of high surface sediment contribution is within the middle and upper parts of the delta, which are considered net depositional. Our study demonstrates that floodplains, often regarded to be a sediment sink, are also a sediment source, and they should be factored into sediment, carbon and

  10. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    g/L, respectively). One month after the addition of amendments AC, AC/Fe, and BC/Fe, Cr concentration in the slurry was lower than the detection limit which was 0.5 μg/L (except of one of the soils with the AC that was 2.1 μg/L). The slurries with BC demonstrated Cr concentrations equal to 4.2 and 7.1 μg/L, respectively. All these properties point to promising materials that can effectively be used for in-situ environmental remediation and also be recovered.

  11. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  12. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  13. The effect of switchable water additives on clay settling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Shun; Lau, Ying Yin; Mercer, Sean M; Robert, Tobias; Horton, J Hugh; Jessop, Philip G

    2013-01-01

    The recycling of process water from strip mining extractions is a very relevant task both industrially and environmentally. The sedimentation of fine tailings during such processes, however, can often require long periods of time and/or the addition of flocculants which make later water recycling difficult. We propose the use of switchable water additives as reversible flocculants for clay/water suspensions. Switchable water additives are compounds such as diamines that make it possible to reversibly control the ionic strength of an aqueous solution. Addition of CO(2) to such an aqueous solution causes the ionic strength to rise dramatically, and the change is reversed upon removal of the CO(2). These additives, while in the presence of CO(2), promote the aggregation of clay tailings, reduce settling times, and greatly increase the clarity of the liberated water. The removal of CO(2) from the liberated water regenerates a low ionic strength solution that does not promote clay aggregation and settling until CO(2) is added again. Such reversible behavior would be useful in applications such as oil sands separations in which the recycled water must not promote aggregation. When added to kaolinite and montmorillonite clay suspensions, switchable water provided process waters of lower turbidity than those additives from inorganic salts or by CO(2)-treatment alone. When recollected, the switchable water supernatant was shown to be recyclable over three cycles for enhanced settling of kaolinite. PMID:22945593

  14. Disgust and fear lower olfactory threshold.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kai Qin; Holland, Rob W; van Loon, Ruud; Arts, Roy; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2016-08-01

    Odors provide information regarding the chemical properties of potential environment hazards. Some of this information may be disgust-related (e.g., organic decay), whereas other information may be fear-related (e.g., smoke). Many studies have focused on how disgust and fear, as prototypical avoidant emotions, facilitate the detection of possible threats, but these studies have typically confined to the visual modality. Here, we examine how disgust and fear influence olfactory detection at a particular level-the level at which a subliminal olfactory stimulus crosses into conscious perception, also known as a detection threshold. Here, using psychophysical methods that allow us to test perceptual capabilities directly, we show that one way that disgust (Experiments 1-3) and fear (Experiment 3) facilitate detection is by lowering the amount of physical input that is needed to trigger a conscious experience of that input. This effect is particularly strong among individuals with high disgust sensitivity (Experiments 2-3). Our research suggests that a fundamental way in which avoidant emotions foster threat detection is through lowering perceptual thresholds. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064291

  15. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  16. Induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Kappas, A.

    1993-12-31

    Genetic tests for induction of mitotic aneuploidy in lower eukarotes used mainly the fungal systems of Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There are several differences between the two systems such as the greater tolerance for aneuploidy and the fertility of triploids in S. cerevisiae, the stability of diploids and the selective advantage of haploids over diploids in Aspergillus and the mycelial growth of Aspergillus. On the other hand several similarities also exist between the two systems such as the general instability and varying growth rate of disomics and the random loss of extra chromosomes which produces more competitive types or the most frequent recovery of certain specific aneuploids. In using lower eukaryotes as test systems for the identification of aneugens several points should be considered which concern the relevance of such systems to higher organisms, the ability to identify primary aneuploidy and distinguish this from events, such as chromosomal breaks, which lead to secondary aneuploidy and the ability to obtain repeatable results. Within the framework of an EEC comparative study for evaluating assays for aneuploidy, a number of chemicals were assayed in A. nidulans for mitotic instability due to malsegregation of chromosomes at cell division.

  17. Silurian and Lower Devonian of southwestern Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    Thermal maturity of the Silurian and Lower Devonian rocks in Virginia west of New River decreases southwestward. Oil and gas shows are reported. The total thickness of Lower Devonian plus Silurian strata ranges from 52 to 1000 ft (16 to 305 m), with a maximum in Buchanan County. Sandstones were derived from sources southeast of the central Appalachian basin, some from lands southeast of the outcrop belt, and some formed by reworking of sandstones within the outcrop areas. Sandstones change northwestward to shales in the Clinch and Rose Hill Formations. In the Middle Silurian and Helderberg Group, sandstones grade northwestward to limestones. Limestones in the Hancock Formation change westward to dolomite. The Onesquethaw Stage is represented by sandstone, chert, and limestone assigned to the Wildcat Valley and Huntersville Formations. In the Middle Silurian (Keefer or Big Six sandstone) and Early Devonian (Wildcat Valley Sandstone), longshore currents carried sand across the southwest end of the basin toward Kentucky. Several regional unconformities are present. These unconformities are mostly related to sea level changes, but some are probably tectonic in origin. Five unconformities are significant: 1) at base of Silurian, 2) at base of upper Helderberg over much of the area, 3) at base of Oriskany Sandstone, 4) at base of Huntersville Formation, and 5) at base of Upper Devonian black shales in extreme western Virginia, where Chattanooga Shale overlies middle Devonian to Middle Silurian strata.

  18. A Third Generation Lower Hybrid Coupler

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bernabei; J. Hosea; C. Kung; D. Loesser; J. Rushinski; J.R. Wilson; R. Parker

    2001-12-05

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are preparing an experiment of current profile control using lower-hybrid waves in order to produce and sustain advanced tokamak regimes in steady-state conditions in Alcator C-Mod. Unlike JET's, ToreSupra's and JT60's couplers, the C-Mod lower-hybrid coupler does not employ the now conventional multijunction design, but will have similar characteristics, compactness, and internal power division while retaining full control of the antenna element phasing. This is achieved by using 3 dB vertical power splitters and a stack of laminated plates with the waveguides milled in them. Construction is simplified and allows easy control and maintenance of all parts. Many precautions are taken to avoid arcing. Special care is also taken to avoid the recycling of reflected power which could affect the coupling and the launched n(subscript ||) spectrum. The results from C-Mod should allow further simplification in the designs of the coupler planned for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) and ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  19. Estrogens and Male Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, Jalissa L.; Nicholson, Tristan M.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology and affect the majority of men at some time during their lives. The development of BPH/LUTS is associated with an increased ratio of estrogen to androgen levels, and this ratio, when mimicked in a variety of animals, induces BPH and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, estrogens have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Numerous endogenous and exogenous estrogens exist in humans. These estrogens act via multiple estrogen receptors to promote or inhibit prostatic hyperplasia and other BPH-associated processes. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue, and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of estrogen action directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area and remains to be elucidated. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation illustrating their potential roles in the development of BPH as therapy. More work will be required to identify estrogen signaling pathways associated with LUTD in order to develop more efficacious drugs for BPH treatment and prevention. PMID:26156791

  20. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, John M; Wilt, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424