Science.gov

Sample records for additional learning activities

  1. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  2. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  3. Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  4. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  5. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  6. Mapping Transitions in Interpersonal Learning for Students with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…

  7. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  8. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  9. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  10. Active inference and learning.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; O'Doherty, John; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    This paper offers an active inference account of choice behaviour and learning. It focuses on the distinction between goal-directed and habitual behaviour and how they contextualise each other. We show that habits emerge naturally (and autodidactically) from sequential policy optimisation when agents are equipped with state-action policies. In active inference, behaviour has explorative (epistemic) and exploitative (pragmatic) aspects that are sensitive to ambiguity and risk respectively, where epistemic (ambiguity-resolving) behaviour enables pragmatic (reward-seeking) behaviour and the subsequent emergence of habits. Although goal-directed and habitual policies are usually associated with model-based and model-free schemes, we find the more important distinction is between belief-free and belief-based schemes. The underlying (variational) belief updating provides a comprehensive (if metaphorical) process theory for several phenomena, including the transfer of dopamine responses, reversal learning, habit formation and devaluation. Finally, we show that active inference reduces to a classical (Bellman) scheme, in the absence of ambiguity.

  11. Teaching and Learning Fraction Addition on Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izsak, Andrew; Tillema, Erik; Tunc-Pekkan, Zelha

    2008-01-01

    We present a case study of teaching and learning fraction addition on number lines in one sixth-grade classroom that used the Connected Mathematics Project Bits and Pieces II materials. Our main research questions were (1) What were the primary cognitive structures through which the teacher and students interpreted the lessons? and (2) Were the…

  12. Active Learning and the LRC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Collin County Community College's commitment to an active/experiential learning philosophy and the role of the college's learning resources center (LRC) in promoting learner-centered education and lab experiences throughout the curriculum. Discusses the LRC's Alternative Learning Center, which uses computers and other technology to…

  13. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Burl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Active learning algorithms attempt to accelerate the learning process by requesting labels for the most informative items first. In real-world problems, however, there may exist unlabeled items that are irrelevant to the user's classification goals. Queries about these points slow down learning because they provide no information about the problem of interest. We have observed that when irrelevant items are present, active learning can perform worse than random selection, requiring more time (queries) to achieve the same level of accuracy. Therefore, we propose a novel approach, Relevance Bias, in which the active learner combines its default selection heuristic with the output of a simultaneously trained relevance classifier to favor items that are likely to be both informative and relevant. In our experiments on a real-world problem and two benchmark datasets, the Relevance Bias approach significantly improved the learning rate of three different active learning approaches.

  14. Student Perceptions of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift from lecture-based courses to interactive classes punctuated with engaging, student-centered learning activities has begun to characterize the work of some teachers in higher education. Convinced through the literature of the values of using active learning strategies, we assessed through an action research project in five college…

  15. In Defense of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2008-01-01

    Effective early childhood teachers use what they know about and have observed in young children to design programs to meet children's developmental needs. Play and active learning are key tools to address those needs and facilitate children's early education. In this article, the author discusses the benefits of active learning in the education of…

  16. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  17. Getting To Know You: Activities for Learning Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Learning names is vital to the enjoyment and productivity of a group. Presents four games to help campers learn each others' names. Sidebar presents three additional teambuilding activities and ice breakers. (TD)

  18. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  19. Using Learning Styles Inventories To Promote Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…

  20. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  1. Integrating Active Learning and Assessment in the Accounting Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Fonda L.; Hogan, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Some colleges and universities are utilizing the inclusion of more active learning techniques in course content. Active learning involves students in thinking about what they are doing as they accomplish tasks or assignments in order to develop a deeper understanding of the topic or issue. In addition to a focus on enhancing student learning, the…

  2. Learning as a Subversive Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    2007-01-01

    "Learning as a subversive activity" is about working with public school students to debunk the shallow conception that achievement equals learning. That means exposing the power relations that keep in place such a narrow definition of what counts and exploring the implications of those powerful forces for students' lives and for society at large.…

  3. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  4. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  5. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  6. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  7. Business Communication through Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann

    Research has shown that although university instructors of English as a Second Language are aware of the benefits that active learning can bring the student, teacher-centered, traditional lecture method classes are still the norm. Resistance to change is due in part to large class sizes, limited instruction hours, and the perception that proactive…

  8. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  9. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  10. Learning Style Differences in the Perceived Effectiveness of Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…

  11. Stimulating Deep Learning Using Active Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yew, Tee Meng; Dawood, Fauziah K. P.; a/p S. Narayansany, Kannaki; a/p Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Jen, Leong Siok; Hoay, Kuan Chin

    2016-01-01

    When students and teachers behave in ways that reinforce learning as a spectator sport, the result can often be a classroom and overall learning environment that is mostly limited to transmission of information and rote learning rather than deep approaches towards meaningful construction and application of knowledge. A group of college instructors…

  12. Connecting Family Learning and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Mary

    2009-01-01

    In Ireland family learning and active citizenship has not been linked together until 2006. It was while the Clare Family Learning Project was involved in a family learning EU learning network project, that a suggestion to create a new partnership project linking both areas was made and FACE IT! was born (Families and Active Citizenship…

  13. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  14. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  15. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other’s experiences in active learning. PMID:28232588

  16. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly identified that Bridge students had developed sophisticated views of active learning, even though this was not an explicit goal of the program. We conducted an additional set of semistructured interviews that focused on active learning and compared the interviews of Bridge students with those from non-Bridge students who had been eligible for but did not participate in the program. We used the constant comparative method to identify themes from the interviews. We found that Bridge students perceived that, because they knew how to approach active learning and viewed it as important, they benefited more from active learning in introductory biology than non-Bridge students. Specifically, Bridge students seemed to be more aware of their own learning gains from participating in active learning. Compared with the majority of non-Bridge students, the majority of Bridge students described using a greater variety of strategies to maximize their experiences in active learning. Finally, in contrast to non-Bridge students, Bridge students indicated that they take an equitable approach to group work. These findings suggest that we may be able to prime students to maximize their own and other's experiences in active learning.

  17. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.

  18. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  19. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  20. Active Learning through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Richburg, Cynthia McCormick; Wood, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogical approach to facilitate student learning at the university level. In SL, students enrolled in an academic course provide a needed service to a community partner. Through guided reflection, students link classroom-based, theoretical knowledge with clinical applications. Students' active…

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a “lecture” course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises. PMID:26086656

  3. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    PubMed

    Linton, Debra L; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of inexperience, we should try to provide more explicit implementation recommendations based on research into the key components of effective active learning. We investigated the optimal implementation of active-learning exercises within a "lecture" course. Two sections of nonmajors biology were taught by the same instructor, in the same semester, using the same instructional materials and assessments. Students in one section completed in-class active-learning exercises in cooperative groups, while students in the other section completed the same activities individually. Performance on low-level, multiple-choice assessments was not significantly different between sections. However, students who worked in cooperative groups on the in-class activities significantly outperformed students who completed the activities individually on the higher-level, extended-response questions. Our results provide additional evidence that group processing of activities should be the recommended mode of implementation for in-class active-learning exercises.

  4. Developing Metacognition: A Basis for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…

  5. Learning activism, acting with phronesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yew-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The article "Socio-political development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others" by Darren Hoeg, Natalie Lemelin, and Lawrence Bencze described a language-learning curriculum that drew on elements of Socioscientific issues and Science, Technology, Society and Environment. Results showed that with a number of enabling factors acting in concert, learning about and engagement in practical action for social justice and equity are possible. An alternative but highly compatible framework is now introduced—phronetic social research—as an action-oriented, wisdom-seeking research stance for the social sciences. By so doing, it is hoped that forms of phronetic social research can gain wider currency among those that promote activism as one of many valued outcomes of an education in science.

  6. Linking Mission to Learning Activities for Assurance of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching

    2011-01-01

    Can accreditation-related requirements and mission statements measure learning outcomes? This study focuses on triangulating accreditation-related requirements with mission statements and learning activities to learning outcomes. This topic has not been comprehensively explored in the past. After looking into the requirements of AACSB, ISO, and…

  7. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  8. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  9. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-07-29

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  10. Reinforcement Learning or Active Inference?

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614

  11. Neural activation during successful and unsuccessful verbal learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Sibylle; Sartory, Gudrun; Müller, Bernhard W; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Jüptner, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Successful and unsuccessful intention to learn words was assessed by means of event-related functional MRI. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants were scanned while being given two word lists to read and another seven to learn with immediate recall. Neural activation patterns were segregated according to whether words were subsequently recalled or forgotten and these conditions were contrasted with each other and reading. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits with regard to neural recruitment of right hippocampus and of cerebellar structures during successful verbal learning. Furthermore, a reversal of activated structures was evident in the two groups: Controls showed activation of right frontal and left middle temporal structures during the unsuccessful intention to learn. During successful learning, there was additional activation of right superior parietal lobule. In contrast, patients showed activation of right superior parietal lobule during unsuccessful and successful intention to learn. There were additional frontal and left middle temporal lobe activations during successful learning. We conclude that increased parietal activity may reflect a mechanism which compensates for the lack of hippocampal and cerebellar contributions to verbal learning in schizophrenia.

  12. A Colloquial Approach: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)

  13. Student's Reflections on Their Learning and Note-Taking Activities in a Blended Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Hiroh

    2016-01-01

    Student's emotional aspects are often discussed in order to promote better learning activity in blended learning courses. To observe these factors, course participant's self-efficacy and reflections upon their studies were surveyed, in addition to the surveying of the metrics of student's characteristics during a Bachelor level credit course.…

  14. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  15. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  16. Activities for Science: Cooperative Learning Lessons (Challenging).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia

    This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…

  17. Learning Activities of Disadvantaged Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisel, Marsel A.

    1986-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…

  18. Producing Learning Activities Packages. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

    This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…

  19. Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.

  20. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  1. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  2. Kinaesthetic Learning Activities and Learning about Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, A. J.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Kinaesthetic learning activities (KLAs) can be a valuable pedagogical tool for physics instructors. They have been shown to increase engagement, encourage participation and improve learning outcomes. This paper details several KLAs developed at Rutgers University for inclusion in an instructional unit about semiconductors, p-n junctions and solar…

  3. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  4. Student Activity and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…

  5. Cantaloupe melon peroxidase: characterization and effects of additives on activity.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Watson, M A

    2000-06-01

    Peroxidase in cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.), a fruit commonly fresh cut processed, was characterized to determine reaction pathway, optimal conditions for activity and effect of some additives on enzymatic action. Mn2+, CaCl2, NaNO2 and kinetin had partial inhibitory effects on enzyme activity. Activity was effectively inhibited by compounds capable of chelating peroxidase heme iron such as diethyldithiocarbamate and tiron, but unaffected by EDTA. Free radical scavenger, superoxide dismutase, also had no effect on reaction velocity. Enzymatic action was consistent with that of ascorbate peroxidase based on the relatively higher affinity for ascorbate over guaiacol. Optimum activity temperature was 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 40 degrees C and at 50 degrees C for up to 10 min. Over 90% of total activity was lost at 80 degrees C within 5 min. Broad pH optima, 5.5-7.5 at 50 degrees C and 6-7 at 30 degrees C, were obtained. Peroxidase activity in cantaloupe was higher than those in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), suggesting a relatively high oxidative stress in fresh cut cantaloupe. The potential use of ascorbate as an additive in fresh cut cantaloupe melon was demonstrated by its ability to preserve color in minimally processed fruits for 25 days at 4 degrees C, possibly as a result of an enhanced antioxidative action of the ascorbate-peroxidase complex and trace metal ion cofactors.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Suijkerbuijk, Martin P W; Schmitt, Heike; Sinnige, Theo L

    2009-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. However, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of AC addition on the health, behavior, and habitat quality of local organisms. In the present study, several ecotoxicological effects were investigated in AC-water and AC-enriched (0-25%) sediment systems. It was demonstrated that (i) powdered activated carbons can be toxic to aquatic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna, and Corophium volutator) based on different mechanisms and preferably should be washed prior to application; (ii) Asellus aquaticus and Corophium volutator may physically avoid AC-enriched sediments; (iii) exposure of Lumbriculus variegatus to AC-enriched sediments lead to a time and dose-dependent reduction in the worms' lipid content, which was most probably caused by the observation that (iv) worm egestion rates decreased drastically upon AC addition, indicating that the presence of AC disturbed feeding behavior; and (v) there were no obvious effects on the microbiological community structure. All in all, these results suggest potential ecotoxicological effects of powdered AC addition and stress the need for a detailed further investigation of secondary effects of the technique, prior to any large-scale field application.

  7. Faculty Adoption of Active Learning Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2016-01-01

    Although post-secondary educational institutions are incorporating more active learning classrooms (ALCs) that support collaborative learning, researchers have less often examined the cultural obstacles to adoption of those environments. In this qualitative research study, we adopted the conceptual framework of activity theory to examine the…

  8. Four Variations on Drueke's Active Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragains, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    A lesson structure for one-time bibliographic instruction (BI) sessions based on an active learning technique was developed. Active learning is discussed, and the "jigsaw method" is described. BI sessions presented to junior- and senior-level college students are examined, and considerations for librarians wishing to incorporate active…

  9. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  10. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  11. Impact of an additional chronic BDNF reduction on learning performance in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency

  12. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  13. On the asymptotic improvement of supervised learning by utilizing additional unlabeled samples - Normal mixture density case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.

  14. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  15. The Topography Tub Learning Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing topography from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of topography the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing topography as the student moves between the topographic representation and

  16. Active dictionary learning for image representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Sarwate, Anand D.; Bajwa, Waheed U.

    2015-05-01

    Sparse representations of images in overcomplete bases (i.e., redundant dictionaries) have many applications in computer vision and image processing. Recent works have demonstrated improvements in image representations by learning a dictionary from training data instead of using a predefined one. But learning a sparsifying dictionary can be computationally expensive in the case of a massive training set. This paper proposes a new approach, termed active screening, to overcome this challenge. Active screening sequentially selects subsets of training samples using a simple heuristic and adds the selected samples to a "learning pool," which is then used to learn a newer dictionary for improved representation performance. The performance of the proposed active dictionary learning approach is evaluated through numerical experiments on real-world image data; the results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A Hybrid Approach to Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an approach to incorporate active learning strategies into the first semester of a university-level introductory physics course. Combines cooperative and peer-based methods inside the classroom with project-based learning outside the classroom in an attempt to develop students' transferable skills as well as improving their understanding…

  18. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  19. Discussing Active Learning from the Practitioner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamba, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…

  20. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  1. Conditions for Apprentices' Learning Activities at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…

  2. Active learning in transportation engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Jennifer Anne

    The objectives of this research were (1) to develop experimental active-based-learning curricula for undergraduate courses in transportation engineering and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an active-learning-based traffic engineering curriculum through an educational experiment. The researcher developed a new highway design course as a pilot study to test selected active-learning techniques before employing them in the traffic engineering curriculum. Active-learning techniques, including multiple-choice questions, short problems completed by individual students or small groups, and group discussions, were used as active interludes within lectures. The researcher also collected and analyzed student performance and attitude data from control and experimental classes to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the traditional lecture (control) approach and the active-learning (experimental) approach. The results indicate that the active-learning approach adopted for the experimental class did have a positive impact on student performance as measured by exam scores. The students in the experimental class also indicated slightly more positive attitudes at the end of the course than the control class, although the difference was not significant. The author recommends that active interludes similar to those in the experimental curricula be used in other courses in civil engineering.

  3. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  4. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  5. Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…

  6. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  7. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.

  8. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  9. Teacher Directed Active Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlatos, Lori L.; Scarlatos, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Games are widely recognized for their potential to enhance students' learning. Yet they are only rarely used in classrooms because they cannot be modified to meet the needs of a particular class. This article describes a novel approach to creating educational software that addresses this problem: provide an interface specifically for teachers that…

  10. Teachers' Everyday Professional Development: Mapping Informal Learning Activities, Antecedents, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Gijbels, David; Grosemans, Ilke; Donche, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although a lot is known about teacher development by means of formal learning activities, research on teachers' everyday learning is limited. In the current systematic review, we analyzed 74 studies focusing on teachers' informal learning to identify teachers' learning activities, antecedents for informal learning, and learning outcomes. In…

  11. Science Teaching and Learning Activities and Students' Engagement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Bennett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for International…

  12. Innate Visual Learning through Spontaneous Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593

  13. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  14. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.

  15. Quantum Speedup for Active Learning Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-07-01

    Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning agents? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and provide a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

  16. The Teaching and Learning of English as an Additional Language in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withey, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The article seeks to investigate the methods of teaching and learning English as an additional language in primary education, and to identify the most appropriate and effective means of achieving this. The study tracks a cohort of children from reception to Year 2. Data collection draws on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative…

  17. On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

  18. Mutual Apprenticeship in the Learning and Teaching of an Additional Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a case study in the learning and teaching of Zulu as an additional language. It involved the organic development of a mutually supportive relationship between two lecturers from separate disciplines who assumed multiple identities in order to more effectively collaborate in the revision and development of two graduate courses.…

  19. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  20. Bacteriophage: A Model System for Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANO, CARL S.; YOUNG, MATTHEW W.; PATTERSON, ROBIN R.

    2002-01-01

    Although bacteriophage provided a useful model system for the development of molecular biology, its simplicity, accessibility, and familiarity have not been fully exploited in the classroom. We describe a student-centered laboratory course in which student teams selected phage from sewage samples and characterized the phage in a semester-long project that modeled real-life scientific research. The course used an instructional approach that included active learning, collaboration, and learning by inquiry. Cooperative student teams had primary responsibility for organizing the content of the course, writing to learn using a journal article format, involving the entire group in shared laboratory responsibilities, and applying knowledge to the choice of new experiments. The results of student evaluations indicated a high level of satisfaction with the course. Our positive experience with this course suggests that phage provides an attractive model system for an active-learning classroom. PMID:23653543

  1. Active learning in optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, Joseph J.

    2016-09-01

    Active learning in optics and photonics (ALOP) is a program of the International Basic Sciences Program at UNESCO, in collaboration with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and supported by SPIE, which is designed to help teachers in the developing world attract and retain students in the physical sciences. Using optics and photonics, it naturally attracts the interest of students and can be implemented using relatively low cost technologies, so that it can be more easily reproduced locally. The active learning methodology is student-centered, meaning the teachers give up the role of lecturer in favor of guiding and facilitating a learning process in which students engage in hands-on activities and active peer-peer discussions, and is shown to effectively enhance basic conceptual understanding of physics.

  2. Is Peer Interaction Necessary for Optimal Active Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Debra L.; Farmer, Jan Keith; Peterson, Ernie

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of active-learning research consistently show that active-learning techniques result in greater student performance than traditional lecture-based courses. However, some individual studies show no effect of active-learning interventions. This may be due to inexperienced implementation of active learning. To minimize the effect of…

  3. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  4. RoboResource Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.

    Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…

  5. Learning Activities for the Growth Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Linda, Ed.

    This poster, illustrated with a graphic of a caterpillar changing to a cocoon and emerging as a butterfly, presents learning activities for 7 weeks based on the seven stages of growth in the President's "Call to Action." Each week includes 5 days of activities based on seven themes: (1) "Reading on Your Own"; (2) "Getting…

  6. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  7. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonova, Natalya Badenikov, Artem Ivanova, Elizaveta; Skripnikova, Nelli

    2016-01-15

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4–6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C{sub 3}S and β-C{sub 2}S.

  8. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  9. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  10. Can Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning Foster First Graders' Fluency with the Most Basic Addition Combinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the…

  11. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them.

  12. Additional AIDoS women and environment activities.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    In addition to an information campaign on women and the environment, AIDoS has been involved in a range of activities and several conferences on the topic. The organization has implemented two microenterprises with a positive environmental impact and participated in the meetings on women and the environment leading up to the Global Forum held in Rio de Janeiro in June. AIDoS has also been invited to participate in the Interregional Workshop on the Role of Women in Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development in Beijing in September 1992. In 1990, COCIS, FOCSIV, and CIPSI, the three confederations of Italian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), signed a convention with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to design and implement cooperative initiatives. AIDoS, a member of COCIS, presented two microprojects in India and Zaire which were subsequently financed. The implementation of these two projects opens a new area of involvement for AIDoS. The two projects are discussed. As part of its ongoing interest in women and the environment, AIDoS participated in two conferences in Miami in November 1991, Partners in Life, Global Assembly of Women, and the Environment and the World Congress of Women for a Healthy Planet, and in the Global Forum in Rio in June 1992. In September, AIDoS will participate in the Interregional Workshop on the Role of Women in Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development organized by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs in collaboration with the UN International Research and Training Institute of the Advancement of Women.

  13. Collaborative activities for improving the quality of science teaching and learning and learning to teach science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.

  14. Active Learning in Engineering Education: A (Re)Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Rui M.; Andersson, Pernille Hammar; Saalman, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The informal network "Active Learning in Engineering Education" (ALE) has been promoting Active Learning since 2001. ALE creates opportunity for practitioners and researchers of engineering education to collaboratively learn how to foster learning of engineering students. The activities in ALE are centred on the vision that learners…

  15. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  16. Mental self-government: development of the additional democratic learning style scale using Rasch measurement models.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend; Styles, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a democratic learning style scale intended to fill a gap in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and the associated learning style inventory (Sternberg, 1988, 1997). The scale was constructed as an 8-item scale with a 7-category response scale. The scale was developed following an adapted version of DeVellis' (2003) guidelines for scale development. The validity of the Democratic Learning Style Scale was assessed by items analysis using graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner and Christensen, 2002, 2004, 2006) The item analysis confirmed that the full 8-item revised Democratic Learning Style Scale fitted a graphical loglinear Rasch model with no differential item functioning but weak to moderate uniform local dependence between two items. In addition, a reduced 6-item version of the scale fitted the pure Rasch model with a rating scale parameterization. The revised Democratic Learning Style Scale can therefore be regarded as a sound measurement scale meeting requirements of both construct validity and objectivity.

  17. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  18. Traditionally taught students learn; actively engaged students remember

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott V.; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Clark, Jessica W.

    2014-08-01

    A common narrative in physics education research is that students taught in lecture-based classes learn less than those taught with activity-based reformed methods. We show this narrative is simplistic and misses important dynamics of student learning. In particular, we find students of both methods show equal short-term learning gains on a conceptual question dealing with electric potential. For traditionally taught students, this learning rapidly decays on a time scale of weeks, vanishing by the time of the typical end-of-term post-test. For students in reform-based classes, however, the knowledge is retained and may even be enhanced by subsequent instruction. This difference explains the many previous pre- and post-test studies that have found minimal learning gains in lecture-based courses. Our findings suggest a more nuanced model of student learning, one that is sensitive to time-dependent effects such as forgetting and interference. In addition, the findings suggest that lecture-based courses, by incorporating aspects designed to reinforce student understanding of previously covered topics, might approach the long-term learning found in research-based pedagogies.

  19. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  20. Active Physics Problem Based Learning for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    Active Physics bridges research and practice. This NSF supported curriculum project uses a 7E instructional model and a problem based learning approach. Students learn physics on a need to know basis as they construct solutions to challenges such as developing a sport that can be played on the moon, creating an appliance package for developing countries, designing a light and sound show, or building a museum exhibit. In addition to meeting the content requirements of an introductory physics course, there is also an emphasis on engineering design principles and on essential questions. The excitement and frustration of trying to bridge research and practice will be discussed.

  1. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  2. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  3. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  4. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  5. Active Collaborative Learning through Remote Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehret, Austin U.; Elliot, Lisa B.; MacDonald, Jonathan H. C.

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory case study approach was used to describe remote tutoring in biochemistry and general chemistry with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Data collected for analysis were based on the observations of the participant tutor. The research questions guiding this study included (1) How is active learning accomplished in…

  6. Active/Cooperative Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandiera, Milena; Bruno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The study describes a teaching action undertaken in the belief that the use of methodologies based on active and cooperative learning could obviate some of the most worrying deficiencies in current scientific teaching, while at the same time supporting the validity of the constructivistic theory that prompted them. A teaching action on genetically…

  7. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  8. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  9. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  10. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  11. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. Effects of Review Activities on EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chiu-Lan Nina

    2009-01-01

    The utmost goal of foreign language instruction is aimed at helping the learner master the language. At the same time the learner shall become equipped with linguistic, pragmatic and social-linguistic competence. This study was done to explore if review activities in EFL classes should be mandatory for learners to learn the new knowledge. One…

  13. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  14. Cashier/Checker Learning Activity Packets (LAPs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four learning activity packets (LAPs) are provided for six areas of instruction in a cashier/checker program. Section A, Orientation, contains an LAP on exploring the job of cashier-checker. Section B, Operations, has nine LAPs, including those on operating the cash register, issuing trading stamps, and completing the cash register balance…

  15. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  16. Active Citizenship, Education and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwell, Jonathan; Scott, Ralph; Horley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how active citizenship can be encouraged through education and community action. It proposes that service learning and a renewed focus on voluntarism can both promote social cohesion between different ethnic and cultural groups while also fostering among the population a greater understanding of and commitment to civic…

  17. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  18. The Enlightenment Revisited: Sources & Interpretations. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Clorinda; And Others

    This resource book provides 26 learning activities with background materials for teaching about the Enlightenment. Topics include: (1) "What Was the Enlightenment?"; (2) "An Introduction to the Philosophes"; (3) "Was the Enlightenment a Revolt Against Rationalism?"; (4) "Were the Philosophes Democrats? A…

  19. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  20. Active Learning via Student Karaoke Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Gary D.; Richards, Travis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated students' perceptions and reactions to an active learning Karaoke Video project in both a large (104 student) undergraduate class in Natural History of Georgia and a small graduate seminar in Fish Ecology. Undergraduate responses were evaluated with both questionnaires and triangulation interviews and graduate student responses…

  1. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.

  2. An active learning approach to Bloom's Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Fred K; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    As educators strive toward improving student learning outcomes, many find it difficult to instill their students with a deep understanding of the material the instructors share. One challenge lies in how to provide the material with a meaningful and engaging method that maximizes student understanding and synthesis. By following a simple strategy involving Active Learning across the 3 primary domains of Bloom's Taxonomy (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor), instructors can dramatically improve the quality of the lesson and help students retain and understand the information. By applying our strategy, instructors can engage their students at a deeper level and may even find themselves enjoying the process more.

  3. Expanding Voluntary Active-learning Opportunities for Pharmacy Students in a Respiratory Physiology Module

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Hardy; Colthorpe, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To expand voluntary active-learning opportunities for bachelor of pharmacy students enrolled in a third-year human physiology and pharmacology course and determine whether the additional course components improved learning outcomes. Design Additional voluntary active-learning opportunities including a large-class tutorial, additional formative assessment, and an online discussion were added to the Respiratory Physiology Module of the course. Examination scores were compared with those from previous years. A questionnaire was administered to assess students' perception of the active-learning components. Assessment Mean examination scores increased from 69.3% ± 24.4% in 2003 to 88.9% ± 13.4% in 2004 and 86.9% ± 17.6% in 2005, after the addition of the active-learning components. Students' overall perception of the value of the active-learning activities was positive. Summary The addition of voluntary active-learning course components to a required pharmacy course resulted in improved student examination scores, and decreased failure rate, and were accomplished at low cost and with little additional staff time. PMID:18483596

  4. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  5. Learning Additional Languages as Hierarchical Probabilistic Inference: Insights From First Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/Ln) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/Ln learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/Ln acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/Ln learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.

  6. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  7. The Validation of the Active Learning in Health Professions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…

  8. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  9. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD.

  10. GeoMapApp Learning Activities: Enabling the democratisation of geoscience learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.

    2011-12-01

    GeoMapApp Learning Activities (http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp) are step-by-step guided inquiry geoscience education activities that enable students to dictate the pace of learning. They can be used in the classroom or out of class, and their guided nature means that the requirement for teacher intervention is minimised which allows students to spend increased time analysing and understanding a broad range of geoscience data, content and concepts. Based upon GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, easy-to-use map-based data exploration and visualisation tool, each activity furnishes the educator with an efficient package of downloadable documents. This includes step-by-step student instructions and answer sheet; a teacher's edition annotated worksheet containing teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work; quizzes for use before and after the activity to assess learning; and a multimedia tutorial. The activities can be used by anyone at any time in any place with an internet connection. In essence, GeoMapApp Learning Activities provide students with cutting-edge technology, research-quality geoscience data sets, and inquiry-based learning in a virtual lab-like environment. Examples of activities so far created are student calculation and analysis of the rate of seafloor spreading, and present-day evidence on the seafloor for huge ancient landslides around the Hawaiian islands. The activities are designed primarily for students at the community college, high school and introductory undergraduate levels, exposing students to content and concepts typically found in those settings.

  11. Catechol-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with additional antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.

  12. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  13. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  14. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  15. Reference Framework for Active Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naithani, Pranav

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper traces the history of active learning and further utilizes the available literature to define the meaning and importance of active learning in higher education. The study highlights common practical problems faced by students and instructors in implementing active learning in higher education and further identifies…

  16. Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadžibegovic, Zalkida; Sliško, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the…

  17. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  18. Active Learning in the Era of Big Data

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Kevin; Davis, IV, Warren L.

    2015-10-01

    Active learning methods automatically adapt data collection by selecting the most informative samples in order to accelerate machine learning. Because of this, real-world testing and comparing active learning algorithms requires collecting new datasets (adaptively), rather than simply applying algorithms to benchmark datasets, as is the norm in (passive) machine learning research. To facilitate the development, testing and deployment of active learning for real applications, we have built an open-source software system for large-scale active learning research and experimentation. The system, called NEXT, provides a unique platform for realworld, reproducible active learning research. This paper details the challenges of building the system and demonstrates its capabilities with several experiments. The results show how experimentation can help expose strengths and weaknesses of active learning algorithms, in sometimes unexpected and enlightening ways.

  19. A New Approach to Active Learning in the Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, T. M.; Saderholm, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    In a recent survey, Small & Plummer (2010) found that the goals of planetarium professionals are aligned with inquiry-based, active learning. However, most planetarium shows are designed as passive entertainment, with education as a secondary goal. In addition, there are very few research-based studies on the types of activities which promote greater learning within the planetarium environment, particularly at the post-secondary level. We report the results of the pilot test of a novel use of the planetarium to provide a simulated night sky, which students use to make longitudinal observations and measurements of planetary positions. In spite of several pragmatic limitations, the planetarium environment is well suited to student construction of both geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar system from direct observation. The curriculum we are developing addresses common misconceptions about the nature of science, in particular the use of modeling in the development of scientific knowledge.

  20. Science Teaching and Learning Activities and Students' Engagement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Bennett, Judith

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2006 study. The analysis employs a quantitative approach that includes descriptive and inferential statistics to examine three measures of student engagement for a nationally representative sample of approximately 12,000 15-year-old students in the UK. The main results indicate that there is an association between students' motivation towards science, enjoyment of science and future orientation towards science, and the frequency in which various teaching and learning activities take place in the classroom. Understanding student engagement in science and the factors that influence it is essential in addressing the issue of uptake of science after compulsory schooling.

  1. Navigating the Active Learning Swamp: Creating an Inviting Environment for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marie C.; Malinowski, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a survey of faculty members (n=29) asking them to define active learning, to rate how effectively different teaching techniques contribute to active learning, and to list the three teaching techniques they use most frequently. Concludes that active learning requires establishing an environment rather than employing a specific teaching…

  2. Notetaking Activity as a Logical Classroom Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William; And Others

    The impact on learning performance of a notetaking strategy called the Directed Overt Activity Strategy (DOA) was evaluated on three types of instructional tasks: spatial learning, simple concept learning, and complex concept learning. One hundred volunteer freshman psychology students from Ohio State University used either the DOA or their own…

  3. Predicting Reading and Mathematics from Neural Activity for Feedback Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…

  4. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  5. Active Learning With Optimal Instance Subset Selection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yifan; Zhu, Xingquan; Elmagarmid, A K

    2013-04-01

    Active learning (AL) traditionally relies on some instance-based utility measures (such as uncertainty) to assess individual instances and label the ones with the maximum values for training. In this paper, we argue that such approaches cannot produce good labeling subsets mainly because instances are evaluated independently without considering their interactions, and individuals with maximal ability do not necessarily form an optimal instance subset for learning. Alternatively, we propose to achieve AL with optimal subset selection (ALOSS), where the key is to find an instance subset with a maximum utility value. To achieve the goal, ALOSS simultaneously considers the following: 1) the importance of individual instances and 2) the disparity between instances, to build an instance-correlation matrix. As a result, AL is transformed to a semidefinite programming problem to select a k-instance subset with a maximum utility value. Experimental results demonstrate that ALOSS outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for AL.

  6. Strategies for active learning in online continuing education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet M

    2005-01-01

    Online continuing education and staff development is on the rise as the benefits of access, convenience, and quality learning are continuing to take shape. Strategies to enhance learning call for learner participation that is self-directed and independent, thus changing the educator's role from expert to coach and facilitator. Good planning of active learning strategies promotes optimal learning whether the learning content is presented in a course or a just-in-time short module. Active learning strategies can be used to enhance online learning during all phases of the teaching-learning process and can accommodate a variety of learning styles. Feedback from peers, educators, and technology greatly influences learner satisfaction and must be harnessed to provide effective learning experiences. Outcomes of active learning can be assessed online and implemented conveniently and successfully from the initiation of the course or module planning to the end of the evaluation process. Online learning has become accessible and convenient and allows the educator to track learner participation. The future of online education will continue to grow, and using active learning strategies will ensure that quality learning will occur, appealing to a wide variety of learning needs.

  7. STEM learning activity among home-educating families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning was studied among families in a group of home-educators in the Pacific Northwest. Ethnographic methods recorded learning activity (video, audio, fieldnotes, and artifacts) which was analyzed using a unique combination of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and Mediated Action (MA), enabling analysis of activity at multiple levels. Findings indicate that STEM learning activity is family-led, guided by parents' values and goals for learning, and negotiated with children to account for learner interests and differences, and available resources. Families' STEM education practice is dynamic, evolves, and influenced by larger societal STEM learning activity. Parents actively seek support and resources for STEM learning within their home-school community, working individually and collectively to share their funds of knowledge. Home-schoolers also access a wide variety of free-choice learning resources: web-based materials, museums, libraries, and community education opportunities (e.g. afterschool, weekend and summer programs, science clubs and classes, etc.). A lesson-heuristic, grounded in Mediated Action, represents and analyzes home STEM learning activity in terms of tensions between parental goals, roles, and lesson structure. One tension observed was between 'academic' goals or school-like activity and 'lifelong' goals or everyday learning activity. Theoretical and experiential learning was found in both activity, though parents with academic goals tended to focus more on theoretical learning and those with lifelong learning goals tended to be more experiential. Examples of the National Research Council's science learning strands (NRC, 2009) were observed in the STEM practices of all these families. Findings contribute to the small but growing body of empirical CHAT research in science education, specifically to the empirical base of family STEM learning practices at home. It also fills a

  8. Effects of Sharing Clickers in an Active Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Todd; Tivener, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Scientific research into learning enhancement gained by the use of clickers in active classrooms has largely focused on the use of individual clickers. In this study, we compared the learning experiences of participants in active learning groups in which an entire small group shared a single clicker to groups in which each member of the group had…

  9. Clickers in the Classroom: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Margie

    2007-01-01

    Current research describes the benefits of active learning approaches. Clickers, or student response systems, are a technology used to promoted active learning. Most research on the benefits of using clickers in the classroom has shown that students become engaged and enjoy using them. However, research on learning outcomes has only compared the…

  10. Silent Students' Participation in a Large Active Learning Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Munson, Ashlyn H.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning in large science classrooms furthers opportunities for students to engage in the content and in meaningful learning, yet students can still remain anonymously silent. This study aims to understand the impact of active learning on these silent students in a large General Chemistry course taught via Socratic questioning and…

  11. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  12. Teacher Educators' Design and Implementation of Group Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…

  13. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  14. Contemplating a Constructivist Stance for Active Learning within Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    This article examines constructivist philosophies for learning with an emphasis on student-centered environments in education and the active involvement of students in learning as they relate new understanding to what they already know and refine previous skills in terms of newly acquired proficiencies. Active learning is explored from a…

  15. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  16. Evaluating the addition of positive reinforcement for learning a frightening task: a pilot study with horses.

    PubMed

    Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.

  17. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  18. Subthreshold activation of the superior colliculus drives saccade motor learning.

    PubMed

    Soetedjo, Robijanto; Fuchs, Albert F; Kojima, Yoshiko

    2009-12-02

    How the brain learns and maintains accurate precision movements is currently unknown. At times throughout life, rapid gaze shifts (saccades) become inaccurate, but the brain makes gradual adjustments so they again stop on target. Previously, we showed that complex spikes (CSs) in Purkinje cells of the oculomotor cerebellum report the direction and amplitude by which saccades are in error. Anatomical studies indicate that this error signal could originate in the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we deliver subthreshold electrical stimulation of the SC after the saccade lands to signal an apparent error. The size of saccades in the same direction as the simulated error gradually increase; those in the opposite direction decrease. The electrically adapted saccades endure after stimulation is discontinued, exhibit an adaptation field, can undergo changes in direction, and depend on error timing. These electrically induced adaptations were virtually identical with those produced by the visually induced adaptations that we report here for comparable visual errors in the same monkeys. Therefore, our experiments reveal that an additional role for the SC in the generation of saccades is to provide a vector error signal that drives dysmetric saccades to adapt. Moreover, the characteristics of the electrically induced adaptation reflect those of error-related CS activity in the oculomotor cerebellum, suggesting that CS activity serves as the learning signal. We speculate that CS activity may serve as the error signal that drives other kinds of motor learning as well.

  19. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…

  20. Patterns of Field Learning Activities and Their Relation to Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Field practicum is an active learning process. This study explores the different learning stages or processes students experience during their field practicum. First-year master's of social work students in field practica were asked how much they had engaged in educational learning activities such as observation, working independently, process…

  1. Activity Learning and Learning Activity: Discussions of a Concept, and an Outline for an Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallden, Ola

    This paper is a first report from the project "Activity Learning and Cooperation," financed by the Swedish Board of Education. The aim of the project is to establish a theoretical basis for a field study of locally initiated experiments using various teaching strategies. More specifically, this paper is restricted to a discussion of the…

  2. Is Active Learning Like Broccoli? Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Veronica; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn

    2011-01-01

    Although research suggests that active learning is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., memory, test performance), use of such techniques can be difficult to implement in large lecture-based classes. In the current study, 1,091 students completed out-of-class group exercises to complement course material in an Introductory Psychology class.…

  3. "Heart Shots": a classroom activity to instigate active learning.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year undergraduate students (n = 105) at the end of a block (teaching unit). Students were divided into 10 groups each having 10-11 students. They were requested to make a video/PowerPoint presentation about the application of cardiovascular principles to real-life situations. The presentation was required to be of only pictures/photos and no text material, with a maximum duration of 7 min. More than 95% of students considered that the activity helped them to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations and understand the relevance of physiology in medicine and to revise the topic. More than 90% of students agreed that the activity helped them to apply their creativity in improving their knowledge and to establish a link between concepts rather than learning them as isolated facts. Based on the feedback, we conclude that the activity was student centered and that it facilitated learning.

  4. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  5. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.

  6. Active-learning versus teacher-centered instruction for learning acids and bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of 'acids and bases'. Sample The sample of this study was 45 high-school students (average age 17 years) from two different classes, which were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) and control groups (n = 25), in a high school in Turkey. Design and methods A pre-test consisting of 25 items was applied to both experimental and control groups before the treatment in order to identify student prerequisite knowledge about their proficiency for learning 'acids and bases'. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the pre-test scores for groups and no significant difference was found between experimental (ME = 40.14) and control groups (MC = 41.92) in terms of mean scores (F 1,43 = 2.66, p > 0.05). The experimental group was taught using an active-learning curriculum developed by the authors and the control group was taught using traditional course content based on teacher-centered instruction. After the implementation, 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' scores were collected for both groups. Results ANOVA results showed that students' 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' post-test scores differed significantly in terms of groups (F 1,43 = 102.53; p < 0.05). Additionally, in this study 54 misconceptions, 14 of them not reported in the literature before, were observed in the following terms: 'acid and base theories'; 'metal and non-metal oxides'; 'acid and base strengths'; 'neutralization'; 'pH and pOH'; 'hydrolysis'; 'acid-base equilibrium'; 'buffers'; 'indicators'; and 'titration'. Based on the achievement test and individual interview results, it was found that high-school students in the experimental group had fewer misconceptions and understood the

  7. Activities Joining Learning Objectives to Assessments in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, Stacy E.; Larson, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, accreditation boards and other governing bodies have been pushing hard for explicit learning goals and quantitative measures of assessment for general education courses such as Astronomy 101. This added assessment burden can be problematic, especially for harried adjuncts teaching multiple courses at multiple institutions. It would be helpful to have a field-tested set of combined hands-on activities and assessment tools that help instructors meet these assessment requirements. The authors have produced just such a set. We have been using hands-on activities in our classrooms for more than 15 years. These activities require no special equipment or preparation and can be completed within an hour by most students working in groups of two or three. The sections of each activity are arranged in steps, guiding the students from initial knowledge-level questions or practice to a final evaluation or synthesis of what they have just accomplished. Students thus get practice thinking at higher cognitive levels. A recent addition to these activities is the inclusion of formalized learning objectives and accompanying pre- and post-activity questions. The pre-activity questions address common misconceptions, relate familiar analogous terrestrial examples to the activity, and act as a brief refresher meta-concepts like scale factors, measurements, and basic mathematics review. The post-activity questions review the most important concepts introduced in the activity. We present a number of examples as well as a summary as to how we have initiated their use in a large lecture setting of 300 students, in smaller classrooms of 15 students, and in a community college online course.

  8. Meeting "Learned Helplessness" Head on with "Active Learning."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian; Stan-Spence, Aileen

    Learned helplessness is an insidious condition involving undeveloped executive functioning, lack of persistence, and an undeveloped sense of connecting new words or concepts into a web of meanings. Remedial teaching in most small-group, diagnostic/prescriptive settings encourages continued learned helplessness because students are dependent on the…

  9. Active Learning Strategies and Assessment in World Geography Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Active learning strategies include a variety of methods, such as inquiry and discovery, in which students are actively engaged in the learning process. This article describes several strategies that can be used in secondary-or college-level world geography courses. The goal of these activities is to foster development of a spatial perspective in…

  10. An Innovative Teaching Method To Promote Active Learning: Team-Based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional teaching practice based on the textbook-whiteboard- lecture-homework-test paradigm is not very effective in helping students with diverse academic backgrounds achieve higher-order critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Consequently, there is a critical need for developing a new pedagogical approach to create a collaborative and interactive learning environment in which students with complementary academic backgrounds and learning skills can work together to enhance their learning outcomes. In this presentation, I will discuss an innovative teaching method ('Team-Based Learning (TBL)") which I recently developed at National University of Singapore to promote active learning among students in the environmental engineering program with learning abilities. I implemented this new educational activity in a graduate course. Student feedback indicates that this pedagogical approach is appealing to most students, and promotes active & interactive learning in class. Data will be presented to show that the innovative teaching method has contributed to improved student learning and achievement.

  11. Perception towards Mobile Learning Activities among Post Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiyagu, K.

    2012-01-01

    M-learning is learning supported by mobile devices and intelligent user interfaces. Compared to the prior generation a few years ago, storage capacity and screen size of mobile devices as well as transfer speed of wireless connections have significantly increased. Equipped with mobile devices, learners can conduct learning activities at anytime…

  12. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  13. Active Learning by Play Dough Modeling in the Medical Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herur, Anita; Kolagi, Sanjeev; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Manjula, R.; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Active learning produces meaningful learning, improves attitudes toward learning, and increases knowledge and retention, but is still not fully institutionalized in the undergraduate sciences. A few studies have compared the effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations, student seminars, quizzes, and use of CD-ROMs with blackboard teaching and…

  14. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  15. CurioCity, Developing an "Active Learning" Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)

  16. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning: Current Practices in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…

  17. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  18. Oxalate Blockage of Calcium and Iron: A Student Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student learning activity used to teach the meaning of percentage composition, mole concept, selective precipitation, and limiting factors. Presents two word problems and their solutions. (CW)

  19. Using active learning strategies to present bloodborne pathogen programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mary G

    2003-06-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety of learning environments, engaging students in the learning process by having them play an active role. With some planning, preparation, and imagination, active learning strategies can be incorporated into bloodborne pathogen presentations. The purpose of this article is to define active learning, describe how to develop a program using active learning strategies, and provide some examples of bloodborne pathogen presentations that have already been developed. Several sources are identified that can provide the school nurse with information regarding bloodborne pathogens. Information about how computers can be integrated into the bloodborne pathogen presentation is also presented.

  20. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.

    PubMed

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-06-01

    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females.

  1. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  2. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  3. A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta

    This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…

  4. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  5. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  6. Multiliteracies and Active Learning in CLIL--The Development of Learn Web2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marenzi, I.; Zerr, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of LearnWeb2.0, a search and collaboration environment for supporting searching, organizing, and sharing distributed resources, and our pedagogical setup based on the multiliteracies approach. In LearnWeb2.0, collaborative and active learning is supported through project-focused search and aggregation, with…

  7. Collegewide Promotion of E-Learning/Active Learning and Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Japanese National Institutes of Technology have revealed a plan to strongly promote e-Learning and active learning under the common schematization of education in over 50 campuses nationwide. Our e-Learning and ICT-driven education practiced for more than fifteen years were highly evaluated, and is playing a leading role in promoting e-Learning…

  8. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  9. Multilabel image classification via high-order label correlation driven active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Fang

    2014-03-01

    Supervised machine learning techniques have been applied to multilabel image classification problems with tremendous success. Despite disparate learning mechanisms, their performances heavily rely on the quality of training images. However, the acquisition of training images requires significant efforts from human annotators. This hinders the applications of supervised learning techniques to large scale problems. In this paper, we propose a high-order label correlation driven active learning (HoAL) approach that allows the iterative learning algorithm itself to select the informative example-label pairs from which it learns so as to learn an accurate classifier with less annotation efforts. Four crucial issues are considered by the proposed HoAL: 1) unlike binary cases, the selection granularity for multilabel active learning need to be fined from example to example-label pair; 2) different labels are seldom independent, and label correlations provide critical information for efficient learning; 3) in addition to pair-wise label correlations, high-order label correlations are also informative for multilabel active learning; and 4) since the number of label combinations increases exponentially with respect to the number of labels, an efficient mining method is required to discover informative label correlations. The proposed approach is tested on public data sets, and the empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  10. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  11. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.

  12. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  13. Active Learning Framework Combining Semi-Supervised Approach for Data Stream Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    In a real stream environment, labeled data may be very scarce and labeling all data is very difficult and expensive. Our goal is to derive a model to predict future instances' label as accurately as possible. Active learning selectively labels instances and can tackle the challenges raised by highly dynamic nature of data stream, but it ignores the effect of unlabeled instances utilization that can help to strength supervised learning. In this paper, we propose a framework that combines active and semi-supervised learning to get advantage of both methods, to boost the performance of learning algorithm. This framework solves the active learning problem in addition to the challenges of evolving data streams. Experimental results on real data sets prove the effectiveness of our proposed framework.

  14. Active-Learning Processes Used in US Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stacy D.; Clavier, Cheri W.; Wyatt, Jarrett

    2011-01-01

    Objective To document the type and extent of active-learning techniques used in US colleges and schools of pharmacy as well as factors associated with use of these techniques. Methods A survey instrument was developed to assess whether and to what extent active learning was used by faculty members of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. This survey instrument was distributed via the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) mailing list. Results Ninety-five percent (114) of all US colleges and schools of pharmacy were represented with at least 1 survey among the 1179 responses received. Eighty-seven percent of respondents used active-learning techniques in their classroom activities. The heavier the teaching workload the more active-learning strategies were used. Other factors correlated with higher use of active-learning strategies included younger faculty member age (inverse relationship), lower faculty member rank (inverse relationship), and departments that focused on practice, clinical and social, behavioral, and/or administrative sciences. Conclusions Active learning has been embraced by pharmacy educators and is used to some extent by the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Future research should focus on how active-learning methods can be used most effectively within pharmacy education, how it can gain even broader acceptance throughout the academy, and how the effect of active learning on programmatic outcomes can be better documented. PMID:21769144

  15. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  16. Associativity and Understanding of the Operation of Addition in Children with Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobecker, Betsey; Lawrence, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven children (ages 7-10) with learning disabilities and 42 controls were tested on three different mathematics tasks. Significantly more controls abstracted composite unit structures suggestive of operational logic on modified nonverbal and associativity of length tasks. On a flash card task, children with learning disabilities achieved…

  17. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Chen, Simon X; Komiyama, Takaki

    2014-06-12

    The motor cortex is capable of reliably driving complex movements yet exhibits considerable plasticity during motor learning. These observations suggest that the fundamental relationship between motor cortex activity and movement may not be fixed but is instead shaped by learning; however, to what extent and how motor learning shapes this relationship are not fully understood. Here we addressed this issue by using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of the same population of hundreds of layer 2/3 neurons while mice learned a forelimb lever-press task over two weeks. Excitatory and inhibitory neurons were identified by transgenic labelling. Inhibitory neuron activity was relatively stable and balanced local excitatory neuron activity on a movement-by-movement basis, whereas excitatory neuron activity showed higher dynamism during the initial phase of learning. The dynamics of excitatory neurons during the initial phase involved the expansion of the movement-related population which explored various activity patterns even during similar movements. This was followed by a refinement into a smaller population exhibiting reproducible spatiotemporal sequences of activity. This pattern of activity associated with the learned movement was unique to expert animals and not observed during similar movements made during the naive phase, and the relationship between neuronal activity and individual movements became more consistent with learning. These changes in population activity coincided with a transient increase in dendritic spine turnover in these neurons. Our results indicate that a novel and reproducible activity-movement relationship develops as a result of motor learning, and we speculate that synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex underlies the emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity patterns for learned movements. These results underscore the profound influence of learning on the way that the cortex produces movements.

  18. Lessons Learned at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Entry into Force of the U.S. Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Shauna A. Hoiland

    2009-07-01

    For a number of years, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been preparing for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP). These preparations included attending training, participating in tabletop exercises, preparing draft declarations, developing INL-specific guidance documents, preparing for and hosting a mock complementary access visit, and preparing declarations for official submittal. All of these activities, the training materials, and software developed by other U.S. DOE national laboratories (PNNL, ORNL, LANL, and BNL) were very helpful in preparing for the entry into force of the AP. As with any endeavor of this size and complexity, however, there are always instances where even the best preparations and advanced planning do not anticipate every challenge. As the DOE's lead nuclear energy research and development facility, the INL faced many unique challenges. The majority of research conducted at the INL is nuclear fuel cycle related, most of which is not protected by the National Security Exclusion. This paper describes the lessons learned from the INL’s experience of preparing for the entry into force of the AP, specifically how translating and implementing general principles into actual activities proved to be one of many challenges, and provides general suggestions on how to respond effectively and efficiently to routine annual data calls and other AP requests.

  19. Chaotic....!! Active and Engaged. Effects of an active learning classroom on student retention and engagement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific literacy has been defined as the foremost challenge of this decade (AAAS, 2012). The Geological Society of American in its position statement postis that due to the systemic nature of the discipline of earth science, it is the most effective way to engage students in STEM disciplines. Given that the most common place for exposure to earth sciences is at the freshman level for non majors, we decided to transform a freshman introductory geology course to an active, student centered course, using an inquiry based approach. Our focus was to ensure the students saw the earth sciences as broadly applicative field, and not an esoteric science. To achieve this goal, we developed a series of problems that required the students to apply the concepts acquired through their self guided learning into the different topics of the course. This self guided learning took the form of didactic content uploaded into the learning management system (the various elements used to deliver the content were designed video clips, short text based lectures, short formative assessments, discussion boards and other web based discovery exercises) with the class time devoted to problem solving. A comparison of student performance in the active learning classroom vs. a traditional classroom as measured on a geoscience concept inventory (the questions were chosen by a third party who was not teaching either courses) showed that the the students in the active learning classroom scored 10% higher on the average in comparison to the traditional class. In addition to this heightened performance, the students in the active classroom also showed a higher degree of content retention 8 weeks after the semester had ended. This session will share the design process, some exercises and efficacy data collected.

  20. Structural Engineering. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  1. Active and Reflective Learning to Engage All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how teachers effectively manage learning through active engagement of all students throughout each class period. A case study is presented which demonstrates how students learn through active and reflective engagement with ideas, the environment, and other learners (National Middle School Association, 2010). The case study…

  2. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  3. The Role of Active Learning in College Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Jones, Willis A.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Hartley, Harold V., III

    2008-01-01

    Active learning, which entails any class activity that "involves students doing things and thinking about the things that they are doing," stands as an important pedagogical practice. Discussion, the types of questions faculty ask students in class, role playing, cooperative learning, debates, and the types of questions faculty ask on examinations…

  4. Incorporating Active Learning with Videos: A Case Study from Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2008-01-01

    Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…

  5. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  6. Problem Solving. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides technology learning activities designed to prepare students in grades 6-10 to work in the world of the future. The 8-day course provides exploratory, hands-on learning activities and information that can enhance the education of students of all types in an integrated curriculum that provides practical applications of…

  7. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  8. Teaching for Engagement: Part 3: Designing for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…

  9. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  10. Two Learning Activities for a Large Introductory Statistics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharopoulou, Hrissoula

    2006-01-01

    In a very large Introductory Statistics class, i.e. in a class of more than 300 students, instructors may hesitate to apply active learning techniques, discouraged by the volume of extra work. In this paper two such activities are presented that evoke student involvement in the learning process. The first is group peer teaching and the second is…

  11. Students as Doers: Examples of Successful E-Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammelin, Maija; Peltonen, Berit; Puranen, Pasi; Auvinen, Lis

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses learning language and communication activities that focus on students' concrete involvement in their learning process. The activities first deal with student-produced blogs and digital videos in business Spanish. They then present student-produced podcasts for Swedish business communication learners that are meant for speakers…

  12. Using active learning in lecture: best of "both worlds".

    PubMed

    Oermann, Marilyn H

    2004-01-01

    Many creative teaching strategies have been developed in recent years in nursing and other fields to promote active learning. These strategies foster development of problem solving, critical thinking, and communication skills, and they encourage students to work collaboratively with peers. However, in nurse educators' rush to embrace active learning, lecture has been viewed negatively by some faculty. Rather than positioning active learning against lecture, another approach is to integrate active learning within lecture, gaining the benefits of both methods. An integrated approach also takes into consideration the situation of teaching large groups of students. This article examines benefits of an integrated approach to teaching and presents strategies for active learning intended for use with lecture.

  13. A Development of Game-Based Learning Environment to Activate Interaction among Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Ryo; Shimokawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Toshio

    Many studies and systems that incorporate elements such as “pleasure” and “fun” in the game to improve a learner's motivation have been developed in the field of learning environments. However, few are the studies of situations where many learners gather at a single computer and participate in a game-based learning environment (GBLE), and where the GBLE designs the learning process by controlling the interactions between learners such as competition, collaboration, and learning by teaching. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a framework of educational control that induces and activates interaction between learners intentionally to create a learning opportunity that is based on the knowledge understanding model of each learner. In this paper, we explain the design philosophy and the framework of our GBLE called “Who becomes the king in the country of mathematics?” from a game viewpoint and describe the method of learning support control in the learning environment. In addition, we report the results of the learning experiment with our GBLE, which we carried out in a junior high school, and include some comments by a principal and a teacher. From the results of the experiment and some comments, we noticed that a game may play a significant role in weakening the learning relationship among students and creating new relationships in the world of the game. Furthermore, we discovered that learning support control of the GBLE has led to activation of the interaction between learners to some extent.

  14. Orchestrating Learning Activities Using the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems), a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD) tool, which promotes the concept of "separation of concerns" during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the…

  15. Learning To Learn: 15 Vocabulary Acquisition Activities. Tips and Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, William R.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a variety of ways learners can help themselves remember new words, choosing the ones that best suit their learning styles. It is asserted that repeated exposure to new lexical items using a variety of means is the most consistent predictor of retention. The use of verbal, visual, tactile, textual, kinesthetic, and sonic…

  16. Learning Design--Creative Design to Visualise Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette; Rienties, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The focus on quality improvements by institutions for better online and blended teaching can be delivered in different ways. This article reports on the implementation of this process and the approaches taken first, in terms of the design of new learning materials, and second, when reviewing the existing curriculum. The study aims to ascertain…

  17. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  18. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  19. Active Learning-Based Pedagogical Rule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Junqué de Fortuny, Enric; Martens, David

    2015-11-01

    Many of the state-of-the-art data mining techniques introduce nonlinearities in their models to cope with complex data relationships effectively. Although such techniques are consistently included among the top classification techniques in terms of predictive power, their lack of transparency renders them useless in any domain where comprehensibility is of importance. Rule-extraction algorithms remedy this by distilling comprehensible rule sets from complex models that explain how the classifications are made. This paper considers a new rule extraction technique, based on active learning. The technique generates artificial data points around training data with low confidence in the output score, after which these are labeled by the black-box model. The main novelty of the proposed method is that it uses a pedagogical approach without making any architectural assumptions of the underlying model. It can therefore be applied to any black-box technique. Furthermore, it can generate any rule format, depending on the chosen underlying rule induction technique. In a large-scale empirical study, we demonstrate the validity of our technique to extract trees and rules from artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, on 25 data sets of varying size and dimensionality. Our results show that not only do the generated rules explain the black-box models well (thereby facilitating the acceptance of such models), the proposed algorithm also performs significantly better than traditional rule induction techniques in terms of accuracy as well as fidelity.

  20. The Virginia Geocoin Adventure: An Experiential Geospatial Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; McGee, John; Campbell, James; Hays, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies have become increasingly prevalent across our society. Educators at all levels have expressed a need for additional resources that can be easily adopted to support geospatial literacy and state standards of learning, while enhancing the overall learning experience. The Virginia Geocoin Adventure supports the needs of 4-H…

  1. Mental Arithmetic in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities: The Adaptive Use of Approximate Calculation in an Addition Verification Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with 18 third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, 22 typically achieving third graders, and 21 typically achieving second graders. Participants were asked to make true-false decisions on simple and complex addition problems while the distance between the…

  2. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  3. MLS student active learning within a "cloud" technology program.

    PubMed

    Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.

  4. Feasibility of Active Machine Learning for Multiclass Compound Classification.

    PubMed

    Lang, Tobias; Flachsenberg, Florian; von Luxburg, Ulrike; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-01-25

    A common task in the hit-to-lead process is classifying sets of compounds into multiple, usually structural classes, which build the groundwork for subsequent SAR studies. Machine learning techniques can be used to automate this process by learning classification models from training compounds of each class. Gathering class information for compounds can be cost-intensive as the required data needs to be provided by human experts or experiments. This paper studies whether active machine learning can be used to reduce the required number of training compounds. Active learning is a machine learning method which processes class label data in an iterative fashion. It has gained much attention in a broad range of application areas. In this paper, an active learning method for multiclass compound classification is proposed. This method selects informative training compounds so as to optimally support the learning progress. The combination with human feedback leads to a semiautomated interactive multiclass classification procedure. This method was investigated empirically on 15 compound classification tasks containing 86-2870 compounds in 3-38 classes. The empirical results show that active learning can solve these classification tasks using 10-80% of the data which would be necessary for standard learning techniques.

  5. Predicting reading and mathematics from neural activity for feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task predicted reading and mathematics performance 2 years later. The results indicated that feedback learning performance predicted both reading and mathematics performance. Activity during feedback learning in left superior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted reading performance, whereas activity in presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex (pre-SMA/ACC) predicted mathematical performance. Moreover, left superior DLPFC and pre-SMA/ACC activity predicted unique variance in reading and mathematics ability over behavioral testing of feedback learning performance alone. These results provide valuable insights into the relationship between laboratory-based learning tasks and learning in school settings, and the value of neural assessments for prediction of school performance over behavioral testing alone. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Psychological and Pedagogic Conditions of Activating Creative Activity in Students for Successful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abykanova, Bakytgul; Bilyalova, Zhupar; Makhatova, Valentina; Idrissov, Salamat; Nugumanov, Samal

    2016-01-01

    Creative activity of a pedagogic process subject depends on the pedagogue's position, on his faith in the abilities to learn successfully, on encouragement of achievements, stimulating the initiative and activity. Successful learning by activating creative activity is possible with the presence of respectful attitude towards the pedagogic process…

  7. Feasibility of a multi-component additive for efficient control of activated sludge filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Seka, A M; Van De Wiele, T; Verstraete, W

    2001-08-01

    Instantaneous improvement of the settling of bulking filamentous activated sludge can be achieved by the addition of a polymer or a large amount (up to 100% of the MLSS concentration) of talc powder to the sludge. Long-term improvement relies on repeated additions, as these additives have no adverse effects on the causative filaments. A multi-component additive was compared to the traditional additives in lab-scale activated sludge units using three highly filamentous sludges from different industrial treatment plants. The study demonstrated that the multi-component additive was superior to the traditional remedies. It was shown that, in the case of severe filamentous bulking, a single addition of the new additive immediately improved sludge settling and exerted a destructive effect on the causative filamentous bacteria. Thus, the latter additive also ensured a long-term sludge sedimentation improvement. The traditional additives exhibited an immediate and short-term effect. The novel additive also retarded sludge rising due to denitrification and it improved sludge dewaterability. The study revealed Nostocoido limicola II, with slightly hydrophobic cell wall, to be somewhat resistant to the quaternary ammonium salt present as biocide in the additive.

  8. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned, Active Mirror Telescope Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The Active Mirror Telescope (AMT) task adopted the Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism (CDLM) design as used on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) project. The three separate mechanisms that comprise the CDLM will be discussed in this paper in addition to a focus on heritage adoption lessons learned and specific examples. These lessons learned will be valuable to any project considering the use of heritage designs.

  9. SAN-RL: combining spreading activation networks and reinforcement learning to learn configurable behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Wilkes, Don M.; Kusumalnukool, Kanok; Thongchai, Siripun; Kawamura, Kazuhiko; White, John H.

    2002-02-01

    Reinforcement learning techniques have been successful in allowing an agent to learn a policy for achieving tasks. The overall behavior of the agent can be controlled with an appropriate reward function. However, the policy that is learned will be fixed to this reward function. If the user wishes to change his or her preference about how the task is achieved the agent must be retrained with this new reward function. We address this challenge by combining Spreading Activation Networks and Reinforcement Learning in an approach we call SAN-RL. This approach provides the agent with a causal structure, the spreading activation network, relating goals to the actions that can achieve those goals. This enables the agent to select actions relative to the goal priorities. We combine this with reinforcement learning to enable the agent to learn a policy. Together, these approaches enable the learning of a configurable behaviors, a policy that can be adapted to meet the current preferences. We compare the approach with Q-learning on a robot navigation task. We demonstrate that SAN-RL exhibits goal-directed behavior before learning, exploits the causal structure of the network to focus its search during learning and results in configurable behaviors after learning.

  10. The Shoe Box Curriculum: Practical Ideas for Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Roy, Will

    This book contains 65 specific activities designed to help disadvantaged students learn to use language more skillfully and develop the ability to function well in the school environment. The descriptions of the activities are referred to as shoe box labs and generally include the title of the activity, instructions for performing the activity,…

  11. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  12. Active-Learning Assignments to Integrate Basic Science and Clinical Course Material

    PubMed Central

    Nykamp, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate active-learning exercises requiring the integration and application of pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics knowledge of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Design Two team-based case study exercises, one evaluating a patient with osteoarthritis and the second, a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, were developed, incorporating material and questions from pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The learning assignments were implemented in a required pharmacotherapy module. Assessment Student learning was evaluated using performance on the team-based case study exercises and on 2 examinations. A standard student course evaluation was used to assess students' impressions of the learning activity. The mean student grades for the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis activities were 9.1 and 8.9, respectively, on a 10-point scale. The majority of students indicated that the learning exercises were more than adequate to excellent in helping students learn. Conclusion The addition of active-learning activities was successful in teaching pharmacy students the knowledge needed to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21088724

  13. Moments of movement: active learning and practice development.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Jan

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of practice development becomes more sophisticated, we enhance our understanding of how the facilitation of learning in and from practice, can be more effectively achieved. This paper outlines an approach for enabling and maximizing learning within practice development known as 'Active Learning'. It considers how, given establishing a learning culture is a prerequisite for the sustainability of PD within organisations, practice developers can do more to maximize learning for practitioners and other stakeholders. Active Learning requires that more attention be given by organisations committed to PD, at a corporate and strategic level for how learning strategies are developed in the workplace. Specifically, a move away from a heavy reliance on training may be required. Practice development facilitators also need to review: how they organise and offer learning, so that learning strategies are consistent with the vision, aims and processes of PD; have skills in the planning, delivery and evaluation of learning as part of their role and influence others who provide more traditional methods of training and education.

  14. Effectiveness of classroom response systems within an active learning environment.

    PubMed

    Welch, Susan

    2013-11-01

    In nursing education, the inclusion of pedagogical tools is necessary to transform Millennial classrooms. One such pedagogical tool currently offered is classroom response systems (CRS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRS as a pedagogical tool in improving nursing students' examination performance within an active learning environment. A pretest-posttest design was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the use of CRS (independent variable) and nursing students' examination performance in a first-year Professional Practice course (dependent variable). Paired t tests revealed no greater improvement in posttest scores. Therefore, the use of CRS technology was not effective in increasing nursing students' examination scores in the Professional Practice course. Additional research is needed to provide adequate understanding of the effectiveness of CRS within the nursing education classroom.

  15. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  16. Interactive lecture demonstrations, active learning, and the ALOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-05-01

    There is considerable evidence from the physics education literature that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts. A better teaching method is to use the active learning environment, which can be created using interactive lecture demonstrations. Based on the active learning methodology and within the framework of the UNESCO mandate in physics education and introductory physics, the ALOP project (active learning in optics and photonics) was started in 2003, to provide a focus on an experimental area that is adaptable and relevant to research and educational conditions in many developing countries. This project is discussed in this paper.

  17. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional provider and supplier requirements for... Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining... active enrollment status for a provider or supplier when that provider or supplier certifies that...

  18. Active controllers and the time duration to learn a task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repperger, D. W.; Goodyear, C.

    1986-01-01

    An active controller was used to help train naive subjects involved in a compensatory tracking task. The controller is called active in this context because it moves the subject's hand in a direction to improve tracking. It is of interest here to question whether the active controller helps the subject to learn a task more rapidly than the passive controller. Six subjects, inexperienced to compensatory tracking, were run to asymptote root mean square error tracking levels with an active controller or a passive controller. The time required to learn the task was defined several different ways. The results of the different measures of learning were examined across pools of subjects and across controllers using statistical tests. The comparison between the active controller and the passive controller as to their ability to accelerate the learning process as well as reduce levels of asymptotic tracking error is reported here.

  19. Using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores as Additional Predictors of Student Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…

  20. Increasing Instructional Efficiency by Presenting Additional Stimuli in Learning Trials for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…

  1. Topographical Subcomponents of Electrical Brain Activity Allow to Identify Semantic Learning.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Shinoda, Haruo

    2017-03-03

    We investigated the change of event-related brain activity elicited by reading meaningful or meaningless Japanese symbols in 20 healthy German adults. In a learning phase of about 20 min, subjects acquired the meaning of 20 Kanji characters. As control stimuli 20 different Kanji characters were presented. Electrical brain activity was obtained before and after learning, The mean learning performance of all subjects was 92.5% correct responses. EEG was measured simultaneously from 30 channels, artifacts were removed offline, and the data before and after learning were compared. We found five spatial principal components that accounted for 83.8% of the variance. A significant interaction between training time (before/after learning) and stimulus (learning/control) illustrates a significant relation between successful learning and topographical changes of brain activity elicited by Kanji characters. Effects that were induced by learning were seen at short latencies in the order of 100 ms. In addition, we present evidence that differences in the weighted combination of spatial components allow to identify experimental conditions successfully by linear discriminant analysis using topographical ERP data of a single time point. In conclusion, semantic meaning can be aquired rapidly and it is associated with specific changes of ERP components.

  2. Active and Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Sociological Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the use of active and collaborative learning strategies in an undergraduate sociological theory course. A semester-long ethnographic project is the foundation for the course; both individual and group participation contribute to the learning process. Assessment findings indicate that students are able, through…

  3. Model Activity Systems: Dialogic Teacher Learning for Social Justice Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman-Kipp, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Interest of teacher educators working in the field of social justice focuses on the ways in which teachers learn to inscribe their professional activity within social movements (for progressive change. The community of practice (COP) approach to understanding learning as a social process has a lot of currency right now in teacher education…

  4. Learner-Interface Interaction for Technology-Enhanced Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Neelu; Khreisat, Laila; Sharma, Kiron

    2009-01-01

    Neelu Sinha, Laila Khreisat, and Kiron Sharma describe how learner-interface interaction promotes active learning in computer science education. In a pilot study using technology that combines DyKnow software with a hardware platform of pen-enabled HP Tablet notebook computers, Sinha, Khreisat, and Sharma created dynamic learning environments by…

  5. Intergenerational Service Learning with Elders: Multidisciplinary Activities and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krout, John A.; Bergman, Elizabeth; Bianconi, Penny; Caldwell, Kathryn; Dorsey, Julie; Durnford, Susan; Erickson, Mary Ann; Lapp, Julia; Monroe, Janice Elich; Pogorzala, Christine; Taves, Jessica Valdez

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the activities included in a 3-year, multidisciplinary, intergenerational service-learning project conducted as part of a Foundation for Long-Term Care Service Learning: Linking Three Generations grant. Courses from four departments (gerontology, psychology, occupational therapy, and health promotion and…

  6. Active Learning in a Math for Liberal Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning is a topic of growing interest in the mathematical community. Much of the focus has been on using these methods in calculus and higher-level classes. This article describes the design and implementation of a set of inquiry-based learning activities in a Math for Liberal Arts course at a small, private, Catholic college.…

  7. Who Benefits from Cooperative Learning with Movement Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoval, Ella; Shulruf, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to identify learners who are most likely to benefit from a small group cooperative learning strategy, which includes tasks involving movement activities. The study comprised 158 learners from five second and third grade classes learning about angles. The research tools included structured observation of each learner and…

  8. Critique in Academic Disciplines and Active Learning of Academic Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues for increased theoretical specificity in the active learning process. Whereas constructivist learning emphasizes construction of meaning, the process articulated here complements meaning construction with disciplinary critique. This process is an implication of how disciplinary communities generate new knowledge claims, which…

  9. Creating Activating Events for Transformative Learning in a Prison Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Cheryl H.; Woods, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we interpreted, in light of Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, interviews with 13 educators regarding their work with marginalized adult learners in prisons in the northeastern United States. Transformative learning may have been aided by the educators' response to unplanned activating events, humor, and respect, and…

  10. Learning Activities: The America's Cup Challenge. Meter Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Rob; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two learning activities: (1) high school students design and construct a wind powered monohull vessel to travel a predetermined distance in the least amount of time; and (2) sixth graders learn about energy by doing gas and electric meter reading. (Author/JOW)

  11. A Hybrid Approach to University Subject Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio Gomez, Luz Adriana; Duart, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of subject design and delivery using a hybrid approach, we have studied a hybrid learning postgraduate programme offered by the University of the Andes, Bogota, Colombia. The study analyses students' perceptions of subject design and delivery, with particular reference to learning activities and the roles of…

  12. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  13. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  14. Science: Videotapes for Inservice Training for Active Learning. VITAL Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissock, Craig, Ed.

    This handbook, and the VITAL Science Series videotapes, contain 12 lessons that are examples of some of the many ways of organizing elementary school classrooms for science instruction. The videotapes that are available separately demonstrate full class and small group activities, the use of learning centers, cooperative learning, and outdoor…

  15. Enhanced Memory as a Common Effect of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Douglas B.; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gureckis, Todd M.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread consensus among educators that "active learning" leads to better outcomes than comparatively passive forms of instruction, it is often unclear why these benefits arise. In this article, we review research showing that the opportunity to control the information experienced while learning leads to improved memory…

  16. Canada and the United States. Perspective. Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The similarities and differences of Canada and the United States are explored in this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Ten learning objectives are given which encourage students to examine: 1) the misconceptions Americans and Canadians have about each other and their ways of life; 2) the effect and influence of French and English exploration and…

  17. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  18. Active Learning of Biochemistry Made Easy (for the Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side".…

  19. Holistic Instructional Activities for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Giovanna; Milligan, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    Fourteen holistic, meaning-based reading and writing activities appropriate for students with learning disabilities are described, along with the theoretical background of the paradigm. As children experiment, approximate, and discover language naturally and socially, their immersion in authentic spoken and written language facilitates learning to…

  20. Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

  1. Learning French through Ethnolinguistic Activities and Individual Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafond, Celia; Bovey, Nadia Spang

    2013-01-01

    For the last six years, the university has been offering a Tutorial Programme for learning French, combining intensive courses and highly individualised learning activities. The programme is based on an ethnolinguistic approach and it is continuously monitored. It aims at rapid progress through contact with the local population, real-life…

  2. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  3. Self-Organization with Additional Learning Based on Category Mapping and Its Application to Dynamic News Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Tetsuya; Nobuhara, Hajime

    The Internet news are texts which involve from various fields, therefore, when a text data that will show a rapid increase of the number of dimensions of feature vectors of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is added, these results cannot be reflected to learning. Furthermore, it is difficult for users to recognize the learning results because SOM can not produce any label information by each cluster. In order to solve these problems, we propose SOM with additional learning and dimensional by category mapping which is based on the category structure of Wikipedia. In this method, input vector is generated from each text and the corresponding Wikipedia categories extracted from Wikipedia articles. Input vectors are formed in the common category taking the hierarchical structure of Wikipedia category into consideration. By using the proposed method, the problem of reconfiguration of vector elements caused by dynamic changes in the text can be solved. Moreover, information loss in newly obtained index term can be prevented.

  4. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  5. Preparing students to participate in an active learning environment.

    PubMed

    Modell, H I

    1996-06-01

    Most students have spent the majority of their school career in passive learning environments in which faculty were disseminators of information, and students were required to memorize information or use specified algorithms to "solve problems." In an active learning environment, students are encouraged to engage in the process of building and testing their own mental models from information that they are acquiring. In such a learner-centered environment, faculty become facilitators of learning, and students become active participants, engaging in a dialogue with their colleagues and with the instructor. To create a successful active learning environment, both faculty and students must make adjustments to what has been their respective "traditional" roles in the classroom. For the instructor who is committed to promoting active learning, the challenge lies in helping students understand the necessity of becoming active colleagues in learning. This process can be facilitated if the curriculum includes exercises to direct students' attention to a number of issues that impact their learning. This paper describes four such exercises designed to help students form appropriate course expectations, recognize the need for seeking clarification when communicating, recognize the role of personal experience in building mental models, and become familiar with study aids for building formal models.

  6. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    PubMed Central

    TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.

    2002-01-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547

  7. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis and acidification: A comparison between sodium hydroxide and steel slag addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaojie; Zhang, Xuan; Feng, Leiyu; Li, Yongmei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline treatment with steel slag and NaOH addition were investigated under different pH conditions for the fermentation of waste activated sludge. Better performance was achieved in steel slag addition scenarios for both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. More solubilization of organic matters and much production of higher VFA (volatile fatty acid) in a shorter time can be achieved at pH10 when adjusted by steel slag. Higher enzyme activities were also observed in steel slag addition scenarios under the same pH conditions. Phosphorus concentration in the supernatant increased with fermentation time and pH in NaOH addition scenarios, while in contrast most phosphorus was released and captured by steel slag simultaneously in steel slag addition scenarios. These results suggest that steel slag can be used as a substitute for NaOH in sludge alkaline treatment.

  8. Batch Mode Active Learning for Regression With Expected Model Change.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenbin; Zhang, Muhan; Zhang, Ya

    2016-04-20

    While active learning (AL) has been widely studied for classification problems, limited efforts have been done on AL for regression. In this paper, we introduce a new AL framework for regression, expected model change maximization (EMCM), which aims at choosing the unlabeled data instances that result in the maximum change of the current model once labeled. The model change is quantified as the difference between the current model parameters and the updated parameters after the inclusion of the newly selected examples. In light of the stochastic gradient descent learning rule, we approximate the change as the gradient of the loss function with respect to each single candidate instance. Under the EMCM framework, we propose novel AL algorithms for the linear and nonlinear regression models. In addition, by simulating the behavior of the sequential AL policy when applied for k iterations, we further extend the algorithms to batch mode AL to simultaneously choose a set of k most informative instances at each query time. Extensive experimental results on both UCI and StatLib benchmark data sets have demonstrated that the proposed algorithms are highly effective and efficient.

  9. Activation and Stabilization of Olive Recombinant 13-Hydroperoxide Lyase Using Selected Additives.

    PubMed

    Jacopini, Sabrina; Vincenti, Sophie; Mariani, Magali; Brunini-Bronzini de Caraffa, Virginie; Gambotti, Claude; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Muselli, Alain; Costa, Jean; Tomi, Félix; Berti, Liliane; Maury, Jacques

    2016-12-24

    The stabilization of olive recombinant hydroperoxide lyases (rHPLs) was investigated using selected chemical additives. Two rHPLs were studied: HPL full-length and HPL with its chloroplast transit peptide deleted (matured HPL). Both olive rHPLs are relatively stable at 4 °C, and enzyme activity can be preserved (about 100% of the rHPL activities are maintained) during 5 weeks of storage at -20 or at -80 °C in the presence of glycerol (10%, v/v). Among the additives used in this study, glycine (2.5% w/v), NaCl (0.5 M), and Na2SO4 (0.25 M) provided the highest activation of HPL full-length activity, while the best matured HPL activity was obtained with Na2SO4 (0.25 M) and NaCl (1 M). Although the inactivation rate constants (k) showed that these additives inactivate both rHPLs, their use is still relevant as they strongly increase HPL activity. Results of C6-aldehyde production assays also showed that glycine, NaCl, and Na2SO4 are appropriate additives and that NaCl appears to be the best additive, at least for hexanal production.

  10. Teaching the History of Technology. A Cooperative Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the historical context of technology and offers a cooperative-learning activity that highlights Elijah McCoy, a black inventor who was a notable contributor to technological development in the 1800s. (JOW)

  11. Physical Activity and Wellness: Applied Learning through Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lynn Hunt; Franzidis, Alexia

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how two university professors teamed up to initiate a university-sponsored physical activity and wellness expo in an effort to promote an authentic and transformative learning experience for preservice students.

  12. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  13. Development through Dissent: Campus Activism as Civic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This chapter traces two decades of published research on learning outcomes related to campus activism and reports results from a speculative study considering civic outcomes from participation in campus political and war demonstrations.

  14. Learning Active Citizenship: Conflicts between Students' Conceptualisations of Citizenship and Classroom Learning Experiences in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Education for active citizenship continues to be a critical response for social cohesion and reconstruction in conflict-affected areas. Oftentimes, approaches to learning and teaching in such contexts can do as much harm as good. This study qualitatively examines 435 students' reflections of their civics classroom learning experiences and their…

  15. Active Learning "Not" Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses…

  16. OpenSim-Supported Virtual Learning Environment: Transformative Content Representation, Facilitation, and Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heesung; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    The pedagogical and design considerations for the use of a virtual reality (VR) learning environment are important for prospective and current teachers. However, empirical research investigating how preservice teachers interact with transformative content representation, facilitation, and learning activities in a VR educational simulation is still…

  17. Using the Learning Activities Survey to Examine Transformative Learning Experiences in Two Graduate Teacher Preparation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Vicki; Woodrow, Kelli; Pérez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The Learning Activities Survey (LAS) detected whether, and to what extent, a perspective transformation occurred during two graduate courses in teacher preparation. The LAS examined the types of learning identified as contributing to their transformative experiences. This study examined pre-service teachers' critical reflection of the course…

  18. "Learning by Doing": A Teaching Method for Active Learning in Scientific Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Ludovic; Gossiaux, Pol-Bernard; Rauch, Carl-Philippe; Tabiou, Safouana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an active learning method for the teaching of physical sciences and mathematics to engineers. After defining the challenges involved in the training of engineers, we shall describe the answers provided by our method, "learning by doing" (named "Apprentissage Par l"Action" in French), by introducing…

  19. Changes of soil bacterial activities and functions after different N additions in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Han, Tiwen; Zhang, Li; Li, Shushan; Ma, Dongzhu; Du, Yuhan

    2017-02-01

    It has been shown that different nitrogen (N) addition led to various influences on soil microbial activities in forest ecosystems; however, the changes of bacteria were still unclear. In this work, inorganic N (NH4NO3) and organic N (urea and glycine) were fertilized with different ratios (5:0, 1:4, 3:2, 2:3, and 1:4) on temperate forest soils, while fungicide (cycloheximide) was simultaneously added on half of each treatment to inhibit fungal activities (leaving only bacteria). After a 3-year field experiment, soil samples were harvested, then microbial enzymatic activities involved in carbon (C), and N and phosphorus (P) cycles were determined. Under laboratory conditions, four purified bacteria which were isolated from sample site had been inoculated in sterilized soils under different N types and enzymatic activities were assayed after 90-day incubation. The results showed that cellulase and polyphenol oxidase activities of non-fungicide-added treatments increased after N addition and greater organic N accelerated the increases. However, these enzymatic activities of fungicide-added treatments were not significantly influenced by N addition and N types. It may be due to the insufficient ability of bacteria to synthesize enough enzymes to decompose complex organic C (such as cellulose and lignin) into available compound, although N-limitation was alleviated. Alkaline phosphatase activities increased after N addition in both non-fungicide-added and fungicide-added treatments, and the acceleration on bacterial alkaline phosphatase activities was even greater. Furthermore, organic N showed at least 2.5 times promotion on bacteria alkaline phosphatase than those of inorganic N, which indicated greater alleviation of bacterial P-limitation after the addition of organic N. All the results indicated that soil bacteria may be seriously limited by soil available C but become the dominant decomposer of the complex P compounds after N addition, particularly greater

  20. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  1. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  2. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  3. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  4. Mature students learning statistics: The activity theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Sue

    1993-09-01

    The concept of approach "stresses relationships between intention, process and outcome within a specified context as described by an individual" (Schmeck, 1988, p. 10). This paper explores the approaches to learning of a group of mature students from the theoretical perspective of activity theory in order to gain an insight into some of the ways statistics is learned. In this framework, learning, regarded as goal-directed behaviour, is analysed by exploring the socio-historical factors relating to students' self regulation of their cognitive activities. The material is derived from questionnaires and interviews with five students, and focuses on the students' own interpretations of the contexts affecting their approaches.

  5. Graphene as conductive additives in binderless activated carbon electrodes for power enhancement of supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. S. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Norizam, M. D. M.; Basri, N. H.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Hamdan, E.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Shamsudin, S. A.; Omar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon based supercapacitor electrodes from composite of binderless activated carbon and graphene as a conductive additive were fabricated with various amount of graphene (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%). Graphene was mixed in self-adhesive carbon grains produced from pre-carbonized powder derived from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches and converted into green monoliths (GMs). The GMs were carbonized (N2) and activated (CO2) to produce activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes. Porosity characterizations by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method shows that the pore characteristics of the ACMs are influenced by the graphene additive. The results of galvanostatic charge-discharge tests carried out on the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes shows that the addition of graphene additive (even in small amount) decreases the equivalent series resistance and enhances the specific power of the cells but significantly lowers the specific capacitance. The supercapacitor cell constructed with the electrode containing 4 wt % of graphene offers the maximum power (175 W kg-1) which corresponds to an improvement of 55%. These results demonstrate that the addition of graphene as conductive additive in activated carbon electrodes can enhance the specific power of the supercapacitor.

  6. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning.

  7. Hydroxylamine addition impact to Nitrosomonas europaea activity in the presence of monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E

    2015-01-01

    In drinking water, monochloramine may promote ammonia–oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth because of concurrent ammonia presence. AOB use (i) ammonia monooxygenase for biological ammonia oxidation to hydroxylamine and (ii) hydroxylamine oxidoreductase for biological hydroxylamine oxidation to nitrite. In addition, monochloramine and hydroxylamine abiotically react, providing AOB a potential benefit by removing the disinfectant (monochloramine) and releasing growth substrate (ammonia). Alternatively and because biological hydroxylamine oxidation supplies the electrons (reductant) required for biological ammonia oxidation, the monochloramine/hydroxylamine abiotic reaction represents a possible inactivation mechanism by consuming hydroxylamine and inhibiting reductant generation. To investigate the abiotic monochloramine and hydroxylamine reaction's impact on AOB activity, the current study used batch experiments with Nitrosomonas europaea (AOB pure culture), ammonia, monochloramine, and hydroxylamine addition. To decipher whether hydroxylamine addition benefitted N. europaea activity by (i) removing monochloramine and releasing free ammonia or (ii) providing an additional effect (possibly the aforementioned reductant source), a previously developed cometabolism model was coupled with an abiotic monochloramine and hydroxylamine model for data interpretation. N. europaea maintained ammonia oxidizing activity when hydroxylamine was added before complete ammonia oxidation cessation. The impact could not be accounted for by monochloramine removal and free ammonia release alone and was concentration dependent for both monochloramine and hydroxylamine. In addition, a preferential negative impact occurred for ammonia versus hydroxylamine oxidation. These results suggest an additional benefit of exogenous hydroxylamine addition beyond monochloramine removal and free ammonia release, possibly providing reductant generation.

  8. Active dentate granule cells encode experience to promote the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Shen, Jia; Tian, Mu; Schroeder, Bryce; Wang, Jia; Man, Guoming; Wu, Song; Ge, Shaoyu

    2017-04-03

    The continuous addition of new dentate granule cells, exquisitely regulated by brain activity, renders the hippocampus plastic. However, how neural circuits encode experiences to impact the addition of adult-born neurons remains unknown. Here, we used endoscopic Ca(2+) imaging to track the real-time activity of individual dentate granule cells in freely-behaving mice. For the first time, we found that active dentate granule cells responded to a novel experience by preferentially increasing their Ca(2+) event frequency. This elevated activity, which we found to be associated with object exploration, returned to baseline by one hour in the same environment, but could be dishabituated via introduction to a novel environment. To seamlessly transition between environments, we next established a freely-controllable virtual reality system for unrestrained mice. We again observed increased firing of active neurons in a virtual enriched environment. Interestingly, multiple novel virtual experiences accumulatively increased the number of newborn neurons when compared to a single experience. Finally, optogenetic silencing of existing dentate granule cells during novel environmental exploration perturbed experience-induced neuronal addition. Together, our study shows that the adult brain conveys novel, enriched experiences to increase the addition of adult-born hippocampal neurons by increasing the firing of active dentate granule cells.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAdult brains are constantly reshaping themselves from synapses to circuits as we encounter novel experiences from moment to moment. Importantly, this reshaping includes the addition of newborn hippocampal neurons. However, it remains largely unknown how our circuits encode experience-induced brain activity to govern the addition of new hippocampal neurons. By coupling in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of dentate granule neurons with a novel unrestrained virtual reality system for rodents, we discovered that a new experience rapidly

  9. A Right to Be Heard: Learning from Learners with Additional Needs in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…

  10. Tunneling Activities Detection Using Machine Learning Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    time is quite short. The implementation has been realized on a 3.06 Ghz PC platform running under a Debian distribution. The langage used is Java...therefore this computation time could be reduced using a faster langage such as C if needed. Phase Time Learning Phase 1143 ms Challenge Phase 223 µs Table

  11. Active Learning in the Digital Age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heide, Ann; Henderson, Dale

    This book examines the theoretical and practical issues surrounding today's technology-integrated classroom. The chapters cover the following topics: (1) reasons to integrate technology into the classroom, including the changing world, enriched learning and increased productivity, the learner, the workplace, past experience, and future trends; (2)…

  12. Aligning Learning Activities with Instructional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…

  13. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations rather…

  14. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  15. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  16. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among Students Participating in University Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed…

  17. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  18. Activity Based Learning as Self-Accessing Strategy to Promote Learners' Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.; Xavier, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Activity Based Learning (ABL) is unique and effective to attract out-of -school children to schools. It facilitates readiness for learning, instruction, reinforcement and evaluation. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activities and meaningful learning. Activity-based learning, naturally leads to cooperative learning. Since group…

  19. Active Learning Classrooms and Educational Alliances: Changing Relationships to Improve Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baepler, Paul; Walker, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the "educational alliance" among students and between students and instructors. We contend that this is a framework that can help us understand how active learning classrooms facilitate positive educational outcomes.

  20. Students' and experts' perspectives on three learning and teaching activities.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-09-01

    Nursing is a profession that closely related to human life, and nurses are required to demonstrate critical thinking and creativity in providing health care services. However, traditional teaching approaches usually limit students' autonomy and freedom of expressing their thoughts and feelings. In order to develop the corresponding competence of nursing students, I adopted three teaching innovations, namely writing poems, composing songs, and using role plays in a nursing problem-based learning class in a university in Hong Kong. According to students' reflective notes and comments from two international expert reviewers, participating in these activities is a valuable experience and students were able to develop clinical reasoning, empathy, team spirit, motivation to learn, creativity, and ability to summarise and reconstruct knowledge. It is hoped that more innovative learning activities will be implemented, to prepare professional and ethical nurses in the future. It is also hoped that this study could provide other PBL educators some insights in innovative problem-based learning activities.

  1. Assessment of additive/nonadditive effects in structure-activity relationships: implications for iterative drug design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogendra; Gillet, Valerie J; Howe, Trevor; Pastor, Joaquin; Oyarzabal, Julen; Willett, Peter

    2008-12-11

    Free-Wilson (FW) analysis is common practice in medicinal chemistry and is based on the assumption that the contributions to activity made by substituents at different substitution positions are additive. We analyze eight near complete combinatorial libraries assayed on several different biological response(s) (GPCR, ion channel, kinase and P450 targets) and show that only half-exhibit clear additive behavior, which leads us to question the concept of additivity that is widely taken for granted in drug discovery. Next, we report a series of retrospective experiments in which subsets are extracted from the libraries for FW analysis to determine the minimum attributes (size, distribution of substituents, and activity range) necessary to reach the same conclusion about additive/nonadditive effects. These attributes can provide guidelines on when it is appropriate to apply FW analysis as well as for library design, and they also have important implications for further steps in iterative drug design.

  2. Active-constructive-interactive: a conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michelene T H

    2009-01-01

    Active, constructive, and interactive are terms that are commonly used in the cognitive and learning sciences. They describe activities that can be undertaken by learners. However, the literature is actually not explicit about how these terms can be defined; whether they are distinct; and whether they refer to overt manifestations, learning processes, or learning outcomes. Thus, a framework is provided here that offers a way to differentiate active, constructive, and interactive in terms of observable overt activities and underlying learning processes. The framework generates a testable hypothesis for learning: that interactive activities are most likely to be better than constructive activities, which in turn might be better than active activities, which are better than being passive. Studies from the literature are cited to provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. Moreover, postulating underlying learning processes allows us to interpret evidence in the literature more accurately. Specifying distinct overt activities for active, constructive, and interactive also offers suggestions for how learning activities can be coded and how each kind of activity might be elicited.

  3. Activity related to the carcinogenicity of plastic additives in the benzophenone group.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Asada, Shin; Kageyama, Shiho; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Noriho; Takeda, Ken; Goto, Sumio

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the activities relating to the carcinogenicity of six types of benzophenone derivatives (benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) currently used in plastic products as additives to serve as ultraviolet absorbing agents. The evaluation of the initiation activity used a light absorption umu-test, a luminescent umu-test and the Ames test. The promotion activity was examined by a Bhas assay, a method that uses Bhas 42 cells for the formation of transformation foci. The luminescent umu-test indicated positive initiation activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, and pseudo-positive activity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. In the Ames test, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone showed pseudo-positive initiation activity. Conversely, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone indicated weak promotion activity at 10 microg/ml concentration.

  4. [Effects of nitrogen addition on soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities in desertified steppe].

    PubMed

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Li, Xin-Rong; Bao, Jing-Ting

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the impacts of nitrogen (N) enrichment on soil physico-chemical property and soil enzyme activities in desert ecosystems, a field experiment by adding N at 0, 1.75, 3.5, 7, or 14 g N x m(-2) a(-1) was conducted in a temperate desert steppe in the southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. The results showed that N addition led to accumulations of total N, NO(3-)-N, NH(4+)-N, and available N in the upper soil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-20 cm), however, reductions in soil pH were observed, causing soil acidification to some extent. N addition pronouncedly inhibited soil enzyme activities, which were different among N addition levels, soil depths, and years, respectively. Soil enzyme activities were significantly correlated with the soil N level, soil pH, and soil moisture content, respectively.

  5. Effect of Exogenous Phytase Addition on Soil Phosphatase Activities: a Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Yu-lan; Chen, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    The utilization of organic phosphorus (P) has directly or indirectly improved after exogenous phytase was added to soil. However, the mechanism by which exogenous phytase affected the soil phosphatases (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase) activities was not clear. The present work was aimed to study red soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil phosphomonoesterase (acid and alkaline) (AcP and AlP) and phosphodiesterase (PD) activities responding to the addition of exogenous phytase (1 g phytase/50 g air dry soil sample) based on the measurements performed via a fluorescence detection method combined with 96 microplates using a TECAN Infinite 200 Multi-Mode Microplate Reader. The results indicated that the acid phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in red soil (p≤0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in cinnamon soil; alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity was significantly enhanced in cinnamon soil (p≤ 0. 01), while it was significantly reduced in red soil; phosphodiesterase activity was increased in three soils but it was significantly increased in brown soil (p≤0. 01) after the addition of exogenous phytase. The activities still remained strong after eight days in different soils, which indicated that exogenous phytase addition could be enhance soil phosphatases activities effectively. This effect was not only related to soil properties, such as pH and phosphorus forms, but might also be related to the excreted enzyme amount of the stimulating microorganism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy to study exogenous phytase addition influence on soil phosphatase activities was the first time at home and abroad. Compared with the conventional spectrophotometric method, the fluorescence microplate method is an accurate, fast and simple to use method to determine the relationships among the soil phosphatases activities.

  6. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. Methods A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Results Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome.  Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. Conclusions By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize ‘student passivity’ as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes. PMID:26897012

  7. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  8. Dioxygen activation by non-adiabatic oxidative addition to a single metal center [O2 activation by non-adiabatic oxidative addition to a single metal center

    DOE PAGES

    Akturk, Eser S.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Theopold, Klaus H.

    2015-10-16

    A chromium(I) dinitrogen complex reacts rapidly with O2 to form the mononuclear dioxo complex [TptBu,MeCrV(O)2] (TptBu,Me=hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate), whereas the analogous reaction with sulfur stops at the persulfido complex [TptBu,MeCrIII(S2)]. The transformation of the putative peroxo intermediate [TptBu,MeCrIII(O2)] (S=3/2) into [TptBu,MeCrV(O)2] (S=1/2) is spin-forbidden. The minimum-energy crossing point for the two potential energy surfaces has been identified. Finally, although the dinuclear complex [(TptBu,MeCr)2(μ-O)2] exists, mechanistic experiments suggest that O2 activation occurs on a single metal center, by an oxidative addition on the quartet surface followed by crossover to the doublet surface.

  9. Reward and reinforcement activity in the nucleus accumbens during learning

    PubMed Central

    Gale, John T.; Shields, Donald C.; Ishizawa, Yumiko; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) has been implicated in learning associations between sensory cues and profitable motor responses. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie these functions remain unclear. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NAcc of primates trained to perform a visual-motor associative learning task. During learning, we found two distinct classes of NAcc neurons. The first class demonstrated progressive increases in firing rates at the go-cue, feedback/tone and reward epochs of the task, as novel associations were learned. This suggests that these neurons may play a role in the exploitation of rewarding behaviors. In contrast, the second class exhibited attenuated firing rates, but only at the reward epoch of the task. These findings suggest that some NAcc neurons play a role in reward-based reinforcement during learning. PMID:24765069

  10. Semantic-gap-oriented active learning for multilabel image annotation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhui; Zha, Zheng-Jun; Tao, Dacheng; Chua, Tat-Seng

    2012-04-01

    User interaction is an effective way to handle the semantic gap problem in image annotation. To minimize user effort in the interactions, many active learning methods were proposed. These methods treat the semantic concepts individually or correlatively. However, they still neglect the key motivation of user feedback: to tackle the semantic gap. The size of the semantic gap of each concept is an important factor that affects the performance of user feedback. User should pay more efforts to the concepts with large semantic gaps, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a semantic-gap-oriented active learning method, which incorporates the semantic gap measure into the information-minimization-based sample selection strategy. The basic learning model used in the active learning framework is an extended multilabel version of the sparse-graph-based semisupervised learning method that incorporates the semantic correlation. Extensive experiments conducted on two benchmark image data sets demonstrated the importance of bringing the semantic gap measure into the active learning process.

  11. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.

  12. Genetic enhancement of visual learning by activation of protein kinase C pathways in small groups of rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Rong; Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Lee, Brian; Liu, Meng; Sun, Mei; Franklin, Corinna; Cook, Robert G; Geller, Alfred I

    2005-09-14

    Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons might potentiate a specific circuit and enhance learning, thereby localizing learning to that circuit. In this study, we activated protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in small groups of neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. We microinjected helper virus-free herpes simplex virus vectors that expressed a constitutively active PKC into POR cortex. This PKC was expressed predominantly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex. This intervention increased phosphorylation of five PKC substrates that play critical roles in neurotransmitter release (GAP-43 and dynamin) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (specific subunits of AMPA or NMDA receptors and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate). Additionally, activation of PKC pathways in cultured cortical neurons supported activation-dependent increases in release of glutamate and GABA. This intervention enhanced the learning rate and accuracy of visual object discriminations. In individual rats, the numbers of transfected neurons positively correlated with this learning. During learning, neuronal activity was increased in neurons proximal to the transfected neurons. These results demonstrate that potentiating small groups of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex enhances visual object learning. More generally, these results suggest that learning can be mediated by specific cortical circuits.

  13. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  14. Nebraska's Ag in the Classroom. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    This publication contains 22 activities that have been developed to help teachers and students become more aware of, appreciate, and understand the food and fiber production system and its role in the economy and society. Teachers are intended to select activities appropriate to their students' abilities and interests. Each activity contains the…

  15. Improvement of activated sludge resistance to shock loading by fungal enzyme addition during textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Manai, Imène; Miladi, Baligh; El Mselmi, Abdellatif; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the additions of the fungal enzymatic extract were investigated in relation to the treatment of real textile wastewater (RTW) by the activated sludge process (ASP). The used enzyme cocktail was produced by a new isolated fungal Chaetomium globosum IMA1. The system that was operated with enzyme addition showed a better chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (95%) compared to the control system (75%). In addition, the improvement of color removal (OD620) efficiencies was around 15%, when the newly consortium fungal enzymes was added. As the organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 g to 0.66 g COD L(-1) d(-1), a decrease in the performance of the two reactors was observed by monitoring the quality of treated effluents. However, the ASP working with enzyme addition showed a strong resistance to shock loadings and restored after few days compared to the control system, which was strongly inhibited. In fact, the enzyme addition improved the sludge volume index (SVI) and the activity of microorganisms. A high activity of laccase (300 U.L(-1)) enzyme was observed throughout the decolorization process in the improved system.

  16. Explaining Variability in Retrieval Times for Addition Produced by Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…

  17. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  18. Profiling Transitions in Emotional Development for Students with Additional Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Eileen; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this article was to build a protocol for describing students' development of emotional knowledge and understanding, and to tailor this to the requirements of assessing the progress of students with additional needs. The paper reports the establishment of such a developmental profile, using procedures for…

  19. Learning to Solve Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in English as an Imported Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…

  20. English as an Additional Language, Policy and the Teaching and Learning of English in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the ways in which social policy and social concerns have impacted upon and shaped provision for students who consider English as an additional language (EAL). It provides an overview of practice and provision in relation to EAL learners in the context of state-funded education in England over the last 60 years in order to…

  1. Reconceptualising "Identity Slippage": Additional Language Learning and (L2) Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…

  2. Additives increasing antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...

  3. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  4. Estrogenic activity of phenolic additives determined by an in vitro yeast bioassay.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Wheals, B B; Beresford, N; Sumpter, J P

    2001-02-01

    We used a recombinant yeast estrogen assay to assess the activity of 73 phenolic additives that are used as sunscreens, preservatives, disinfectants, antioxidants, flavorings, or for perfumery. Thirty-two of these compounds displayed activity: 22 with potencies relative to 17beta-estradiol, ranging from 1/3,000 to < 1/3,000,000, and 10 compounds with an impaired response that could not be directly compared with 17beta-estradiol. Forty-one compounds were inactive. The major criteria for activity appear to be the presence of an unhindered phenolic OH group in a para position and a molecular weight of 140-250 Da.

  5. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  6. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  7. Mental arithmetic in children with mathematics learning disabilities: the adaptive use of approximate calculation in an addition verification task.

    PubMed

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with 18 third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, 22 typically achieving third graders, and 21 typically achieving second graders. Participants were asked to make true-false decisions on simple and complex addition problems while the distance between the proposed and the correct answer was manipulated. Both typically achieving groups were sensitive to answer plausibility on simple problems, were faster at rejecting extremely incorrect results than at accepting correct answers on complex addition problems, and showed a reduction of the complexity effect on implausible problems, attesting to the use of approximate calculation. Conversely, children with mathematics disabilities were unaffected by answer plausibility on simple addition problems, processed implausible and correct sums with equal speed on complex problems, and exhibited a smaller reduction of the complexity effect on implausible problems. They also made more errors on implausible problems. Different hypotheses are discussed to account for these results.

  8. Active Learning Handbook for the Multiple Intelligences Classroom. Shoebox Curriculum. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, James

    Helping students develop multiple intelligences and achieve content mastery requires teachers to design meaningful active learning experiences. Active learning uses the active engagement of the students' thinking processes in learning and applying knowledge. By designing active strategies that engage each student's strongest learning skills, a…

  9. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  10. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among…

  11. Drafting. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet of technology learning activity (TLA) materials for drafting for students in grades 6-10 consists of an instructor's section and student materials. The instructor's section contains background information, suggested activities, and a list of suggested resources. A lesson plan for the 8-day module includes assignments; equipment, tools,…

  12. Marketing Feud: An Active Learning Game of (Mis)Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Brian A. Vander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of implementing an active learning activity in the principles of marketing course adapted from the television show "Family Feud". The objectives of the Marketing Feud game include increasing awareness of marketing misperceptions, clarifying marketing misunderstandings, encouraging class participation, and building…

  13. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  14. Teaching Sociology of Sport: An Active Learning Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinde, Elaine M.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that sport is a pervasive aspect of society. Presents and describes four learning activities designed to help students understand the significance of sport as a social institution. Maintains that, while the activities focus on the institution of sport, they can be used in a variety of sociology courses. (CFR)

  15. Re"modeling" College Algebra: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon, D.; Pinzon, K.; Stackpole, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss active learning in College Algebra at Georgia Gwinnett College. This approach has been used in more than 20 sections of College Algebra taught by the authors in the past four semesters. Students work in small, structured groups on guided inquiry activities after watching 15-20 minutes of videos before class. We discuss a…

  16. PDAs as Lifelong Learning Tools: An Activity Theory Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycott, Jenny; Jones, Ann; Scanlon, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an activity theory (AT) framework to analyze the ways that distance part time learners and mobile workers adapted and appropriated mobile devices for their activities and in turn how their use of these new tools changed the ways that they carried out their learning or their work. It is argued that there are two key…

  17. Learning with Otis. A Conservation Education Activities Book, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley-Oliphant, Ann; Behrens, Larry

    The Learning with Otis program is designed to provide elementary school teachers with practical conservation education activities which should be infused into the existing curriculum on a regular basis. Although many of these activities are science-oriented, the program is not, and should not be considered a science curriculum exclusively. This…

  18. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  19. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  20. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  1. Handbook of Family Activities for Parents of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Georgia

    Intended for parents, the handbook describes characteristics of learning disabled (LD) children and offers activities that the child can perform in the home to build skill proficiency. It is explained that the activities are designed to relieve the parent and child of constant awareness of the disability, to avoid use of special materials and…

  2. Art & Music Appreciation. A to Z Active Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Imogene; Schurr, Sandra

    This workbook includes high-interest activities, lessons, and projects to further students' interest in and understanding of important exploratory and enrichment topics essential to a balanced middle grades program. The workbook includes lessons and activities that encourage students to learn more about the arts. Instructional strategies are…

  3. An Active, Collaborative Approach to Learning Skills in Flow Cytometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…

  4. Fun and Learning for Parents and Children: An Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trans-Management Systems, Inc.

    Based on the assumption that the more parents enjoy playing with their children, the more children will learn from their parents, this booklet is a collection of fun activities for parents to do with their preschool children. The booklet is organized according to location for the activity, whether in a particular room in the house or outdoors.…

  5. Plastics in Our Environment: A Jigsaw Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine; Wallace, Mary Ann; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, a ready-to-teach cooperative reading activity, students learn about the effects of plastics in our environment, specifically that certain petrochemicals act as artificial estrogens and impact hormonal activities. Much of the content in this lesson was synthesized from recent medical research about the impact of xenoestrogens and…

  6. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  7. A Novel Teaching Tool Combined With Active-Learning to Teach Antimicrobial Spectrum Activity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To design instructional methods that would promote long-term retention of knowledge of antimicrobial pharmacology, particularly the spectrum of activity for antimicrobial agents, in pharmacy students. Design. An active-learning approach was used to teach selected sessions in a required antimicrobial pharmacology course. Students were expected to review key concepts from the course reader prior to the in-class sessions. During class, brief concept reviews were followed by active-learning exercises, including a novel schematic method for learning antimicrobial spectrum of activity (“flower diagrams”). Assessment. At the beginning of the next quarter (approximately 10 weeks after the in-class sessions), 360 students (three yearly cohorts) completed a low-stakes multiple-choice examination on the concepts in antimicrobial spectrum of activity. When data for students was pooled across years, the mean number of correct items was 75.3% for the items that tested content delivered with the active-learning method vs 70.4% for items that tested content delivered via traditional lecture (mean difference 4.9%). Instructor ratings on student evaluations of the active-learning approach were high (mean scores 4.5-4.8 on a 5-point scale) and student comments were positive about the active-learning approach and flower diagrams. Conclusion. An active-learning approach led to modestly higher scores in a test of long-term retention of pharmacology knowledge and was well-received by students. PMID:28381885

  8. Optimizing Estimated Loss Reduction for Active Sampling in Rank Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    ranging from the income level to age and her preference order over a set of products (e.g. movies in Netflix ). The ranking task is to learn a map- ping...learners in RankBoost. However, in both cases, the proposed strategy selects the samples which are estimated to produce a faster convergence from the...steps in Section 5. 2. Related Work A number of strategies have been proposed for active learning in the classification framework. Some of those center

  9. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

    PubMed

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2011-03-08

    Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.

  10. Memory in the making: localized brain activation related to song learning in young songbirds.

    PubMed

    Gobes, Sharon M H; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2010-11-07

    Songbird males learn to sing their songs from an adult 'tutor' early in life, much like human infants learn to speak. Similar to humans, in the songbird brain there are separate neural substrates for vocal production and for auditory memory. In adult songbirds, the caudal pallium, the avian equivalent of the auditory association cortex, has been proposed to contain the neural substrate of tutor song memory, while the song system is involved in song production as well as sensorimotor learning. If this hypothesis is correct, there should be neuronal activation in the caudal pallium, and not in the song system, while the young bird is hearing the tutor song. We found increased song-induced molecular neuronal activation, measured as the expression of an immediate early gene, in the caudal pallium of juvenile zebra finch males that were in the process of learning to sing their songs. No such activation was found in the song system. Molecular neuronal activation was significantly greater in response to tutor song than to novel song or silence in the medial part of the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). In the caudomedial mesopallium, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to tutor song than to silence. In addition, in the NCM there was a significant positive correlation between spontaneous molecular neuronal activation and the strength of song learning during sleep. These results suggest that the caudal pallium contains the neural substrate for tutor song memory, which is activated during sleep when the young bird is in the process of learning its song. The findings provide insight into the formation of auditory memories that guide vocal production learning, a process fundamental for human speech acquisition.

  11. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. Diverse expected gradient active learning for relative attributes.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-07-01

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called diverse expected gradient active learning. This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multiclass distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  13. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

    PubMed

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality.

  14. Carbon–carbon bond activation of cyclobutenones enabled by the addition of chiral organocatalyst to ketone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Jin, Zhichao; Zheng, Pengcheng; Ganguly, Rakesh; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2015-01-01

    The activation of carbon–carbon (C–C) bonds is an effective strategy in building functional molecules. The C–C bond activation is typically accomplished via metal catalysis, with which high levels of enantioselectivity are difficult to achieve due to high reactivity of metal catalysts and the metal-bound intermediates. It remains largely unexplored to use organocatalysis for C–C bond activation. Here we describe an organocatalytic activation of C–C bonds through the addition of an NHC to a ketone moiety that initiates a C–C single bond cleavage as a key step to generate an NHC-bound intermediate for chemo- and stereo-selective reactions. This reaction constitutes an asymmetric functionalization of cyclobutenones using organocatalysts via a C–C bond activation process. Structurally diverse and multicyclic compounds could be obtained with high optical purities via an atom and redox economic process. PMID:25652912

  15. The Development of Teaching Skills to Support Active Learning in University Science (ALIUS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedgood, Danny R., Jr.; Bridgeman, Adam J.; Buntine, Mark; Mocerino, Mauro; Southam, Daniel; Lim, Kieran F.; Gardiner, Michael; Yates, Brian; Morris, Gayle; Pyke, Simon M.; Zadnik, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an Australian Learning and Teaching Council funded project for which Learning Design is encompassed in the broadest sense. ALIUS (Active Learning In University Science) takes the design of learning back to the learning experiences created for students. ALIUS is not about designing a particular activity, or subject, or course,…

  16. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  18. Interactions between organic additives and active powders in water-based lithium iron phosphate electrode slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of organic additives with active powders are investigated and are found to have great influence on the determination of the mixing process for preparing electrode slurries with good dispersion and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes. Based on the analyses of zeta potential, sedimentation, and rheology, it is shown that LiFePO4 prefers to interact with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) relative to other organic additives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and thus shows preferential adsorption by SBR, whereas SBR has much lower efficiency than SCMC in dispersing LiFePO4. Therefore, for SCMC to interact with and disperse LiFePO4 before the interaction of LiFePO4 with SBR, it is suggested to mix SCMC with LiFePO4 prior to the addition of SBR during the slurry preparation process. For the electrode prepared via the suggested process, i.e., the sequenced adding process in which SCMC is mixed with active powders prior to the addition of SBR, a much better electrochemical performance is obtained than that of the one prepared via the process referred as the simultaneous adding process, in which mixing of SCMC and SBR with active powders in simultaneous.

  19. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2014-02-28

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARα. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPARα transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPARα in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPARα luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPARα agonist (WY14643, 10 μM), PFOA at 1-128μM, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 μM, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 μM, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 μM or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 μM to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 8×8 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC₅₀s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPARα in this in vitro system.

  20. Active learning: effects of core training design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Bell, Bradford S; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2008-03-01

    This article describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches; their effects on learning and transfer; and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex, computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees' metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety. Implications for development of an integrated theory of active learning, learner-centered design, and research extensions are discussed.

  1. Five Experiential Learning Activities in Addictions Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane A.; Hof, Kiphany R.; McGriff, Deborah; Morris, Lay-nah Blue

    2012-01-01

    This article describes five creative experiential classroom activities used in teaching addictions. The activities were integrated into the classroom curriculum and were processed weekly in focused dialogue. Student reflections throughout the article add depth to the meaning gained from the experience of the change process. The students' feedback…

  2. Active Learning? Not with My Syllabus!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching probability that minimizes the amount of class time spent on the topic while also providing a meaningful (dice-rolling) activity to get students engaged. The activity, which has a surprising outcome, illustrates the basic ideas of informal probability and how probability is used in statistical inference.…

  3. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  4. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  5. Writing-to-Learn Activities to Provoke Deeper Learning in Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaafar, Reem

    2016-01-01

    For students with little experience in mathematical thinking and conceptualization, writing-to-learn activities (WTL) can be particularly effective in promoting discovery and understanding. For community college students embarking on a first calculus course in particular, writing activities can help facilitate the transition from an "apply…

  6. Active learning by design: an undergraduate introductory public health course.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, Karin B

    2014-01-01

    Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an "experience" trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  7. The birthday card exercise: Replicating research as active learning.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2016-10-14

    One means to uncover common attitudes toward aging and older adults is to perform content analyses of popular print media forms such as newspapers, magazines, and even greeting cards. This active learning activity involves small groups of undergraduate students replicating, in a limited way, elements of a published research study on the messages conveyed by age-related birthday cards. In the exercise, each group of students is asked to analyze a set of 15 different birthday cards and to share qualitative and quantitative findings with classmates before submitting a written "discussion section" on their results to the instructor. The author demonstrates how this exercise, because it is aligned with key course learning outcomes as well as with coursework preceding and following the activity, is integrated into the overall learning environment of the course. Comments on student findings, the potential benefits of and modifications to the exercise, and the transferability of the exercise to other course contexts are also provided.

  8. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Karin B.

    2014-01-01

    Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an “experience” trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities. PMID:25566526

  9. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  10. Differential learning-related changes in theta activity during place learning in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Cortés, María Esther; García-Alcántar, Iván; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel; Cervantes, Miguel

    2012-01-15

    The participation key role of the hippocampus in place learning ability as well as the decline of cognitive functions associated with aging, have been established in experimental and clinical studies. On the other hand, hippocampal theta activity has been proposed as a part of the cerebral phenomena underlying hippocampal-dependent learning processes. In the present study, the relative power of low, high, and maximal frequency components of hippocampal CA1 theta activity during a 6-day training period (four daily trials; basal, searching, and platform stages) and the probe trial of a place learning paradigm (Morris water maze) were analyzed in young and aged rats. An increase in high frequency, and a decrease in low frequency relative power of theta activity during the searching stage, which were correlated with shorter swimming path lengths and predominant hippocampal-dependent allocentric strategies, were observed in young rats as became trained in place learning and memory tasks, in the Morris water maze; while, under these conditions, no changes in theta activity and predominant non hippocampal-dependent egocentric strategies occurred in the old rats. Besides, an overall (theta activity recorded during the three behavioral stages) increase of low frequency and an overall decrease of high frequency theta bands in the old group as compared to the young group were observed. These electrophysiological data suggest that old rats process information relevant for cognitive functions in a different manner, possibly leading to the use of different learning strategies, than young rats.

  11. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  12. Active Learning of Biochemistry Made Easy (for the Teacher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2008-02-01

    This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side". Students take turns being the "Discussion Leader" (DL, instructor for the day) and administer an oral quiz that requires answering questions of the DL's own devising. The remaining students, knowing they must learn the assigned material in advance, come prepared for every class. They prepare by creating written work abstracting the most important things they have learned on the given topic. Students use their prior writing and learning to answer the questions asked by the Discussion Leader; they also annotate these abstracts as they learn more during class. At the end of each class, the annotated writing is turned in to the Instructor for grading: that grade combined with points for oral performance yields the day's grade for each student. The students appear to learn biochemistry better using these procedures compared to the previous lecture-based approach.

  13. Motor sequence learning in the elderly: differential activity patterns as a function of hand modality.

    PubMed

    Eudave, Luis; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Luis, Elkin O; Martínez, Martín; Fernández-Seara, María A; Pastor, María A

    2016-07-21

    Previous research on motor sequence learning (MSL) in the elderly has focused mainly on unilateral tasks, even though bilateral coordination might be impaired in this age group. In this fMRI study, 28 right-handed elderly subjects were recruited. The paradigm consisted of a Novel and a simple Control sequence executed with the right (R), left (L) and both hands (B). Behavioral performance (Accuracy[AC], Inter-tap Interval[ITI]) and associated brain activity were assessed during early learning. Behavioral performance in the Novel task was similar between unilateral conditions whereas in the bimanual condition more errors and slower motor execution were observed. Brain activity increases during learning showed differences between Conditions: R showed increased activity in pre-SMA, basal ganglia and left hippocampus while B showed activity increments mainly in posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum. L did not show any activity modulation during learning. Performance correlates for AC (related to spatial success) and ITI (related to accurate timing) shared a cortico-basal-cerebellar network. However, it was found that the ITI regressor presented additional significant correlations with activity in SMA and basal ganglia in R. The AC regressor showed additional significant correlations with activity in more extended thalamic and cerebellar areas in B. The present findings suggest that, behaviorally, the spatial and temporal components of MSL are impaired in elderly subjects when using both hands. Additionally, differential brain activity patterns were found across hand modalities. The results obtained reveal the existence of a highly specialized network in the dominant hand and identify areas specifically involved in bimanual coordination.

  14. The Impact of Peer Review on Creative Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance in Web 2.0 Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lu, Kuan-Hsien; Wu, Leon Yufeng; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have pointed out the significant contrast between the creative nature of Web 2.0 learning activities and the structured learning in school. This study proposes an approach to leveraging Web 2.0 learning activities and classroom teaching to help students develop both specific knowledge and creativity based on Csikzentmihalyi's system…

  15. Examining Factors Affecting Beginning Teachers' Transfer of Learning of ICT-Enhanced Learning Activities in Their Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers' transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by "learning technology by collaborative design" in their final year of…

  16. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  17. Active Learning Strategies in Face-to-Face Courses. IDEA Paper #53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    As numerous research studies suggest, teachers who desire increased student learning should adopt active learning. This article explores the research, defines active learning, discusses its value, offers suggestions for implementing it, and provides six concrete examples of active learning approaches: Thinking-Aloud Pair Problem-Solving;…

  18. Musical Peddy-Paper: A Collaborative Learning Activity Suported by Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, José Duarte Cardoso; Figueiredo, Mauro Jorge Guerreiro; Amante, Lúcia da Graça Cruz Domingues; Gomes, Cristina Maria Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Gaming activities are an integral part of the human learning process, in particular for children. Game-based learning focuses on motivation and children's engagement towards learning. Educational game-based activities are becoming effective strategies to enhance the learning process. This paper presents an educational activity focusing to merge…

  19. An Active-Learning Strategies Primer for Achieving Ability-Based Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Brenda L.; Peeters, Michael J.; Resman-Targoff, Beth H.; Karr, Samantha; McBane, Sarah; Kelley, Kristi; Thomas, Tyan

    2011-01-01

    Active learning is an important component of pharmacy education. By engaging students in the learning process, they are better able to apply the knowledge they gain. This paper describes evidence supporting the use of active-learning strategies in pharmacy education and also offers strategies for implementing active learning in pharmacy curricula in the classroom and during pharmacy practice experiences. PMID:22171114

  20. Optical properties and photocatalytic activities of tungsten oxide (WO3) with platinum co-catalyst addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyandari, Hendri; Firdaus, Iqbal; Kadarisman, Vincencius Gunawan Slamet; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    This research reported the optical properties and photocatalytic activities of tungsten oxide with platinum co-catalyst addition (WO3/Pt) film. The platinum was deposited on the surface of WO3 particle using photo deposition method, while the film formation of WO3/Pt on the glass substrate was prepared using spray deposition method. The addition of Pt of 0, 1, 2, and 4 wt.% resulted that the energy band gap value of the films were shifted to 2.840, 2.752, 2.623 and 2.507 eV, respectively. The as-prepared films were tested for methylene blue (MB) dye photo-degradation using the LED (light emitting diode) lamp as a visible domestic source light. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was observed after the addition of Pt as a co-catalyst. The degradation kinetics analysis of the photo-catalyst showed that the Pt addition resulted increasing of photo-catalysis reaction rate constant, k.

  1. Autoinducer-2-like activity associated with foods and its interaction with food additives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-07-01

    The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecule produced by bacteria as part of quorum sensing is considered to be a universal inducer signal in bacteria because it reportedly influences gene expression in a variety of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected fresh produce and processed foods have AI-2-like activity and whether specific food additives can act as AI-2 mimics and result in AI-2-like activity. The luminescence-based response of the reporter strain Vibrio harveyi BB170 was used as the basis for determining AI-2 activity in the selected foods and food ingredients. Maximum AI-2 activity was seen on the frozen fish sample (203-fold, compared with the negative control) followed by tomato, cantaloupe, carrots, tofu, and milk samples. Interestingly, some samples were capable of inhibiting AI-2 activity. Turkey patties showed the highest inhibition (99.8% compared with the positive control) followed by chicken breast (97.5%), homemade cheeses (93.7%), beef steak (90.6%), and beef patties (84.4%). AI-2 activity was almost totally inhibited by sodium propionate, whereas sodium benzoate caused 93.3% inhibition, compared with 75% inhibition by sodium acetate. Sodium nitrate did not have any appreciable effect, even at 200 ppm. Understanding the relationships that exist between AI-2 activity on foods and the ecology of pathogens and food spoilage bacteria on foods could yield clues about factors controlling food spoilage and pathogen virulence.

  2. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  3. Google classroom as a tool for active learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd; Jamil, Jastini Mohd; Rodzi, Sarah Syamimi Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    As the world is being developed with the new technologies, discovering and manipulating new ideas and concepts of online education are changing rapidly. In response to these changes, many states, institutions, and organizations have been working on strategic plans to implement online education. At the same time, misconceptions and myths related to the difficulty of teaching and learning online, technologies available to support online instruction, the support and compensation needed for high-quality instructors, and the needs of online students create challenges for such vision statements and planning documents. This paper provides analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of Google Classroom's active learning activities for data mining subject under the Decision Sciences program. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been employed to measure the effectiveness of the learning activities. A total of 100 valid unduplicated responses from students who enrolled data mining subject were used in this study. The results indicated that majority of the students satisfy with the Google Classroom's tool that were introduced in the class. Results of data analyzed showed that all ratios are above averages. In particular, comparative performance is good in the areas of ease of access, perceived usefulness, communication and interaction, instruction delivery and students' satisfaction towards the Google Classroom's active learning activities.

  4. Online activities to optimize in person learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Tim

    Students' unprecedented access to content on the web is providing a unique opportunity to transform the role lectures in education, moving the focus from content delivery to helping students synthesize the content into knowledge. We have introduced a variety of activities to facilitate this transformation at the University of Illinois, including web-based preflight assessments of student understanding before lecture, peer instruction (clickers) to assess and facilitate student understanding during lecture, and web-based multimedia pre-lectures designed to provide students with content before lecture. In this talk I will discuss the pedagogical motivation for introducing these activities, and the impact they have had at the University of Illinois. .

  5. Classroom Activities for Cross-Cultural Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Virginia Vogel, Ed.; And Others

    One-fourth of the students in Boston public schools have parents who were born outside of the United States. This guide contains a series of classroom activities, produced by Boston teachers and aides, that are designed to take advantage of the abundant cultural diversity found in Boston schools by encouraging these dual-culture students to share…

  6. Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    As a college biology instructor, I often see graphs in lab reports that do not meet my expectations. I also observe that many college students do not always adequately differentiate between good and poor (or misleading) graphs. The activity described in this paper is the result of my work with students to improve their graphing literacy. The…

  7. Exploring Youth Cultures Geographically through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for actively involving students in studying cultural geography through a research project on youth cultures. It provides a basic framework to investigate selected "subcultures" focusing on the origin and diffusion of each culture, its material and non-material aspects and the attributes and meanings of spaces used by…

  8. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  9. Learning at Home: A Preschool Activity Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drobnyk, Wendy; And Others

    Intended for parents of handicapped preschool children, the booklet suggests ways parents can stimulate the development of their children through activities that occur naturally in the home setting. An initial section provides behavior management guidelines such as using success, encouragement, and praise to develop the child's enjoyment of…

  10. Experiential Activities for Intercultural Learning. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelye, H. Ned, Ed.

    The need for new approaches, methods, and techniques in cross-cultural training and intercultural education is paramount. This collection of more than 30 exercises and activities aims to help begin a regular flow of materials into the stream of resources available to professionals in the intercultural field. The emphasis in the collection's first…

  11. Synergistic Enhancement of Cellobiohydrolase Performance on Pretreated Corn Stover by Addition of Xylanase and Esterase Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug E. P.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2007-11-01

    Significant increases in the depolymerization of corn stover cellulose by cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei were observed using small quantities of non-cellulolytic cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified endoxylanase (XynA), ferulic acid esterase (FaeA), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe1) all enhanced Cel7A performance on corn stover subjected to hot water pretreatment. In all cases, the addition of these activities improved the effectiveness of the enzymatic hydrolysis in terms of the quantity of cellulose converted per milligram of total protein. Improvement in cellobiose release by the addition of the non-cellulolytic enzymes ranged from a 13-84% increase over Cel7A alone. The most effective combinations included the addition of both XynA and Axe1, which synergistically enhance xylan conversions resulting in additional synergistic improvements in glucan conversion. Additionally, we note a direct relationship between enzymatic xylan removal in the presence of XynA and the enhancement of cellulose hydrolysis by Cel7A.

  12. Introduction of active learning method in learning physiology by MBBS students

    PubMed Central

    Gilkar, Suhail Ahmad; Lone, Shabiruddin; Lone, Riyaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Active learning has received considerable attention over the past several years, often presented or perceived as a radical change from traditional instruction methods. Current research on learning indicates that using a variety of teaching strategies in the classroom increases student participation and learning. Aim and Objectives: To introduce active learning methodology, i.e., “jigsaw technique” in undergraduate medical education and assess the student and faculty response to it. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology in a Medical College of North India. A topic was chosen and taught using one of the active learning methods (ALMs), i.e., jigsaw technique. An instrument (questionnaire) was developed in English through an extensive review of literature and was properly validated. The students were asked to give their response on a five-point Likert scale. The feedback was kept anonymous. Faculty also provided their feedback in a separately provided feedback proforma. The data were collected, compiled, and analyzed. Results: Of 150 students of MBBS-first year batch 2014, 142 participated in this study along with 14 faculty members of the Physiology Department. The majority of the students (>90%) did welcome the introduction of ALM and strongly recommended the use of such methods in teaching many more topics in future. 100% faculty members were of the opinion that many more topics shall be taken up using ALMs. Conclusion: This study establishes the fact that both the medical students and faculty want a change from the traditional way of passive, teacher-centric learning, to the more active teaching-learning techniques. PMID:27563585

  13. Active-learning strategies: the use of a game to reinforce learning in nursing education. A case study.

    PubMed

    Boctor, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    The majority of nursing students are kinesthetic learners, preferring a hands-on, active approach to education. Research shows that active-learning strategies can increase student learning and satisfaction. This study looks at the use of one active-learning strategy, a Jeopardy-style game, 'Nursopardy', to reinforce Fundamentals of Nursing material, aiding in students' preparation for a standardized final exam. The game was created keeping students varied learning styles and the NCLEX blueprint in mind. The blueprint was used to create 5 categories, with 26 total questions. Student survey results, using a five-point Likert scale showed that they did find this learning method enjoyable and beneficial to learning. More research is recommended regarding learning outcomes, when using active-learning strategies, such as games.

  14. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  15. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMAN, ELIZABETH A.

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format. PMID:23653538

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-08-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we present a framework to design biology instruction that incorporates all active learning strategies. We review active learning research in undergraduate biology courses, present a framework for organizing active learning strategies, and provide clear implications and future research for designing instruction in introductory undergraduate biology courses.

  17. Acetylation of glycerol to biofuel additives over sulfated activated carbon catalyst.

    PubMed

    Khayoon, M S; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Oxygenated fuel additives can be produced by acetylation of glycerol. A 91% glycerol conversion with a selectivity of 38%, 28% and 34% for mono-, di- and triacetyl glyceride, respectively, was achieved at 120 °C and 3 h of reaction time in the presence of a catalyst derived from activated carbon (AC) treated with sulfuric acid at 85 °C for 4h to introduce acidic functionalities to its surface. The unique catalytic activity of the catalyst, AC-SA5, was attributed to the presence of sulfur containing functional groups on the AC surface, which enhanced the surface interaction between the glycerol molecule and acyl group of the acetic acid. The catalyst was reused in up to four consecutive batch runs and no significant decline of its initial activity was observed. The conversion and selectivity variation during the acetylation is attributed to the reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst loading and glycerol to acetic acid molar ratio.

  18. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  19. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R L; Hurley, M F; Kvryan, A; Williams, G; Scully, J R; Birbilis, N

    2016-06-28

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  20. Efficient exploration through active learning for value function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takayuki; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2010-06-01

    Appropriately designing sampling policies is highly important for obtaining better control policies in reinforcement learning. In this paper, we first show that the least-squares policy iteration (LSPI) framework allows us to employ statistical active learning methods for linear regression. Then we propose a design method of good sampling policies for efficient exploration, which is particularly useful when the sampling cost of immediate rewards is high. The effectiveness of the proposed method, which we call active policy iteration (API), is demonstrated through simulations with a batting robot.

  1. Additive effects on the improvement of insecticidal activity: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pymetrozine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu; Song, Hongjian; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-02-01

    A series of new pymetrozine analogues containing both methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens pallens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed good insecticidal activity against bean aphid; especially, IIIf (80%) and IIIl (80%) exhibited higher aphicidal activity than pymetrozine (30%) at 5mg/kg, and the two compounds still showed 20% and 30% mortality at 2.5mg/kg, respectively, whereas pymetrozine displayed no activity at the same concentration. These compounds exhibited a completely different structure-activity relationship to that of known pymetrozine derivatives, in which it is thought introducing alkyl group on the imine carbon could be detrimental to the activities. Our new result suggested that the methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring of phenoxy group may play additive effects on the improvement of aphicidal activity. Besides this, compound IIIs, containing an allyl at the para position of phenoxy group, exhibited excellent insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, lepidoptera pests cotton bollworm, corn borer and oriental armyworm.

  2. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  3. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  4. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  5. Introducing Sustainability into Business Education Contexts Using Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacVaugh, Jason; Norton, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how active learning may help address the legitimacy and practicability issues inherent in introducing education for sustainability into business-related degree programs. Design/methodology/approach: The focus of this study is the experience of the authors in the development and implementation of…

  6. Introducing Sustainability into Business Education Contexts Using Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacVaugh, Jason; Norton, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how active learning may help address the legitimacy and practicability issues inherent in introducing education for sustainability into business-related degree programmes. The focus of this study is the experience of the authors in the development and implementation of education for sustainability within…

  7. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 124, LAPs 29 Through 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Mary Ann

    A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…

  8. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 103, LAPs 10 Through 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane; And Others

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; Revolution; The World at War; Totalitarianism;…

  9. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 102, LAPs 10 Through 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tommy

    A set of seven teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; The Age of Revolution; The World at War; and…

  10. Getting Started: Materials and Equipment for Active Learning Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nancy

    This book provides information to guide the development of an active learning early childhood program by assisting in the selection of materials and equipment to support children's cognitive, physical and social development. The guide considers the arrangement of classroom areas, and elements of the daily routine. The following classroom interest…

  11. Using an Active-Learning Approach to Teach Epigenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon-Berlingeri, Migdalisel

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics involves heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. I developed an active-learning approach to convey this topic to students in a college genetics course. I posted a brief summary of the topic before class to stimulate exchange in cooperative groups. During class, we discussed the…

  12. Civic, Social and Political Education: Active Learning, Participation and Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the degree of active learning, participation and engagement of civic, social and political education (CSPE) pupils through an analysis of interview and focus group data, supplemented with key findings from a survey undertaken with CSPE pupils. The study focuses on pupils' views of the status of CSPE, their experience of active…

  13. Using Active Learning Strategies to Present Bloodborne Pathogen Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Leslie; Weaver, Mary G.

    2003-01-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety…

  14. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  15. Translating French Song as a Language Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines an approach to using the translation of French songs in English as an effective and enjoyable learning activity for students of French. Steps include: respecting rhythms; finding and respecting meaning; respecting style; respecting sound; respecting your choice of intended listeners; and respecting the original version. (CB)

  16. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  17. Engaging Elementary Preservice Teachers with Active Learning Teaching Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olgun, Ozlem Sila

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of active learning on preservice teachers' dignity, energy, self-management, community, and awareness (DESCA) abilities, attitudes toward teaching, and attitudes toward science. Third year preservice teachers (n = 77) from two different classes were involved in the study. One intact…

  18. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  19. The Secrets of the Iceman. Technology Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    1993-01-01

    This learning activity asks students to use critical thinking skills to imagine life in the late stone age, including the tools and technology that would have existed. Presents the context, the challenge, objectives, resources, material and equipment needs, and evaluation methods. (SK)

  20. Learning Activities for Social Studies in Oregon Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Herman A.; Davis, Rose Marie

    This guide suggests social studies learning activities for developing specific concepts in grades K-12. A related document, SO 013 465, lists the concepts and generalizations upon which a comprehensive K-12 social studies program should be built. Although written for teachers and curriculum specialists involved in curriculum development in Oregon,…

  1. Promoting Active Learning: The Use of Computational Software Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Tom

    The increased emphasis on active learning in essentially all disciplines is proving beneficial in terms of a student's depth of learning, retention, and completion of challenging courses. Formats labeled flipped, hybrid and blended facilitate face-to-face active learning. To be effective, students need to absorb a significant fraction of the course material prior to class, e.g., using online lectures and reading assignments. Getting students to assimilate and at least partially understand this material prior to class can be extremely difficult. As an aid to achieving this preparation as well as enhancing depth of understanding, we find the use of software programs such as Mathematica®or MatLab®, very helpful. We have written several Mathematica®applications and student exercises for use in a blended format two semester E&M course. Formats include tutorials, simulations, graded and non-graded quizzes, walk-through problems, exploration and interpretation exercises, and numerical solutions of complex problems. A good portion of this activity involves student-written code. We will discuss the efficacy of these applications, their role in promoting active learning, and the range of possible uses of this basic scheme in other classes.

  2. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  3. Development of Active Learning with Simulations and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapalska, Alina; Brozik, Dallas; Rudd, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Educational games and simulations are excellent active learning tools that offer students hands-on experience. Little research is available on developing games and simulations and how teachers can be assisted in making their own games and simulations. In this context, the paper presents a multi-step process of how to develop games and simulations…

  4. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  5. Learning Behavior Characterization with Multi-Feature, Hierarchical Activity Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Cheng; Segedy, James R.; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses Multi-Feature Hierarchical Sequential Pattern Mining, MFH-SPAM, a novel algorithm that efficiently extracts patterns from students' learning activity sequences. This algorithm extends an existing sequential pattern mining algorithm by dynamically selecting the level of specificity for hierarchically-defined features…

  6. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  7. Bingo!: An Engaging Activity for Learning Physiological Terms in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanags, Thea; George, Amanda M.; Grace, Diana M.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain Bingo is a tutorial activity for helping undergraduate psychology students learn complex physiological terms. In two experiments, the authors tested pretest and posttest knowledge, and in Experiment 2, the authors tested retention after 5 weeks. In Experiment 1 (n = 41), the experimental group (Brain Bingo) recalled more terms than the…

  8. Comprehension of Architectural Construction through Multimedia Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mas, Ángeles; Blasco, Vicente; Lerma, Carlos; Angulo, Quiteria

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an investigation about the use of multimedia procedures applied to architectural construction teaching. We have applied current technological resources, aiming to rationalize and optimize the active learning process. The experience presented to students is very simple and yet very effective. It has consisted in a simulation of…

  9. Health Occupations. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet of technology learning activity (TLA) materials on health occupations for students in grades 6-10 consists of a technology education overview, information on use, and instructor's and student's sections. The overview discusses the technology education program and materials. Components of the instructor's and student's sections are…

  10. Business Education: Learning Activities Packet for Office Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    These seventeen individualized learning activities packets (LAPs) are intended to relate essential competencies needed for entry or advancement in office occupations to the secondary level office education program and to assist students in achieving occupational proficiency in business careers. Each LAP contains some or all of the following…

  11. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved. PMID:28194200

  12. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. For sedimenttreated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 microm size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 microm size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility.

  14. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and

  15. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  16. Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer Anne

    This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching

  17. Student expectations in a group learning activity on harmonic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, Adam; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Students in a sophomore-level mechanics course participated in a new group learning activity that was intended to support model-building and finding coherence between multiple representations in the context of an underdamped harmonic system. Not all of the student groups framed the activity in the same way, and many attempted tasks that existed outside of the prompts of the activity. For one group, this meant that instead of providing a rich verbal description, they framed the activity as finding a mathematical expression.

  18. Artificial Warming and Rain Addition Increase Phenol Oxidase Activity in Arctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Seo, J.; Jang, I.; Lee, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Artic tundra is one of the largest carbon stocks, of which amount is estimated up to 1,600 Pg. Global climate change models predict surface temperature rise and higher precipitation during summer in Arctic regions, raising concerns about faster decomposition of organic carbon and consequent releases of CO2, CH4 and DOC. Microorganisms are directly involved in decomposition process by releasing various extracellular enzymes. In particular, phenol oxidase was noted to play a key role because it is related to dynamics of highly recalcitrant carbon, which often represents a rate-limiting step of overall decomposition. In this study, we monitored phenol oxidase activity, hydrolases (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, N-acetylglucosaminidase and aminopeptidase), microbial abundance (qPCR) and chemical properties (δ13C and δ15N signatures) of tundra soils exposed to artificial warming and rain addition, by employing a passive chamber method in Cambridge Bay, Canada. Warming and rain addition combinedly increased phenol oxidase activity while no such changes were discernible for other hydrolases. Stable isotope signature indicates that warming induced water stress to the ecosystem and that nitrogen availability may be enhanced, which is partially responsible for the changes in enzyme activities. A short-term warming (2 years) may not accelerate mineralization of easily decomposable carbon, but may affect phenol oxidase which has the longer-term influence on recalcitrant carbon.

  19. Brr2 plays a role in spliceosomal activation in addition to U4/U6 unwinding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingdi; Li, Xueni; Hill, Ryan C; Qiu, Yan; Zhang, Wenzheng; Hansen, Kirk C; Zhao, Rui

    2015-03-31

    Brr2 is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase that is responsible for U4/U6 unwinding, a critical step in spliceosomal activation. Brr2 is a large protein (∼250 kD) that consists of an N-terminal domain (∼500 residues) with unknown function and two Hel308-like modules that are responsible for RNA unwinding. Here we demonstrate that removal of the entire N-terminal domain is lethal to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and deletion of the N-terminal 120 residues leads to splicing defects and severely impaired growth. This N-terminal truncation does not significantly affect Brr2's helicase activity. Brr2-Δ120 can be successfully assembled into the tri-snRNP (albeit at a lower level than the WT Brr2) and the spliceosomal B complex. However, the truncation significantly impairs spliceosomal activation, leading to a dramatic reduction of U5, U6 snRNAs and accumulation of U1 snRNA in the B(act) complex. The N-terminal domain of Brr2 does not seem to be directly involved in regulating U1/5'ss unwinding. Instead, the N-terminal domain seems to be critical for retaining U5 and U6 snRNPs during/after spliceosomal activation through its interaction with snRNAs and possibly other spliceosomal proteins, revealing a new role of Brr2 in spliceosomal activation in addition to U4/U6 unwinding.

  20. The inactive-active phase transition in the noisy additive (exclusive-or) probabilistic cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the inactive-active phase transition in an array of additive (exclusive-or) cellular automata (CA) under noise. The model is closely related with the Domany-Kinzel (DK) probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA), for which there are rigorous as well as numerical estimates on the transition probabilities. Here, we characterize the critical behavior of the noisy additive cellular automaton by mean field analysis and finite-size scaling and show that its phase transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behavior. As a by-product of our analysis, we argue that the critical behavior of the noisy elementary CA 90 and 102 (in Wolfram’s enumeration scheme) must be the same. We also perform an empirical investigation of the mean field equations to assess their quality and find that away from the critical point (but not necessarily very far away) the mean field approximations provide a reasonably good description of the dynamics of the PCA.

  1. Active learning in the United Kingdom undergraduate dental course.

    PubMed

    Carrotte, P V

    1993-09-25

    'Active Learning' is a frequently encountered term much in vogue in educational circles and widely considered in many current textbooks and papers. It is, however, a most difficult term to define. This paper seeks firstly to explore and discuss the meaning of the term with special relation to undergraduate dental education, and then, in a consideration of the different approaches to studying, considers aspects of the current dental undergraduate curriculum, both teaching and assessment, which may have an influence on the student's approach to learning.

  2. Active-Inductive-Cooperative Learning: An Instructional Model for Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, Richard M.

    1996-09-01

    Five chemical engineering courses were taught to a cohort of students in consecutive semesters using an instructional model based on active, inductive, and cooperative learning and other methods designed to address a broad spectrum of learning styles. The results suggest that the approach enhances understanding and promotes the development of a variety of interpersonal and thinking skills, and that while it may initially provoke resistance from some students, the resistance can be overcome if the methods are implemented with care. With suitable modifications for content differences, the model may be equally effective for chemistry instruction.

  3. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders.

  4. DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie

    2004-01-01

    DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.

  5. Gardening and Groundskeeping: A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume I: Learning Activity Packages 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    These forty-two learning activity packages, intended for student use, are based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening-groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). They are organized by four areas of instruction: Organizing and Planning…

  6. Teaching and Learning Online: Assessing the Effect of Gender Context on Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Advocates of computer-mediated instruction have pointed to the potential of online teaching for facilitating students' active learning behavior. Small-group online discussion can have a role in meaningful student interaction. Yet, what is less known are the conditions under which students actually engage in interaction in online discussion groups…

  7. Learning Computers, Speaking English: Cooperative Activities for Learning English and Basic Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quann, Steve; Satin, Diana

    This textbook leads high-beginning and intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students through cooperative computer-based activities that combine language learning with training in basic computer skills and word processing. Each unit concentrates on a basic concept of word processing while also focusing on a grammar topic. Skills are…

  8. Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choon Aun; Sun, Darren; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wai, Soon Han; Wong, Ling Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-06-01

    It was found that with replenishment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) would develop biologically activated carbon (BAC) which could enhance filtration performance of a conventional MBR. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of PAC size on MBR (BAC) performance; and (ii) effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the MBR performance with and without PAC. To interpret the trends, particle/floc size, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS), total organic carbon (TOC), short-term filtration properties and transmembrane pressure (TMP) versus time are measured. The results showed improved fouling control with fine, rather than coarse, PAC provided the flux did not exceed the deposition flux for the fine PAC. Without PAC, the longer SRT operation gave lower fouling at modest fluxes. With PAC addition, the shorter SRT gave better fouling control, possibly due to greater replenishment of the fresh PAC.

  9. EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND METAL ADDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXATION ACTIVITY IN BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K.; Lui, D.; Anbar, A. D.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Hartnett, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are diverse consortia of microorganisms that live in intimate association with soils in arid environments. Also called cryptogamic or microbiotic crusts, these communities can include cyanobacteria, algae, heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, lichens, and mosses. Together, these organisms provide many services to their surrounding ecosystems, including reduction of water runoff, promotion of water infiltration, and prevention of soil erosion. The cyanobacteria and algae also provide fixed carbon (C) to the soil through photosynthesis, and because atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in arid environments is low, the major input of biologically available N comes from cyanobacteria capable of converting nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonium (NH4+). Biological soil crusts are easily destroyed by livestock grazing, motor vehicle travel, and many forms of recreational and agricultural land use. Loss of BSC cover can leave the soil vulnerable to intense erosion that can remove the nutrients necessary to sustain plant and animal life, thus accelerating the process of desertification. In order to preserve existing crusts and encourage the development of new crusts, it is crucial to understand the nutrient requirements of metabolism and growth in these microbial communities. This study investigated the affect of nitrogen and metal additions on N2-fixation activity in cyanobacterially-dominated crusts from the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah. Although N2-fixation has been studied in this system before, the affect of nutrient additions on N2-fixation activity has not been documented. The goal of this work was to understand how N and metal supplementation affects crust N metabolism. Three experiments were conducted to observe how N2-fixation activity changed with the addition of N, molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V). Molybdenum and vanadium were chosen because they are most commonly found at the active site of the enzyme nitrogenase, the molecule responsible

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  11. Emerging Vocabulary Learning: From a Perspective of Activities Facilitated by Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zengning

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current mobile vocabulary learning practice to discover how far mobile devices are being used to support vocabulary learning. An activity-centered perspective is undertaken, with the consideration of new practice against existing theories of learning activities including behaviorist activities, constructivist activities,…

  12. Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D

    2016-06-22

    The development of thick organic photovoltaics (OPV) could increase absorption in the active layer and ease manufacturing constraints in large-scale solar panel production. However, the efficiencies of most low-bandgap OPVs decrease substantially when the active layers exceed ∼100 nm in thickness (because of low crystallinity and a short exciton diffusion length). Herein, we report the use of solvent additive diphenyl ether (DPE) that facilitates the fabrication of thick (180 nm) active layers and triples the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of conventional thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophene polymer (PTB7)-based OPVs from 1.75 to 6.19%. These results demonstrate a PCE 20% higher than those of conventional (PTB7)-based OPV devices using 1,8-diiodooctane. Morphology studies reveal that DPE promotes the formation of nanofibrillar networks and ordered packing of PTB7 in the active layer that facilitate charge transport over longer distances. We further demonstrate that DPE improves the fill factor and photocurrent collection by enhancing the overall optical absorption, reducing the series resistance, and suppressing bimolecular recombination.

  13. Active learning in medical education: strategies for beginning implementation.

    PubMed

    Graffam, Ben

    2007-02-01

    Medical educators often deliver complex material in a format that does not allow the positive learning engagement recommended by cognitive researchers and theorists. Intentional engagement and active learning pedagogies change the nature of learning, while simultaneously improving knowledge gain and recall abilities. Students find the work more interesting and thereby put more effort into it. Historical perspective reveals that medical faculty need to make changes in their teaching methodologies. However, transforming pedagogical practice is difficult, as medical faculty have not had much exposure to pedagogical theory or training. While simple steps can be taken to alter basic lecture formatting, these steps may be unfamiliar to medical faculty. Seven methods for adapting parts of lectures are described. Practice with such methods may engender exploration of epistemological and cognitive aspects of deeper understanding.

  14. Inferring Knowledge from Active Learning Simulators for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguez, Julieta; Neri, Luis; Robledo-Rella, Víctor; Muñoz, Karla

    Active Learning Simulators (ALS) allow students to practice and carry out experiments in a safe environment - at any time, and in any place. Furthermore, well-designed simulations may enhance learning, and provide the bridge from conceptual to practical understanding. By adding an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), it is possible to provide personal guidance to students. The main objective of this work is to present an ALS suited for a Physics scenario in which we incorporate elements from ITS, and where a Probabilistic Relational Model (PRM) based on a Bayesian Network is used to infer student knowledge, taking advantage of relational models. A discussion of the methodology is addressed and preliminary results are presented. Ours first results go in the right direction as proved by a relative learning gain.

  15. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  16. "Heart Shots": A Classroom Activity to Instigate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year…

  17. Effects of Nutrient Addition on Belowground Stoichiometry and Microbial Activity in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsonneault, A. J.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs are both nutrient-poor systems and important carbon (C) sinks yet there remains a dearth of information on the stoichiometry of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), an important determinant of substrate quality for microorganisms, in these systems. In this study, we quantified the C, N, P, and K concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of both soil organic matter (SOM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as microbial extracellular enzyme activity from 0 - 10cm depth in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada. Though trends in C:N, C:P, and C:K between SOM and DOM seem to follow one another, preliminary results indicate that the stoichiometric ratios of DOM were at least an order of magnitude smaller than those of DOM suggesting that nutrient fertilization impacts the quality of DOM as a microbial substrate to a greater degree than SOM. C:N decreased with greater nitrogen addition but C:P and C:K increased; the magnitude of that increase being smaller in NPK treatments relative to N-only treatments suggesting co-limitation by P and/or K. This is further supported by the increase in activity of both the C-cycling enzyme, β-D-glucosidase (bdG), and the P-cycling enzyme, phosphatase (Phos), with greater nitrogen addition; particularly in NPK-treatments for bdG and N-only treatments for Phos. The activity of the N-cycling enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the C-cycling enzyme, phenol oxidase, with greater N-addition suggests a decreased need to breakdown organic nitrogen to meet microbial N-requirements in the former and N-inhibition in the latter consistent with findings in the literature. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of nutrients impact both microbial substrate quality as well as the activity of microbial enzymes that are key in the decomposition process which may ultimately decrease the ability of peatlands to sequester carbon.

  18. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  19. Modeled changes of cerebellar activity in mutant mice are predictive of their learning impairments

    PubMed Central

    Badura, Aleksandra; Clopath, Claudia; Schonewille, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Translating neuronal activity to measurable behavioral changes has been a long-standing goal of systems neuroscience. Recently, we have developed a model of phase-reversal learning of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, a well-established, cerebellar-dependent task. The model, comprising both the cerebellar cortex and vestibular nuclei, reproduces behavioral data and accounts for the changes in neural activity during learning in wild type mice. Here, we used our model to predict Purkinje cell spiking as well as behavior before and after learning of five different lines of mutant mice with distinct cell-specific alterations of the cerebellar cortical circuitry. We tested these predictions by obtaining electrophysiological data depicting changes in neuronal spiking. We show that our data is largely consistent with the model predictions for simple spike modulation of Purkinje cells and concomitant behavioral learning in four of the mutants. In addition, our model accurately predicts a shift in simple spike activity in a mutant mouse with a brainstem specific mutation. This combination of electrophysiological and computational techniques opens a possibility of predicting behavioral impairments from neural activity. PMID:27805050

  20. Modeled changes of cerebellar activity in mutant mice are predictive of their learning impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badura, Aleksandra; Clopath, Claudia; Schonewille, Martijn; de Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2016-11-01

    Translating neuronal activity to measurable behavioral changes has been a long-standing goal of systems neuroscience. Recently, we have developed a model of phase-reversal learning of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, a well-established, cerebellar-dependent task. The model, comprising both the cerebellar cortex and vestibular nuclei, reproduces behavioral data and accounts for the changes in neural activity during learning in wild type mice. Here, we used our model to predict Purkinje cell spiking as well as behavior before and after learning of five different lines of mutant mice with distinct cell-specific alterations of the cerebellar cortical circuitry. We tested these predictions by obtaining electrophysiological data depicting changes in neuronal spiking. We show that our data is largely consistent with the model predictions for simple spike modulation of Purkinje cells and concomitant behavioral learning in four of the mutants. In addition, our model accurately predicts a shift in simple spike activity in a mutant mouse with a brainstem specific mutation. This combination of electrophysiological and computational techniques opens a possibility of predicting behavioral impairments from neural activity.

  1. Exploring the Effects of Active Learning on High School Students' Outcomes and Teachers' Perceptions of Biotechnology and Genetics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ashley L.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Orvis, Kathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    Active learning can engage high school students to learn science, yet there is limited understanding if active learning can help students learn challenging science concepts such as genetics and biotechnology. This quasi-experimental study explored the effects of active learning compared to passive learning regarding high school students'…

  2. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.

  3. Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2015-09-01

    Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR, 8-15 Hz) are brain oscillations associated with successful motor performance, imagery, and imitation. Voluntary modulation of SMR can be used to control brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the absence of any physical movements. The mechanisms underlying acquisition of such skill are unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a causal link between function of the primary motor cortex (M1), active during motor skill learning and retention, and successful acquisition of abstract skills such as control over SMR. Thirty healthy participants were trained on 5 consecutive days to control SMR oscillations. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups that received either 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1. Learning SMR control across training days was superior in the anodal tDCS group relative to the other 2. Cathodal tDCS blocked the beneficial effects of training, as evidenced with sham tDCS. One month later, the newly acquired skill remained superior in the anodal tDCS group. Thus, application of weak electric currents of opposite polarities over M1 differentially modulates learning SMR control, pointing to this primary cortical region as a common substrate for acquisition of physical motor skills and learning to control brain oscillatory activity.

  4. Incorporating conditional random fields and active learning to improve sentiment identification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Xie, Yusheng; Yang, Yi; Sun, Aaron; Liu, Hengchang; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-10-01

    Many machine learning, statistical, and computational linguistic methods have been developed to identify sentiment of sentences in documents, yielding promising results. However, most of state-of-the-art methods focus on individual sentences and ignore the impact of context on the meaning of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a method based on conditional random fields to incorporate sentence structure and context information in addition to syntactic information for improving sentiment identification. We also investigate how human interaction affects the accuracy of sentiment labeling using limited training data. We propose and evaluate two different active learning strategies for labeling sentiment data. Our experiments with the proposed approach demonstrate a 5%-15% improvement in accuracy on Amazon customer reviews compared to existing supervised learning and rule-based methods.

  5. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  6. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  7. Active Learning in a Large General Physics Classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trousil, Rebecca

    2008-04-01

    In 2004, we launched a new calculus-based, introductory physics sequence at Washington University. Designed as an alternative to our traditional lecture-based sequence, the primary objectives for this new course were to actively engage students in the learning process, to significantly strengthen students' conceptual reasoning skills, to help students develop higher level quantitative problem solving skills necessary for analyzing ``real world'' problems, and to integrate modern physics into the curriculum. This talk will describe our approach, using The Six Ideas That Shaped Physics text by Thomas Moore, to creating an active learning environment in large classes as well as share our perspective on key elements for success and challenges that we face in the large class environment.

  8. Serotonergic modulation of septo-hippocampal and septo-mammillary theta activity during spatial learning, in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca Erika; Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2017-02-15

    Theta activity has been related to the processing of spatial information and the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. The medial septum (MS) plays an important role in the control and coordination of theta activity, as well as in the modulation of learning. It has been established that increased serotonergic activity may desynchronize theta activity, while reduced serotonergic activity produces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. We investigate whether serotonin acting on the medial septum could modify spatial learning and the functional relationship between septo-hippocampal and septo-mammillary theta activity. The serotonin was depleted (5HT-D) from the medial septum by the injection of 5,7 DHT (5,7- dihydroxytryptamine). Theta activity was recorded in the dorsal hippocampus, MS and mammillary nuclei (SUM, MM) of Sprague-Dawley male rats during spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Spatial learning was facilitated, and the frequency of the hippocampal theta activity during the first days of training increased (to 8.5Hz) in the 5HT-D group, unlike the vehicle group. Additionally, the coherence between the MS-hippocampus and the MS-mammillary nuclei was higher during the second day of the test compared to the vehicle group. We demonstrated that septal serotonin depletion facilitates the acquisition of spatial information in association with a higher functional coupling of the medial septum with the hippocampus and mammillary nuclei. Serotonin, acting in the medial septum, modulates hippocampal theta activity and spatial learning.

  9. Target detection in active polarization images perturbed with additive noise and illumination nonuniformity.

    PubMed

    Bénière, Arnaud; Goudail, François; Dolfi, Daniel; Alouini, Mehdi

    2009-07-01

    Active imaging systems that illuminate a scene with polarized light and acquire two images in two orthogonal polarizations yield information about the intensity contrast and the orthogonal state contrast (OSC) in the scene. Both contrasts are relevant for target detection. However, in real systems, the illumination is often spatially or temporally nonuniform. This creates artificial intensity contrasts that can lead to false alarms. We derive generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) detectors, for which intensity information is taken into account or not and determine the relevant expressions of the contrast in these two situations. These results are used to determine in which cases considering intensity information in addition to polarimetric information is relevant or not.

  10. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  11. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  12. Does Active Learning through an Antisense Jigsaw Make Sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharaman, Mahadevan; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2003-12-01

    Three journal articles on nucleic acid antisense modification strategies were assigned to 12 students as part of an active learning "jigsaw" exercise for a graduate-level chemistry course on nucleic acids. Each student was required to read one of the three articles. This assignment was preceded by an hour-long lecture on the basic concepts in antisense antigene technology. On the day of the jigsaw, the students with the same article (three groups of four students) discussed their article briefly, and then formed four new groups where no one had read the same article. Each student spent about five minutes teaching his or her article to the other group members, using specific questions provided to guide the discussion. This exercise laid the foundation for bringing the discussion to the entire class, where most of the students actively participated. To test the students' comprehension of the reading materials, a problem set was designed that required not only an understanding of the three articles, but also application of the concepts learned. The effectiveness of this active learning strategy and its applicability to other topics are discussed in this article.

  13. An active, collaborative approach to learning skills in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J

    2016-06-01

    Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.

  14. Semi-Supervised Active Learning for Sound Classification in Hybrid Learning Environments

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenjing; Coutinho, Eduardo; Li, Haifeng; Schuller, Björn; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Coping with scarcity of labeled data is a common problem in sound classification tasks. Approaches for classifying sounds are commonly based on supervised learning algorithms, which require labeled data which is often scarce and leads to models that do not generalize well. In this paper, we make an efficient combination of confidence-based Active Learning and Self-Training with the aim of minimizing the need for human annotation for sound classification model training. The proposed method pre-processes the instances that are ready for labeling by calculating their classifier confidence scores, and then delivers the candidates with lower scores to human annotators, and those with high scores are automatically labeled by the machine. We demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of this method in two practical scenarios: pool-based and stream-based processing. Extensive experimental results indicate that our approach requires significantly less labeled instances to reach the same performance in both scenarios compared to Passive Learning, Active Learning and Self-Training. A reduction of 52.2% in human labeled instances is achieved in both of the pool-based and stream-based scenarios on a sound classification task considering 16,930 sound instances. PMID:27627768

  15. A Critical Analysis of Active Learning and an Alternative Pedagogical Framework for Introductory Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning has been championed in academic circles as the pedagogical fix to boring lectures typically found in introduction to information systems courses. However, the literature on active learning is mixed. In this paper, we critically examine active learning research and discover a misplaced emphasis leading to paradoxical findings in…

  16. From Tootsie Rolls to Broken Bones: An Innovative Approach for Active Learning in Mechanics of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsey, Julie; Talley, Austin; White, Christina; Jensen, Dan; Wood, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Active learning enhances engineering education. This paper presents rationale, curriculum supplements, and an approach to active learning that may be seamlessly incorporated into a traditional lecture-based engineering class. A framework of educational theory that structures the active learning experiences and includes consideration of learning…

  17. The Reality-Based Learning Method: A Simple Method for Keeping Teaching Activities Relevant and Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louise W.; Van Doren, Doris C.

    2004-01-01

    Active and experiential learning theory have not dramatically changed collegiate classroom teaching methods, although they have long been included in the pedagogical literature. This article presents an evolved method, reality based learning, that aids professors in including active learning activities with feelings of clarity and confidence. The…

  18. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP-type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well…

  19. Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce M.; Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Discussion is one form of active learning, which has been linked to better learner outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between active learning through discussion and learner outcome in the online environment. Here, we construct an index of active learning online that includes the number of postings a student has read, the number of…

  20. Perceptions of Active Learning between Faculty and Undergraduates: Differing Views among Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Lorelei E.; Howell, Leigh Anne; Wischusen, William

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous calls recently to increase the use of active learning in university science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) classrooms to more actively engage students and enhance student learning. However, few studies have investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of active learning or the…