Cuda, Rebecca A.
Describes a multi-resource learning environment in which students can engage in their own learning with the teacher taking more of a facilitative role. This type of learning can occur as part of a unit of study and must be supplemented with more traditional types of instruction to ensure that the necessary content is given by the teacher. (SAH)
Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).
The aim of this document is to give teachers in Tasmania an understanding of the importance and usefulness of the environment as a learning resource both as an immediate stimulus for learning and for the long term process of forming sound community values. The document provides schools with a basis for the development of environmental resources…
Nunes, Evelyn H., Ed.
This Learning Resources Evaluation Manual (LREM) contains evaluations of 140 instructional products listed in the 1994 supplement to Virginia's Adult Education Curricula Resource Catalog. A table of contents lists topics/subjects and page numbers. Some titles that are useful under more than one category are cross-listed for easy reference. These…
Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Minjuan
This paper presents a new model for organizing learning resources: Learning Cell. This model is open, evolving, cohesive, social, and context-aware. By introducing a time dimension into the organization of learning resources, Learning Cell supports the dynamic evolution of learning resources while they are being used. In addition, by introducing a…
Learning resources have been created to represent digital units of exchangeable materials that teachers and learners can pull from in order to support the learning processes. They resource themselves. Leveraging the web, one can often find these resources. But what characteristics do they need in order to be easily exchangeable? Although several…
Describes Curriculum Services Canada (CSC) process of evaluating electronic learning resources. Includes advantages of electronic learning and a checklist for choosing an electronic learning evaluator. (PKP)
Nunes, Evelyn H., Ed.
This manual contains evaluations of 196 instructional products listed in Virginia's Adult Basic Education Curricula Resource Catalog. It is intended as a convenient reference manual for making informed decisions concerning materials for adult learners in adult basic education, English-as-a-Second-Language instruction, and general educational…
Wade, Anne; And Others
This annotated bibliography of the current resources in cooperative learning is the result of a comprehensive search of the literature in the fields of education, psychology, sociology, linguistics, and business. It contains 926 citations of books, journal articles, periodicals, and non-print material pertaining to cooperative/collaborative…
Brown, Eric R.
This paper provides a description and evaluation of the Ethnic Heritage Learning Resource Center, a program designed to provide a concentrated and personalized enrichment program of instruction to children showing severe reading deficiencies. Approximately 1,200 fourth and fifth graders drawn from eight schools in New York City participated. The…
THARP, CHARLES D.
A DESCRIPTION OF THE INCEPTION, OBJECTIVES, OPERATION, EQUIPMENT, AND PERSONNEL OF THE LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES CENTER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI IS GIVEN. FACULTY COMMITTEES WERE APPOINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI TO WORK OUT THE PHILOSOPHY OF A NEW DIVISION WITHIN THE UNIVERSITY WHICH WOULD MEET THE PROBLEMS OF THE INADEQUACY OF…
Brissenden, G. A.; Mathieu, R. D.; National InstituteScience Education; College Level-One Team
Recent calls for instructional innovation in college Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (SMET) courses highlight the need for a solid foundation of education research at the undergraduate level on which to base policy and practice. We report the results of a meta-analysis that integrates research on undergraduate SMET education since 1980. The meta-analysis demonstrates that various forms of small-group learning are effective in promoting greater academic achievement, more favorable attitudes toward learning, and increased persistence through SMET courses and programs. Specifically, the effect of small-group learning on achievement reported in this study would move a student from the 50th percentile to the 70th percentile on a standardized test. Similarly, the effect on students'persistence is enough to reduce attrition from SMET courses and programs by 22 widespread implementation of small-group learning in college SMET courses. We have created a Collaborative Learning website designed to assist instructors who wish to incorporate collaborative learning in their lectures, classrooms, and laboratories. The site provides straightforward, easy-to-use ideas for those just getting started, extensive additional resources for those already using small-group techniques, and the educational research foundation for the use of collaborative learning (including the meta-analysis). The Collaborative Learning site can be found at the NISE "Innovations in SMET Education" website at www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1
Ndahi, Hassan B.; Charturvedi, Sushil; Akan, A. Osman; Pickering, J. Worth
This article presents a study that aimed to determine engineering students' preferred way of learning and to provide additional learning resources to support their methods of learning. The population for this study was drawn from electrical, civil, and mechanical engineering programs at an urban university. Overall, the results of the study…
Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.
In this paper an approach to planning of additional resources when scheduling operations are discussed. The considered resources are assumed to be discrete and renewable. In most research in scheduling domain, the basic and often the only type of regarded resources is a workstation. It can be understood as a machine, a device or even as a separated space on the shop floor. In many cases, during the detailed scheduling of operations the need of using more than one resource, required for its implementation, can be indicated. Resource requirements for an operation may relate to different resources or resources of the same type. Additional resources are most often referred to these human resources, tools or equipment, for which the limited availability in the manufacturing system may have an influence on the execution dates of some operations. In the paper the concept of the division into basic and additional resources and their planning method was shown. A situation in which sets of basic and additional resources are not separable - the same additional resource may be a basic resource for another operation is also considered. Scheduling of operations, including greater amount of resources can cause many difficulties, depending on whether the resource is involved in the entire time of operation, only in the selected part(s) of operation (e.g. as auxiliary staff at setup time) or cyclic - e.g. when an operator supports more than one machine, or supervises the execution of several operations. For this reason the dates and work times of resources participation in the operation can be different. Presented issues are crucial when modelling of production scheduling environment and designing of structures for the purpose of scheduling software development.
Ward, Nigel; Fankhauser, Rae; Turner, Margaret
In 1998, the EdNA/CESCEO Schools Advisory Group (SAG) formed the Networked Learning Resources Working Group to investigate issues surrounding the provision, optimum integration and management of Australian digital learning resources. The Working Group contracted DSTC Pty Ltd, in conjunction with the services of an independent specialist in schools…
The need to change the conventional library into a learning resource center is stressed. With the learning resources concept, instructors will be more prone to look upon media not with the idea of why it should be used in teaching, but how it can be used in order to do a more effective job of teaching. The effective use of media will necessarily…
Christ, Tanya; Arya, Poonam; Chiu, Ming Ming
This study focused on two professional learning communities (PLCs) situated in literacy education practica courses. How four PLC resources (colleagues, facilitators, readings, and videos) were related to outcomes, including teachers' learning, teachers' application of this learning, and subsequent students' learning, was examined. Participants…
Payne, Mario D., Ed.; Robins, Eve, Ed.
This resource guide is designed to help adults who suspect they have a learning disability gather sufficient information to set realistic goals, achieve those goals, and lead productive lives. The first section, which discusses assessing learning disabilities, includes lists of agencies equipped to help diagnose learning disabilities in adults and…
IBM, Atlanta, GA. National Support Center for Persons with Disabilities.
The resource guide identifies products which assist learning disabled and mentally retarded individuals in accessing IBM (International Business Machine) Personal Computers or the IBM Personal System/2 family of products. An introduction provides a general overview of ways computers can help learning disabled or retarded persons. The document then…
Verbert, K.; Ochoa, X.; Derntl, M.; Wolpers, M.; Pardo, A.; Duval, E.
Technology Enhanced Learning is a research field that has matured considerably over the last decade. Many technical solutions to support design, authoring and use of learning activities and resources have been developed. The first datasets that reflect the tracking of actual use of these tools in real-life settings are beginning to become…
Anido, Luis E.; Fernandez, Manuel J.; Caeiro, Manuel; Santos, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Judith S.; Llamas, Martin
Discusses the need for standardization for learning technologies in computer-based training systems. Highlights include institutions and organizations involved in standardization; a survey of educational metadata; how these data models are applied by actual software systems to facilitate the location of learning resources; and educational…
Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.
The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.
Ebersole, John F.
Today's college presidents face multiple challenges as they create and implement their institutions' strategic plans. Recently, some presidents have included an online learning capability among the tools employed to implement their strategic plans and achieve their vision. What effect does online education really have on an institution? In this…
This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…
Careful observations of learners' reasoning belie simple characterizations of their knowledge or abilities: Students who appear to lack understanding or abilities at one moment show evidence of them at another. Detecting this variability generally requires close examination of what and how students are thinking, moment-to-moment, which makes research difficult. But the findings challenge unitary accounts of intelligence, stages of development, and misconceptions. Joe Redish and others have been working from a more complex theoretical framework of innumerable, fine-grained cognitive structures we call ``resources.'' They are, roughly, ways of thinking people have that may apply or not in any particular moment. (Thinking about energy, for example, may involve resources for understanding location or conservation, or oscillations in time, or differential symmetry.) The variability we observe in student reasoning reflects variability in resource activation. Resources are to models of mind what partons used to be to models of hadrons: We know we should be thinking of entities and dynamics at a smaller scale than we've been considering, even if we don't know their particular properties. Understanding minds in this way has profound implications for research and for teaching.
Hickson, Mark, III
Organizational communication, because of its interdisciplinary nature and diversity of interest (sociology, psychology, speech communication, and business administration), requries reading in several different disciplines. Among the available resources listed in this document are six specific books which may prove useful for understanding the…
Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang
The key to implementing ubiquitous learning is the construction and organization of learning resources. While current research on ubiquitous learning has primarily focused on concept models, supportive environments and small-scale empirical research, exploring ways to organize learning resources to make them available anywhere on-demand is also…
Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari
Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…
Until recently, research in applied linguistics has tended to treat learners in relative isolation from their context, and to study primarily classroom and other educational contexts. This paper in contrast focuses on the contexts which frame learning, and in particular the resources which these contexts provide. A model is outlined which includes…
Hopkinson, Alan; Chandrakar, Rajesh
Purpose: To describe the first year of the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in Middlesex University Learning Resources. Design/methodology/approach: The technology is explained in detail to set the scene. Information on the implementation is presented in chronological order. Findings: Problems which would generally be…
Keck, Tom, Comp.; Frye, Ellen, Ed.
Preparing students to be successful in a rapidly changing world means showing them how to use the tools of technology and how to integrate those tools into all areas of learning. This booklet is divided into three sections: Design Activities, Experiments, and Resources. The design activities ask students to collaborate on design projects. In these…
Crowley's Ridge Vocational Technical School, Forrest City, AR.
Enrollees (aged 16-21) at Crowley's Ridge Vocational Technical School (Forrest City, Arkansas) had trouble mastering the vocational curriculum because they lacked academic skills in reading, mathematics, and language. Through research, it was determined that a Learning Resource Center could be the instructional tool that would remedy the academic…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.
This annotated bibliography contains approximately 350 citations of learning resources for the series of K-9 guides designed for the social studies curriculum in Manitoba, Canada (SO 014 225-231). Intended for teachers and students, the bibliography includes listings of guides, manuals, books, booklets, filmstrips, audiovisual kits, cassettes,…
Roempler, Kimberly S.
Describes the Learning Matrix digital library which focuses on improving the preparation of math and science teachers by supporting faculty who teach introductory math and science courses in two- and four-year colleges. Suggests it is a valuable resource for school library media specialists to support new science and math teachers. (LRW)
Newman, Peter; Bruyere, Brett L.; Beh, Adam
This paper reports on a study conducted in a service-learning protected-areas management class at Colorado State University, Warner College of Natural Resources. The research questions addressed for this paper were "What are the leadership skills needed in today's culture of protected-area management?" and "Can service-learning…
Harpole, W Stanley; Sullivan, Lauren L; Lind, Eric M; Firn, Jennifer; Adler, Peter B; Borer, Elizabeth T; Chase, Jonathan; Fay, Philip A; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; MacDougall, Andrew S; Seabloom, Eric W; Williams, Ryan; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cadotte, Marc W; Chaneton, Enrique J; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; D'Antonio, Carla; Davies, Kendi F; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; McCulley, Rebecca L; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John W; Prober, Suzanne M; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Wragg, Peter D
Niche dimensionality provides a general theoretical explanation for biodiversity-more niches, defined by more limiting factors, allow for more ways that species can coexist. Because plant species compete for the same set of limiting resources, theory predicts that addition of a limiting resource eliminates potential trade-offs, reducing the number of species that can coexist. Multiple nutrient limitation of plant production is common and therefore fertilization may reduce diversity by reducing the number or dimensionality of belowground limiting factors. At the same time, nutrient addition, by increasing biomass, should ultimately shift competition from belowground nutrients towards a one-dimensional competitive trade-off for light. Here we show that plant species diversity decreased when a greater number of limiting nutrients were added across 45 grassland sites from a multi-continent experimental network. The number of added nutrients predicted diversity loss, even after controlling for effects of plant biomass, and even where biomass production was not nutrient-limited. We found that elevated resource supply reduced niche dimensionality and diversity and increased both productivity and compositional turnover. Our results point to the importance of understanding dimensionality in ecological systems that are undergoing diversity loss in response to multiple global change factors.
Scherr, Rachel; Goerzen, Renee Michelle
The Video Resource for Learning Assistant Development is a package (under development) of thematic case-based ``video workshops,'' designed to supplement the University of Colorado's widely disseminated LA development program. In a video workshop, short, compelling video episodes are accompanied by captions, transcript, excerpts from instructional materials, and targeted discussion questions to help LAs and faculty explore the principles and values that inform instructor and student behavior. The video episodes for this project will showcase a variety of exemplary (yet real-life) LA-relevant instructional formats including Tutorials in Introductory Physics, Modeling Instruction, Investigative Science Learning Environment, and Open Source Tutorials.
Niche dimensionality is the most general theoretical explanation for biodiversity: more niches allow for more ecological tradeoffs between species and thus greater opportunities for coexistence. Resource competition theory predicts that removing resource limitations, by increasing resource availabil...
Kuo, Yen-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min
Mobile learning (m-learning) is a new trend in the e-learning field. The learning services in m-learning environments are supported by fundamental functions, especially the content and assessment services, which need an authoring tool to rapidly generate adaptable learning resources. To fulfill the imperious demand, this study proposes an…
Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng Quan; Chiang, Feng Kuang
Most ubiquitous learning researchers use resource recommendation and retrieving based on context to provide contextualized learning resources, but it is the kind of one-way context matching. Learners always obtain fixed digital learning resources, which present all learning contents in any context. This study proposed a dynamic ubiquitous learning…
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…
Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick
This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…
Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali
We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…
Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Ferrie, Christopher; Cory, D G
In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable.
Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang
Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…
Attala, Emile E.; Howard, James A.
Very little work has been done in the broad field of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to exploring the use of a minicomputer as another learning resource in the instructional process. Accordingly a cost-effective Learning Resource Aided Instruction (LRAI) System centered around a Data General NOVA minicomputer augmented with slide…
Vrabic, Gorazd; Simon, Bernd
The European project, UNIVERSAL--Universal Exchange for Pan-European Higher Education, is an attempt to demonstrate an open exchange of learning resources (LRs) between higher education institutions across Europe. The goal is to create and manage an open market of learning resources by introducing a brokerage platform with a standard way of…
Yang, Che-Ching; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Liao, Anthony Y. H.; Liang, Tyne
Educators have emphasized the importance of situating students in an authentic learning environment. By using such approach, teachers can encourage students to learn Chinese poems by browsing content resources and relevant online multimedia resources by using handheld devices. Nevertheless, students in heterogeneous network environments may have…
In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…
Lau, Simon Boung-Yew; Lee, Chien-Sing; Singh, Yashwant Prasad
With the proliferation of social Web applications, users can now collaboratively author, share and access hypermedia learning resources, contributing to richer learning experiences outside formal education. These resources may or may not be educational. However, they can be harnessed for educational purposes by adapting and personalizing them to…
The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.
The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.
Fuji, Takashi; Tanigawa, Takeshi
This paper describes a domain-specific repository based on the methodology for e-learning systems development. The methodology, which is based on information engineering and object-oriented technology, is used to support navigation for courseware development, designing the curriculum of e-learning components, and e-learning resources management. A…
Bird, Stephen A.
Recent advances in digital video have lead to a convergence of mainstream entertainment (e.g., movies) and language learning tools. An example is a software system/media player called L1, which provides interactive subtitling and learning support for DVD entertainment products. Convergence of entertainment and learning resources raises challenging…
Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Pilati, Michelle L.; King, Beverly R.
MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a free multidisciplinary catalog of digital learning materials, peer reviews, learning assignments, and member comments designed to facilitate faculty instruction. The catalog's goal is to expand the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed online teaching materials. We…
So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Kong, Siu-Cheung
This study aims to examine the design of approaches for inquiry learning with multimedia resources in primary classrooms. The study describes the development of a multimedia learning unit that helps learners understand the natural phenomenon of the movement of the Earth. An analysis of the use of the multimedia learning unit by a teacher in two…
Izsak, Andrew; Tillema, Erik; Tunc-Pekkan, Zelha
We present a case study of teaching and learning fraction addition on number lines in one sixth-grade classroom that used the Connected Mathematics Project Bits and Pieces II materials. Our main research questions were (1) What were the primary cognitive structures through which the teacher and students interpreted the lessons? and (2) Were the…
Aird, H. M.
An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises
Yang, Louie H; Bastow, Justin L; Spence, Kenneth O; Wright, Amber N
An increasing number of studies in a wide range of natural systems have investigated how pulses of resource availability influence ecological processes at individual, population, and community levels. Taken together, these studies suggest that some common processes may underlie pulsed resource dynamics in a wide diversity of systems. Developing a common framework of terms and concepts for the study of resource pulses may facilitate greater synthesis among these apparently disparate systems. Here, we propose a general definition of the resource pulse concept, outline some common patterns in the causes and consequences of resource pulses, and suggest a few key questions for future investigations. We define resource pulses as episodes of increased resource availability in space and time that combine low frequency (rarity), large magnitude (intensity), and short duration (brevity), and emphasize the importance of considering resource pulses at spatial and temporal scales relevant to specific resource-onsumer interactions. Although resource pulses are uncommon events for consumers in specific systems, our review of the existing literature suggests that pulsed resource dynamics are actually widespread phenomena in nature. Resource pulses often result from climatic and environmental factors, processes of spatiotemporal accumulation and release, outbreak population dynamics, or a combination of these factors. These events can affect life history traits and behavior at the level of individual consumers, numerical responses at the population level, and indirect effects at the community level. Consumers show strategies for utilizing ephemeral resources opportunistically, reducing resource variability by averaging over larger spatial scales, and tolerating extended interpulse periods of reduced resource availability. Resource pulses can also create persistent effects in communities through several mechanisms. We suggest that the study of resource pulses provides opportunities
Describes the training and functions of the media resources officer (MRO) in the Inner London (England) Education Authority. The MRO is a new professional school and college staff member with specialized media skills who organizes, develops, and teaches the use of audiovisual technology and materials to students and teachers. (MF)
Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.
The present study investigated the additive, synergistic, and moderating effects of job demands and job resources on well-being (burnout and work engagement) and organizational outcomes, as specified by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. A survey was conducted among two Chinese samples: 625 blue collar workers and 761 health professionals. A…
This paper describes a small-scale initiative to introduce resource-based learning into courses undertaken in the Department of Physics at Loughborough University. To provide the necessary facilities a Resource Centre containing text, audio, video, videodisc and computer resources was set up. At the end of its first year of operation the usefulness (and usage) of the Centre was evaluated by means of questionnaires issued to students. As a result of the mainly positive responses further developments are taking place to increase student involvement in resource-based learning.
Nolan, Nathanial S.
Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories—such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia—for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used
Payne, Mario D., Ed.; Robins, Eve, Ed.
This guide is designed for adults who suspect or know they have a learning disability and for family and friends who wish to help. It is intended to provide a starting point for gaining information that can lead to obtaining services at the state or local level. It provides information on assessing the problem, a learning disabilities checklist,…
Turkel, Yesim Deniz; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness…
A new level of learning resources is surfacing in many postsecondary institutions, taking one of three principal forms: an independent study model of one-on-one learning, computer communications via e-mail between teachers and learners, or online database searching to facilitate access to information and the use of libraries. The use of these…
Wheeler, Gary S., Ed.
This collection offers insights into the state of teaching and learning for graduate students and relatively new higher education faculty. The chapters in this resource collection are: (1) "The Role of Community in Learning: Making Connections for Your Classroom and Campus, Your Students and Colleagues" (Milton D. Cox); (2) "Diversity and New…
This paper presents the concept of symbolic resources for apprehending sense-making in learning and instruction. It first reminds the centrality of sense-making in learning and instruction from a sociocultural perspective, and proposes a pragmatist approach to examine what sorts of knowledge people use when they face situations that matter. The…
Fulantelli, Giovanni; Gentile, Manuel; Taibi, Davide; Allegra, Mario
In this paper we present the results of research work, that forms part of the activities of the EU-funded project SLOOP: Sharing Learning Objects in an Open Perspective, aimed at encouraging the definition, development and management of Open Educational Resources based on the Learning Object paradigm (Wiley, 2000). We present a model of Open…
Terras, Melody M.; Ramsay, Judith; Boyle, Elizabeth
The provision of Open Educational Resources (OER) means that learning horizons are no longer restricted by time and space. However, if the learning potential of OER is to be fully realised, educators and students must have the media literacy skills to select, use and produce information in a judicious and useful way. A consideration of the…
Champion, Richard A.
Machine learning describes pattern-recognition algorithms - in this case, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). These can be computationally intensive, in part because of the nonlinear optimizer, a numerical process that calibrates the PNN by minimizing a sum of squared errors. This report suggests efficiencies that are expressed as cost and benefit. The cost is computer time needed to calibrate the PNN, and the benefit is goodness-of-fit, how well the PNN learns the pattern in the data. There may be a point of diminishing returns where a further expenditure of computer resources does not produce additional benefits. Sampling is suggested as a cost-reduction strategy. One consideration is how many points to select for calibration and another is the geometric distribution of the points. The data points may be nonuniformly distributed across space, so that sampling at some locations provides additional benefit while sampling at other locations does not. A stratified sampling strategy can be designed to select more points in regions where they reduce the calibration error and fewer points in regions where they do not. Goodness-of-fit tests ensure that the sampling does not introduce bias. This approach is illustrated by statistical experiments for computing correlations between measures of roadless area and population density for the San Francisco Bay Area. The alternative to training efficiencies is to rely on high-performance computer systems. These may require specialized programming and algorithms that are optimized for parallel performance.
Manouselis, N.; Vuorikari, R.; Van Assche, F.
Repositories with educational resources can support the formation of online learning communities by providing a platform for collaboration. Users (e.g. teachers, tutors and learners) access repositories, search for interesting resources to access and use, and in many cases, also exchange experiences and opinions. A particular class of online…
Brown, James W.
A survey of nonformal community education activities was conducted to determine specific use of media for identified educational and informational purposes. The results presented in this report are intended to provide resource information to professionals and paraprofessionals who ultimately may be employed in Learning Resource Center-Based…
Lee, Hyonyong; Fortner, Rosanne W.
Exotic species are organisms transported by humans, wildlife, wind, and water into regions where they did not historically exist. This ERIC Digest describes available materials and resources for teaching and learning about these exotic species. Sixteen Internet sources are provided along with six videotape resources. The digest also provides…
Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…
Hilton, Gillian L. S.
This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…
Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl
Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics.
Hostager, Todd J.
The author explores the extent to which online learning resources help level the playing field through mediating the effects of grade point average (GPA) and gender in determining course grades. Study findings reveal that a greater use of online resources can fully offset the effects of gender and partially offset the effects of GPA on the grades…
Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan
Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.
Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abedi, Heidarali; Zarea, Kourosh
Background: Students tend to internalize and perpetuate the patterns of behavior and the values surrounding them. Review of literature showed that there are several student learning sources through the hidden curriculum, but they have not been identified in nursing yet. Hence, the purpose of this study is explanation of learning resources in the hidden curriculum in the view of baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out in 2012 with the participation of 32 baccalaureate nursing students in Nursing and Midwifery College of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran by purposeful sampling strategies. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and continued to the level of data saturation and themes’ emergence. Data analysis was performed through inductive content analysis method. Result: “Instructor as the unique learning element,” “various learning resources in the clinical setting,” and “instructive nature of the education environment” were extracted as the main themes, each of which incorporated some categories. Conclusion: Baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students learnt the hidden curriculum by the resources such as instructors, resources existing in the clinical setting, and the university campus. Therefore, more research is recommended for the identification of other resources. In order to promote positive messages and reduce the negative messages of the hidden curricula running at academic and clinical settings, nursing educators and nurses need to learn more about this issue in the nursing profession. PMID:26430684
Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.
Imaginative learning resources of various types are reported in this catalog under the subject headings of process learning, education environments, classroom materials and methods, home learning, and self discovery. Books reviewed are on the subjects of superstition, Eastern religions, fairy tales, philosophy, creativity, poetry, child care,…
So, Wing-mui Winnie; Ching, Ngai-ying Fiona
With the rapid expansion of broadband Internet connection and availability of high performance yet low priced computers, many countries around the world are advocating the adoption of e-learning, the use of computer technology to improve learning and teaching. The trend of e-learning has urged many teachers to incorporate online resources in their…
Baca, Milton L.; Palmer, Gregory
Valley High School, Albuquerque, New Mexico, uses cable television in many ways. The educational access channels aid in classroom instruction, students take part in national and local teleconferences, the public access channel is used to tell the community about the school, and students learn to use video equipment. (DCS)
Armsby, Allen; And Others
The seven papers that make up this report focus on the impact of new information technology on curriculum and resource management at the college level in England and Wales. A brief preface, an introduction, and a foreword provide background information on the report and introduce the following papers: (1) "Curriculum Developments in Further…
... services needed by a Team. 270.204 Section 270.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.204 Provision of additional resources and services needed by a Team. The Director will determine the appropriate resources that a...
Kowli, Anupama Sunil
As power grids transition towards increased reliance on renewable generation, energy storage and demand response resources, an effective control architecture is required to harness the full functionalities of these resources. There is a critical need for control techniques that recognize the unique characteristics of the different resources and exploit the flexibility afforded by them to provide ancillary services to the grid. The work presented in this dissertation addresses these needs. Specifically, new algorithms are proposed, which allow control synthesis in settings wherein the precise distribution of the uncertainty and its temporal statistics are not known. These algorithms are based on recent developments in Markov decision theory, approximate dynamic programming and reinforcement learning. They impose minimal assumptions on the system model and allow the control to be "learned" based on the actual dynamics of the system. Furthermore, they can accommodate complex constraints such as capacity and ramping limits on generation resources, state-of-charge constraints on storage resources, comfort-related limitations on demand response resources and power flow limits on transmission lines. Numerical studies demonstrating applications of these algorithms to practical control problems in power systems are discussed. Results demonstrate how the proposed control algorithms can be used to improve the performance and reduce the computational complexity of the economic dispatch mechanism in a power network. We argue that the proposed algorithms are eminently suitable to develop operational decision-making tools for large power grids with many resources and many sources of uncertainty.
So, Winnie Wing Mui; Ching, Fiona Ngai Ying
This paper discusses the creation of learning environments with online resources by three primary school teachers for pupil's learning of science-related topics with reference to the resource-based e-learning environments (RBeLEs) framework. Teachers' choice of contexts, resources, tools, and scaffolds in designing the learning environments are…
Krajcso, Zita; Frimmel, Ulrike
Foreign language teachers and learners use digital repositories frequently to find appropriate activities for their teaching and learning activities. The question is: How can content providers support them in finding exactly what they need and in retrieving high quality resources? This question has been discussed in the literature and in the…
Henderson, Clare; Fraser, Deborah; Price, Graham
What is happening in arts teaching and learning in our classrooms? Recent NEMP reports tell us that Year 4 students are not performing well but that there is an increase in scores at Year 8. This new professional development resource builds on research into teacher practice in Years 0-6 classrooms in New Zealand primary schools. It offers new…
Maier, Mark H.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Simkins, Scott P.
This article describes Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, a Web-based portal that makes innovative pedagogic resources and effective teaching practices easily accessible to economists. Starting Point introduces economists to teaching innovations through 16 online modules, each containing a general description of a specific pedagogic…
Ducote, Richard L.
This selected annotated bibliography lists almost two hundred documents, added to the ERIC data base since 1972, which deal with adaptations of the learning resources center concept to specific situations. The bibliography is divided into ten sections: (1) elementary and secondary schools; (2) colleges and universities; (3) personnel and training;…
Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger
An analysis of the improvement in attainments of 109 students attending specialist-resourced provision for specific learning difficulties (SpLD) attached to mainstream secondary schools was conducted as they progressed through Key Stages 3 and 4. Steady progress was made in terms of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling ability and…
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) is a nonprofit corporation that serves schools in 10 Pacific island political entities, whose affiliation with the United States ranges from statehood to free association. PREL's main office is in Honolulu, Hawaii, with service centers in American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana…
Adams, Jacob E., Jr., Ed.
Education finance has emerged as one of the most pressing public policy issues of the new century. Americans spend more than $500 billion a year on elementary and secondary education, yet neither policy-makers nor practitioners seems to know how to align these resources with student learning goals. In fact, spending increases have outstripped…
Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.
This document is intended to provide New York schools, business/industry representatives, and others with resources to develop or further refine work-based learning (WBL) strategies or components. Section 1 presents background information on the following topics: (1) the scope of WBL; (2) foundations for the development of WBL; (3) categories of…
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning PREL, 2004
Perhaps more than at any other time in Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, (PREL's) history, 2003 was a year of change, renewal, and innovation. There was a change in leadership, a move to new headquarters, and a commitment to seek new opportunities. Throughout these transitions, PREL's staff and Strategic Plan provided a strong…
Wilson, Lucy, Comp.
This manual begins by providing background on the program, collection, and acquisition processes of the Raymond Walters College (RWC) Learning Resources Center. The next section describes collection development policies for: (1) the academic departments (Animal Health; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Business and Economics; Chemistry; Dental…
Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.
A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…
Udegbe, I. Bola
This study investigated the attitudes of Prospective Human Resource Personnel toward degrees obtained by distance learning in comparison to those obtained through conventional degree program. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 215 postgraduate students who had been or had potential to be involved in the hiring process in their…
Rieskamp, Jörg; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Laine, Tei
How do people learn to allocate resources? To answer this question, 2 major learning models are compared, each incorporating different learning principles. One is a global search model, which assumes that allocations are made probabilistically on the basis of expectations formed through the entire history of past decisions. The 2nd is a local adaptation model, which assumes that allocations are made by comparing the present decision with the most successful decision up to that point, ignoring all other past decisions. In 2 studies, participants repeatedly allocated a capital resource to 3 financial assets. Substantial learning effects occurred, although the optimal allocation was often not found. From the calibrated models of Study 1, a priori predictions were derived and tested in Study 2. This generalization test shows that the local adaptation model provides a better account of learning in resource allocations than the global search model.
This article discusses USAID's lessons learned about integrating gender into natural resource management (NRM) projects in Peru, the Philippines, and Kenya. In Peru, USAID integrated women into a solid waste management project by lending money to invest in trash collection supplies. The loans allowed women to collect household waste, transfer it to a landfill, and provide additional sanitary disposal. The women were paid through direct fees from households and through service contracts with municipalities. In Mindanao, the Philippines, women were taught about the health impact of clean water and how to monitor water quality, including the monitoring of E. coli bacteria. Both men and women were taught soil conservation techniques for reducing the amount of silt running into the lake, which interferes with the generation of electricity and affects the health of everyone. The education helped women realize the importance of reducing silt and capitalized on their interest in protecting the health of their families. The women were thus willing to monitor the lake's water quality to determine if the conservation efforts were effective. In Kenya, USAID evaluated its Ecology, Community Organization, and Gender project in the Rift Valley, which helped resettle a landless community and helped with sustainable NRM. The evaluation revealed that women's relative bargaining power was less than men's. Organized capacity building that strengthened women's networks and improved their capacity to push issues onto the community agenda assured women a voice in setting the local NRM agenda.
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.
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MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire
Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…
Moen, Anne; Nygård, Kathrine A; Gauperaa, Torunn
Creating web-based learning environments holds great promise for on the job training and competence development in nursing. The web-based learning environment was designed and customized by four professional development nurses. We interviewed five RNs that pilot tested the web-based resource. Our findings give some insight into how the web-based design tool are perceived and utilized, and how content is represented in the learning environment. From a competency development perspective, practicing authentic tasks in a web-based learning environment can be useful to train skills and keep up important routines. The approach found in this study also needs careful consideration. Emphasizing routines and skills can be important to reduce variation and ensure more streamlined practice from an institution-wide quality improvement efforts. How the emphasis on routines and skills plays out towards the individual's overall professional development needs further careful studies.
Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.
Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643
Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong
Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources.
Huang, Shwu-Yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
Examines how participation in learning resources activities and perceptions of the value of learning resources affects student teachers' self, task, and impact concerns. Subjects were 173 student teachers. Results revealed high self-concerns and higher impact concerns. Utilization of learning resources had a significant effect on task concerns,…
Petheram, L; High, C; Campbell, B M; Stacey, N
In this study, we explored the use of selected visual techniques (e.g. video, photography, diagramming) in facilitating learning among Indigenous communities living in remote protected areas at sites in Vietnam and Australia. The techniques were employed during interviews and workshops aimed at accessing and enhancing local peoples' perspectives on their landscape and on specific natural resource management issues. The effectiveness of the different techniques for enabling learning varied markedly with the context, highlighting the need for facilitator skill and flexibility in application of techniques. Visual techniques helped to engage participants; encourage unrestrained and lateral thinking; provide opportunities for self-expression and reflection; and to expose participants to perspectives of other community members. Valuable insights emerged on broad aspects of learning and these were incorporated into a simple model that highlights three types of conceptualisation found to be important in these processes.
Developed as part of CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology efforts to improve interoperability between learning resource repositories, the Simple Query Interface (SQI) is an Application Program Interface (API) for querying heterogeneous repositories of learning resource metadata. In the context of the ProLearn Network of Excellence, SQI is used…
Caballé, S.; Mora, N.; Feidakis, M.; Gañán, D.; Conesa, J.; Daradoumis, T.; Prieto, J.
Many researchers argue that students must be meaningfully engaged in the learning resources for effective learning to occur. However, current online learners still report a problematic lack of attractive and challenging learning resources that engage them in the learning process. This endemic problem is even more evident in online collaborative…
Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia
Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.
Borowsky, George; And Others
This book is concerned with the potential of the city as a place for learning. Discovery of the city is facilitated by a catalogue of 70 alphabetically arranged categories made up of (1) people (28 entries, ranging from butcher to psychologist); (2) places (29 entries, from city Hall to zoo); and (3) processes (13) entries from candymaking to…
van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter
The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…
Smalheer, C. V.
The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.
Trelease, Robert B
The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular attention has been directed to the anticipated integration of PDA functions into popular cellular telephones. However, limited distribution of early "smartphones" (e.g., Palm Treo and Blackberry) has provided few potential users for anatomical learning resources. In contrast, iPod media players have been self-adopted by millions of students, and "podcasting" has become a popular medium for distributing educational media content. The recently introduced Apple iPhone has combined smartphone and higher resolution media player capabilities. The author successfully tested the iPhone and the "work alike" iPod touch wireless media player with text-based "flashcard" resources, existing PDF educational documents, 3D clinical imaging data, lecture "podcasts," and clinical procedure video. These touch-interfaced, mobile computing devices represent just the first of a new generation providing practical, scalable wireless Web access with enhanced multimedia capabilities. With widespread student self-adoption of such new personal technology, educators can look forward to increasing portability of well-designed, multiplatform "learn anywhere" resources.
de Oliveira, Aparecido Ferreira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Batista, Nildo Alves
Objective To investigate the process of learning on human resource management in the radiology residency program at Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, aiming at improving radiologists' education. Materials and Methods Exploratory study with a quantitative and qualitative approach developed with the faculty staff, preceptors and residents of the program, utilizing a Likert questionnaire (46), taped interviews (18), and categorization based on thematic analysis. Results According to 71% of the participants, residents have clarity about their role in the development of their activities, and 48% said that residents have no opportunity to learn how to manage their work in a multidisciplinary team. Conclusion Isolation at medical records room, little interactivity between sectors with diversified and fixed activities, absence of a previous culture and lack of a training program on human resources management may interfere in the development of skills for the residents' practice. There is a need to review objectives of the medical residency in the field of radiology, incorporating, whenever possible, the commitment to the training of skills related to human resources management thus widening the scope of abilities of the future radiologists. PMID:25741056
Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.
Mehta, S; Clarke, F; Fleming, P S
Purpose/objectives The aims of this study were to describe the development of a novel e-learning resource and to assess its impact on student learning experiences and orthodontic knowledge.Methods Thirty-two 4th year dental undergraduate students at Queen Mary University of London were randomly allocated to receive electronic access to e-learning material covering various undergraduate orthodontic topics over a 6-week period. Thirty-one control students were not given access during the study period. All students were asked to complete electronic quizzes both before (T0) and after (T1) the study period and a general questionnaire concerning familiarity with e-learning. The test group also completed a user satisfaction questionnaire at T1. Two focus groups were also undertaken to explore learners' experiences and suggestions in relation to the resource.Results The mean quiz result improved by 3.9% and 4.5% in the control and test groups, respectively. An independent t-test, however, demonstrated a lack of statistical significance in knowledge gain between control and test groups (P = 0.941). The qualitative feedback indicated that students believed that use of the resource enhanced knowledge and basic understanding with students expressing a wish to ingrain similar resources in other areas of undergraduate teaching.Conclusions Use of the novel orthodontic e-resource by 4th year undergraduate students over a 6-week period did not result in a significant improvement in subject knowledge. However, the e-learning has proven popular among undergraduates and the resources will continue to be refined.
Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei
Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…
Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy; Sinclair, Christine M.
Peer Instruction (PI) is an evidence based pedagogy commonly used in undergraduate physics instruction. When asked questions designed to test conceptual understanding, it has been observed that the proportion of students choosing the correct answer increases following peer discussion; however, relatively little is known about what takes place during these discussions or how they are beneficial to the processes of learning physics [M. C. James and S. Willoughby, Am. J. Phys. 79, 123 (2011)]. In this paper a framework for analyzing PI discussions developed through the lens of the "resources model" [D. Hammer, Am. J. Phys. 64, 1316 (1996); D. Hammer et al., Information Age Publishing (2005)] is proposed. A central hypothesis for this framework is that the dialogue with peers plays a crucial role in activating appropriate cognitive resources, enabling the students to see the problem differently, and therefore to answer the questions correctly. This framework is used to gain greater insights into the PI discussions of first year undergraduate physics students at the University of Edinburgh, UK, which were recorded using Livescribe Smartpens. Analysis of the dialogues revealed three different types of resource activation corresponding to increasing cognitive grain size. These were activation of knowledge elements, activation of linkages between knowledge elements, and activation of control structures (epistemic games and epistemological frames). Three case studies are examined to illustrate the role that peer dialogue plays in the activation of these cognitive resources in a PI session. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.
Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana
In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…
Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H
Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region.
Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina
The adoption of virtual microscopy at the University of Turku, Finland, created a unique real-world laboratory for exploring ways of reforming the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the students' reactions and the impact of a set of measures designed to boost an experimental group's understanding of abnormal histology through an emphasis on knowledge of normal cells and tissues. The set of measures included (1) digital resources to review normal structures and an entrance examination for enforcement, (2) digital course slides highlighting normal and abnormal tissues, and (3) self-diagnostic quizzes. The performance of historical controls was used as a baseline, as previous students had never been exposed to the above-mentioned measures. The students' understanding of normal histology was assessed in the beginning of the module to determine the impact of the first set of measures, whereas that of abnormal histology was assessed at the end of the module to determine the impact of the whole set of measures. The students' reactions to the instructional measures were assessed by course evaluation data. Additionally, four students were interviewed. Results confirmed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the historical controls in understanding normal histology. The students held favorable opinions on the idea of emphasizing normal structures. However, with regards to abnormal histology, the historical controls outperformed the experimental group. In conclusion, allowing students access to high-quality digitized materials and boosting prerequisite skills are clearly not sufficient to boost final competence. Instead, the solution may lie in making students externally accountable for their learning throughout their training.
This article reports a study which sought to evaluate the different learning strategies adopted by students when accessing virtual learning environment (VLE)-hosted resources because, if student achievement corresponds to the learning strategy that is adopted whilst accessing VLE resources, directed tasks can be put in place that will encourage…
Barbosa Gomez, Luisa Fernanda; Bohorquez Sotelo, Maria Cristina; Roja Higuera, Naydu Shirley; Rodriguez Mendoza, Brigitte Julieth
Learning resources are part of the educational process of students. However, how video games act as learning resources in a population that has not selected the virtual formation as their main methodology? The aim of this study was to identify the influence of a video game in the learning process of brain evolution. For this purpose, the opinions…
Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta).
A microcomputer and hard disk were used to set up an automated card catalog in an Edmonton (Alberta) elementary school learning resource center to determine if a computerized card catalog would help elementary students to access learning resource materials, thereby enhancing their learning. Instead of using a traditional card catalog, students…
Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli
The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…
Clark, Burton R.
The need to identify the mode of integration of learning resources on contemporary US campuses grows as institutional expansion becomes a primary organizational concern. The implications drawn in this paper from the culture of the campus to the organization of learning resources is that many of these resources must be drastically decentralized…
Kennett, Deborah J.; Humphreys, Terry P.; Patchell, Meghan
We examined the relationship between learned resourcefulness skills and the manner in which undergraduate heterosexual women handle unwanted sexual advances/activity. Participants consisted of 150 females completing a set of questionnaires assessing general learned resourcefulness, sexual giving-in experience, sexual resourcefulness, sexual…
The listing of learning resources for intermediate-level French second language instruction in Alberta (Canada) in grades 4-12 cites about 150 items in these categories: audio, video, and kits; communicative activity resources; computer software; cultural learning resources; games and puzzles; magazines and newspapers; posters, maps, and charts;…
Maron, John L; Marler, Marilyn
Theory and empirical work have demonstrated that diverse communities can inhibit invasion. Yet, it is unclear how diversity influences invader impact, how impact varies among exotics, and what the relative importance of diversity is versus extrinsic factors that themselves can influence invasion. To address these issues, we established plant assemblages that varied in native species and functional richness and crossed this gradient in diversity with resource (water) addition. Identical assemblages were either uninvaded or invaded with one of three exotic forbs: spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), or sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta). To determine impacts, we measured the effects of exotics on native biomass and, for spotted knapweed, on soil moisture and nitrogen levels. Assemblages with high species richness were less invaded and less impacted than less diverse assemblages. Impact scaled with exotic biomass; spotted knapweed had the largest impact on native biomass compared with the other exotics. Although invasion depressed native biomass, the net result was to increase total community yield. Water addition increased invasibility (for knapweed only) but had no effect on invader impact. Together, these results suggest that diversity inhibits invasion and reduces impact more than resource additions facilitate invasion or impact.
Soares, Rosa; Santos, Cátia; Carvalho, Sara
The present study reports the elaboration, application and evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program that aims to evaluate the effectiveness in students learning the Rock Cycle theme. Prior research on both PBL and Rock Cycle was conducted within the context of science education so as to elaborate and construct the intervention program. Findings from these studies indicated both the PBL methodology and Rock Cycle as helpful for teachers and students. PBL methodology has been adopted in this study since it is logically incorporated in a constructivism philosophy application and it was expected that this approach would assist students towards achieving a specific set of competencies. PBL is a student-centered method based on the principle of using problems as the starting point for the acquisition of new knowledge. Problems are based on complex real-world situations. All information needed to solve the problem is initially not given. Students will identify, find, and use appropriate resources to complete the exercise. They work permanently in small groups, developing self-directed activities and increasing participation in discussions. Teacher based guidance allows students to be fully engaged in knowledge building. That way, the learning process is active, integrated, cumulative, and connected. Theme "Rock Cycle" was introduced using a problematic situation, which outlined the geological processes highlighted in "Foz do Douro" the next coastline of the school where the study was developed. The questions proposed by the students were solved, using strategies that involved the use of hands-on activities and virtual labs in Geology. The systematization of the selected theme was performed in a field excursion, implemented according to the organizational model of Nir Orion, to The "Foz do Douro" metamorphic complex. In the evaluation of the learning process, data were obtained on students' development of knowledge and competencies through the application of
Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.
Partnerships among educators and between educators and researchers within and among universities are especially important for fostering discovery, creating learning resources, and sharing materials for Earth system science education. Partners with diverse expertise motivate one another by contributing ideas and resources to the collaborative group, thus enabling discovery in the creation and enrichment of content being developed for the classroom or laboratory and also for informal education. The key to discovery in the interdisciplinary dimension of Earth system science requires knowledge and background experiences from many disciplines. Through sharing their expertise within collaborations, scientists and educators extend the usefulness of their work to others for use in their own classrooms, with perhaps modification of the resource to meet their specific needs. The new resource may be refined and redirected, and once again shared with other colleagues to extend the spiral of increasing utility and foster the broader use of the original resource. Collaborations enabling discovery become especially powerful when partnerships cross disciplines and extend horizons between fields of expertise in scientific research and professional education. Product dissemination and user community growth are natural results of a functioning collaborative of educators and researchers with common interests. This collaborative community-building concept forms the core of successful education endeavors within the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education Program (ESSE) which supported forty-five interdisciplinary teams between 1991 and 2000 to develop and offer courses on Earth system topics. Throughout this effort, ESSE recognized the value of partnerships, communication, and venues which promoted team building, and engaged in collaborations with the Inter-American Institute, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and Project ALERT aimed to foster discovery in the creation, review and
Akgun, Serap; Ciarrochi, Joseph
Explored whether more resourceful students could protect themselves from academic stress, particularly in terms of not allowing stress to affect their grades. Focuses on college freshman (n=141) who completed measures of academic stress and learned resourcefulness. Includes references. (CMK)
Jordan, A. . School of Environmental Sciences); Werksman, J. . Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development)
In the last four years, incrementality'' and additionality'' have emerged as new terms in the evolving lexicon of international environmental diplomacy. As Parties to the Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Ozone Layer, industrialized states undertake to provide sufficient additional resources (the principle of additionality) to meet the incremental cost (the concept of incrementality) of measures undertaken by the developing countries to tackle global environmental problems. Issues of incrementality and additionality go to the heart of a much deeper and highly contentious debate on who should pay the costs of responding to global environmental problems; on how the payment should be made; on which agency or agencies should manage the transfers; and upon which parties should be compensated. Every sign is that if the overall North to South transfer breaks down or is retarded, then the process of implementing the aforementioned agreements may be jeopardized. This paper reviews the emergency of the two terms in international environmental politics; it pinpoints the theoretical and practical difficulties of defining and implementing them; and it assesses whether these difficulties and conflicts of opinion may, in some manner, be resolved.
Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.
Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)
Lebenicnik, Maja; Pitt, Ian; Istenic Starcic, Andreja
Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources…
Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra
Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…
Ally, Mohamed; Samaka, Mohammed
As the world becomes more digitized, there will be an increasing need to make available learning resources in electronic format for access by information and communication technologies. The question education will face is whether these learning resources will be available for learners to access at no cost or affordable cost so that there will be…
Analyzes technological capabilities of the Web as a delivery platform for highly interactive learning resources, consistent with a constructivist view of learning. Shows that all of the required software capabilities can be implemented by Web technology and discusses barriers to use of the Web as a medium for such resources, including bandwidth.…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Halperin, Mitchell L.
The usability of computer interfaces may have a major influence on learning. Design approaches that optimize usability are commonplace in the software development industry but are seldom used in the development of e-learning resources, especially in medical education. We conducted a usability evaluation of a multimedia resource for teaching…
Maier, Pat; Armstrong, Ray; Hall, Wendy; Ng, Muan Hong
This paper describes an online learning resource for rheumatology that was designed for a wide constituency of users including primarily undergraduate medical students and health professionals. Although the online resources afford an informal learning environment, the site was pedagogically designed to comply with the general recommendations of…
Sabitha, A. Sai; Mehrotra, Deepti; Bansal, Abhay; Sharma, B. K.
Open educational resources (OER) are digitised material freely available to the students and self learners. Many institutions had initiated in incorporating these OERs in their higher educational system, to improve the quality of teaching and learning. These resources promote individualised study, collaborative learning. If they are coupled with…
Andrews, Judith; Eade, Eleanor
Birmingham City University's Library and Learning Resources' strategic aim is to improve student satisfaction. A key element is the achievement of the Customer Excellence Standard. An important component of the standard is the mapping of services to improve quality. Library and Learning Resources has developed a methodology to map these…
Learning Resources Association of California Community Colleges, Suisun.
This document provides guidelines for planning the physical facilities that house learning resources centers. Data for the report was collected over a 12-year period, with input from personnel at learning resources centers throughout California. Discussion is broken up into the following sections: (1) development of the guidelines, which includes…
Ibukun, W. O.; Akinfolarin, C. A.; Alimi, O. S.
This study investigated resource utilisation in vocational and technical education as a correlate of student learning outcome in selected colleges of education in south west Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between time, space and physical resource utilisation and perceived student learning outcome. The study used the descriptive…
I investigated how five first-year teachers--all peers from the same science methods class framed around ambitious instruction--used resources to plan and learn in schools that promoted pedagogy anchored around information delivery. The participants engaged in different cycles of resource-driven learning based on the instructional framework they…
Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.
The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.
Ramos-Pollán, Raúl; Guevara-López, Miguel Angel; Oliveira, Eugénio
This paper describes the BiomedTK software framework, created to perform massive explorations of machine learning classifiers configurations for biomedical data analysis over distributed Grid computing resources. BiomedTK integrates ROC analysis throughout the complete classifier construction process and enables explorations of large parameter sweeps for training third party classifiers such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines, offering the capability to harness the vast amount of computing power serviced by Grid infrastructures. In addition, it includes classifiers modified by the authors for ROC optimization and functionality to build ensemble classifiers and manipulate datasets (import/export, extract and transform data, etc.). BiomedTK was experimentally validated by training thousands of classifier configurations for representative biomedical UCI datasets reaching in little time classification levels comparable to those reported in existing literature. The comprehensive method herewith presented represents an improvement to biomedical data analysis in both methodology and potential reach of machine learning based experimentation.
Greenhow, Christine; Dexter, Sara; Riedel, Eric
Online delivery methods offer much promise for anytime, anywhere adult learning. As a method of outreach, and to provide support for just-in-time learning, teacher educators are increasingly deciding to design Web sites that are online, resource-based learning environments for teachers and preservice teachers. Automated evaluation tools and data…
Duff, Victoria; Sauer, Wendy; Gleason, Sonia Caus
The New Jersey Department of Education supports all districts with a tool kit of valuable resources for planning and creating collaborative learning structures that focus on getting results for all students. This tool kit was the basis for the creation of Learning Forward's "Becoming a Learning School" (2009). The tool kit helps…
Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.
Human resource development practice extends beyond training to the broader and more visionary role of facilitating learning for individuals, teams, and organizations. Designers of learning organizations seek to increase overall learning capacity, create ongoing adaptive capacity, and build autonomy and empowerment. (SK)
Toomer, Clarence; Bryson, Emily M.; Matlin, Katherine R.; Herrera, Mariana; Johnson, Jesse; Lazouksas, Lorraine; Meeker, Robert; Meyer, Beverly; Miletich, Ivo; Nuby, Mary
This document presents the collection development policy for the Douglas Library and Learning Resources at Chicago State University. Collection development committee policies are presented in terms of planning (allocation of resources budget, implementation of resource sharing and related programs, development of policies and procedures, liaison…
Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.
An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…
Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.
This resource handbook, which is designed for use by instructors of courses in advanced marketing, consists of a duty/task list with referenced resources, a duty/task list with learning activities, and a list of resources. Included in each list are materials dealing with the following topics: communication in marketing, economics in marketing,…
Clearihan, Lyn; Vogel, Silvia; Piterman, Leon; Spike, Neil
The need to rationalise teaching resources underpinned a project at Monash University that used a Delphi technique to re-examine the teaching curriculum of two key topic areas in the medical curriculum - ophthalmology and dermatology - from an undergraduate, graduate and vocational perspective. Using Bloom's taxonomy the learning objectives from these topic areas were collated and analysed. This process allowed the revising and redistributing of learning objectives of the curricula to reduce the likelihood of duplication of teaching or more importantly gaps in teaching occurring. This process highlighted the potential utility of using a transgenerational approach to curriculum planning but the outcomes are limited due to the small number of participating educators and the lack of formal evaluation of the method.
Kinshuk; Jesse, Ryan
E-learning technologies have allowed authoring and playback of standardized reusable learning objects (RLO) for several years. Effective mobile learning requires similar functionality at both design time and runtime. Mobile devices can play RLO using applications like SMILE, mobile access to a learning management system (LMS), or other systems…
Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.
This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI. PMID:22277008
Fagundes, A. L.; da Silva, T.; Barroso, M. F.
We report in this poster a learning evaluation about Moon's synchronous rotation by analyzing results of the use of hypermedia The Sun, Earth and Moon in blended learning intervention of an introductory physics discipline. The animation is displayed in a dynamic interactive screen on which the user has control of the progress of the animation sequence. The results are obtained from quantitative and qualitative analysis of issues drawn from a pre-test and a learning assessment counting with 77 students respondents. Learning outcomes indicate that animation helps in learning the phenomenon of Moon's synchronous rotation and students evaluate the use of animations as a motivator and facilitator of learning.
To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language…
Raby, Marilyn; Markham, Thom; Lenz, Bob; Ryan, Tricia
This document profiles a total of 78 resources to assist individuals responsible for development and implementation of career academies. The resources are organized into sections that are each devoted to one of the following types of information resources: information indexes; search engines; World Wide Web portals for education; lesson plan…
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Background E-learning resources (e-resources) have been widely used to facilitate self-directed learning among medical students. The Department of Biochemistry at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India, has made available e-resources to first-year medical students to supplement conventional lecture-based teaching in the subject. This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the impact of these e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Methods Sixty first-year medical students were the subjects of this study. At the end of the one-year course in biochemistry, the students were administered a questionnaire that asked them to assess the impact of the e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Results Ninety-eight percent of students had used the e-resources provided to varying extents. Most of them found the e-resources provided useful and of a high quality. The majority of them used these resources to prepare for periodic formative and final summative assessments in the course. The use of these resources increased steadily as the academic year progressed. Students said that the extent to which they understood the subject (83%) and their ability to answer questions in assessments (86%) had improved as a result of using these resources. They also said that they found biochemistry interesting (73%) and felt motivated to study the subject (59%). Conclusions We found that first-year medical students extensively used the e-resources in biochemistry that were provided. They perceived that these resources had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. We conclude that e-resources are a useful supplement to conventional lecture-based teaching in the medical curriculum. PMID:22510159
Pickering, James D
The use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources is now a common tool across a variety of healthcare programs. Despite this popular approach to curriculum delivery there remains a paucity in empirical evidence that quantifies the change in learning gain. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in learning gain observed with anatomy drawing screencasts in comparison to a traditional paper-based resource. Learning gain is a widely used term to describe the tangible changes in learning outcomes that have been achieved after a specific intervention. In regard to this study, a cohort of Year 2 medical students voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to either a screencast or textbook group to compare changes in learning gain across resource type. Using a pre-test/post-test protocol, and a range of statistical analyses, the learning gain was calculated at three test points: immediate post-test, 1-week post-test and 4-week post-test. Results at all test points revealed a significant increase in learning gain and large effect sizes for the screencast group compared to the textbook group. Possible reasons behind the difference in learning gain are explored by comparing the instructional design of both resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the study design are also considered. This work adds to the growing area of research that supports the effective design of TEL resources which are complimentary to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning to achieve both an effective and efficient learning resource for anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
The article seeks to investigate the methods of teaching and learning English as an additional language in primary education, and to identify the most appropriate and effective means of achieving this. The study tracks a cohort of children from reception to Year 2. Data collection draws on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative…
Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.
This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…
Discusses a case study in the learning and teaching of Zulu as an additional language. It involved the organic development of a mutually supportive relationship between two lecturers from separate disciplines who assumed multiple identities in order to more effectively collaborate in the revision and development of two graduate courses.…
Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven
The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…
Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.
Conroy, France H.
Arguing that the traditionally central position of genuine liberal learning in the college curriculum has been seriously eroded, this paper recommends that Confucian principles be incorporated into general education and faculty development to reinstill the element of "learning to be human" into the freshman and sophomore years. Part 1 suggests…
Leacock, Tracey L.; Nesbit, John C.
This article presents the structure and theoretical foundations of the Learning Object Review Instrument (LORI), an evaluation aid available through the E-Learning Research and Assessment Network at http://www.elera.net. A primary goal of LORI is to balance assessment validity with efficiency of the evaluation process. The instrument enables…
One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid) course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material…
Gardner, David C.; Gardner, Paula L.
Students in a remedial resource room program were assigned spelling and vocabulary tasks under a goal-setting/no-goal-setting procedure to see if goal setting behaviors facilitate learning. Results supported Rotter's social learning theory and the use of unobtrusive goal-setting procedures in special education classes. (SJL)
Clerehan, Rosemary; Turnbull, Jill; Moore, Tim; Brown, Alanna; Tuovinen, Juhani
Describes the Online Student Resource Centre Web site, developed at Monash University (Australia), which offers stand-alone tutorials. Outlines the process and philosophy of development of the tutorials, based on a constructivist framework, with guided and self-directed learning paths designed to accommodate a range of learning styles. (LRW)
Web-based learning resources (WBLRs) have provided teachers with a wide range of new teaching experiences that are not possible in traditional classroom. However, little research has been done as to which approach to WBLRs is suitable to address issues that are pertinent to learning. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to explore the design…
Chang, Hsiu-Hua; Chou, Huey-Wen
The use of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems has grown enormously since 1990, but the failure to completely learn how to use them continues to produce disappointing results. Today's rapidly changing business environment and the integrative applications of ERP systems force users to continuously learn new skills after ERP implementation.…
Masaazi, Fred M.
This article addresses the need to develop a friendly and productive Language learning environment (FPLE) using the learners as a resource in schools in Uganda. This is in light of the persistent challenging reality that the teaching and learning of languages in schools appears to be still largely traditional, teacher-centered and…
This paper addresses the role of school ground as outdoor learning resources for environmental education. The opportunities to use school ground are particularly prominent in tropical climate, where the weather permits plenty of outdoor learning activities. A study in primary schools in Jakarta explored the relationship between the spatial aspects…
Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Pinto, Kristina C.
This report describes a study of the human-resource challenges of principals in facilitating teachers' transformational learning, and their creative strategies for overcoming such challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine how a diverse sample of school leaders made sense of teacher learning and to examine their efforts to support the…
Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.
The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…
Etelapelto, Anneli; Lahti, Jaana
In the framework of a subject-centred socio-cultural approach, this study investigates creative collaboration and the resources for and obstacles to it in a long-term learning community of ten teacher students. The study focuses on five different learning situations over a 2-year period. The data were taken from teacher students' evaluations and…
A Shakespearean play was taught in a resource room with students with learning disabilities in grades 10 through 12, in a manner that took advantage of the students' learning differences. Questions about "Macbeth" were developed and investigated before reading the play. The experience increased self-esteem and academic motivation. (SW)
Somerville, Margaret; McConnell-Imbriotis, Alison
This paper explores the results of applying a diagnostic questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of a learning organization in a resource squeezed service organization. The questionnaire was conducted as the first stage of an ethnographic study of workplace learning in an aged care organization. It was distributed to the 600 employees in nine…
Sarkar, Nurul I.
Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It…
Raiden, Ani B.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.
Purpose: The concept of the learning organisation (LO) is associated with an advanced approach to human resource development (HRD) characterised by an ethos of self-responsibility and self-development. The learning climate that this engenders is supported by temporary organisational structures responsive to environmental change. The purpose of his…
Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.
This competency-based secondary learning guide on conserving limited resources is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to solve problems; establish…
Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel
Two studies were carried out during university workshops, and analyzed the effects of resource interdependence on student-student interactions, and the impact of these interactions on performance. Students worked cooperatively, either on complementary information (positive resource interdependence) or on identical information (resource…
Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…
This article synthesizes findings from an on-going line of inquiry investigating the potential of educatively scaffolded digital resources to help teachers understand and implement a complex model of history instruction, problem-based historical inquiry. The digital resources developed for this inquiry provided teachers with wise-practice…
Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.
This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…
Haury, David L.
This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…
Kennett, Deborah J.; O'Hagan, Fergal T.; Cezer, Diego
A concurrent mixed methods approach was used to understand how learned resourcefulness empowers individuals. After completing Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS) measuring resourcefulness, 16 past clients of a multimodal pain clinic were interviewed about the kinds of pain-coping strategies they were practicing from the program. Constant…
Yu, Hong Qing; Pedrinaci, C.; Dietze, S.; Domingue, J.
Multimedia educational resources play an important role in education, particularly for distance learning environments. With the rapid growth of the multimedia web, large numbers of educational video resources are increasingly being created by several different organizations. It is crucial to explore, share, reuse, and link these educational…
Ossiannilsson, Ebba S. I.; Creelman, Alastair M.
This article aims to share experience from a Swedish project on the introduction and implementation of Open Educational Resources (OER) in higher education with both national and international perspectives. The project, "OER--resources for learning", was part of the National Library of Sweden Open Access initiative and aimed at exploring, raising…
This study compared emotional and coping resources of two parent groups with children ages 8 to 12 years--children with learning disabilities (LD) versus with typical development--and explored how mothers' and fathers' emotional resources (low anxious/avoidant attachment, low negative affect, and high positive affect) may explain differences in…
Luetkemeyer, Jennifer R.
Numerous policymakers have called for K-12 educators to increase their effectiveness by transforming science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and teaching with digital resources and tools. In this study we outline the significance of studying pressing issues related to use of digital resources in the K-12 environment and…
Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.
This document, the second in a series of guidebooks that were developed for educators of homeless adults in New York, offers strategies and plans for sample lessons in which a holistic approach is used to help homeless adults and families improve their lives through education. The guidebook begins with lists of print and nonprint resources,…
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited LEARNING TO...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEARNING TO PREDICT DEMAND IN A TRANSPORT-RESOURCE SHARING TASK 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...throughout the city. In this thesis, we studied a range of machine- learning algorithms to predict demand (ridership) in a bike-sharing system, as part of
Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne
In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture.
Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R. Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne
In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. PMID:26354936
Initial literacy courses must be followed by opportunities for consolidating the mechanics of literacy skills and practical application of three skills in life. Experience has shown that these `post-literacy' objectives can be achieved, not by a second stage of the literacy course, but by a range of opportunities for learning and application of learning through a network of continuing education opportunities geared to the diverse needs and circumstances of different categories of neo-literates. A taxonomy of learner categories and learning needs is seen as a basis for planning and supporting the network of post-literacy learning. Examples from China, India and Thailand demonstrate the importance of recognizing the continuity of literacy and post-literacy efforts, the need for commitment of resources for this continuum of learning, the role of an organizational structure to deal with this continuum in a coordinated way, and the value of a comprehensive range of learning opportunities for neo-literates. A necessary condition for success in building a network of continuing learning opportunities and contributing to the creation of a `learning society' is to make human resource development the core of national development. It is argued that the scope and dimensions of post-literacy continuing education are integrally linked with the goal of mass basic education and ultimately with the vision of a `learning society'. Such a vision can be a reality only with a serious human resource development focus in national development that will permit the necessary mobilization of resources, the coordination of sectors of government and society and the generation of popular enthusiasm. A radical or an incremental approach can be taken to move towards the primacy of a human resource strategy in national development. In either case, a functioning coordination and support mechanism has to be developed for the key elements of mass basic education including post-literacy learning.
Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth
Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…
Cohen, Sandra B.; Safran, Joan
The development of teaching strategies, communication, and conferencing skills through microteaching and simulation are emphasized. Feedback is provided at several interaction points. The design for university training parallels the resource/consultant teacher program implemented in many schools. (Author)
Lee, Ronald T., Ed.
This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…
... can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...
Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend; Styles, Irene
This paper describes the development and validation of a democratic learning style scale intended to fill a gap in Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and the associated learning style inventory (Sternberg, 1988, 1997). The scale was constructed as an 8-item scale with a 7-category response scale. The scale was developed following an adapted version of DeVellis' (2003) guidelines for scale development. The validity of the Democratic Learning Style Scale was assessed by items analysis using graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner and Christensen, 2002, 2004, 2006) The item analysis confirmed that the full 8-item revised Democratic Learning Style Scale fitted a graphical loglinear Rasch model with no differential item functioning but weak to moderate uniform local dependence between two items. In addition, a reduced 6-item version of the scale fitted the pure Rasch model with a rating scale parameterization. The revised Democratic Learning Style Scale can therefore be regarded as a sound measurement scale meeting requirements of both construct validity and objectivity.
Taffs, Kathryn H.; Holt, Julienne I.
The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education to support student learning is expanding. However, student usage has been low and the value of e-learning resources has been under investigation. We reflect on best practices for pedagogical design of e-learning resources to support academic writing in environmental…
The introduction of resource-based learning disciplines of computer cycles in Agrarian College. The article focused on the issue of implementation of resource-based learning courses in the agricultural cycle computer college. Tested approach to creating elearning resources through free hosting and their further use in the classroom. Noted that the…
Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E-learning
Jones, Lester E
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was adopted as one of the key models to support early health professional learning across a suite of new preregistration health science courses. It was decided that an online resource should be developed to enable students, course designers and teaching staff, across all disciplines, to have access to the same definitions, government policies and other supporting information on disability. As part of the comprehensive curriculum review, enquiry-based learning was adopted as the educational approach. Enquiry-based learning promotes deeper learning by encouraging students to engage in authentic challenges. As such, it was important that the online resource was not merely a site for accessing content, but enabled students to make decisions about where else to explore for credible information about the ICF. The selection of a host location that all students and staff could access meant that the resource could not be located in the existing online learning management system. Construction using software being trialled by the library at La Trobe University allowed for the required access, as well as alignment with an enquiry-based learning approach. Consultation for the content of the online resource included formal and informal working groups on curriculum review. The published version included resources from the World Health Organization, examples of research completed within different disciplines, a test of knowledge and a preformatted search page. The format of the online resource allows for updating of information, and feedback on the utilisation of the software has been used to enhance the student experience. The key issues for the development of this online resource were accessibility for students and staff, alignment with the adopted educational approach, consultation with all disciplines, and ease of modification of information and format once published.
Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.
Balloon-borne ozone instrumentation (ozonesondes), launched at fixed sites, is used to study local patterns in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and to provide validation for satellite ozone products and model calculations of ozone. A paucity of coordinated ozonesonde data in the southern hemisphere tropics is being remedied in a 3-year project of coordinated ozonesondes launches at 10 sites. The data are available to the scientific community at the SHADOZ website at NASA/Goddard. Stations and their operational characteristics, with examples of ozone observations, are given. One expectation of SHADOZ is that wide dissemination of data and interaction with users and field projects will leverage local funding to maintain infrastructure and operations. SHADOZ data are well-suited for educational projects in which students learn about regional ozone patterns.
Davidovitch, Nitza; Belichenko, Margarita; Kravchenko, Yurii
The article combines a theoretical approach to structuring knowledge that is based on the integrated use of fuzzy semantic network theory predicates, Boolean functions, theory of complexity of network structures and some practical aspects to be considered in the distance learning at the university. The paper proposes a methodological approach that…
Amory, Alan; Naicker, Kevin
Development of online courses requires the use of appropriate educational philosophies that discourage rote learning and passive transfer of information from teacher to learner. This paper reports on the development, use and evaluation of two second year Biology online software packages used by students in constructivist environments. The courses…
Elliot, Dely; Wilson, Delia; Boyle, Stephen
Scotland's rich heritage in the field of science and engineering and recent curricular developments led to major investment in education to equip pupils with improved scientific knowledge and skills. However, due to its abstract and conceptual nature, learning science can be challenging. Literature supports the role of multimedia technology in…
Online Submission, 2006
The "EFA (Education For All) Global Monitoring Report 2006" estimates that about 100 million children of primary school age, 55 percent of them girls, are not enrolled in primary school. UNESCO Bangkok, the Consortium for Street Children and Childhope Asia initiated the "Promotion of Improved Learning Opportunities for Street…
The conceptual categories that underlie the business analysis of intellectual capital are relevant to providing an explanation of school performance. By gathering data on student learning, this research provides empirical evidence for the use of school results as an accurate indicator of the effectiveness of the management of public education.…
Background: Isabella Thoburn College at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India has initiated Service Learning Program for its students through 4 issue based centers. One of the centers AIDS Awareness Center for Counseling, Education, and Training (AACCET) is in the field of HIV/AIDS. It follows 6 pronged approach to achieve its objectives and one of the…
McAleese, Ray; Scobbie, John
A 2-year project at the University of Aberdeen focused on the production of learning materials and the planning of audiovisual based instruction. Background information on the project examines its origins, the nature of course teams, and the evaluation of the five text-tape programs produced. The report specifies three project aims: (1) to produce…
Turney, Mary Ann
With an increasing number of women becoming members of flight crews, the leadership styles of men and women are at issue. A study explored three basic questions: (1) How do male and female learning and leadership styles differ? (2) What barriers to gender integration and crew teamwork are perceived by pilot crew members? and (3) What…
Tzouveli, Paraskevi; Mylonas, Phivos; Kollias, Stefanos
Taking advantage of the continuously improving, web-based learning systems plays an important role for self-learning, especially in the case of working people. Nevertheless, learning systems do not generally adapt to learners' profiles. Learners have to spend a lot of time before reaching the learning goal that is compatible with their knowledge…
Uden, Lorna; Page, Tom
Problem Based Learning offers many benefits to students' learning, however, the design and implementation of effective problem based learning (PBL) is not trivial. Central to effective implementation of PBL are the problem design and group working of the students. Design of good problems requires that the learning outcomes of the subject are…
Cundill, G; Rodela, R
Social learning has become a central theme in natural resource management. This growing interest is underpinned by a number of assertions about the outcomes of social learning, and about the processes that support these outcomes. Yet researchers and practitioners who seek to engage with social learning through the natural resource management literature often become disorientated by the myriad processes and outcomes that are identified. We trace the roots of current assertions about the processes and outcomes of social learning in natural resource management, and assess the extent to which there is an emerging consensus on these assertions. Results suggest that, on the one hand, social learning is described as taking place through deliberative interactions amongst multiple stakeholders. During these interactions, it is argued that participants learn to work together and build relationships that allow for collective action. On the other hand, social learning is described as occurring through deliberate experimentation and reflective practice. During these iterative cycles of action, monitoring and reflection, participants learn how to cope with uncertainty when managing complex systems. Both of these processes, and their associated outcomes, are referred to as social learning. Where, therefore, should researchers and practitioners focus their attention? Results suggest that there is an emerging consensus that processes that support social learning involve sustained interaction between stakeholders, on-going deliberation and the sharing of knowledge in a trusting environment. There is also an emerging consensus that the key outcome of such learning is improved decision making underpinned by a growing awareness of human-environment interactions, better relationships and improved problem-solving capacities for participants.
Kerr, Don; Murray, Peter A.; Burgess, Kevin
The information systems' literature outlines how training is a critical factor to successful Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementations. Yet, types of training are not discussed in the literature and there is little indication if existing training is effective and whether relevant contextual factors have been considered. Without…
Klassen, Johanna; Drummond, Damon
Describes and evaluates the design and development of an interactive multimedia simulation package for management education called Business Simulation which combines the concepts of case study methods with business simulation games. It is designed to provide students with skills-based training in human resources management, particularly…
Osberg, D.; Pinto, D.; Docherty, S.; Still, C.
The science program at the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) has entered into a resource-sharing agreement with a community college, which uses university materials and methods but provides its own staffing. To date, university students have outperformed community college students in all course components, suggesting a need for staff…
One World Trust, London (England).
The resource booklet contains readings and activities for British secondary school world affairs classes. The material lends itself toward incorporation into various curricula, including history, geography, social studies, humanities, environmental studies, language and literature, home economics, math, and science. Subject matter focuses on…
Lama, Sukmaya; Kashyap, Mridusmita
As the world is invaded by technological inventions and wonders, life becoming more fast and crazy, yet there can be no doubt that the critical factor for the development of a nation or a state is its human resource. The productivity of a nation is influenced by the number of its skilled population. When we look into the problem of…
Gardiner, Lion F., Ed.; Anderson, Caitlin, Ed.; Cambridge, Barbara L., Ed.
This book is intended to provide college administrators, faculty, and researchers with a guide to resources concerned with assessment at the postsecondary level. After a foreword by Margaret A. Miller, president of the American Association for Higher Education (AAHE), an introduction by Barbara L. Cambridge examines the different ways that current…
Gu, Xiaoqing; Zha, Chongping; Li, Shusu; Laffey, James M.
A key problem in developing a virtual community for co-constructing learning resources is the need to have people volunteer to share their expertise. In this paper, we introduce the first phase of our research in which we examine strategies for encouraging participants to share in the system. We began by designing an intervention model based on…
Kong, Siu Cheung; So, Wing Mui Winnie
This study aims to provide teachers with ways and means to facilitate learners to develop nomenclature knowledge of family trees through the establishment of resource-based learning environments (RBLEs). It discusses the design of an RBLE in the classroom by selecting an appropriate context with the assistance of computer-mediated learning…
There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…
Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes
Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.
Pajak, Bozena; Fine, Alex B; Kleinschmidt, Dave F; Jaeger, T Florian
We present a framework of second and additional language (L2/Ln) acquisition motivated by recent work on socio-indexical knowledge in first language (L1) processing. The distribution of linguistic categories covaries with socio-indexical variables (e.g., talker identity, gender, dialects). We summarize evidence that implicit probabilistic knowledge of this covariance is critical to L1 processing, and propose that L2/Ln learning uses the same type of socio-indexical information to probabilistically infer latent hierarchical structure over previously learned and new languages. This structure guides the acquisition of new languages based on their inferred place within that hierarchy, and is itself continuously revised based on new input from any language. This proposal unifies L1 processing and L2/Ln acquisition as probabilistic inference under uncertainty over socio-indexical structure. It also offers a new perspective on crosslinguistic influences during L2/Ln learning, accommodating gradient and continued transfer (both negative and positive) from previously learned to novel languages, and vice versa.
Chen, Qing; Hooper, David U; Li, Hui; Gong, Xiao Ying; Peng, Fei; Wang, Hong; Dittert, Klaus; Lin, Shan
Degradation of semiarid ecosystems from overgrazing threatens a variety of ecosystem services. Rainfall and nitrogen commonly co-limit production in semiarid grassland ecosystems; however, few studies have reported how interactive effects of precipitation and nitrogen addition influence the recovery of grasslands degraded by overgrazing. We conducted a 6-year experiment manipulating precipitation (natural precipitation and simulated wet year precipitation) and nitrogen (0, 25 and 50 kg N ha(-1)) addition at two sites with different histories of livestock grazing (moderately and heavily grazed) in Inner Mongolian steppe. Our results suggest that recovery of plant community composition and recovery of production can be decoupled. Perennial grasses provide long-term stability of high-quality forage production in this system. Supplemental water combined with exclosures led, in the heavily grazed site, to the strongest recovery of perennial grasses, although widespread irrigation of rangeland is not a feasible management strategy in many semiarid and arid regions. N fertilization combined with exclosures, but without water addition, increased dominance of unpalatable annual species, which in turn retarded growth of perennial species and increased inter-annual variation in primary production at both sites. Alleviation of grazing pressure alone allowed recovery of desired perennial species via successional processes in the heavily grazed site. Our experiments suggest that recovery of primary production and desirable community composition are not necessarily correlated. The use of N fertilization for the management of overgrazed grassland needs careful and systematic evaluation, as it has potential to impede, rather than aid, recovery.
Adams, Lavonne M; Reams, Paula K; Canclini, Sharon B
Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts.
Usaha, Wipawee; Barria, Javier A
In this paper, we develop and assess online decision-making algorithms for call admission and routing for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks. It has been shown in a recent paper that, in a LEO satellite system, a semi-Markov decision process formulation of the call admission and routing problem can achieve better performance in terms of an average revenue function than existing routing methods. However, the conventional dynamic programming (DP) numerical solution becomes prohibited as the problem size increases. In this paper, two solution methods based on reinforcement learning (RL) are proposed in order to circumvent the computational burden of DP. The first method is based on an actor-critic method with temporal-difference (TD) learning. The second method is based on a critic-only method, called optimistic TD learning. The algorithms enhance performance in terms of requirements in storage, computational complexity and computational time, and in terms of an overall long-term average revenue function that penalizes blocked calls. Numerical studies are carried out, and the results obtained show that the RL framework can achieve up to 56% higher average revenue over existing routing methods used in LEO satellite networks with reasonable storage and computational requirements.
Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach.
Drawing from transnational and activity theory frameworks, this study analyzes the ways translocal flows shape learning in a community technology center serving adult immigrants in the US Southwest. It also explores students' constructions of the transnational nature of the courses they took, where they had access to both online and face-to-face…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M E; Halperin, Mitchell L
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to reduce extraneous cognitive load and maximize their potential educational impact. However, this is often neglected, especially when time and other resources are limited. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate whether a usability evaluation of our multimedia e-learning resource, followed by fixing of all problems identified, would translate into improvements in usability parameters and learning by medical residents. Two iterations of our e-learning resource [version 1 (V1) and version 2 (V2)] were compared. V1 was the first fully functional version and V2 was the revised version after all identified usability problems were addressed. Residents in internal medicine and anesthesiology were randomly assigned to one of the versions. Usability was evaluated by having participants complete a user satisfaction questionnaire and by recording and analyzing their interactions with the application. The effect on learning was assessed by questions designed to test the retention and transfer of knowledge. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with both versions, with good ratings on the System Usability Scale and adjective rating scale. In contrast, analysis of video recordings revealed significant differences in the occurrence of serious usability problems between the two versions, in particular in the interactive HandsOn case with its treatment simulation, where there was a median of five serious problem instances (range: 0-50) recorded per participant for V1 and zero instances (range: 0-1) for V2 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in tests of retention or transfer of knowledge between the two versions. In conclusion, usability evaluation followed by a redesign of our e-learning resource resulted in significant improvements in usability. This is likely to translate into improved motivation and willingness to engage with the learning material. In this population of relatively high
Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave
Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.
Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally
This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.
Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.
In problem-based learning students are responsible for their own learning process, which becomes evident when they must act independently, for example, when selecting literature resources for individual study. It is a matter of debate whether it is better to have students select their own literature resources or to present them with a list of…
Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra
Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…
Tjepkema, Saskia, Ed.; Stewart, Jim, Ed.; Sambrook, Sally, Ed.; Mulder, Martin, Ed.; ter Horst, Hilde, Ed.; Scheerens, Jaap, Ed.
This book presents results of a European study into the changing role of human resource development (HRD). Chapter 1, "Introduction," describes the background, objectives, research questions, and underlying research project. Chapter 2, "Learning Organizations and HRD" (Saskia Tjepkema, Hilde ter Horst, Martin Mulder), discusses…
Kendall, Jane C., Ed.; And Others
This publication is the first volume of a three-volume resource book intended for anyone who wants to start, strengthen, or support a program or course that combines community or public service with learning. The book covers policies, issues, and programs in colleges and universities, K-12 schools, community-based organizations, public agencies at…
Kendall, Jane C., Ed.; And Others
This publication is the second of three volumes of a resource book intended for anyone who wants to start, strengthen, or support a program or course that combines community or public service with learning. This volume, which is organized in four parts, provides a variety of practical issues and ideas for programs and courses that combine service…
Ronen, Tammie; Rosenbaum, Michael
This article describes a school-based aggression reduction intervention program aiming to impart highly aggressive adolescents with a learned resourcefulness repertoire, using Ronen and Rosenbaum's four-module self-control model. Intervention aimed to teach adolescents that aggression is changeable behavior resulting from how they think and feel,…
McWhirter, Benedict T.; Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Townsend, Katesy C.
Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS) has been used as a unidimensional measure of Learned Resourcefulness (LR) in previous research. In this study we clarified the factor structure of the SCS among college students (N = 583) by conducting a principal axis factor analysis with oblique (Oblimin) rotation on the SCS. Results revealed a…
Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Washington, DC.
These standards describe the purposes and services, (including administrative, financial, and evaluative elements) of effective learning resources programs (LRPs), and outline the development of a single integrated service concerned with the improvement of instruction. An introductory section describes the roles, objectives, and purposes of LRPs…
Bleakley, Ann; Carrigan, Jackie L.
This workbook is intended to help high school students achieve information literacy. It goes beyond basic library skills instruction to incorporate 50 different research activities into regular classroom curriculum. The activities provided for resource-based learning help the student to: (1) identify the kind of information needed; (2) locate and…
Discusses the provision of continuing professional development (CPD) for health professionals by open and distance learning, focusing on the experience of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (Scotland). Describes the needs-analysis and pilot evaluation of a primarily text-based resource, reporting high satisfaction with content…
Wheelock, Warren H., Ed.
A requirement of Arizona's Migrant Teacher Institutes was the preparation of instructional resource units. Development of these units was a key element in the three-stage recommendations related to individualizing instruction in both reading and oral language. The three stages were: Room Organization--Realistic Learning Centers, Unit Themes and…
Poole, Carolyn E.; Denny, Emmett
Discussion of the effects of technostress on library personnel focuses on an investigation that examined how employees in Florida community college libraries and learning resources centers are dealing with technological change in their work environment. Considers implications for planning and implementing technological change and includes…
Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Wilensky, Uri J.
In this paper, we present an analytic framework for investigating expert mathematical learning as the process of building a "network of mathematical resources" by establishing relationships between different components and properties of mathematical ideas. We then use this framework to analyze the reasoning of ten mathematicians and mathematics…
Purpose: To compare in a fruitful way the human resources (HR) policies that exist in the European Union (EU) and in the United States of America (USA). Nowadays, the world is evolving to a situation in which big economic spaces like Brazil, Russia, India, China, Japan, the EU and the USA are becoming dominant. Those spaces can learn from one…
Stephens, Samuel A.
Summer learning experiences for school-age children can be provided in a variety of ways and settings, including summer school programs (often remedial), community-based programs (often a continuation of afterschool programs), and home-based programs (in which families are provided with information and resources to encourage reading, often run by…
Tergan, Sigmar-Olaf; Graber, Wolfgang; Neumann, Anja
In resource-based learning scenarios, students are often overwhelmed by the complexity of task-relevant knowledge and information. Techniques for the external interactive representation of individual knowledge in graphical format may help them to cope with complex problem situations. Advanced computer-based concept-mapping tools have the potential…
Grosz, Karen S., Comp.
Designed as a resource on teaching and learning strategies geared specifically toward underrepresented community college students, this collection of articles and reports includes the following: (1) "Successful Teaching Strategies: Instruction for Black and Hispanic Students in the California Community Colleges," by Olivia Mercado, Cheryl Fong,…
Hisle, W. Lee
Summarizes the history and growth of learning resources services (LRS) programs at community colleges. Challenges for the future are identified as focus, instructional involvement, adapting to technology, service to nontraditional students, and professional commitment. It is argued that, although the LRS concept is widely accepted, these…
Teng, Ya-Ting; Bonk, Curtis J.; Kim, Kyong-Jee
The purpose of this study was to explore the future direction of blended learning in workplace in Taiwan and to probe into emerging competencies of human resource development (HRD) professionals. One hundred and twelve participants who worked in various types of organizations, including government, business, and non-profit organizations were…
Holleman, Margaret, Ed.
With the availability of technologically advanced instructional delivery systems, and the educational reform efforts of state and federal governments, the role and importance of community college learning resource centers (LRC's) have expanded tremendously since their experimental beginnings in 1939. This volume contains the following articles…
Holley, Debbie; Boyle, Tom
Students studying Marketing, Fashion, Public Relations, Advertising and similar subjects need to develop a "critical eye" in relation to images, media and digital technologies. This project aims to empower teachers to develop multimedia learning resources that would support students engaging in this essential activity. Developing such…
Cross, Susan; Willis, Patrick
Almost every school in the United States has natural areas nearby that are often overlooked as learning sites. The intent of this document is to provide educators with a platform to begin natural resource programming at sites near their school. Philosophical as well as concrete information is outlined to provide both intrinsic and conceptual…
Although work experiences are recognized as important mechanisms for developing leaders in organizations, existing research has focused primarily on work assignments rather than on human resource development (HRD) systems that promote experiential learning of managers. The primary goal of this study was to develop an HRD model for facilitating…
Naumer, Jan, Ed.
This newsletter provides current information on the state of learning resources centers and libraries in California community colleges. The October 1996 issue provides the LRACCC's annual report for 1995-96, describing the Association's membership, publications, budget, and activities for the year. This issue also includes newsbriefs from 12…
Geith, Christine; Vignare, Karen
One of the key concepts in the right to education is access: access to the means to fully develop as human beings as well as access to the means to gain skills, knowledge and credentials. This is an important perspective through which to examine the solutions to access enabled by Open Educational Resources (OER) and online learning. The authors…
Jung, Eunjoo; Brown, Elizabeth T.; Karp, Karen S.
The authors investigated the degree to which school-level teacher characteristics and resources are related to the mathematics learning of kindergarten children using a sample drawn from a large US database. Kindergarten-level teacher characteristics were operationalised as collective teacher efficacy, teacher experience and teacher preparation;…
Design is a powerful weapon for modern companies so it is important to have excellent designers in the industry. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning problems and the resources that students use to overcome problems in undergraduate industrial design studio courses. A survey with open-type questions was conducted to collect data.…
Griggs, V.; Holden, R.; Rae, J.; Lawless, A.
Reflection and reflective practice are much discussed aspects of professional education. This paper conveys our efforts to problematise teaching reflective practice in human resources (HR) education. The research, on which the paper is based, engages with stakeholders involved in the professional learning and education of reflective practice in…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Halperin, Mitchell L.
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to reduce extraneous cognitive load and maximize their potential educational impact. However, this is often neglected, especially when time and other resources are limited. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate whether a usability evaluation of our multimedia e-learning…
Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.
Policies for the selection, acquisition, and weeding of library materials, based on collection needs stated by academic departments and staff inputs, are listed for a university learning resource center. An alphabetical index is provided of major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth…
This article explores the language and literacy practices of Latino immigrant children in preschool. In spite of the monolingual framework and the readiness emphasis of current educational language policies, children draw on their home language as a resource to literacy learning. The author argues that children's use of their home language is a…
Jensen, Mary E.
A survey of learning resource centers in 15 California community colleges was conducted to aid the staff of the West Valley College center in determining what changes to make in organizational structure, administration, services, and staffing. The survey instrument elicited information on staffing in various departments, work loads, service hours,…
Shen, Huizhong; Yuan, Yifeng; Ewing, Robyn
English language learning (ELL) websites and digital resources have been recognized as an important source of linguistic and cultural knowledge for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners to explore. The up-to-date information carried by authentic materials is invaluable for learners to develop an understanding of the target language/culture.…
Kennett, Deborah J.; Keefer, Kateryna
This was the first study to integrate Rosenbaum's concept of learned resourcefulness with Dweck's implicit theories of intelligence in predicting university students' academic self-control behaviour and year-end grades. Rosenbaum highlights the prominent role that learned resourcefulness skills play in promoting mastery responses and goal…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Halperin, Mitchell L.
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to maximize their potential educational impact, but this is often neglected when time and other resources are limited, leading to the release of materials that cannot deliver the desired learning outcomes. As clinician-teachers in a resource-constrained environment, we investigated…
Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob
IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…
Edwards, Janine C; Stapley, Jonathan; Akins, Ralitsa; Silenas, Rasa; Williams, Josie R
Two qualitative case studies focus on the allocation of CDC funds distributed during 2002 for bioterrorism preparedness in two Texas public health regions (each as populous and complex as many states). Lessons learned are presented for public health officials and others who work to build essential public health services and security for our nation. The first lesson is that personal relationships are the cornerstone of preparedness. A major lesson is that a regional strategy to manage funds may be more effective than allocating funds on a per capita basis. One regional director required every local department to complete a strategic plan as a basis for proportional allocation of the funds. Control of communicable diseases was a central component of the planning. Some funds were kept at the regional level to provide epidemiology services, computer software, equipment, and training for the entire region. Confirmation of the value of this regional strategy was expressed by local public health and emergency management officials in a focus group 1 year after the strategy had been implemented. The group members also pointed out the need to streamline the planning process, provide up-to-date computer networks, and receive more than minimal communication. This regional strategy can be viewed from the perspective of adaptive leadership, defined as activities to bring about constructive change, which also can be used to analyze other difficult areas of preparedness.
Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas
There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency
My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant or "MEERA" is a web-site designed to support environmental educators' program evaluation activities. MEERA has several characteristics that set it apart from other self-directed learning evaluation resources. Readers are encouraged to explore the site and to reflect on the role that…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This catalogue has been created as part of the UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools' effort to compile and disseminate a set of resources useful to addressing barriers to student learning. This resource packet categorizes and provides contact information on organizations focusing on children's mental health, education and schools, school-based…
Evans, Lisa J; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E
Despite widespread interest in the potential adaptive value of individual differences in cognition, few studies have attempted to address the question of how variation in learning and memory impacts their performance in natural environments. Using a novel split-colony experimental design we evaluated visual learning performance of foraging naïve bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) in an ecologically relevant associative learning task under controlled laboratory conditions, before monitoring the lifetime foraging performance of the same individual bees in the field. We found appreciable variation among the 85 workers tested in both their learning and foraging performance, which was not predicted by colony membership. However, rather than finding that foragers benefited from enhanced learning performance, we found that fast and slow learners collected food at comparable rates and completed a similar number of foraging bouts per day in the field. Furthermore, bees with better learning abilities foraged for fewer days; suggesting a cost of enhanced learning performance in the wild. As a result, slower learning individuals collected more resources for their colony over the course of their foraging career. These results demonstrate that enhanced cognitive traits are not necessarily beneficial to the foraging performance of individuals or colonies in all environments.
Standal, Oyvind F.; Jespersen, Ejgil
The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 one-half week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical…
Heleski, Camie; Bauson, Laura; Bello, Nora
Horse training often relies upon negative reinforcement (NR). This study tested the hypothesis that adding positive reinforcement (PR) to NR would enhance learning in horses (n = 34) being taught to walk over a tarp (novel/typically frightening task). Subjects were Arabians, and the same person handled all of them. This person handled half "traditionally" (NR only)--that is, halter/lead were pulled; when horse stepped forward, pressure was released; process repeated until criterion met (horse crossed the tarp with little/no obvious anxiety). The same person handled the other half traditionally--but with addition of PR < food + verbal praise > (NR + PR). Subjects "failed" the task if they refused to walk onto the tarp after 10 min. Nine horses failed; 6 of 9 failures were from NR only--no significant difference detected (p = .41). The study detected no difference in time to first crossing of the tarp (p = .30) or total time to achieve calmness criterion (p = .67). Overall, adding PR did not significantly enhance learning this task. However, there were practical implications--adding PR made the task safer/less fatiguing for the handler.
Krull, G. E.; Mallinson, B. J.; Sewry, D. A.
The development of Internet technologies has the ability to provide a new era of easily accessible and personalised learning, facilitated through the flexible deployment of small, reusable pieces of digital learning content over networks. Higher education institutions can share and reuse digital learning resources in order to improve their…
Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.
Patterson, G. L.; Michelle, D.; Johnston, A.
The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided by the US Geological Survey, The NSF-funded Mid America Earthquake Center, and the University of Memphis, with input from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Additional space at the facility houses local offices of the US Geological Survey. PERC exhibits are housed in a remodeled residential structure at CERI that was donated by the University of Memphis and the State of Tennessee. Exhibits were designed and built by CERI and US Geological Survey staff and faculty with the help of experienced museum display subcontractors. The 600 square foot display area interactively introduces the basic concepts of seismology, real-time seismic information, seismic network operations, paleoseismology, building response, and historical earthquakes. Display components include three 22" flat screen monitors, a touch sensitive monitor, 3 helicorder elements, oscilloscope, AS-1 seismometer, life-sized liquefaction trench, liquefaction shake table, and building response shake table. All displays include custom graphics, text, and handouts. The PERC website at www.ceri.memphis.edu/perc also provides useful information such as tour scheduling, ask a geologist, links to other institutions, and will soon include a virtual tour of the facility. Special consideration was given to address State science standards for teaching and learning in the design of the displays and handouts. We feel this consideration is pivotal to the success of any grass roots Earth Science education and outreach program and represents a valuable lesson that has been learned at CERI over the last several
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor; Lapkin, Samuel; Hoffman, Kerry
It is claimed that health care students who learn together will be better prepared for contemporary practice and more able to work collaboratively and communicate effectively. In Australia, although recognised as important for preparing nursing, pharmacy and medical students for their roles in the medication team, interprofessional education is seldom used for teaching medication safety. This is despite evidence indicating that inadequate communication between health care professionals is the primary issue in the majority of medication errors. It is suggested that the pragmatic constraints inherent in university timetables, curricula and contexts limit opportunities for health professional students to learn collaboratively. Thus, there is a need for innovative approaches that will allow nursing, medical and pharmacy students to learn about and from other disciplines even when they do not have the opportunity to learn with them. This paper describes the development of authentic multimedia resources that allow for participative, interactive and engaging learning experiences based upon sound pedagogical principles. These resources provide opportunities for students to critically examine clinical scenarios where medication safety is, or has the potential to be compromised and to develop skills in interprofessional communication that will prepare them to manage these types of situations in clinical practice.
Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael
Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.
Robinson, Zoe; Whitfield, Stephen; Gertisser, Ralf; Krause, Stefan; McKay, Deirdre; Pringle, Jamie; Szkornik, Katie; Waller, Richard
The UK's Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES) is currently running a project entitled ‘C-Change in GEES: Open licensing of climate change and sustainability resources in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences' as part of a national Open Educational Resource project. The C-Change project aims to explore the challenges involved in ‘repurposing' existing teaching materials on the topics of climate change and sustainability to make them open access. This project has produced an open access resource of diverse climate change and sustainability-related teaching materials across the subjects of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences. The process of repurposing existing face-to-face teaching resources requires consideration of a wide variety of issues including the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) associated with images and other material included in the teaching resources, in addition to issues of quality, accessibility and usability of resources. Open access education is an issue that will have implications across the whole of the organizational structure of a university, from legal advisors with commitments to University research and enterprise activities, to the academics wishing to produce open access resources, through to all levels of senior management. The attitudes, concerns and openness to Open Educational Resources of stakeholders from all positions within a HE institution will have implications for the participation of that institution within the OER movement. The many barriers to the whole-scale adoption of Open Educational Resources within the UK Higher Education system and the willingness of UK Higher Education Institutions to engage in the OER movement include institutional perspectives on the IPR of teaching materials developed by members of staff within the institution and financial viability, in addition to more sceptical attitudes of potential contributors. Keele University is
Cano, Ramiro; Abián, Alberto; Mena, Elena
Education is essential when it comes to raise public awareness on the environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture and agroecology (OA & AE). Organic.Edunet, an EU funded project, aims at providing a freely-available portal where learning contents on OA & AE can be published and accessed through specialized technologies. This paper describes a novel mechanism for providing semantic capabilities (such as semantic navigational queries) to an arbitrary set of agricultural learning resources, in the context of the Organic.Edunet initiative.
A teacher describes a secondary English unit on Shakespeare implemented in a manner designed to take advantage of the learning differences of resource room students. After developing and investigating questions relating to Macbeth, students then read and enjoyed the drama. As a result of acquiring an understanding of Shakespeare exceeding that of students in general classes, self-esteem and academic motivation increased. Finally, connections to practice and behavioral, constructivist, feminist, and critical theories are discussed. Appendices describe specific schedules and routines.
Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue
This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…
Burchett, Shayna Brianne
Freshman science courses are intended to prepare students for the rigor and expectations of subsequent college science. While secondary education aims to prepare students for the college curriculum, many incoming freshman lack the sense of responsibility for their own learning that is essential for success in a college-level course. The freshman…
Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina
The adoption of virtual microscopy at the University of Turku, Finland, created a unique real-world laboratory for exploring ways of reforming the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the students' reactions and the impact of a set of measures designed to boost an experimental group's understanding of abnormal histology…
Harri-Augstein, Sheila; Webb, Ian M.
This publication shows step-by-step how trainers may use self-organized learning (SOL) to achieve real and lasting change within an organization at all levels. Each of the eight chapters begins with an "agenda board" outlining the contents and ends with a section featuring suggested activities for developing the skills. An introduction…
Recognition needs to be given to emerging postgraduate nursing students' status of 'consumer', and the challenge for nurse education is to remain relevant and competitive in a consumer-led market. An e-learning model has been suggested as a competitive and contemporary way forward for student consumers, but successful introduction of this requires leadership and strong organisational management systems. This article applies the NHS leadership framework to nurse education in relation to implementation of e-learning and describes and interprets each element for application in higher education settings. By applying a leadership framework that acknowledges the skills and abilities of staff and encourages the formation of collaborative partnerships in the wider university community, educators can begin to develop skills and confidence in teaching using e-learning resources.
Zhang, Yue; Song, Bin; Zhang, Ying; Du, Xiaojiang; Guizani, Mohsen
Emerging sensor networks (ESNs) are an inevitable trend with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), and intend to connect almost every intelligent device. Therefore, it is critical to study resource allocation in such an environment, due to the concern of efficiency, especially when resources are limited. By viewing ESNs as multi-agent environments, we model them with an agent-based modelling (ABM) method and deal with resource allocation problems with market models, after describing users' patterns. Reinforcement learning methods are introduced to estimate users' patterns and verify the outcomes in our market models. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods, which are also capable of guiding topology management.
Zhang, Yue; Song, Bin; Zhang, Ying; Du, Xiaojiang; Guizani, Mohsen
Emerging sensor networks (ESNs) are an inevitable trend with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), and intend to connect almost every intelligent device. Therefore, it is critical to study resource allocation in such an environment, due to the concern of efficiency, especially when resources are limited. By viewing ESNs as multi-agent environments, we model them with an agent-based modelling (ABM) method and deal with resource allocation problems with market models, after describing users’ patterns. Reinforcement learning methods are introduced to estimate users’ patterns and verify the outcomes in our market models. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods, which are also capable of guiding topology management. PMID:27916841
Peter, Sandra; Farrell, Lesley
What is "open" about Open Educational Resources? How does education become "open" when it is removed from the institutional housing of the school or the university and develops in public social settings? Has the Internet, in providing educational content without cost and free of copyright restrictions, provoked a unique and…
Lange, John D.; Burroughs-Lange, Sue G.
The supervision of neophytes in all professional vocations is a complex and multifaceted process and not really achieved without adequate training and experience. This project's aim was to develop innovative, problem solving, teaching resources in the form of "case knowledge" episodes to provide "strategic knowing" activities…
Taber, Keith S.; Garcia-Franco, Alejandra
This article explores 11- to 16-year-old students' explanations for phenomena commonly studied in school chemistry from an inclusive cognitive resources or knowledge-in-pieces perspective that considers that student utterances may reflect the activation of knowledge elements at a range of levels of explicitness. We report 5 themes in student…
Background We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW) training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment. Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone), each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nation's HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module. Methods In December 2009, a mid-term evaluation was conducted, targeting both technical feasibility and user satisfaction. It also highlighted user perception of the program and the technical challenges encountered using mobile devices for lifelong learning. Results With a response rate of 90% (18/20 questionnaires returned), the overall satisfaction of using mobile tools was generally greater for the iPhone. Access to Skype and Facebook, screen/keyboard size, and image quality were cited as more troublesome for the Nokia N95 compared to the iPhone. Conclusions Training, supervision and clinical mentoring of health workers are the cornerstone of the scaling up process of HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings (RLSs). Educational modules on mobile phones can give flexibility to HCWs for accessing learning content anywhere. However lack of softwares interoperability and the high investment cost for the Smartphones' purchase could represent a limitation to the wide spread use of such kind mLearning programs in RLSs. PMID:20825677
Hersey, Peter; McAleer, Sean
The aims of this project were to determine the required competencies for a nurse in the emergency department assisting with a rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia (RSI), and to produce a relevant e-learning resource. A three-round multidisciplinary Delphi process produced the following competencies: ability to describe the steps and sequence of events of an RSI, familiarity with the equipment used during an RSI, ability to recognise and help manage problems occurring during an RSI, ability to prepare for an RSI, ability to apply cricoid pressure, and understanding the modification of an RSI in special circumstances. An interactive e-learning package was produced and made available online. Twelve emergency department nurses took part in an evaluation of the e-learning package. All either agreed or strongly agreed that they had increased their knowledge and found the learning useful, and 11 out of 12 nurses reported being somewhat or very confident in the role of airway assistant following completion of the learning.
Gabbard, Joseph L.; Shukla, Maulik; Sobral, Bruno
Systems biology and infectious disease (host-pathogen-environment) research and development is becoming increasingly dependent on integrating data from diverse and dynamic sources. Maintaining integrated resources over long periods of time presents distinct challenges. This paper describes experiences and lessons learned from integrating data in two five-year projects focused on pathosystems biology: the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, http://patric.vbi.vt.edu/), with a goal of developing bioinformatics resources for the research and countermeasures development communities based on genomics data, and the Resource Center for Biodefense Proteomics Research (RCBPR, http://www.proteomicsresource.org/), with a goal of developing resources based on the experiment data such as microarray and proteomics data from diverse sources and technologies. Some challenges include integrating genomic sequence and experiment data, data synchronization, data quality control, and usability engineering. We present examples of a variety of data integration problems drawn from our experiences with PATRIC and RBPRC, as well as open research questions related to long term sustainability, and describe the next steps to meeting these challenges. Novel contributions of this work include (1) an approach for addressing discrepancies between experiment results and interpreted results and (2) expanding the range of data integration techniques to include usability engineering at the presentation level. PMID:20491070
Heritage, Margaret; Jones, Barbara; Tobiason, Glory; Chang, Sandy; Herman, Joan
This publication provides a framework, the Fundamentals of Learning (FOL), to assist teachers in transitioning to the classroom practices called for in the College- and Career-Ready Standards (CCRS). The content of this resource is drawn from leading theory and research about learning and assessment and from an examination of the Common Core State…
Vanstone, Sue, Comp.
This bibliography provides a thorough and representative sample of the different types of available Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) publications and resources. These publications and resources are grouped under nine categories: (1) PLAR Policy (Canada, Europe, Africa, Australia, United States of America, New Zealand, Asia and the…
Grobecker, Betsey; Lawrence, Frank
Twenty-seven children (ages 7-10) with learning disabilities and 42 controls were tested on three different mathematics tasks. Significantly more controls abstracted composite unit structures suggestive of operational logic on modified nonverbal and associativity of length tasks. On a flash card task, children with learning disabilities achieved…
Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M
In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P < 0.001, effect size d = -0.32) and 0.3% lower, respectively, with DAVR available compared to previous years. However, there were positive correlations between students' cadaveric anatomy question scores with the number and total time of DAVR viewed (Y2, r = 0.171, 0.090, P = 0.002, n.s., respectively; and Y3, r = 0.257, 0.253, both P < 0.001). Students accessing all DAVR scored 7.2% and 11.8% higher than those accessing none (Y2, P = 0.015, d = 0.48; and Y3, P = 0.005, d = 0.77, respectively). Further development and promotion of DAVR are needed to improve engagement and learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
This paper outlines a small action research work-based study. Its aim was to ascertain the content of an e-learning resource designed to help student children and young people's (CYP) nurses promote young children's mental health. Recent policy stresses the importance of this area of health promotion. The setting for the study was a higher education institution and the data collection methods were a focus group and semi-structured interviews.The key stakeholders involved in the study were four student CYP nurses, a child health programme leader, a child health lecturer, a child and adolescent mental health lecturer and an e-learning expert.The results suggest that attachment theory, assessment framework and Bronfenbrenner's ecology model should be included in the learning resource in order to promote a holistic approach toward young children's mental health promotion. Further research is required into what training is required for student CYP nurses regarding child mental health and how CYP nurses can be prepared for their role in skill-mixed health visiting teams.
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Harvey, Justin; Halperin, Mitchell L.; Chikte, Usuf M. E.
The usability of computer interfaces has a major influence on learning. Optimising the usability of e-learning resources is therefore essential. However, this may be neglected because of time and monetary constraints. User testing is a common approach to usability evaluation and involves studying typical end-users interacting with the application…
Hack, Catherine; McKillop, Aine; Sweetman, Sandra; McCormack, Jacqueline
The transition from traditional instruction to a problem-based approach to learning requires many changes for educators and for students. The aim of this project was to develop an online problem-based learning (PBL) resource centre to provide academic staff from across the University with support in incorporating PBL in their curriculum design.…
Results are compiled from a national survey designed to monitor the Libraries and Learning Resources Program of the 1974 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title IV-B) and to learn what changes might improve the delivery of library materials, equipment, and guidance, counseling, and testing services to elementary and secondary school…
Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee; Sanrattana, Unchalee; Tungkasamit, Angkana; Srisawat, Niwat
The aim of the paper was to administer and prepare teachers for management to their students' learning achievements within the curriculum framework of water resource and disaster management. This course was compared to manage learning into different school sizes with the sample size in the lower secondary education schools with two groups of 28…
McIntosh, Paul; Freeth, Della; Berridge, Emma Jane
This paper examines the use of appreciative inquiry (AI) to guide development of web-based learning resources for medical educators who facilitate simulation-based learning experiences for doctors-in-training. AI can be viewed as a positive form of action research, which seeks to avoid deficit-based analyses and solutions, and commonly associated…
Sarfo, Frederick Kwaku; Elen, Jan
Introduction: This study addresses two major issues with respect to cooperative learning. The study aims at experimentally investigating the function of positive resource interdependence and individual accountability on academic performance of individuals in cooperative learning. Method: To achieve the purpose a two by two randomized post-test…
Boyer, Robert; And Others
This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on ocean resources and food from the…
Weiss, Jack A.
One of 15 members of the Northern Illinois Learning Resources Cooperative (NILRC), Elgin Community College served as host institution for a project to design, develop, test, and install computer programs in a community college resource center environment. The service functions identified for systems development included circulation, serial…
Mars, Laura, Ed.
This directory provides 6,140 listings of resources in learning disabilities. Resources include publications, programs, state services, instructional materials, videotape recordings, films, periodicals, tests, schools, professional texts, conferences, and government agencies. Listings are grouped into 20 chapters that cover: (1) adult literacy;…
Kwasu, Isaac Ali; Yalams, Simon Madugu; Ema, Ema
This paper presents an outline on how teachers can use "The Design Process and Animation Techniques to produce animated instructional resources (AIR) which, can be used to facilitate Open Distance Learning in especially Science and Technology Education. A model of the Animated Instructional Resource was developed for the teaching of Human…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.
This annotated bibliography was developed to support a Blackfoot language and culture program for elementary and secondary students in Alberta (Canada) schools. Resources include books, booklets, videos, and filmstrips. Materials are listed alphabetically by title within the following categories: (1) language learning resources (9 titles); (2)…
Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu
It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better
The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)
Perce, Karen H
Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented in its impact on individuals, businesses, community infrastructure, and national disaster support systems. The business recovery experience highlighted the key roles of human resources professionals and the occupational health nurse in assisting employees and the business to recover. Business leaders may not realize the importance of the occupational health nurse's knowledge and skills in preparing and testing the business continuity plan, and the nurse's role in the disaster recovery effort. This is a critical opportunity for the nurse to contribute. Learning from previous disaster recovery efforts is an important step in increasing the occupational health nurse's effectiveness in a business disaster recovery effort.
Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale
The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with 18 third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, 22 typically achieving third graders, and 21 typically achieving second graders. Participants were asked to make true-false decisions on simple and complex addition problems while the distance between the…
Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; da Rocha Bernardo, José Roberto; Evagorou, Maria; Florentino de Melo, Viviane
In this article, we focus on the contributions that a simulated jury-based activity might have for pre-service teachers, especially for their active participation and learning in teacher education. We observed a teacher educator using a series of simulated juries as teaching resources to help pre-service teachers develop their pedagogical knowledge and their argumentation abilities in a physics teacher methods course. For the purposes of this article, we have selected one simulated jury-based activity, comprising two opposed groups of pre-service teachers that presented aspects that hinder the teachers' development of professional knowledge (against group) and aspects that allow this development (favor group). After the groups' presentations, a group of judges was formed to evaluate the discussion. We applied a multi-level method for discourse analysis and the results showed that (1) the simulated jury afforded the pre-service teachers to position themselves as active knowledge producers; (2) the teacher acted as 'animator' of the pre-service teachers' actions, showing responsiveness to the emergence of circumstantial teaching and learning opportunities and (3) the simulated jury culminated in the judges' identification of the pattern 'concrete/obstacles-ideological/possibilities' in the groups' responses, which was elaborated by the teacher for the whole class. Implications from this study include using simulated juries for teaching and learning and for the development of the pre-service teachers' argumentative abilities. The potential of simulated juries to improve teaching and learning needs to be further explored in order to inform the uses and reflections of this resource in science education.
Burchett, Shayna Brianne
Freshman science courses are intended to prepare students for the rigor and expectations of subsequent college science. While secondary education aims to prepare students for the college curriculum, many incoming freshman lack the sense of responsibility for their own learning that is essential for success in a college-level course. The freshman general-chemistry laboratory course at Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) was identified as a bottleneck course with a demand beyond accommodation capacity. To address the bottleneck and develop a sense of learner responsibility, a decision was made to investigate laboratory course delivery strategies. As a result of the investigation into delivery strategies, a blended freshman general-chemistry laboratory course was designed and implemented at Missouri S&T, which increased student access to the bottleneck course and improved learner engagement while meeting American Chemical Society (ACS) guidelines. The implementation of the Missouri S&T project and its continued evolution at other institutions have a great potential to provide insight on the impact of blended teaching on learner success. This dissertation describes research and design of a blended laboratory course that economically improves capacity while intentionally focusing pedagogy to support learner success, meet industry expectations, and maintain ACS certification. To evaluate success, the project documented and analyzed student performance during the development of the transformation to a blended freshman chemistry laboratory course at Missouri S&T. The findings support the efficacy of the blended teaching model and offer a structure upon which future courses may build.
Khalil, Abedalrazq F.; Kaheil, Yasir H.; Gill, Kashif; Mckee, Mac
Contemporary and water resources engineering and management rely increasingly on pattern recognition techniques that have the ability to capitalize on the unrelenting accumulation of data that is made possible by modern information technology and remote sensing methods. In response to the growing information needs of modern water systems, advanced computational models and tools have been devised to identify and extract relevant information from the mass of data that is now available. This chapter presents innovative applications from computational learning science within the fields of hydrology, hydrogeology, hydroclimatology, and water management. The success of machine learning is evident from the growing number of studies involving the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Relevance Vector Machines (RVM), and Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) to address various issues in hydrologic sciences. The applications that will be discussed within the chapter employ the abovementioned machine learning techniques for intelligent modeling of reservoir operations, temporal downscaling of precipitation, spatial downscaling of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, comparisons of various techniques for groundwater quality modeling, and forecasting of chaotic time series behavior. Combinatorial algorithms to capture the intrinsic complexities in the modeled phenomena and to overcome disparate scales are developed; for example, learning machines have been coupled with geostatistical techniques, non-homogenous hidden Markov models, wavelets, and evolutionary computing techniques. This chapter does not intend to be exhaustive; it reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in the use of learning machines in applied hydrologic sciences and presents a summary of future needs and challenges for further advancement of these methods.
Poor drinking water quality, e.g. elevated levels of pathogens and arsenic, is a big issue in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Discussion of the causes and potential solutions of these problems tend to successfully motivate students to engage in an active learning process. Commercially available interactive sand tanks have been used for many years to explore groundwater flow and transport processes by experiential learning, typically in a qualitative way (e.g. Groundwater Model Project, 2010). We have adapted the application of these tanks to help students learn about water resources issues in Bangladesh in qualitative and quantitative ways. The developed learning modules include visualization of groundwater recharge and discharge in a monsoon controlled climate, contamination of groundwater by pathogens, discussion of various theories of arsenic mobilization, the effects of irrigation pumping on arsenic distributions and the benefits and potential pitfalls of using deeper low arsenic aquifers as sources of domestic, industrial and agricultural water. Many of the techniques used in characterizing aquifers in Bangladesh such as slug and pumping tests, push/pull and forced gradient experiments can be explored by the students using the sand tanks. Learning modules have also been developed that address quantitative uses of the sand tanks, e.g. the determination of hydraulic conductivity using Darcy’s law or slug tests, porosity by comparing Darcy and transport velocity and dispersivity by measuring dye breakthrough curves. Groundwater Model Project, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, http://www.uwsp.edu/stuorg/awra/h2omodel.html, accessed 8/20/2010
Zschocke, Thomas; de León, Juan Carlos Villagrán
One of the priority areas of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 for disaster risk reduction is the use of knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. The collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant information and knowledge on disaster risks and to cope with such risks are critical to inform and educate individuals as a basis on which to establish a culture of disaster prevention and resilience. However, in many cases these resources are scattered over multiple repositories in different places and lack a common, shared framework for their description to improve the search and retrieval process. This research intends to contribute to the Hyogo Framework of Action by building a domain ontology on disaster risk reduction for education. The goal is to provide semantically enriched descriptions of learning resources for the use in training curricula and learning programs. The ontology builds on the terminology of disaster risk reduction, published by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) in 2009. It extends the terminology by reusing other relevant ontology sources and incorporating the knowledge of subject matter experts.
Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti; Corrente, José Eduardo; Dell'Acqua, Magda Cristina Queiroz
Computerized technological resources have become essential in education, particularly for teaching topics that require the performance of specific tasks. These resources can effectively help the execution of such tasks and the teaching-learning process itself. After the development of a Web site on the topic of nursing staff scheduling, this study aimed at comparing the development of students involved in the teaching-learning process of the previously mentioned topic, with and without the use of computer technology. Two random groups of undergraduate nursing students from a public university in São Paulo state, Brazil, were organized: a case group (used the Web site) and a control group (did not use the Web site). Data were collected from 2003 to 2005 after approval by the Research Ethics Committee. Results showed no significant difference in motivation or knowledge acquisition. A similar performance for the two groups was also verified. Other aspects observed were difficulty in doing the nursing staff scheduling exercise and the students' acknowledgment of the topic's importance for their training and professional lives; easy access was considered to be a positive aspect for maintaining the Web site.
Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P
During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e
Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P
During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned . Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no age-related diseases . In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified . In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event) . Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies . In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point  in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e
Schreiber-Abshire, W.; Dills, P.
The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), with additional contributions from the GOES-R Program Office and EUMETSAT, to directly support education and training efforts in the area of satellite meteorology. This partnership enables COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar- orbiting remote sensing platforms and their instruments, data, products, and operational applications. Over the last several years, COMET's satellite education programs have focused on the capabilities and applications of the upcoming next generation operational polar-orbiting NPP/NPOESS system and its relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. COMET's activities have recently expanded to include education on the future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and various user communities, COMET stimulates greater utilization of both current and future satellite observations and products. In addition, COMET has broadened the scope of its online training to include materials on the EUMETSAT Polar-orbiting System (EPS) and Meteosat geostationary satellites. EPS represents an important contribution to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) between NOAA and EUMETSAT, while Meteosat imaging capabilities provide an early look for the next generation GOES-R satellites. Also in collaboration with EUMETSAT, COMET is developing future modules on the joint NASA-CNES Jason altimetry mission and on satellite capabilities for monitoring the global climate. COMET also provides Spanish translations of relevant GOES materials in order to support the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) Americas effort, which is associated with the move of GOES-10 to provide routine satellite coverage over South America. This poster presentation provides an overview of COMET
Baroody, Arthur J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Purpura, David J.; Reid, Erin E.
In a 9-month training experiment, 64 first graders with a risk factor were randomly assigned to computer-assisted structured discovery of the add-1 rule (e.g., the sum of 7 + 1 is the number after "seven" when we count), unstructured discovery learning of this regularity, or an active-control group. Planned contrasts revealed that the…
Rugsaken, Kris T.; Robertson, Jacqueline A.; Jones, James A.
A study investigated the usefulness of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory in predicting college students' academic performance, focusing on whether the scores enhance the accuracy of traditional predictors such as college entrance examinations and high school rank. Results indicate the scores produce a slight but not significant increase…
Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany M.
The current study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of presenting secondary targets within learning trials for 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we compared 4 instructional conditions using a progressive prompt delay. In 3 conditions, we presented secondary targets in the antecedent or consequence portion of…
Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Rynge, Mats; Sehgal, Chander; Slyz, Marko
The Open Science Grid (OSG) supports a diverse community of new and existing users in adopting and making effective use of the Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) model. The LHC user community has deep local support within the experiments. For other smaller communities and individual users the OSG provides consulting and technical services through the User Support area. We describe these sometimes successful and sometimes not so successful experiences and analyze lessons learned that are helping us improve our services. The services offered include forums to enable shared learning and mutual support, tutorials and documentation for new technology, and troubleshooting of problematic or systemic failure modes. For new communities and users, we bootstrap their use of the distributed high throughput computing technologies and resources available on the OSG by following a phased approach. We first adapt the application and run a small production campaign on a subset of “friendly” sites. Only then do we move the user to run full production campaigns across the many remote sites on the OSG, adding to the community resources up to hundreds of thousands of CPU hours per day. This scaling up generates new challenges - like no determinism in the time to job completion, and diverse errors due to the heterogeneity of the configurations and environments - so some attention is needed to get good results. We cover recent experiences with image simulation for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), small-file large volume data movement for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), civil engineering simulation with the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES), and accelerator modeling with the Electron Ion Collider group at BNL. We will categorize and analyze the use cases and describe how our processes are evolving based on lessons learned.
Recent reform documents and science education literature emphasize the importance of scientific argumentation as a discourse and practice of science that should be supported in school science learning. Much of this literature focuses on the structure of argument, whether for assessing the quality of argument or designing instructional scaffolds. This study challenges the narrowness of this research paradigm and argues for the necessity of examining students' argumentative practices as rooted in the complex, evolving system of the classroom. Employing a sociocultural-historical lens of activity theory (Engestrom, 1987, 1999), discourse analysis is employed to explore how a high school biology class continuously builds affordances and constraints for argumentation practices through interactions. The ways in which argumentation occurs, including the nature of teacher and student participation, are influenced by learning goals, classroom norms, teacher-student relationships and epistemological stances constructed through a class' interactive history. Based on such findings, science education should consider promoting classroom scientific argumentation as a long-term process, requiring supportive resources that develop through continuous classroom interactions. Moreover, in order to understand affordances that support disciplinary learning in classroom, we need to look beyond just disciplinary interactions. This work has implications for classroom research on argumentation and teacher education, specifically, the preparation of teachers for secondary science teaching.
Borrego, Natalia; Dowling, Brian
The social intelligence hypothesis proposes that the challenges of complex social life bolster the evolution of intelligence, and accordingly, advanced cognition has convergently evolved in several social lineages. Lions (Panthera leo) offer an ideal model system for cognitive research in a highly social species with an egalitarian social structure. We investigated cognition in lions using a novel resource task: the suspended puzzle box. The task required lions (n = 12) to solve a novel problem, learn the techniques used to solve the problem, and remember techniques for use in future trials. The majority of lions demonstrated novel problem-solving and learning; lions (11/12) solved the task, repeated success in multiple trials, and significantly reduced the latency to success across trials. Lions also demonstrated cognitive abilities associated with memory and solved the task after up to a 7-month testing interval. We also observed limited evidence for social facilitation of the task solution. Four of five initially unsuccessful lions achieved success after being partnered with a successful lion. Overall, our results support the presence of cognition associated with novel problem-solving, learning, and memory in lions. To date, our study is only the second experimental investigation of cognition in lions and further supports expanding cognitive research to lions.
Toyota, Tetsuya; Nobuhara, Hajime
The Internet news are texts which involve from various fields, therefore, when a text data that will show a rapid increase of the number of dimensions of feature vectors of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is added, these results cannot be reflected to learning. Furthermore, it is difficult for users to recognize the learning results because SOM can not produce any label information by each cluster. In order to solve these problems, we propose SOM with additional learning and dimensional by category mapping which is based on the category structure of Wikipedia. In this method, input vector is generated from each text and the corresponding Wikipedia categories extracted from Wikipedia articles. Input vectors are formed in the common category taking the hierarchical structure of Wikipedia category into consideration. By using the proposed method, the problem of reconfiguration of vector elements caused by dynamic changes in the text can be solved. Moreover, information loss in newly obtained index term can be prevented.
Falkner, Katrina; Vivian, Rebecca
To support teachers to implement Computer Science curricula into classrooms from the very first year of school, teachers, schools and organisations seek quality curriculum resources to support implementation and teacher professional development. Until now, many Computer Science resources and outreach initiatives have targeted K-12 school-age children, with the intention to engage children and increase interest, rather than to formally teach concepts and skills. What is the educational quality of existing Computer Science resources and to what extent are they suitable for classroom learning and teaching? In this paper, an assessment framework is presented to evaluate the quality of online Computer Science resources. Further, a semi-systematic review of available online Computer Science resources was conducted to evaluate resources available for classroom learning and teaching and to identify gaps in resource availability, using the Australian curriculum as a case study analysis. The findings reveal a predominance of quality resources, however, a number of critical gaps were identified. This paper provides recommendations and guidance for the development of new and supplementary resources and future research.
David, John; Irizarry, Kristopher J L
Problem-based learning (PBL) creates an atmosphere in which veterinary students must take responsibility for their own education. Unlike a traditional curriculum where students receive discipline-specific information by attending formal lectures, PBL is designed to elicit self-directed, student-centered learning such that each student determines (1) what he/she does not know (learning issues), (2) what he/she needs to learn, (3) how he/she will learn it, and (4) what resources he/she will use. One of the biggest challenges facing students in a PBL curriculum is efficient time management while pursuing learning issues. Bioinformatics resources, such as the PubMatrix literature-mining tool, allow access to tremendous amounts of information almost instantaneously. To accelerate student-centered learning it is necessary to include resources that enhance the rate at which students can process biomedical information. Unlike using the PubMed interface directly, the PubMatrix tool enables users to automate queries, allowing up to 1,000 distinct PubMed queries to be executed per single PubMatrix submission. Users may submit multiple PubMatrix queries per session, resulting in the ability to execute tens of thousands of PubMed queries in a single day. The intuitively organized results, which remain accessible from PubMatrix user accounts, enable students to rapidly assimilate and process hundreds of thousands of individual publication records as they relate to the student's specific learning issues and query terms. Subsequently, students can explore substantially more of the biomedical publication landscape per learning issue and spend a greater fraction of their time actively engaged in resolving their learning issues.
McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise
This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…
Maclin, Edward L; Mathewson, Kyle E; Low, Kathy A; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele
Changes in attention allocation with complex task learning reflect processing automatization and more efficient control. We studied these changes using ERP and EEG spectral analyses in subjects playing Space Fortress, a complex video game comprising standard cognitive task components. We hypothesized that training would free up attentional resources for a secondary auditory oddball task. Both P3 and delta EEG showed a processing trade-off between game and oddball tasks, but only some game events showed reduced attention requirements with practice. Training magnified a transient increase in alpha power following both primary and secondary task events. This contrasted with alpha suppression observed when the oddball task was performed alone, suggesting that alpha may be related to attention switching. Hence, P3 and EEG spectral data are differentially sensitive to changes in attentional processing occurring with complex task training.
Kerr, Annie J; Mullan, Siobhan M; Main, David C J
A computer-aided learning (CAL) educational resource based on experiential learning principles has been developed. Its aim is to improve veterinary students' ability to critically review the effect on welfare of husbandry systems observed during their work placement on sheep farms. The CAL consisted of lectures, multiple-choice questions, video recordings of animals in various husbandry conditions, open questions, and concept maps. An intervention group of first-year veterinary students (N=31) was selected randomly to access the CAL before their sheep farm placement, and a control group (N=50) received CAL training after placement. Assessment criteria for the categories remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create, based on Bloom's revised taxonomy, were used to evaluate farm reports submitted by all students after their 2-week placement. Students in the intervention group were more likely than their untrained colleagues (p<.05) to remember and understand animal-based measurements relating to the freedom from hunger and thirst; the freedom from discomfort; and the freedom from pain, injury, or disease. Intervention group students were also more likely to analyze the freedom from pain, injury, or disease and the freedom to exhibit normal behavior and to evaluate the freedom from fear and distress. Relatively few students in each group exhibited creativity in their reports. These findings indicate that use of CAL before farm placement improved students' ability to assess and report animal welfare as part of their extramural work experience.
Sargent, Tanja C; Hannum, Emily C
Teacher professional learning communities provide environments in which teachers engage in regular research and collaboration. They have been found effective as a means for connecting professional learning to the day-to-day realities faced by teachers in the classroom. In this paper, we draw on survey data collected in primary schools serving 71 villages in rural Gansu Province, as well as transcripts from in-depth interviews with 30 teachers. Our findings indicate that professional learning communities penetrate to some of China's most resource-constrained schools, but that their nature and development are shaped by institutional supports, principal leadership, and teachers' own initiative.
Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Feiss, P. G.; Richardson, R. R.; Ormand, C.
Geoscience departments are facing times of great change, bringing both opportunity and challenge. While each department is unique with its own mission, institutional setting, strengths and assets, they share much in common and are all much better positioned to maximize gains and minimize losses if they are well informed of the experiences of other geoscience departments. To this end, over the past four years the Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has offered workshops and sessions at professional society meetings to foster sharing and discussion among geoscience departments in the United States and Canada. Topics that have sparked extended discussion include: Where are the geosciences headed from the standpoints of scientific research and employment? How are departments responding to new interdisciplinary opportunities in research and teaching? What are the threats and opportunities facing geoscience departments nationwide? How are departments recruiting students and faculty? What do geoscience department programs look like both from the standpoint of curriculum and activities beyond the curriculum? How do geoscience programs prepare students for professional careers? What makes a department strong in the eyes of the faculty or the eyes of the institution? This rich discussion has included voices from community colleges, four year colleges and universities, comprehensive and research universities, and minority serving institutions. Participants agree that these discussions have helped them in thinking strategically about their own departments, have provided valuable ideas and resources, and have lead to changes in their program and activities. A central aspect of the project has been the development of a website that captures the information shared at these meetings and provides resources that support departments in exploring these topics. The website (serc.carleton.edu/departments) is a community resource and all departments are invited to both learn
Background Mobile technology is increasingly being used by clinicians to access up-to-date information for patient care. These offer learning opportunities in the clinical setting for medical students but the underlying pedagogic theories are not clear. A conceptual framework is needed to understand these further. Our initial questions were how the medical students used the technology, how it enabled them to learn and what theoretical underpinning supported the learning. Methods 387 medical students were provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA) loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies. Outcomes were assessed by a mixed-methods triangulation approach using qualitative and quantitative analysis of surveys, focus groups and usage tracking data. Results Learning occurred in context with timely access to key facts and through consolidation of knowledge via repetition. The PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement. Contextual factors impacted on use both positively and negatively. Barriers included concerns of interrupting the clinical interaction and of negative responses from teachers and patients. Students preferred a future involving smartphone platforms. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the learning ecology and pedagogic basis behind the use of mobile learning technologies in a large cohort of undergraduate medical students in the clinical environment. We have developed a model for mobile learning in the clinical setting that shows how different theories contribute to its use taking into account positive and negative contextual factors. The lessons from this study are transferable internationally, to other health care professions and to the development of similar initiatives with newer technology such as smartphones or tablet computers. PMID:22240206
Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.
Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…
For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…
Roberts, Eileen; Griffin, Patrick
The aim of the research described in this article was to build a protocol for describing students' development of emotional knowledge and understanding, and to tailor this to the requirements of assessing the progress of students with additional needs. The paper reports the establishment of such a developmental profile, using procedures for…
Verzosa, Debbie Bautista; Mulligan, Joanne
This paper reports an intervention phase of a design study aimed to assist second-grade Filipino children in solving addition word problems in English, a language they primarily encounter only in school. With Filipino as the medium of instruction, an out-of-school pedagogical intervention providing linguistic and representational scaffolds was…
This paper is focused on the ways in which social policy and social concerns have impacted upon and shaped provision for students who consider English as an additional language (EAL). It provides an overview of practice and provision in relation to EAL learners in the context of state-funded education in England over the last 60 years in order to…
This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…
Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles
Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.
Rousselle, Laurence; Noël, Marie-Pascale
The adaptive use of approximate calculation was examined using a verification task with 18 third graders with mathematics learning disabilities, 22 typically achieving third graders, and 21 typically achieving second graders. Participants were asked to make true-false decisions on simple and complex addition problems while the distance between the proposed and the correct answer was manipulated. Both typically achieving groups were sensitive to answer plausibility on simple problems, were faster at rejecting extremely incorrect results than at accepting correct answers on complex addition problems, and showed a reduction of the complexity effect on implausible problems, attesting to the use of approximate calculation. Conversely, children with mathematics disabilities were unaffected by answer plausibility on simple addition problems, processed implausible and correct sums with equal speed on complex problems, and exhibited a smaller reduction of the complexity effect on implausible problems. They also made more errors on implausible problems. Different hypotheses are discussed to account for these results.
This article reports findings from an exploratory study of how learning support and resource teachers perceive each other's role. The study was conducted during the debate on the proposed changes to allocation and deployment of support teachers, following the publication of Circular 24/03 by the Department of Education and Science. It sought to…
Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda
Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…
Alper, Seth M.
This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) social studies teachers' utilization of academic course blogs and student achievement. Simultaneously, the study examined the participating teachers' perceptions on the use of course blogs and other social media as supplemental learning resources. The…
Lefoe, Geraldine; Philip, Robyn; O'Reilly, Meg; Parrish, Dominique
The ALTC Exchange (formerly the Carrick Exchange), is a national repository and networking service for Australian higher education. The Exchange was designed to provide access to a repository of shared learning and teaching resources, work spaces for team members engaged in collaborative projects, and communication and networking services. The…
A survey was conducted to analyse perceived stress, coping resources and life satisfaction among university students at an institution of higher learning. Seventy-three students randomly selected from third year Social Sciences class participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the participants. The results showed…
Cho, Sei Hyoung; Song, Ji Hoon; Yun, Suk Chun; Lee, Cheol Ki
The primary purpose of this research is to examine the structural relationships among several workplace-related constructs, including strategic human resource management (HRM) practices, organizational learning processes, and performance improvement in the Korean business context. More specifically, the research examined the mediating effect of…
This study investigated cumulative vulnerability/protection models of individual-level factors (child's attachment relationship and sense of coherence-SOC) and family-level factors (mothers' emotional resources), as explaining differences in socio-emotional and behavioral adjustment among children with learning disabilities (LD) or typical…
The paper presents the results of a study whose main aim was to investigate the effectiveness of using Internet resources and a browser-based virtual world in helping a group of students to learn the English second conditional. The sample consisted of thirteen third year students studying English at a Polish senior high school. The data were…
Panke, Stefanie; Seufert, Tina
In the last decade, the concept of Open Educational Resources (OER) has gained an undeniable momentum. However, it is an easy trap to confuse download and registration rates with actual learning and interest in the adoption and reuse of OER. If we focus solely on access, we cannot differentiate between processes of mere information foraging and…
Juliebo, Moira; Durnford, Carol
Describes Online Webstories for Learning (OWL), a Web-based resource for elementary school literacy education that was initially developed for use in the United Kingdom. Discusses the importance of including narrative, how OWL is being adapted for use in other countries, and off-line class activities suggested as part of OWL. (Contains 8…
Learning to complete natural resource assessments requires hands-on training. This paper illustrates eight elements of successful international workshops illustrated by data and experiences from a workshop in Inner Mongolia, China: translation, integration of a site potential-based land classificati...
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
This document provides teachers and school officials with information about the learning resources identified as "problematic" or "unacceptable," for the purpose of developing tolerance and understanding of different social or cultural groups. Forty-two publications are reviewed in the categories of health, home economics, industrial education,…
Watson, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sangit
We identify three aspects of management particularly crucial in the environment of globalization: the formulation of international strategy; entry into foreign markets; and resource allocation. We advocate the board game Go as an aid to learning management amidst globalization. Our advocacy is based on drawing links between Go and each of the…
The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…
Naqvi, Rahat; McKeough, Anne; Thorne, Keoma; Pfitscher, Christina
The effectiveness of dual-language book reading in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms is largely uncontested. Yet there are repeated calls for more research to determine how this resource can be used more broadly and effectively by teachers, especially in emergent-literacy learning contexts. In the present study we analysed…
In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…
Hughes, Helen; Fleming, Scott
In 2007, Sport Wales produced guidance for practitioners delivering the new Foundation Phase curriculum for children aged three to seven years. A focus was on physical development and in 2009 a resource entitled "Play to Learn" was developed supported by a website launched in 2011. The present study addresses (non-)engagement with the…
Vladut, Anamaria; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert
Two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators are introduced: a homeostatic orientation that aims for balance and an allostatic orientation that aims at growth. In order to establish the empirical basis of these motivational strategies, two studies were conducted with samples of students from a specialized…
Wiley, David; Green, Cable; Soares, Louis
The nation is in the midst of a revolution in education. For the first time in human history, tools to enable everyone to attain all the education they desire are available. And best of all this education is available at almost no cost. The key to this sea of change in learning is open education resources, or OER. OER are educational materials…
Yang, Gaixue; Yu, Shuyu
Based on a specially adapted questionnaire, research was carried out to explore how resources in modern distance learning were being applied in rural elementary and middle schools in Western China, in order to enhance the usefulness of the allocated resources. One particular distance learning project was used as the subject of the study, and…
Azer, Samy A
The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the accuracy and readability of English Wikipedia articles on the respiratory system and its disorders and whether they can be a suitable resource for medical students. On April 27, 2014, English Wikipedia was searched for articles on respiratory topics. Using a modified DISCERN instrument, articles were independently scored by three assessors. The scoring targeted content accuracy, frequency of updating, and quality of references. The readability of articles was measured using two other instruments. The mean DISCERN score for the 40 articles identified was 26.4±6.3. Most articles covered causes, signs and symptoms, prevention, and treatment. However, several knowledge deficiencies in the pathogenesis of diseases, investigations needed, and treatment were observed. The total number of references for the 40 articles was 1,654, and the references varied from 0 to 168 references, but several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made. The readability of articles was in the range of 9.4±1.8 to 22.6±10.7 using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level instrument and 10.0±2.6 to 19.6±8.3 using the Readability Coleman-Liau index. A strong correlation was found between the two instruments (r2=0.744, P<0.001). The agreement between the assessors had mean κ scores in the range of 0.712-0.857. In conclusion, despite the effort placed in creating Wikipedia respiratory articles by anonymous volunteers (wikipedians), most articles had knowledge deficiencies, were not accurate, and were not suitable for medical students as learning resources.
Waller, W. H.; Stecher, T. P.
Beyond the blue, beyond the violet, and into the ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the radiant universe appears strangely altered. At these shorter wavelengths and higher photon energies, the hottest stars shine brightly, while the cooler more common stars like the Sun virtually disappear from view. Clusters and associations of young stars are dominated by just a few massive ultraviolet-bright stars, while ancient globular clusters are reduced to their hottest, most rapidly evolving members. Spiral galaxies that look like graceful pinwheels in visible-light images are transformed into knotty webs --- each knot containing thousands of young hot stars. And the space between the stars, clusters, and galaxies appears profoundly black --- up to 100 times darker than the nighttime sky as seen at visible wavelengths. Until the last decade, our view of the ultraviolet universe was impeded by the stratospheric ozone layer that protects life on Earth from the Sun's harmful UV radiation. Subsequent balloon, sounding rocket, and satellite flights have yielded fascinating glimpses of the ultraviolet universe. In 1990, the Space Shuttle Columbia flew the Spacelab/Astro-1 mission. Astro is the first and only true astronomical observatory to operate onboard the Space Shuttle. It consists of 3 ultraviolet telescopes which are attached to a single pointing system in the Shuttle bay. During the Astro-1 mission, these instruments obtained UV images and spectra of hundreds of astronomical objects. Learning resources relating to this mission include a new slide set and booklet, ``Beyond the Blue: Greatest Hits of the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope,'' which is being distributed by the ASP through its mail-order catalogue. There is also a teacher's guide with activities, ``Astro-1: Seeing in a New Light'' which is available from the NASA Teacher Resource Laboratories. Sources of information on the upcoming flight of Spacelab/Astro-2 aboard the Endeavour (currently scheduled
Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R
Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.
Patel, Ashokkumar A; Gilbertson, John R; Parwani, Anil V; Dhir, Rajiv; Datta, Milton W; Gupta, Rajnish; Berman, Jules J; Melamed, Jonathan; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Orenstein, Jan; Becich, Michael J
Background Advances in molecular biology and growing requirements from biomarker validation studies have generated a need for tissue banks to provide quality-controlled tissue samples with standardized clinical annotation. The NCI Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR) is a distributed tissue bank that comprises four academic centers and provides thousands of clinically annotated prostate cancer specimens to researchers. Here we describe the CPCTR information management system architecture, common data element (CDE) development, query interfaces, data curation, and quality control. Methods Data managers review the medical records to collect and continuously update information for the 145 clinical, pathological and inventorial CDEs that the Resource maintains for each case. An Access-based data entry tool provides de-identification and a standard communication mechanism between each group and a central CPCTR database. Standardized automated quality control audits have been implemented. Centrally, an Oracle database has web interfaces allowing multiple user-types, including the general public, to mine de-identified information from all of the sites with three levels of specificity and granularity as well as to request tissues through a formal letter of intent. Results Since July 2003, CPCTR has offered over 6,000 cases (38,000 blocks) of highly characterized prostate cancer biospecimens, including several tissue microarrays (TMA). The Resource developed a website with interfaces for the general public as well as researchers and internal members. These user groups have utilized the web-tools for public query of summary data on the cases that were available, to prepare requests, and to receive tissues. As of December 2005, the Resource received over 130 tissue requests, of which 45 have been reviewed, approved and filled. Additionally, the Resource implemented the TMA Data Exchange Specification in its TMA program and created a computer program for
The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.
Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.
The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850
Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S
The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.
Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh
The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and
Virkar, Yogesh S.; Shew, Woodrow L.; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward
Learning and memory are acquired through long-lasting changes in synapses. In the simplest models, such synaptic potentiation typically leads to runaway excitation, but in reality there must exist processes that robustly preserve overall stability of the neural system dynamics. How is this accomplished? Various approaches to this basic question have been considered. Here we propose a particularly compelling and natural mechanism for preserving stability of learning neural systems. This mechanism is based on the global processes by which metabolic resources are distributed to the neurons by glial cells. Specifically, we introduce and study a model composed of two interacting networks: a model neural network interconnected by synapses that undergo spike-timing-dependent plasticity; and a model glial network interconnected by gap junctions that diffusively transport metabolic resources among the glia and, ultimately, to neural synapses where they are consumed. Our main result is that the biophysical constraints imposed by diffusive transport of metabolic resources through the glial network can prevent runaway growth of synaptic strength, both during ongoing activity and during learning. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated role for glial transport of metabolites in the feedback control stabilization of neural network dynamics during learning.
Roman, Monsi C.; Perry, Jay L.; Howard, David F.
The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project have been developing atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring subsystem architectures suitable for enabling sustained crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Using the International Space Station state-of-the-art (SOA) as the technical basis, the ARREM Project has contributed to technical advances that improve affordability, reliability, and functional efficiency while reducing dependence on a ground-based logistics resupply model. Functional demonstrations have merged new process technologies and concepts with existing ISS developmental hardware and operate them in a controlled environment simulating various crew metabolic loads. The ARREM Project's strengths include access to a full complement of existing developmental hardware that perform all the core atmosphere revitalization functions, unique testing facilities to evaluate subsystem performance, and a coordinated partnering effort among six NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed. A project overview is provided and the project management strategies that have enabled a multidiscipinary engineering team to work efficiently across project, NASA field center, and industry boundaries to achieve the project's technical goals are discussed. Lessons learned and best practices relating to the project are presented and discussed.
Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James
This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating resources from the Caenorhabditis elegans research community. Students engaged in a preactivity assessment, followed by instructional materials (IMs) emphasizing inquiry-based learning and a postinstruction assessment to gauge their learning. This study, conducted at two research sites with eight and nine students, respectively, shows that before instruction, most students confused embryonic cell cleavage, where total volume is constant, with regular cell division, in which total cell volume doubles. Despite their ability to construct a cell lineage tree, most of the study participants were not aware of its biological significance. All students correctly identified cells of anterior and posterior axis, but not cells of the dorsal and ventral axis. Although the students had no difficulty with the time dimensional aspect of development, most viewed an embryo as spatially two-dimensional rather than three-dimensional. Furthermore, this study indicates that combining authentic research resources with inquiry-based learning benefits student learning of key concepts in embryology. PMID:18316809
Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin
Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR α7, α4β2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR β2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR α4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders.
Background Research and theory In second language learning strongly suggest that good - language learners use a variety of strategies to assist them in... Learning and Memory, 104, 126-133. Ausubel , D.P. (1960). The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material...Research Note 85-51 6 BASIC SKILLS RESOURCE CENTER: o The Effects of Learning Strategies Training on the Development of =Skills in English as a
Zschocke, Thomas; Villagrán de León, Juan Carlos; Beniest, Jan
The collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant information and knowledge about the risk of natural disasters is a critical element in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 for disaster risk reduction. Knowledge, innovation and education are needed not only to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, but also to mainstream disaster risk reduction especially in weather and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Describing learning resources about these topics with semantic metadata enhances their availability and further facilitates the search and retrieval process by using richer annotations based on ontologies. This paper reports about ongoing work concerning the creation of a domain ontology based on AGROVOC as well as the UN/ISDR and related terminology on disaster risk reduction for the description of associated learning resources in the agricultural domain.
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M E; Halperin, Mitchell L
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to maximize their potential educational impact, but this is often neglected when time and other resources are limited, leading to the release of materials that cannot deliver the desired learning outcomes. As clinician-teachers in a resource-constrained environment, we investigated whether heuristic evaluation of our multimedia e-learning resource by a panel of experts would be an effective and efficient alternative to testing with end users. We engaged six inspectors, whose expertise included usability, e-learning, instructional design, medical informatics, and the content area of nephrology. They applied a set of commonly used heuristics to identify usability problems, assigning severity scores to each problem. The identification of serious problems was compared with problems previously found by user testing. The panel completed their evaluations within 1 wk and identified a total of 22 distinct usability problems, 11 of which were considered serious. The problems violated the heuristics of visibility of system status, user control and freedom, match with the real world, intuitive visual layout, consistency and conformity to standards, aesthetic and minimalist design, error prevention and tolerance, and help and documentation. Compared with user testing, heuristic evaluation found most, but not all, of the serious problems. Combining heuristic evaluation and user testing, with each involving a small number of participants, may be an effective and efficient way of improving the usability of e-learning materials. Heuristic evaluation should ideally be used first to identify the most obvious problems and, once these are fixed, should be followed by testing with typical end users.
... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Retinitis Pigmentosa What is retinitis pigmentosa? What are the symptoms ... Pigmentosa Additional Resources for Retinitis Pigmentosa What is retinitis pigmentosa? Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to ...
Brosnan, D. M.
Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.
Sims, Sarah; Hewitt, Gillian; Harris, Ruth
Interprofessional teamwork has become an integral feature of healthcare delivery in a wide range of conditions and services in many countries. Many assumptions are made in healthcare literature and policy about how interprofessional teams function and about the outcomes of interprofessional teamwork. Realist synthesis is an approach to reviewing research evidence on complex interventions which seeks to explore these assumptions. It does this by unpacking the mechanisms of an intervention, exploring the contexts which trigger or deactivate them and connecting these contexts and mechanisms to their subsequent outcomes. This is the second in a series of four papers reporting a realist synthesis of interprofessional teamworking. The paper discusses four of the 13 mechanisms identified in the synthesis: collaboration and coordination; pooling of resources; individual learning; and role blurring. These mechanisms together capture the day-to-day functioning of teams and the dependence of that on members' understanding each others' skills and knowledge and learning from them. This synthesis found empirical evidence to support all four mechanisms, which tentatively suggests that collaboration, pooling, learning, and role blurring are all underlying processes of interprofessional teamwork. However, the supporting evidence for individual learning was relatively weak, therefore there may be assumptions made about learning within healthcare literature and policy that are not founded upon strong empirical evidence. There is a need for more robust research on individual learning to further understand its relationship with interprofessional teamworking in healthcare.
Universitas Terbuka (UT) is Indonesia's higher education institution which implements distance education system. The term distance implies that learning is not performed face-to-face but there is geographically separation between students and teacher. Therefore, UT must provide many kinds of learning modes and learning support. To facilitate…
Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu
With the globalization of macro-economic environments, it is important to think about how to use instructional design and web-based digital technologies to enhance students' self-paced learning, stir up learning motivation and enjoyment, build up knowledge-sharing channels, and enhance individual learning. This study experimented with the flipped…
Coughlan, Paul; Coghlan, David
This article brings together the fields of action learning and operations strategy. It presents a case of action learning focused on strategic operations improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. As the third article in the set of explorations in this journal within the fields of action learning, operations strategy and collaborative…
Jakupec, Viktor, Ed.; Garrick, John, Ed.
This book addresses contemporary contexts of flexible learning and its practices and provides insights about directions that education and training providers may be required to follow to implement flexible learning in a variety of settings. Key issues and debates include the following: social and economic dimensions of flexible learning and…
This paper is based upon a Keynote presentation at CAL07 and extends previous introductory descriptions of the Ecology of Resources model of educational contexts. The relationships between the elements in the Ecology of Resources are a particular focus for discussion here. In particular, we consider how we might use the Ecology of Resources model…
Wilson, Everett K.
Useful resources for teaching sociology on the undergraduate or graduate level are discussed. Initially, the article suggests well-known resources such as various professional and reference publications, audiovisual aids, and computer-assisted instruction. One resource not frequently thought of includes people such as administrators, colleagues,…
Campos, Helena; Moreira, Rute
This article is based on an experiment using the game 'Caminhando e Calculando' (Moving and Calculating) in order to analyse the potential of the game as an educational resource for the teaching and learning of mathematics in Portuguese middle schools, where most students are 10 or 11 years old. Students' data obtained during the games will be used to analyse the different options used for solving the game, identifying its potential and its weaknesses. We start with a theoretical analysis of games as an inherent element of human culture. Combining our innate desire for fun with the different types of teaching and learning styles allows for fun and knowledge to be combined into more efficient and meaningful types of knowledge. Playing games are a primordial aspect of what it means to be a child and they develop within a motivating environment; therefore, not to take advantage of games as a learning resource would be to neglect an important asset. With regard to mathematics, emphasis will be given to the advantages that this teaching and learning tool provides for certain mathematical processes, such as problem-solving.
Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid
The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.
Ferraz, Fabiane; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Mercado-Martinez, Francisco Javier; Feuerwerker, Laura Camargo Macruz; Lino, Mônica Motta
Despite adhering to the dynamics established in the Management Pact, the use of financial resources of Permanent Education in Health (PEH) still features as a problem in Brazil. This study analyzes how the management of these financial resources by two Permanent In-Service Learning Integration Committees (ICLS) evolves in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It involves a qualitative, participatory research study adapted from Paulo Freire's Thematic Research conducted with 56 members from two ICLS between May and December 2009. After setting up the research groups, the members participated in the stages of theme generation surveys, encoding, decoding, and critical exposition of the reality. Participant observation and dialogue were the main data collection techniques. The results indicate that the two ICLS are not dissimilar in terms of issues of management of resources destined for policy, with bureaucracy, the indefinition of forms of financial management and delays that permeate regional structures responsible for resource management being the main factors detected. The participants considered the elaboration of PEH actions in the management of financial resources at state level to be the main opportunities for change.
Conrad, Jon M.
Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues
Barlow, Rebecca J.
University-based Extension specialists often face the dilemma of scheduling time for both teaching and outreach activities. Service learning projects that give hands-on experience in the application of classroom activities while giving back to the community can bridge this gap. A demonstration forest and service learning techniques were used to…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. School-to-Work Clearinghouse.
This guide was developed to address issues related to work-based learning experiences at an employer's worksite and to explain when and how federal and state (Florida) labor laws and minimum wage provisions apply. It includes the following documents: "Definitions of Terms--Work Based Learning" (Institute for Workforce Competitiveness);…
Koenig, Alan J.; Holbrook, M. Cay
Designed to assist in the selection of appropriate literacy media for students with visual impairments, this guide outlines the essential elements of learning media assessments. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the learning media assessment (LMA) process. Included is a discussion of Texas law and regulations that govern LMA. Chapter 2 documents…
Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.
This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…
Alonzo, Alicia C.; Ke, Li
A new vision of science learning described in the "Next Generation Science Standards"--particularly the science and engineering practices and their integration with content--pose significant challenges for large-scale assessment. This article explores what might be learned from advances in large-scale science assessment and…
Starrett, Barbara E.; de Boer, Sonja R.; Tollefson, Julie M.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004) define specific learning disabilities in a similar manner. "The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in…
This article focuses on the potential of free tools, particularly inquiry tools for influencing participation in twenty-first-century learning in science, as well as influencing the development of communities around tools. Two examples are presented: one on the development of an open source tool for structured inquiry learning that can bridge the…
The ability to process and use information effectively is not only an empowerment tool for students, but a basic survival skill. To develop information literacy in students means that schools must legitimize the teaching and learning process. Teachers must function as facilitators of learning in collaboration with students, other teachers, and…
In this "FastFacts," a state's Department of Education requests information from the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) on how the research defines skills in social-emotional development, approaches to learning, and executive function, to inform planned revisions to the early childhood indicators of progress for children…
Edmonstone, John; Robson, Jean
This account of practice describes the introduction of an accredited postgraduate management qualification which used action learning as a major contribution to a blended learning approach in a fragile cross-border setting on the edge of Europe. Conventional management education has frequently been challenged on the grounds of relevance, efficacy…
Menges, Robert J.; Mathis, B. Claude
This annotated bibliography provides a comprehensive guide to over 600 books and articles on teaching, learning, curriculum, and faculty development in colleges and universities. References are divided into the following sections and subsections and are alphabetized by author: overview of four literatures: teaching, learning, curriculum, faculty…
According to the 23rd Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, one out of every five people in the United States has a learning disability (LD). The dropout rate among these students is high, and students with learning disabilities are also less likely to attend 4-year colleges and universities. Although a majority of students with…
Could enthusiasm for e-learning be dampened because it is detrimental to the relationships between those undergoing e-training and their direct managers or colleagues? Interviews conducted in four French banks provide material to explore this question. We see that e-learning has increasingly been adopted because it goes beyond the role limitations…
Rui, Liu; Maode, Deng
Traditional e-learning platforms have the flaws that it's usually difficult to query or positioning, and realize the cross platform sharing and interoperability. In the paper, the semantic web and metadata standard is discussed, and a kind of e - learning system framework based on semantic web is put forward to try to solve the flaws of traditional elearning platforms.
Gebb, Billie Anne; Young, Zach
Mobile device use has been soaring in recent years in all user groups. Mobile learning is no longer an optional activity for academic institutions, but a necessary endeavor. Developing a curriculum around mobile learning is essential, particularly for distance-based, non-traditional students. Understanding how students use their mobile devices is…
Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie
The After-School Corporation (TASC) works to build education enrichment into an expanded school day because extra time spent in engaging learning activities leads to better outcomes in school and beyond. There's one month, however, when students in many schools lose learning time: June. In 2013, NYC elementary and middle schools saw their average…
Jeffrey C. Joe; Shauna A. Hoiland
For a number of years, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been preparing for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP). These preparations included attending training, participating in tabletop exercises, preparing draft declarations, developing INL-specific guidance documents, preparing for and hosting a mock complementary access visit, and preparing declarations for official submittal. All of these activities, the training materials, and software developed by other U.S. DOE national laboratories (PNNL, ORNL, LANL, and BNL) were very helpful in preparing for the entry into force of the AP. As with any endeavor of this size and complexity, however, there are always instances where even the best preparations and advanced planning do not anticipate every challenge. As the DOE's lead nuclear energy research and development facility, the INL faced many unique challenges. The majority of research conducted at the INL is nuclear fuel cycle related, most of which is not protected by the National Security Exclusion. This paper describes the lessons learned from the INL’s experience of preparing for the entry into force of the AP, specifically how translating and implementing general principles into actual activities proved to be one of many challenges, and provides general suggestions on how to respond effectively and efficiently to routine annual data calls and other AP requests.
Crews, Kimberly A.
One of the challenges that face humanity is how to manage resource and environmental endowments in a way that will guarantee continued survival and ensure the well-being of future generations. Those resources most important to human survival are food, water, and energy. When the population of the world reached 5 billion in 1987, approximately 87…
Changing rom current patterns of resource use to a sustainable and equitable economy is a complex and intractable problem. This paper suggests that critical education may form part of the solution. Critical environmental assessment (EA) education, the model explored in this paper, offers a tool for resource and environmental managers to use in managing public involvement processes. This model challenges current patterns of resource use and addresses criticisms of public involvement processes. Critical EA education, involving both cognitive development and personal empowerment, focuses on critical intelligence, problem solving and social action. The concept is offered as a means to facilitate and improve public involvement and, thereby, empower local communities to take greater control of resource use decisions affecting their lives. Positive implications of critical EA education for change, complexity, uncertainty and conflict, which are four enduring themes in resource and environmental management, are discussed in the paper. The implications include: cognitive development and personal empowerment at the level of local resource communities; simplification of the often complex discourse encountered in resource management; reduction in feelings of powerlessness often experienced by members of the public in environmental assessment scenarios; a reduction of ignorance and indeterminacy regarding resource management issues; conflict resolution at the cognitive level; and, clarification of the opposing values, interests or actions at the heart of a conflict.
The Teaching Resources Center (TRC) was developed at the university as an integrated project funded by the Ministry of Education. The focus of the TRC is not only on enhancing students' motivation in self-access study and written English, but also on providing the resources for research and information to develop lifelong learners and independent…
Kennett, Deborah; Young, Anna May; Catanzaro, Maria
We examined the variables contributing to statistical anxiety, statistical resourcefulness and grades in an intermediate statistics course. Questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables, as well as general resourcefulness, statistical self-efficacy and attitudes, and grade goals were completed by 168 students in September and in January.…
McAndrew, Patrick; Farrow, Robert; Cooper, Martyn
Online resources for education offer opportunities for those with disabilities but also raise challenges on how to best adjust resources to accommodate accessibility. Automated reconfiguration could in principle remove the need for expensive and time-consuming discussions about adaptation. On the other hand, human-based systems provide much needed…
Lewis, Catherine; Perry, Rebecca
Teams of educators conducted lesson study independently, supported by a resource kit that included mathematical tasks, curriculum materials, lesson videos and plans, and research articles, as well as protocols to support lesson study. The mathematical resources focused on linear measurement interpretation of fractions. This report examines the…
Pang, Ming Fai; Marton, Ference
Two studies are reported in this paper. The object of learning in both is the economic principle of changes in price as a function of changes in the relative magnitude of changes in demand and supply. The patterns of variation and invariance, defining the conditions compared were built into pedagogical tools (text, graphs, and worksheets). The…
Harlow, Danielle B.; Bianchini, Julie A.; Swanson, Lauren H.; Dwyer, Hilary A.
We used a "knowledge in pieces" perspective on teacher learning to document undergraduates' pedagogical resources in a model-based physics course for potential teachers. We defined pedagogical resources as small, discrete ideas about teaching science that are applied appropriately or inappropriately in specific contexts. Neither…
Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.
Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535
Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte
Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.
Wright, Christopher G.
This research examines the intellectual and linguistic resources that a group of African American boys brought to the study of the science of sound and the practice of representation. By taking a resource-rich view of the boys' linguistic and representational practices, my objective is to investigate children's abilities in producing, using, critiquing, and modifying representations. Specifically, this research looks to explore and identify the varieties of resources that African American boys utilize in developing scientific understanding. Using transcripts from group sessions, as well as the drawings produced during these sessions, I utilized a combination of discourse analysis to explore the boys' linguistic interactions during the critique of drawings with a focus on the boys' manipulation of line segments in order to explore their representational competencies. Analysis of the transcripts and the boys' drawings revealed several important findings. First, elements of Signifying were instrumental in the group's collective exploration of each other's drawings, and the ideas of sound transmission being represented in the drawings. Thus, I found that the boys' use of Signifying was key to their engagement win the practice of critique. Second, the boys' ideas regarding sound transmission were not fixed, stable misconceptions that could be "fixed" through instruction. Instead, I believe that their explanations and drawings were generated from a web of ideas regarding sound transmission. Lastly, the boys exhibited a form of meta-representational competency that included the production, modification, and manipulation of notations used to represent sound transmission. Despite this competency, the negotiation process necessary in constructing meaning of a drawing highlighted the complexities in developing a conventional understanding or meaning for representations. Additional research is necessary for exploring the intellectual and lingustic resources that children from
Irwin, Christopher; Desbrow, Lauren Ball Ben; Leveritt, Michael
"Facebook" is a popular platform that may facilitate learning activities at university. In this study, students' perceptions of using ""Facebook" pages" within individual university subject offerings were evaluated. Individual ""Facebook" pages" were developed for four university courses and used…
Ebbers, Frances A.
Provides a curriculum unit using the novel "Fahrenheit 451" to provide student-centered activities based on solid pedagogical methodology. Emphasizes value-centered analysis of the novel, comparison of alternative arguments, and integration of cooperative learning activities. (PRA)
Storey, Donovan; Santucci, Lorenzo; Fraser, Rowan; Aleluia, Joao; Chomchuen, Laksiri
Cities in developing countries across Asia-Pacific are struggling to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW). This is especially the case in secondary cities and small towns, which often face a lack of resources and know-how. Because the waste stream in these cities is usually high in organic content (50-80%) and recyclable materials (10-20%), waste-to-resource initiatives are viable options for sustainable MSW management. Waste-to-resource initiatives that are low-cost, low-tech, decentralised and community-based offer municipalities useful solutions for managing their MSW. However, the sustainability of such solutions depends on a number of key factors, such as the separation of waste at source, the effective engagement of communities and steady and predictable sources of revenue. Using quantitative data and qualitative information derived from field experience, this paper concludes that effective partnerships between a diverse range of stakeholders must be designed and fostered in order to achieve sustainability. The paper provides an analysis of stakeholder roles for the establishment of effective partnerships in four case study cities of Matale and Ratnapura (Sri Lanka) and Kon Tum and Quy Nhon (Viet Nam), where waste-to-resource facilities have been established, and explores the resources of stakeholders and how these can be mobilised to support waste-to-resource initiatives for revenue generation and long-term sustainability.
Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Weiten, Anja; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta
Thorndike described in his law of effect  that actions followed by positive events are more likely to be repeated in the future, whereas actions that are followed by negative outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This implies that behavior is evaluated in the light of its potential consequences, and non-reward events (i.e., errors) must be detected for reinforcement learning to take place. In short, humans have to monitor their performance in order to detect and correct errors, and this allows them to successfully adapt their behavior to changing environmental demands and acquire new behavior, i.e., to learn.
Fenton-Smith, Ben; Humphreys, Pamela
As in other Anglophone nations, a large percentage of Australia's postgraduate international students come from English as an additional language (EAL) backgrounds, and many require development of their academic language and learning (ALL) capabilities to successfully navigate a higher degree. This paper investigates those capabilities through the…
Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.
Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…
Cunningham, Sally Jo
The current crop of digital libraries for the computing community are strongly grounded in the conventional library paradigm: they provide indexes to support searching of collections of research papers. As such, these digital libraries are relatively impoverished; the present computing digital libraries omit many of the documents and resources that are currently available to computing researchers, and offer few browsing structures. These computing digital libraries were built 'top down': the resources and collection contents are forced to fit an existing digital library architecture. A 'bottom up' approach to digital library development would begin with an investigation of a community's information needs and available documents, and then design a library to organize those documents in such a way as to fulfill the community's needs. The 'home grown', informal information resources developed by and for the machine learning community are examined as a case study, to determine the types of information and document organizations 'native' to this group of researchers. The insights gained in this type of case study can be used to inform construction of a digital library tailored to this community.
Wuellner, Melissa R.
Substantial growth in online education in the United States has prompted questions on the levels of student learning and satisfaction achieved and the amount of instructor time investment required in the online environment compared to the face-to-face (F2F) environment. To date, very few have studied these measurements in science courses, and none…
This study documents the role of hand gestures in achieving mutual understanding in second-language learning situations. The study tracks the way gesture is coordinated with talk in tutorials between two Korean students and their American teachers. The study adopts an interactional approach to the study of participants' talk and gestural…
This article focuses on the way in which technology-based activities may shape and characterize students' awareness of their own learning processes and their understanding of autonomy. The study was carried out at a public university in Colombia. Data collection was done through the implementation of class observations, a survey, and some focus…
Bell, Sidney; Lowe, Roger; Edwards, M. Craig
High school students in a forestry and wildlife management course learned the use of global positioning software, geographic information systems, and other computer programs. They applied these skills in a capstone multimedia presentation for the community of maps they had made of a local arboretum. (JOW)
Kwasu, Isaac Ali
The study seek to reveal the importance of instructional visual in educational systems in Bauchi Nigeria. Instructional visual play very significant roles as medium of communication for learning. The research for this article was motivated by this understanding of the need. The study carried out in Nigeria in one of the most challenging state,…
Basic Skills Agency, 2008
This publication contains a series of sessions developed and used by Newcastle City Council Family Learning Service and now published to share practice. The sessions were developed specifically to support "Skills for Life" tutors to deliver the adult literacy and numeracy curricula but can also be used by other practitioners. There are…
Hockings, Christine; Brett, Paul; Terentjevs, Mat
Recently there has been growing concern about the ways in which professional values such as "acknowledging diversity and promoting equality of opportunity" (Higher Education Academy (HEA), 2006, p. 4) have been understood and evidenced in higher education. In this article, we outline how the Learning to Teach Inclusively open educational…
This booklet provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and secure setting. Such an environment also…
Coordinators' Notebook, 1993
This theme issue deals with the topic of the relationship between health and learning as it applies to the care of the young child. It consists of three parts. The first part is a lengthy article, "Health Care: The Care Required To Survive and Thrive" (J. Evans), explains health and caring environments of young child in the given…
Crocker, M. Judith, Ed.; And Others
This guide is intended to help adult education programs establish family literacy programs and create Family Learning Centers in Cleveland Public Schools. The information should assist program coordinators in developing educational components that offer activities to raise the self-esteem of the parents and provide them with the knowledge and…
Black, Elizabeth L.
As use of learning management systems (LMS) increases, it is essential that librarians are there. Ohio State University Libraries took a toolkit approach to integrate library content in the LMS to facilitate creative and flexible interactions between librarians, students and faculty in Ohio State University's large and decentralized academic…
Jih, Huecyhing Janice; Lin, Yenjen; Wu, Szuchien Sofia
The K-12 Gas Station is a national World Wide Web site in Taiwan that serves as the educational portal that provides teachers, parents, pupils, and public communities with rich content for all subject matters in grades K-12. The K-12 Gas Station plays a critical role in the efforts to build up a technology-based learning environment to help…
This dissertation sought to evaluate the potential of a customized, video-based instructional method, the Cultural Video Project (CVP), which was designed to meet the needs of both heritage and non-heritage students learning Korean as a second language in a university setting. The goal of this study was to design and create the CVP, document the…
da Silva, Jose´ Nunes, Jr.; Sousa Lima, Mary Anne; Silva Sousa, Eduardo Henrique; Oliveira Alexandre, Francisco Serra; Melo Leite, Antonio Jose´, Jr.
This paper presents a piece of educational software covering a comprehensive number of topics of chemical kinetics, which is available free of charge in Portuguese and English. The software was developed to support chemistry educators and students in the teaching-learning process of chemical kinetics by using animations, calculations, and…
Lee, Susan E.; Woods, Kyra J.
In this paper we describe how we fostered learning by modifying an existing course which covered topics relevant to biosciences. This course was offered predominantly to first year undergraduate science, biomedical science and environment students. The students were trained to find reliable scientific information via computer searches, and shown…
Barkin, Barbara; And Others
Intended for regular classroom teachers with learning disabled children in their classes, the manual provides information and/or teaching ideas in 34 areas. Most sections are organized into three parts--examples of student behaviors, a discussion, and suggestions. Individual sections deal with the following areas: allergy, associative…
Freeman, Nancy K.; Knopf, Herman T.
Beginning teachers of young children often express concern that their professional preparation has not adequately prepared them to work effectively with families. This remains the case in spite of literature documenting the importance of involving parents in their children's early education. This article describes a service learning project…
Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…
Meens, David E.
This paper is part of a study on the long-term effects of participation in a comprehensive service-learning program on alumni knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary for effective democratic citizenship. In this article, the larger research project is introduced and its central questions are put into historical context. I contend that…
Cote, James E.
This paper reviews theory and research pertaining to the acquisition of identity capital and social capital, and applies it to the changing nature of learning in late-modern societies, where the ability to undertake individualized life courses is becoming an increasingly important divide in the fortunes of the young as they make their way to…
Stummann, Cathy Brown
The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.
The annotated bibliography of print and non-print materials for students and teachers of German includes standard student texts, audiovisual materials, student and teacher references, and other media. It is intended to guide teachers in the selection of student and instructional materials for the teaching and learning of German at the elementary…
Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…
Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth
With today's computer and telecommunications technologies, every young person can have a quality education regardless of his or her place of birth. This is the dream that Open Educational Resources (OERs), when viewed as a right rather than a privilege, are directed to realize. For developing countries, we propose a type of OER initiative that…
Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair
Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…
McCrea, Nadine L.; Ehrich, Lisa C.
Describes the development of a human resource management (HRM) elective for educators aspiring to management positions in various educational settings. The unit is part of a graduate diploma offered within the Faculty of Education at one Australian university. The paper argues the necessity of HRM studies in postgraduate education courses. (SM)
Davis, Erin; Cochran, Dory; Fagerheim, Britt; Thoms, Becky
Academic libraries continually adjust services to adapt to the ever-changing landscape in higher education. In response to the broken textbook market, libraries are becoming actively involved in the open educational resources (OER) movement. Although there is not a formal program in place, librarians at Utah State University explored a…
This resource booklet focuses on the definitions, developmental stages, and the benefits of socio-dramatic play. The booklet deals with the players, shows how adults can support children's play, describes the play environment, and offers some suggestions for development of curriculum based on play. The booklet discusses children's approach to…
Werner, Courtney L.
In this article, the author explains how a writing center can be a potential host for housing writing instruction across the disciplines. She recommends writing centers act as hosts for various faculty development opportunities throughout the semester, and states that these centers can also hold faculty development resources and collaborative…
Toner, Helena; Burrichter, Art
This guide contains ideas and resources for adult education. It provides practical suggestions and specific guidance in five areas of adult education: adult basic education, high school completion/general education development, English for speakers of other languages, exceptional adult basic education, and the elderly. The guide focuses on the…
Schmidt-Jones, Catherine Anne
There have been numerous calls for research that demonstrates how open education resources (OERs) are actually being used. This case study sought to shed light on the users of a well-visited set of modular music-education materials published at Connexions. Respondents to a voluntary survey included teachers, students, self-directed learners, music…
Gasco, Jose L.; Llopis, Juan; Gonzalez, M. Reyes
This paper addresses the influence of information technology in human resources management (HRM) and specifically on training policy through the experience of a Spanish telecommunications firm, "Telefonica". The characteristics of the training model designed by this firm to face new environments is considered and the technologies used,…
Fombona, Javier; Pascual, Maria Angeles
This research analyses the evolution in the effectiveness of media messages and aims to optimize the use of ICTs in educational settings. The cultural impact of television and multimedia resources is increasing as they move to the Internet with ever greater quality. The integration of visual narrative techniques with multimedia playback…
Mello, Luciane V.
The research question for this study was: "Can the provision of online resources help to engage and motivate students to become self-directed learners?" This study presents the results of an action research project to answer this question for a postgraduate module at a research-intensive university in the United Kingdom. The analysis of…
Bang, Tove; Gronbaek, Kaj; Hansen, Per Steen
This paper briefly describes the WebNize system and how it applies a Metro Map metaphor for organizing guided tours in Web based resources. Then, experiences in using the Metro Map based tours in a Knowledge Sharing project at the library at Aarhus School of Business (ASB) in Denmark, are discussed. The Library has been involved in establishing a…
Azer, Samy A.
The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the accuracy and readability of English Wikipedia articles on the respiratory system and its disorders and whether they can be a suitable resource for medical students. On April 27, 2014, English Wikipedia was searched for articles on respiratory topics. Using a modified DISCERN instrument,…
Solomou, Georgia; Pierrakeas, Christos; Kameas, Achilles
The ability to effectively administrate educational resources in terms of accessibility, reusability and interoperability lies in the adoption of an appropriate metadata schema, able of adequately describing them. A considerable number of different educational metadata schemas can be found in literature, with the IEEE LOM being the most widely…
Molyneux, Paul; Godinho, Sally
It is widely acknowledged that multimodal digital texts support student engagement with ideas, knowledge and new forms of literate practice. With this in mind, an interdisciplinary team at The University of Melbourne collaborated to create a digital resource--"The Venom Patrol" website--to teach scientific concepts about Australia's…
Scotchmoor, Judy; Thanukos, Anastasia
The Understanding Evolution website (http://evolution.berkeley.edu/) was developed to provide a freely accessible resource that promotes the teaching of evolution and improved understandings of evolution among students and the general public. Evaluations show that the strategies employed in site design have allowed it to effectively meet those…
Walshaw, Margaret; Duncan, Wayne
Hermeneutics is both a philosophical tradition and a methodological resource. In this qualitative study, hermeneutics provided, simultaneously, a framework and a methodology for understanding empathy in synchronous multimedia conferencing. As a framework for the design of the study, hermeneutics supported the overriding objective to understand the…
Monk, Ellen F.; Lycett, Mark
Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) are very large and complex software packages that run every aspect of an organization. Increasingly, ERP systems are being used in higher education as one way to teach business processes, essential knowledge for students competing in today's business environment. Past research attempting to measure…
Hatzipanagos, Stylianos; Gregson, Jon
The paper explores the role of Open Access (in licensing, publishing and sharing research data) and Open Educational Resources within Distance Education, with a focus on the context of the University of London International Programmes. We report on a case study where data were gathered from librarians and programme directors relating to existing…
Granmo, Ole-Christoffer; Oommen, B John; Myrer, Svein Arild; Olsen, Morten Goodwin
This paper considers the nonlinear fractional knapsack problem and demonstrates how its solution can be effectively applied to two resource allocation problems dealing with the World Wide Web. The novel solution involves a "team" of deterministic learning automata (LA). The first real-life problem relates to resource allocation in web monitoring so as to "optimize" information discovery when the polling capacity is constrained. The disadvantages of the currently reported solutions are explained in this paper. The second problem concerns allocating limited sampling resources in a "real-time" manner with the purpose of estimating multiple binomial proportions. This is the scenario encountered when the user has to evaluate multiple web sites by accessing a limited number of web pages, and the proportions of interest are the fraction of each web site that is successfully validated by an HTML validator. Using the general LA paradigm to tackle both of the real-life problems, the proposed scheme improves a current solution in an online manner through a series of informed guesses that move toward the optimal solution. At the heart of the scheme, a team of deterministic LA performs a controlled random walk on a discretized solution space. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that the discretization resolution determines the precision of the scheme, and that for a given precision, the current solution (to both problems) is consistently improved until a nearly optimal solution is found--even for switching environments. Thus, the scheme, while being novel to the entire field of LA, also efficiently handles a class of resource allocation problems previously not addressed in the literature.
Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado
Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy.
Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado
Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. PMID:24062622
Chilingarian, I.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Le Sidaner, P.
The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) developed numerous interoperability standards during the last several years. Most of them are quite simple to implement from the technical point of view and even contain “SIMPLE” in the title. Does it mean that it is also simple to build a working VO resource using those standards? Yes and no. “Yes” because the standards are indeed simple, and “no” because usually one needs to implement a lot more than it was thought in the beginning of the project so the time management of the team becomes difficult. In our presentation we will start with a basic case of a simple spectral data collection. Then we will describe several examples of “small” technologically advanced VO resources built in CDS and VO-Paris and will show that many standards are hidden from managers' eyes at the initial stage of the project development. The projects will be: (1) the GalMer database providing access to the results of numerical simulations of galaxy interactions; (2) the full spectrum fitting service that allows one to extract internal kinematics and stellar populations from spectra of galaxies available in the VO. We conclude that: (a) with the existing set of IVOA standards one can already build very advanced VO-enabled archives and tools useful for scientists; (b) managers have to be very careful when estimating the project development timelines for VO-enabled resources.
Shea, Peter; Hayes, Suzanne; Smith, Sedef Uzuner; Vickers, Jason; Bidjerano, Temi; Pickett, Alexandra; Gozza-Cohen, Mary; Wilde, Jane; Jian, Shoubang
This paper presents an empirical study grounded in the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson Archer, 2000) and employs quantitative content analysis of student discourse and other artifacts of learning in online courses in an effort to enhance and improve the framework and offer practical implications for online education. As a…
The present mixed-methods quasi-experimental study (embedding a case study and a mixed factorial within-between ANOVA test), conducted in a private English school in Limassol, Cyprus, investigated how the use of the schematic learning aids (researcher-made color-coded flash-cards and grids) influence year-2 children's ability to read, write and…
Dunn, Julie; Stinson, Madonna
For more than 30 years drama has been promoted as a valuable teaching tool for language learning. Recent research results have reinforced this position. However, these and other earlier studies reveal that the overall success of the work is dependent, at least in part, upon the artistry of the teacher and the quality of the pretext materials used…
El Tantawi, Maha M A; Abdelsalam, Maha M; Mourady, Ahmed M; Elrifae, Ismail M B
e-Assessment provides solutions to some problems encountered in dental students' evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of a limited-resources dental school with e-assessment provided through an open-source learning management system (LMS). Data about users' access and types of e-assessment activities at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, were obtained from the web-based LMS Moodle. A questionnaire developed to assess students' perceptions of the e-assessment was also sent to students registered in two courses (undergraduate and postgraduate) with the same instructor. The results showed that most e-courses at the school had one form of e-assessment (82%) and, of these, 16.7% had summative assessment activities. There were significant differences among departments in the number of e-courses with e-assessment. One-quarter of e-courses with e-assessment used Moodle quizzes. Of 285 students registered in the two courses that included the questionnaire, 170 responded (response rate=59.6%). The responding students positively perceived the impact of e-assessment on learning and its reliability and security, whereas technical issues and related stresses were negatively perceived. This study suggests that e-assessment can be used at minimal cost in dental schools with limited resources and large class sizes with the least demands on faculty members and teaching staff time. For these schools, an open-source LMS such as Moodle provides formative e-assessment not available otherwise and accommodates various question formats and varying levels of instructors' technical skills. These students seemed to have a positive impression of the e-assessment although technical problems and related stresses are issues that need to be addressed.
Rahm, Brian G; Riha, Susan J
Unconventional shale gas development promises to significantly alter energy portfolios and economies around the world. It also poses a variety of environmental risks, particularly with respect to the management of water resources. We review current scientific understanding of risks associated with the following: water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing; wastewater treatment, discharge and disposal; methane and fluid migration in the subsurface; and spills and erosion at the surface. Some of these risks are relatively unique to shale gas development, while others are variations of risks that we already face from a variety of industries and activities. All of these risks depend largely on the pace and scale of development that occurs within a particular region. We focus on the United States, where the shale gas boom has been on-going for several years, paying particular attention to the Marcellus Shale, where a majority of peer-reviewed study has taken place. Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, and other stakeholders are challenged with responding to these risks, and we discuss policies and practices that have been adopted or considered by these various groups. Adaptive Management, a structured framework for addressing complex environmental issues, is discussed as a way to reduce polarization of important discussions on risk, and to more formally engage science in policy-making, along with other economic, social and value considerations. Data suggests that some risks can be substantially reduced through policy and best practice, but also that significant uncertainty persists regarding other risks. We suggest that monitoring and data collection related to water resource risks be established as part of planning for shale gas development before activity begins, and that resources are allocated to provide for appropriate oversight at various levels of governance.
McFARLIN, Brian K; Breslin, Whitney L; Carpenter, Katie C; Strohacker, Kelley; Weintraub, Randi J
Today's students have unique learning needs and lack knowledge of core research skills. In this program report, we describe an online approach that we developed to teach core research skills to freshman and sophomore undergraduates. Specifically, we used two undergraduate kinesiology (KIN) courses designed to target students throughout campus (KIN1304: Public Health Issues in Physical Activity and Obesity) and specifically kinesiology majors (KIN1252: Foundations of Kinesiology). Our program was developed and validated at the 2(nd) largest ethnically diverse research university in the United States, thus we believe that it would be effective in a variety of student populations.
Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Gould, Thomas J
Increased training often results in stronger memories but the neural changes responsible for these stronger memories are poorly understood. It is proposed here that higher levels of training that result in stronger memories recruit additional cell signaling cascades. This study specifically examined if c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is involved in the formation of stronger fear conditioning memories. Wildtype (WT), JNK1 heterozygous (Het), and JNK1 knockout (KO) mice were fear conditioned with 1 trial, 2 trials, or 4 trials. All mice learned both contextual (hippocampus-dependent) and cued (hippocampus-independent) fear conditioning but for contextual fear conditioning only, the JNK1 KO mice did not show higher levels of learning with increased trials. That is, WT mice showed a significant linear increase in contextual fear conditioning as training trials increased from 1 to 2 to 4 trials whereas KO mice showed the same level of contextual fear conditioning as WT mice for 1 trial training but did not have increased levels of contextual fear conditioning with additional trials. These data suggest that JNK1 may not be critical for learning but when higher levels of hippocampus-dependent learning occur, JNK1 signaling is recruited and is necessary for stronger hippocampus-dependent memory formation.
Andrés Gilarranz Casado, Carlos; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor
The main goal of this work is enhanced the student`s self-learning in subjects regarding irrigation and its technology. Thus, the use of visual media (video recording) during the lectures (master classes and practicum) will help the students in understanding the scope of the course since they can watch the recorded material at any time and as many times they wish. The study comprised two parts. In the first, lectures were video filmed inside the classroom during one semester (16 weeks and four hours per week) in the course "Irrigation Systems and Technology" which is taught at the Technical University of Madrid. In total, 200 videos, approximated 12 min long, were recorded. Since the You tube platform is a worldwide platform and since it is commonly used by students and professors, the videos were uploaded in it. Then, the URL was inserted in the Moodle platform which contains the materials for the course. In the second part, the videos were edited and formatted. Special care was taking to maintain image and audio quality. Finally, thirty videos were developed which focused on the different main areas of the course and containing a clear and brief explanation of their basis. Each video lasted between 30 and 45 min Finally, a survey was handled at the end of the semester in order to assess the students' opinion about the methodology. In the questionnaire, the students highlighted the key aspects during the learning process and in general, they were very satisfied with the methodology.
Wade, P.; Courtney, A.
Students enrolled in an undergraduate non-science majors’ Energy Perspectives course created 10-15 minute video documentaries on topics related to Energy Resources and the Environment. Video project topics included wave, biodiesel, clean coal, hydro, solar and “off-the-grid” energy technologies. No student had any prior experience with creating video projects. Students had Liberal Arts academic backgrounds that included Anthropology, Theater Arts, International Studies, English and Early Childhood Education. Students were required to: 1) select a topic, 2) conduct research, 3) write a narrative, 4) construct a project storyboard, 5) shoot or acquire video and photos (from legal sources), 6) record the narrative, and 7) construct the video documentary. This study describes the instructional approach of using student created video documentaries as projects in an undergraduate non-science majors’ science course. Two knowledge survey instruments were used for assessment purposes. Each instrument was administered Pre-, Mid- and Post course. One survey focused on the skills necessary to research and produce video documentaries. Results showed students acquired enhanced technology skills especially with regard to research techniques, writing skills and video editing. The second survey assessed students’ content knowledge acquired from each documentary. Results indicated students’ increased their content knowledge of energy resource topics. Students reported very favorable evaluations concerning their experience with creating “Ken Burns” video project documentaries.
Lemieux, Christopher J.; Thompson, Jessica; Slocombe, D. Scott; Schuster, Rudy
It has been argued that regional collaboration can facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts through integrated planning and management. In an attempt to understand the underlying institutional factors that either support or contest this assumption, this paper explores the institutional factors influencing adaptation to climate change at the regional scale, where multiple public land and natural resource management jurisdictions are involved. Insights from two mid-western US case studies reveal that several challenges to collaboration persist and prevent fully integrative multi-jurisdictional adaptation planning at a regional scale. We propose that some of these challenges, such as lack of adequate time, funding and communication channels, be reframed as opportunities to build interdependence, identify issue-linkages and collaboratively explore the nature and extent of organisational trade-offs with respect to regional climate change adaptation efforts. Such a reframing can better facilitate multi-jurisdictional adaptation planning and management of shared biophysical resources generally while simultaneously enhancing organisational capacity to mitigate negative effects and take advantage of potentially favourable future conditions in an era characterised by rapid climate change.
Gupta, Neeru; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R
Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of occupational distribution and
Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M
Objective To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Methods Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. Results This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40–50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30–39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10–29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). Conclusions The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they
van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R
Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory (VWM) tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension (shape, color, or location) and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension (the change probability effect). Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location changes, and intentional strategies did not improve the effect. Furthermore, the change probability effect developed and adapted to new probability information quickly. Finally, in some conditions, an improvement in change detection performance for a probable change led to an impairment in change detection for improbable changes.
Selby, Richard W.; Porter, Adam A.
A general solution method for the automatic generation of decision (or classification) trees is investigated. The approach is to provide insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for software resource data analysis. The trees identify classes of objects (software modules) that had high development effort. Sixteen software systems ranging from 3,000 to 112,000 source lines were selected for analysis from a NASA production environment. The collection and analysis of 74 attributes (or metrics), for over 4,700 objects, captured information about the development effort, faults, changes, design style, and implementation style. A total of 9,600 decision trees were automatically generated and evaluated. The trees correctly identified 79.3 percent of the software modules that had high development effort or faults, and the trees generated from the best parameter combinations correctly identified 88.4 percent of the modules on the average.