Science.gov

Sample records for additional lifestyle support

  1. Changing Group and Organizational Cultures To Support Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Group and organizational cultures play an important role in helping people to adopt healthier lifestyles. Culture can be assessed by looking at social expectations for behavior, called group norms. Cultural norms can be changed to support healthy lifestyles through a systematic and participatory process. Such a change effort would modify: (1)…

  2. Facilitating Partner Support for Lifestyle Change Among Adults with Serious Mental Illness: A Feasibility Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Mueser, Kim T; Naslund, John A; Gorin, Amy A; Zawacki, Stacey A; Pratt, Sarah I; Kinney, Allison; Bartels, Stephen

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of an intervention designed to facilitate partner support for lifestyle change among overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness (SMI). Fifteen adults with SMI enrolled in a lifestyle intervention at community mental health centers participated with a self-selected partner in an additional 12-week intervention component designed to facilitate social support for health behavior change. Participants reported that the program was useful, convenient, and helped them reach their goals. Approximately two-thirds (66%) of participants were below their baseline weight at follow-up, including 27% achieving clinically significant weight loss. Participants reported significant increases in partner support for exercise and use of persuasive social support strategies. Partner support interventions that promote exercising together and positive communication may be effective for helping individuals with SMI initiate and sustain health behavior change necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  3. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  4. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.

  5. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  6. Technology-supported dietary and lifestyle interventions in healthy pregnant women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, O A; McCarthy, M; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the actuality of delivering effective lifestyle interventions in clinical practice is hampered by a high demand for resources. The use of technology to assist lifestyle interventions needs to be explored as a valid method of reducing strain on resources, and enhancing the effectiveness and population reach of interventions. The aim was to systematically review the literature on the use of technology-supported lifestyle interventions for healthy pregnant women and their impact on maternal outcomes. Online databases and registries were searched in March 2013. Primary outcomes of selected English language studies were fasting maternal glucose, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes were intervention uptake and acceptance, and dietary or physical activity modification. Studies whose subjects were diagnosed with GDM prior to intervention were excluded. The minimal number of eligible studies and varying outcomes precluded formal meta-analysis of the data. Initially, 203 articles were identified and screened. Seven articles, including five randomised controlled trials, met inclusion criteria for the current review. Results demonstrate several potential benefits associated with technology-supported interventions in pregnancy, despite minimal search results. Although communication technology holds potential as a safe therapeutic tool for the support of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy, there is a paucity of data on its effectiveness. Further RCTs examining the effectiveness of communication technology are required, particularly among those most likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions, such as overweight and obese pregnant women.

  7. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  8. Internet Interventions to Support Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cotterez, Alex; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-hour means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Results Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Conclusion Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. PMID:24332469

  9. Sustainable Lifestyle Change—Participatory Design of Support Together with Persons with Obesity in the Third Age

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund Axelsson, Sarianne; Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa; Melander Wikman, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons’ needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in designing support for a sustainable lifestyle change. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with persons aged 61–72 living in Northern Sweden. A participatory and appreciative reflection and action (PAAR) approach was used in the group-sessions. Probes were used to increase reflections and achieve a deeper knowledge about the participants’ needs of support. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Our findings revealed that to be able to succeed with a lifestyle change a focus has to be on a converted way of thinking, managing vulnerability, and achieving an emotional balance. To achieve a sustainable lifestyle change due to obesity in the third age the focus has to be on a health identity instead of a weight identity. Personalised support with enjoyable physical activities should be designed and developed. Strategies for emotional balance based on autonomy and self-empowerment must be included. This knowledge is important when designing support for sustainable change. PMID:27999272

  10. Sustainable Lifestyle Change-Participatory Design of Support Together with Persons with Obesity in the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Wiklund Axelsson, Sarianne; Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa; Melander Wikman, Anita

    2016-12-16

    Sustainable lifestyle changes due to obesity are difficult to achieve regardless methods used. We need to know more about the lived experience of obesity and older persons' needs for support to make a sustainable change. This paper focuses on the need-finding process in designing support for a sustainable lifestyle change. Multistage focus group interviews were conducted with persons aged 61-72 living in Northern Sweden. A participatory and appreciative reflection and action (PAAR) approach was used in the group-sessions. Probes were used to increase reflections and achieve a deeper knowledge about the participants' needs of support. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Our findings revealed that to be able to succeed with a lifestyle change a focus has to be on a converted way of thinking, managing vulnerability, and achieving an emotional balance. To achieve a sustainable lifestyle change due to obesity in the third age the focus has to be on a health identity instead of a weight identity. Personalised support with enjoyable physical activities should be designed and developed. Strategies for emotional balance based on autonomy and self-empowerment must be included. This knowledge is important when designing support for sustainable change.

  11. The Effect of Health Promoting Intervention on Healthy Lifestyle and Social Support in Elders: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Davoud; Eftekhar Ardebili, Hasan; Shojaeizadeh, Dvoud; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the problems pertaining to old age originate from unhealthy lifestyle and low social support. Overcoming these problems requires precise and proper policy-making and planning. Objectives: The aim of the current research is to investigate the effect of health promoting interventions on healthy lifestyle and social support in elders. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial lasting for 12 months on 464 elders aged above 60 years who were under the aegis of health homes in Tehran, Iran. Participants were selected through double stage cluster sampling and then divided into intervention and control groups (232 individuals in each). Tools for gathering data were a demographic checklist and two standard questionnaires called Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile version 2 and personal resource questionnaire part 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including paired t test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of elders in this study was 65.9 ± 3.6 years (ranging between 60 and 73 years old). Results showed that the differences between the mean post-test scores of healthy lifestyle and its six dimensions as well as perceived social support and its five dimensions in the control and intervention groups were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Aging is an inevitable stage of life. However, effective health promoting interventions can procrastinate it, reduce its consequences and problems, and turn it into a pleasant and enjoyable part of life. PMID:25389486

  12. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  13. Additional benefit of yoga to standard lifestyle modification on blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity. Considering the growing evidence of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of high BP, we designed a randomized, parallel active-controlled study on the effect of yoga and standard lifestyle modification (LSM) on BP and heart rate in individuals with prehypertension (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg). Volunteers (20-60 years) of both genders without any known cardiovascular disease were randomized into either LSM group (n = 92) or LSM+yoga group (n = 92). Before the intervention, age, waist circumference, physical activity, BP and fasting plasma glucose and lipids were comparable between the groups. After 12 weeks of intervention, we observed a significant reduction in the BP and heart rate in both the groups. Further, the reduction in systolic BP was significantly more in LSM+yoga group (6 mm Hg) as compared with LSM group (4 mm Hg). In addition, 13 prehypertensives became normotensives in LSM+yoga group and four in LSM group. The results indicate efficacy of nonpharmacological intervention and the additional benefit of yoga to standard LSM. Further research in this field may add to the level of evidence on the benefit of yoga, in the reduction of BP in high BP subjects, in the scientific literature.

  14. 'This is a forever project': supporting lifestyle changes in a regional Queensland community-based cardiac rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation programs throughout the world have struggled for several years to attract more participants and facilitate behaviour changes in these clients. Over the past few years, there has been an increased level of attention in the role that self-efficacy and social support may play in this respect. The main aim of this study was to explore self-efficacy and social support within a regional, community-based cardiac rehabilitation program that does not adhere to traditional cardiac rehabilitation structures. Twelve participants were interviewed and two major themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the interview transcripts: making personal lifestyle changes; and supportive environment for lifestyle changes. Although this study is exploratory in nature, it has highlighted the significance of social support from within a program as opposed to participants' friends and family, the subject of most social-support research. It also contributes to the challenges others are starting to make regarding the limited timeframes associated with traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs, suggesting more time may be needed to build firmer psychosocial foundations for behaviour change after cardiac events.

  15. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  16. Online healthy lifestyle support in the perinatal period: what do women want and do they use it?

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Miller, Margaret; Fletcher, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy weight gain and retention during pregnancy and postpartum is detrimental to mother and child. Although various barriers limit the capacity for perinatal health care providers (PHCPs) to offer healthy lifestyle counselling, they could guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents a project designed to provide online information to promote healthy lifestyles in the perinatal period. Focus groups or interviews were held with 116 perinatal women and 76 PHCPs to determine what online information perinatal women and PHCPs want, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The results indicated that women wanted smartphone applications (apps) linked to trustworthy websites containing short answers to everyday concerns; information on local support services; and personalised tools to assess their nutrition, fitness and weight. Suggestions for improvement in these lifestyle areas should be practical and tailored to the developmental stage of their child. PHCPs wanted evidence-based, practical information, presented in a simple, engaging, interactive form. The outcome was a clinically endorsed website and app that health professionals could recommend. Preliminary evaluation showed that 10.5% of pregnant women in Western Australia signed up to the app. Use of the app appeared to be equitable across urban and rural areas of low to middle socioeconomic status.

  17. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  18. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  19. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  1. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability.

  2. Meeting the needs? Perceived support of a nurse-led lifestyle programme for young adults with mental illness in a primary health-care setting.

    PubMed

    Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David; Enmarker, Ingela; Audulv, Åsa

    2017-04-04

    Being a young adult with mental illness challenges all aspects of health, including an increased risk for developing lifestyle-related diseases. There is a lack of lifestyle programmes in primary health care that target physical, mental, and social needs for young adults with mental illness. The aim of the present study was to describe the experiences of young adults with mental illness receiving support from a nurse-led lifestyle programme, and how this support was related to their life context, including challenges and coping strategies. Two focus groups and six individual interviews were performed with 13 young adults (16-25 years), and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. The findings showed that the young adults experienced challenges in their daily lives, including psychiatric symptoms, lack of social understanding, and loneliness. The study indicated that the programme could support lifestyle habits with its components of supportive interpersonal relationships, awareness of coping strategies, understanding of health and illness, and cognitive support (e.g. schedules and reminders). However, the programme could not meet everyone's needs for new social relationships or more comprehensive support. Even so, this nurse-led programme provides health information-management strategies that could easily be integrated in a primary health-care setting.

  3. Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the

  4. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs.

  5. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  6. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Smith, Tosha W; McGuirt, Jared T; Evenson, Kelly R; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-04-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health

  7. Defense Support of Civil Authorities: DOD Mission or Additional Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-14

    Illustrations iv Biography v Introduction 1 Background 2 DSCA Execution 7 DSCA Shortfalls...12 Recommendations 16 Conclusion 19 Bibliography 21 Illustrations Page Figure 1 . Map of 10 FEMA Regions...the United Kingdom …” 1 More than 72,000 uniformed military members deployed in support of the Katrina response to save lives, mitigate human

  8. Lifestyle Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Sep 16,2016 Sounds simple doesn' ... loved ones look to maintain health and wellness. Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  9. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes with the Support of a Lay Health Advisor: Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Health Trainer Services in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Visram, Shelina; Clarke, Charlotte; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. Participants 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. Setting Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. Results The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff). Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally ‘person-centred’ in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. Conclusions Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact on health

  10. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  11. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  12. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  13. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  16. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  17. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  18. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  19. Pedagogical Professional Self-Determination Support for Students under Conditions of Additional Education Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairutdinova, Rezeda R.; Fedorova, Yuliya A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance of the problem stated in the article is stipulated by the fact that professional self-determination of students at the stage of professional education needs pedagogical support; using resources of additional education program will let the individual make smart choices about future professional sphere. Object of the article is to work…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  1. Reflections on Canadian Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Lifestyle is defined in terms of a culture's view of five basic human dilemmas. A comparison of the Canadian and Rwandese cultures suggests that our lifestyle pattern has generated many of our present physical and mental health problems.

  2. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  3. Analysis of Additional CFT Support at Z=0 for the Silicon Half Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; Lee, A.; /Fermilab

    2000-03-20

    The D-Zero silicon trough is segmented into two half troughs. Loading to the Central Fiber Tracker Barrel 1 is at both ends and near Z = 0. The loading near Z = 0 is thought to be 4 lbs at 4 points. The point locations are at +/-45 degrees for each half trough on each side of Z = O. An additional support at Z = O is required to prevent beam sag and out of round distortions to the CFT Barrel 1. An additional joining washer will be attached between barrels 1 and 2 at Z = 0. Also a support ring will be attached to the inner diameter of barrel 1 to further help in out of round distortions. Details of the washer and loading are modeled using ANSYS.

  4. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  5. The role of lifestyle change for prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Staimez, Lisa R; Weber, Mary Beth; Gregg, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is disproportionately greater in those with diabetes than in the general population, including higher rates of hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction, and mortality. Health-promoting lifestyle factors reduce both diabetes and CVD in healthy individuals; however, the efficacy of these strategies for CVD reduction in people with preexisting diabetes is unclear. In this review, we describe the most recent evidence (2013-2014) surrounding the effects of lifestyle changes on CVD outcomes in those with diabetes, and we contextualize the evidence against a backdrop of earlier key findings. Two major randomized controlled trials were identified, providing opposing conclusions about the role of lifestyle factors on CVD events in those with diabetes. Other recent prospective observational analyses support associations of physical activity and reduced CVD risk in diabetes. Limitations across studies include the use of self-report for measurement of lifestyle or lifestyle change, the length of follow-up needed to measure CVD outcomes, and the role of participants' medications on associations of lifestyle factors and CVD outcomes. Equivocal findings from the two randomized controlled trials support the need for additional research to identify the specific lifestyle factors that reduce CVD mortality and macrovascular complications in populations with diabetes.

  6. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  7. Making the Connection--Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence Supported and Non-Evaluated Lifestyle Interventions in Healthcare: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Irene; Heinen, Maud; Geense, Wytske; Mesters, Ilse; Wensing, Michel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Many implementation barriers relate to lifestyle interventions (LIs) being developed by scientists. Exploring whether implementation of non-evaluated LIs is less complicated, might offer insight how to improve the use of effective interventions. This study aimed to identify influencing factors for implementation and compare factors between…

  8. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  9. Association between Social Network Characteristics and Lifestyle Behaviours in Adults at Risk of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Sandra D.; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Nijpels, Giel; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this exploratory study we examined the associations between several social network characteristics and lifestyle behaviours in adults at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we explored whether similarities in lifestyle between individuals and their network members, or the level of social support perceived by these individuals, could explain these associations. Methods From the control group of the Hoorn Prevention Study, participants with high and low educational attainment were approached for a structured interview between April and August 2010. Inclusion was stopped when fifty adults agreed to participate. Participants and a selection of their network members (e.g. spouses, best friends, neighbours, colleagues) completed a questionnaire on healthy lifestyle that included questions on fruit and vegetable intake, daily physical activity and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. We first examined associations between network characteristics and lifestyle using regression analyses. Second, we assessed associations between network characteristics and social support, social support and lifestyle, and compared the participants’ lifestyles to those of their network members using concordance correlation coefficients. Results Fifty adults (50/83 x 100 = 62% response) and 170 of their network members (170/192 x 100 = 89% response) participated in the study. Individuals with more close-knit relationships, more friends who live nearby, and a larger and denser network showed higher levels of vegetable consumption and physical activity, and lower levels of sedentary behaviour. Perceived social norms or perceived support for behavioural change were not related to healthy lifestyle. Except for spousal concordance for vegetable intake, the lifestyle of individuals and their network members were not alike. Conclusions Study results suggest that adults with a larger and denser social network have a healthier lifestyle. Underlying

  10. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  11. Effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle support on the development of diabetes in participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes: J-DOIT1, a pragmatic cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sano, Yoshiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Okazaki, Kentaro; Sato, Juichi; Suzuki, Sadao; Morita, Satoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Izumi, Kazuo; Kato, Masayuki; Ishizuka, Naoki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle coaching on preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting 40 groups from 17 healthcare divisions in Japan: companies (31), communities (6) and mixed settings (3). Participants Participants aged 20–65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were invited from the 17 healthcare divisions. Randomisation The groups were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control arm by independent statisticians according to a computer-generated list. Intervention The intervention arm received a 1-year telephone-delivered intervention provided by three private lifestyle support centres (at different frequencies: low-frequency (3 times), middle-frequency (6 times) and high-frequency (10 times) support calls). The intervention and control arms both received self-help devices such as a weight scale and pedometer. Outcomes Participants were followed up using data from annual health check-ups and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome was the development of T2DM defined as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, the diagnosis of diabetes, or use of an antidiabetic drug, confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Of 14 473 screened individuals, participants were enrolled in either the intervention (n=1240) arm or control (n=1367) arm. Overall, the HR for the development of T2DM in the intervention arm during 5.5 years was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). In the subanalysis, the HR was 0.59 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) in the subgroup that received phone calls the most frequently, compared with the control arm. A limitation of the study includes a lack of blinding. Conclusions High-frequency telephone-delivered lifestyle support could effectively prevent T2DM in participants with IFG in a primary healthcare setting, although low-frequency and middle-frequency phone calls did not. Trial

  12. Progress Towards Metal Additive Manufacturing Standardization to Support Qualification and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Gorelik, Michael; Waller, Jess; Hrabe, Nik; Shamsaei, Nima; Daniewicz, Steve; Lewandowski, John J.

    2017-03-01

    As the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry moves towards industrial production, the need for qualification standards covering all aspects of the technology becomes ever more prevalent. While some standards and specifications for documenting the various aspects of AM processes and materials exist and continue to evolve, many such standards still need to be matured or are under consideration/development within standards development organizations. An important subset of this evolving the standardization domain has to do with critical property measurements for AM materials. While such measurement procedures are well documented, with various legacy standards for conventional metallic material forms such as cast or wrought structural alloys, many fewer standards are currently available to enable systematic evaluation of those properties in AM-processed metallic materials. This is due in part to the current lack of AM-specific standards and specifications for AM materials and processes, which are a logical precursor to the material characterization standards for any material system. This paper summarizes some of the important standardization activities, as well as limitations associated with using currently available standards for metal AM with a focus on measuring mission-critical properties. Technical considerations in support of future standards development, as well as a pathway for qualification/certification of AM parts enabled by the appropriate standardization landscape, are discussed.

  13. Effect of halide and acid additives on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide using supported gold-palladium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ntainjua N, Edwin; Piccinini, Marco; Pritchard, James C; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Moulijn, Jacob A; Hutchings, Graham J

    2009-01-01

    The effect of halide and acid addition on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide is studied for magnesium oxide- and carbon-supported bimetallic gold-palladium catalysts. The addition of acids decreases the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, and the effect is particularly pronounced for the magnesium oxide-supported catalysts whilst for carbon-supported catalysts the pH requires close control to optimize hydrogen peroxide synthesis. The addition of bromide leads to a marked decrease in the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with either catalyst. These effects are discussed in terms of the structure of the gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles and the isoelectric point of the support. We conclude that with the highly active carbon-supported gold-palladium catalysts these additives are not required and that therefore this system presents the potential for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide to be operated using green process technology.

  14. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts.

  15. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  16. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  17. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  18. How Good Are We at Implementing the Additional Support for Learning Act? How Good Can We Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…

  19. [Circadian clocks and lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the disturbance of circadian rhythm and the development of lifestyle-related diseases. First, epidemiological studies showed that rotating shift workers are more likely to develop obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancers than day shift employees. In addition, mice with their circadian rhythm chronically impaired by alteration of the light-dark cycle also develop such diseases. Furthermore, both the genotypes and genetic modifications of the clock genes are associated with the development of lifestyle-related diseases in humans and mice, respectively. Finally, circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are impaired in both patients with type 2 diabetes and obese diabetic mice, probably not due to metabolic abnormalities, but to the lifestyle, aging, and/or genetic factors. Thus, disturbance of the circadian rhythm is an important cause of lifestyle-related diseases, and therefore the circadian clocks are attractive therapeutic targets for preventing and treating these conditions.

  20. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  1. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  2. Effectiveness of a mHealth Lifestyle Program With Telephone Support (TXT2BFiT) to Prevent Unhealthy Weight Gain in Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Hebden, Lana; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight gained in young adulthood often persists throughout later life with associated chronic disease risk. Despite this, current population prevention strategies are not specifically designed for young adults. Objective We designed and assessed the efficacy of an mHealth prevention program, TXT2BFiT, in preventing excess weight gain and improving dietary and physical activity behaviors in young adults at increased risk of obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Methods A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects and analyzing researchers were blinded. A total of 250 18- to 35-year-olds with a high risk of weight gain, a body mass index (BMI) of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 with at least 2 kg of weight gain in the previous 12 months, or a BMI of 25.0 to 31.9 kg/m2 were randomized to the intervention or control group. In the 12-week intervention period, the intervention group received 8 text messages weekly based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, 1 email weekly, 5 personalized coaching calls, a diet booklet, and access to resources and mobile phone apps on a website. Control group participants received only 4 text messages and printed dietary and physical activity guidelines. Measured body weight and height were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed via online surveys at baseline and at 12 weeks, including self-reported weight and dietary and physical activity measures. Results A total of 214 participants—110 intervention and 104 control—completed the 12-week intervention period. A total of 10 participants out of 250 (4.0%)—10 intervention and 0 control—dropped out, and 26 participants (10.4%)—5 intervention and 21 control—did not complete postintervention online surveys. Adherence to coaching calls and delivery of text messages was over 90%. At 12 weeks, the intervention group were 2.2 kg (95% CI 0.8-3.6) lighter than controls (P=.005). Intervention participants consumed more

  3. U.S. Support for UN Peacekeeping: Areas for Additional DOD Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Operation Centers (JOCs) and Joint Military Analysis Cells ( JMACs ) as well as procedures for crisis response for missions have been established. The...coordination and use of IT capacities in the field, particularly in support of JOC/ JMAC .95 It also needs a better public information capacity in the UN HQ and

  4. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  5. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  6. The Role of Lifestyle in Preventing Low Birth Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between lifestyle choices and low birth weights and the opportunity that pregnancy offers women for adopting more healthful lifestyle behaviors. It reviews the literature that focuses on the roles of drug use, nutrition, stress, physical activity, employment, social support, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases in…

  7. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  8. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  9. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  10. Lifestyle Discussions During Doctor-Older Patient Interactions: The Role of Time in the Medical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Peck, B. Mitchell; Browning, Colette; Forjuoh, Samuel N.

    2007-01-01

    Context Although physician influence can be especially powerful with older adults, relatively little is known about how primary care physicians (PCPs) interact with their patients regarding lifestyle issues. Objective To document the length of time that PCPs discuss lifestyle issues with their older patients and to examine patient, physician, and contextual correlates. Design Descriptive and multivariate analysis of videotapes of physician-patient encounters. Setting Medical encounters from 3 primary care ambulatory settings. Patients There were 116 ongoing medical encounters with patients aged 65 years or older. Main outcome measures Total time spent in physical activity (PA) discussions and total time spent discussing PA, nutrition, and smoking during the medical encounter. Results Very little time was spent in lifestyle discussions. On average, PA was discussed for less than a minute (58.28 seconds) and nutrition for slightly less than 90 seconds (83.11 seconds). Only about 10% of the average 17-minute, 22-second encounter was spent on physical activity, nutrition, or smoking topics. Physician supportiveness score (beta = 8.92, P ≤ .001) and the number of topics discussed (beta = 106.39, P ≤ .001) were significantly correlated with the length of all lifestyle discussion. Lifestyle discussions were also more likely to occur during longer visits. Conclusion There is a critical need for additional training of primary care providers on how to discuss lifestyle issues in the most time-efficient but effective manner to achieve positive behavior change associated with improved health outcomes. There is also a need for the institutionalization of policies to encourage more lifestyle discussions. PMID:18311398

  11. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  12. Additivity of abrupt onset effects supports nonspatial distraction, not the capture of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2009-02-01

    In a recent article, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) reported that abruptly onsetting distractors produce costs in performance even when spatial-cuing effects confirm the presence of a top-down set for color. The authors argued that these results show that abruptly onsetting new objects capture attention independent of a top-down set and, thus, provide conclusive evidence against the theory that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attentional control settings (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). In the following article, we argue that, contrary to the conclusion drawn by Schreij et al., their own data (1) disconfirm the claim that their abrupt onsets captured spatial attention and (2) are consistent with nonspatial interference accounts of singleton-distractor effects. In support of the nonspatial account, we show that in a paradigm similar to Schreij et al.'s, distractors that do not capture attention can nonetheless influence responses to a target. We conclude that the results of Schreij et al. do not represent a challenge to contingent capture theory.

  13. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  14. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke.

  15. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    PubMed

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  16. Conversion of syngas to light olefins over silicalite-1 supported iron and cobalt catalysts: Effects of manganese addition

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.; Ravichandran, G.; Chakrabarty, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    As the demand for light (C2-C4) olefins, an important raw materials for a number of chemical industries, is ever increasing considerable attention is now being paid to the design of suitable catalysts with high selectivity for small chain olefins. Although Fischer-Tropsch synthesis yields a wide spectrum of products from methane to waxes it is possible to restrict the chain growth to a few carbon atoms by containing the active metal panicles inside the small pores of a suitable support like zeolite. The nature of the zeolite support also has a strong influence on the product selectivity due to secondary reactions. This paper discusses the results of syngas conversion to light olefins over iron and cobalt catalysts supported on silicalite-1. Effect of the addition of manganese which is known to improve the selectivity to light olefins is also discussed.

  17. [Lifestyle and climate change].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2009-10-26

    The majority of physicians are aware of the urgency of preventing major global warming, and of the global health consequences such warming could bring. Therefore, we should perhaps be more motivated to mitigate these climate changes. The Danish Medical Association should stress the importance of preventing major global climate health disasters, and the need for ambitious international reduction agreements. In our advice and treatment of patients, focus could be on mutually shared strategies comprising mitigation of global warming and changing of life-style habits to improve our general health.

  18. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  19. Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in modification of graphene supported on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.

  20. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here.

  1. Regulating alternative lifestyles in entomopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason M; Kontnik, Renee; Clardy, Jon

    2010-01-12

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus participate in a trilateral symbiosis in which they enable their nematode hosts to parasitize insect larvae. The bacteria switch from persisting peacefully in a nematode's digestive tract to a lifestyle in which pathways to produce insecticidal toxins, degrading enzymes to digest the insect for consumption, and antibiotics to ward off bacterial and fungal competitors are activated. This study addresses three questions: (1) What molecular signal triggers antibiotic production in the bacteria? (2) What small molecules are regulated by the signal? And (3), how do the bacteria recognize the signal? Differential metabolomic profiling in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and Xenorhabdus nematophila revealed that L-proline in the insect's hemolymph initiates a metabolic shift. Small molecules known to be crucial for virulence and antibiosis in addition to previously unknown metabolites are dramatically upregulated by L-proline, linking the recognition of host environment to bacterial metabolic regulation. To identify the L-proline-induced signaling pathway, we deleted the proline transporters putP and proU in P. luminescens TT01. Studies of these strains support a model in which acquisition of L-proline both regulates the metabolic shift and maintains the bacterial proton motive force that ultimately regulates the downstream bacterial pathways affecting virulence and antibiotic production.

  2. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2016-11-29

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones' chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person.

  3. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R.; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones’ chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person. PMID:27849584

  4. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's…

  5. Lifestyle intervention to prevent obesity during pregnancy: Implications and recommendations for research and implementation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-09-28

    Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system.

  6. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  7. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  8. Freshwater bacterial lifestyles inferred from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Joshua A; Emrich, Scott J; Tan, John; Jones, Stuart E

    2014-03-01

    While micro-organisms actively mediate and participate in freshwater ecosystem services, we know little about freshwater microbial genetic diversity. Genome sequences are available for many bacteria from the human microbiome and the ocean (over 800 and 200, respectively), but only two freshwater genomes are currently available: the streamlined genomes of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp. asymbioticus and the Actinobacterium AcI-B1. Here, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of eight phylogentically diverse freshwater bacteria exhibiting a range of lifestyle characteristics. Comparative genomics of these bacteria reveals putative freshwater bacterial lifestyles based on differences in predicted growth rate, capability to respond to environmental stimuli and diversity of useable carbon substrates. Our conceptual model based on these genomic characteristics provides a foundation on which further ecophysiological and genomic studies can be built. In addition, these genomes greatly expand the diversity of existing genomic context for future studies on the ecology and genetics of freshwater bacteria.

  9. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  10. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:Mar 14,2017 Following recommendations about diet, exercise and ... liquid you get. Many people are prescribed diuretics (water pills) to help them get rid of extra ...

  11. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  12. Project lifestyle: developing positive health lifestyles for schoolchildren in Antigua.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D P

    1992-12-01

    Countries of the English-speaking Caribbean are in epidemiological transition. Following 30 years of socioeconomic change, obesity and chronic diseases have almost replaced malnutrition and infectious diseases as major health problems. Major risk factors for this modern epidemic are lifestyle-related. Project Lifestyle seeks to develop positive health lifestyles in schoolchildren gradually, sequentially, and systematically from grades 1-12 and throughout the school system on the island of Antigua. The four health habits addressed include weighing right, eating right, doing daily physical exercise, and having a positive self-concept. Since risk interventions with schoolchildren have produced positive results in several developed countries, this project developed an intervention methodology in the Caribbean context.

  13. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  14. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  15. Energy use and changing lifestyles

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Bartlett, S.; Hawk, D.; Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    A detailed investigation of energy use in the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors of the US and certain European countries (including Germany and Sweden) shows that there is an important parameter that we call lifestyle that is not captured in the exogenous variables commonly used in electric utility forecasting. A retrospective examination shows that lifestyle has been of subordinate importance to the income-linked trend of increasing ownership of the major energy and electricity-using hard goods and dwellings for at least three decades. The recent saturation of the residential and commercial markets for the dominant energy-using technologies has allowed variations in the utilization of this infrastructure to emerge as a significant input to market demand. With saturation of primary technologies, and relative stability in energy prices, the distinct activity patterns that result from various lifestyles are likely to influence demand for electricity and other energy forms, as well as participation in demand side management programs and other utility sponsored programs. Utilities should attempt to quantify the implications of utilization patterns and changes in lifestyle by various methods including business intelligence and adding questions to their routine market surveys and energy audits. Where possible the results should be incorporated into utility forecasting models. Suggestions are made for areas to watch including lifestyles of the elderly, use of the home as a workplace, household size, employment of women, use of the service sector, and segmentation of the transportation market.

  16. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  17. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-05-30

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.

  18. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with miRNA expression in colorectal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L; Herrick, Jennifer S; Mullany, Lila E; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Diet and lifestyle factors have been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of miRNA expression. In this study it was hypothesized that diet and lifestyle factors are associated with miRNA expression. Data from 1,447 cases of colorectal cancer to evaluate 34 diet and lifestyle variables using miRNA expression in normal colorectal mucosa as well as for differential expression between paired carcinoma and normal tissue were used. miRNA data were obtained using an Agilent platform. Multiple comparisons were adjusted for using the false discovery rate q-value. There were 250 miRNAs differentially expressed between carcinoma and normal colonic tissue by level of carbohydrate intake and 198 miRNAs differentially expressed by the level of sucrose intake. Of these miRNAs, 166 miRNAs were differentially expressed for both carbohydrate intake and sucrose intake. Ninety-nine miRNAs were differentially expressed by the level of whole grain intake in normal colonic mucosa. Level of oxidative balance score was associated with 137 differentially expressed miRNAs between carcinoma and paired normal rectal mucosa. Additionally, 135 miRNAs were differentially expressed in colon tissue based on recent NSAID use. Other dietary factors, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and long-term physical activity levels did not alter miRNA expression after adjustment for multiple comparisons. These results suggest that diet and lifestyle factors regulate miRNA level. They provide additional support for the influence of carbohydrate, sucrose, whole grains, NSAIDs, and oxidative balance score on colorectal cancer risk. PMID:28053552

  19. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  20. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  1. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  2. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  3. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  4. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  5. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  6. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  7. Dihydrogen addition in a dinuclear rare-earth metal hydride complex supported by a metalated TREN ligand.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Ajay; Fegler, Waldemar; Spaniol, Thomas P; Maron, Laurent; Okuda, Jun

    2011-11-09

    The dinuclear lutetium dihydride dication supported by metalated tripodal ligands undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H(2) to form a trihydride dication. Molecular orbital analysis shows that the LUMO is a bonding Lu···Lu orbital that is poised to activate dihydrogen.

  8. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  9. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  10. Do working mothers raise couch potato kids? Maternal employment and children's lifestyle behaviours and weight in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith E; Broom, Dorothy H; Nicholson, Jan M; Bittman, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. More distal predictors such as maternal employment may also be implicated since working mothers have less time to supervise children's daily activities. The research reported here used two waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to investigate whether mothers' hours in paid work shape young children's television viewing, snacking and physical activity, and through those lifestyle behaviours, children's weight at ages 4-5 years and 6-7 years. At both ages, children's lifestyle behaviours were interrelated and associated with weight status. Cross-sectional analysis confirmed small, direct associations between longer hours of maternal employment and child weight at age 4-5 years, but not with child's weight measured two years later. In both the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, the children of mothers who worked part-time watched less television and were less likely to be overweight than children of mothers who were not employed or who worked full-time. While associations were small, they remained significant after adjustment for maternal weight, household income and other factors. The combination of direct and indirect relationships between mothers' work hours and the weight status of their young children provides additional support to calls for family-friendly work policies as an important means for promoting healthy family lifestyles and early childhood wellbeing.

  11. The Associations Among Individual Factors, eHealth Literacy, and Health-Promoting Lifestyles Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background eHealth literacy is gaining importance for maintaining and promoting health. Studies have found that individuals with high eHealth literacy are more likely to adopt healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. In addition, previous studies have shown that various individual factors (eg, frequency of seeking information on health issues, degree of health concern, frequency of eating organic food, and students’ college major) are associated with eHealth literacy and health-promoting lifestyles. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles among college students. Moreover, there is a lack of studies that focus on eHealth literacy as a predictor of psychological health behaviors. Objective To examine the associations among various individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Methods The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. The Health-promoting Lifestyle Scale is a 23-item instrument developed to measure college students’ self-actualization, health responsibility, interpersonal support, exercise, nutrition, and stress management. A nationally representative sample of 556 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to gather the respondents’ background information, including the frequency of seeking information on health issues, the frequency of eating organic food, the degree of health concern, and the students’ major. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Results The study found that factors such as medical majors (t550=2.47-7.55, P<.05) and greater concern with health (t550=2.15-9.01, P<.05) predicted college students’ 4-6 health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and the 3 dimensions

  12. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Medication or Lifestyle Changes for Pre-diabetes Updated:Aug 30,2016 What’s best? Medication or lifestyle changes? Most people at the pre- ...

  13. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Derry, Molly M; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; approximately 20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that could influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  14. Identifying Molecular Targets of Lifestyle Modifications in Colon Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Molly M.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; approximately 20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that could influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals. PMID:23675573

  15. Role of Additives in Composite PEI/Oxide CO₂ Adsorbents: Enhancement in the Amine Efficiency of Supported PEI by PEG in CO₂ Capture from Simulated Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Tan, Shuai; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-11-11

    Supported amines are promising candidate adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from flue gases and directly from ambient air. The incorporation of additives into polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides is an effective strategy to improve the performance of the materials. Here, several practical aspects of this strategy are addressed with regards to direct air capture. The influence of three additives (CTAB, PEG200, PEG1000) was systematically explored under dry simulated air capture conditions (400 ppm of CO2, 30 °C). With SBA-15 as a model support for poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), the nature of the additive induced heterogeneities in the deposition of organic on the interior and exterior of the particles, an important consideration for future scale up to practical systems. The PEG200 additive increased the observed thermodynamic performance (∼60% increase in amine efficiency) of the adsorbents regardless of the PEI content, while the other molecules had less positive effects. A threshold PEG200/PEI value was identified at which the diffusional limitations of CO2 within the materials were nearly eliminated. The threshold PEG/PEI ratio may have physical origin in the interactions between PEI and PEG, as the optimal ratio corresponded to nearly equimolar OH/reactive (1°, 2°) amine ratios. The strategy is shown to be robust to the characteristics of the host support, as PEG200 improved the amine efficiency of PEI when supported on two varieties of mesoporous γ-alumina with PEI.

  16. New supported beta-amino alcohols as efficient catalysts for the enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Burguete, M Isabel; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Vicent, María J; Luis, Santiago V; Pennemann, Helmut; Graf von, Keyserling Nikolai; Martens, Jürgen

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] Polymeric monoliths 10 containing an amino alcohol moiety derived from an industrial waste material represent one of the best ligands for the enantioselective catalytic addition of ZnEt2 to benzaldehyde (99% ee), being recoverable and usable under flow conditions.

  17. Impact of lifestyle dimensions on brain pathology and cognition.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Vogel, Jacob; Schwimmer, Henry D; Marks, Shawn M; Schreiber, Frank; Jagust, William

    2016-04-01

    Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Although cognitive function was related to high lifetime cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, Aβ load had no relation to current cognitive function. The covariance between high adult socioeconomic status, high education, and low smoking prevalence predicted better cognitive function and this was mediated by larger hippocampal volume. Our data show that lifestyle is a complex construct composed of associated variables, some of which reflect factors operating over the life span and others which may be developmental. These factors affect brain health via different pathways, which may reinforce one another. Our findings moreover support the importance of an intellectually enriched lifestyle accompanied by vascular health on both cognition and presumed cerebral mediators of cognitive function.

  18. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  19. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (<1year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention.

  20. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  2. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  3. Cluster headache and lifestyle habits.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2008-04-01

    Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among CH patients compared with the general population. Although excessive alcohol consumption was reported in early studies, this was not corroborated more recently. On the contrary, patients with CH seem to avoid alcohol, particularly during active phases, likely due to its ability to trigger attacks. Present studies are purely descriptive. Thus, the associations sketched give no information about the long-term effects of smoking or alcohol consumption on the course of CH.

  4. Lifestyle Change: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R.W.; Yeo, M.A.; Hougesen, B.; Todd, V.

    1989-01-01

    Many relationships between behaviour and disease are now recognized by both health care professionals and the public. In lifestyle counselling, caregivers help patients to change their unhealthy habits. The primary care office seems an ideal setting for implementing behaviour change strategies, but studies suggest that physicians only sporadically elicit behavioural risk factors and infrequently counsel patients to modify risky behaviours. Physicians have been introduced to the goals of clinical prevention, but with the limited application of clinical prevention research to practical office approaches, they often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to achieve them. The individual intervention and group program strategies described in this paper have been adapted to the primary care setting, and we hope they will help family physicians to play an effective role in lifestyle change.

  5. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  6. [Health and life-style of students].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.

  7. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  8. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the "zeitgeist", ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society.

  9. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  10. [Ancient dietetics - lifestyle and medicine].

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2004-01-01

    The wide reaching meaning of eating and drinking is already recognized in antiquity. The declared aim of antique dietetics is the upbringing to a healthy lifestyle. Fundamental considerations of dietetic, theoretically organized ideas can be traced back to the Presocratics, who, for the first time in cultural history, let themselves be guided by direct observations from nature. Working from the meaning of dietetics as pure nutritional teaching, one can see in the Corpus Hippocraticum a significant, systematic attempt to put forth dietetics as a concept of lifestyle. Here a central aspect is that of equilibrium, as it is expressed in the rule of the four humours. Dietetics continually become a connecting link between Natural Philosophy and Anthropology and a lifestyle orientated to nature. Finally, Galen introduces a further systematization of the already existing and the increasingly modified. Nutrition and health are brought into association and the theoretical presupposed practically overturned. In late Antiquity dietetical outlooks continue to be discussed, which were transferred to the Middle Ages and still show practical relevance.

  11. Improving lifestyle interventions for people with serious mental illnesses: Qualitative results from the STRIDE study

    PubMed Central

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Stumbo, Scott P.; Yarborough, Micah T.; Young, Thomas J.; Green, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals with serious mental illnesses are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. Understanding the factors that facilitate or hinder lifestyle change in this population could lead to better interventions and improved health outcomes. Methods A subset of intervention and usual-care participants (n = 84) in the STRIDE randomized trial were interviewed at 3, 9, and 18 months, yielding 101 interviews (some were interviewed more than once). Participants had a mean age of 48.1 (SD = 10.1); 64% were female. Participants had diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (41%), bipolar disorder (20%), affective psychoses (37%) or PTSD (2%). Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded using Atlas.ti, and analyzed for common themes. Results Barriers to behavior change were similar to those described for the general population, including lack of support from significant others, the lure of unhealthy foods, and poor weather impeding exercise. Additional challenges included the effects of psychiatric symptoms, or consequences of symptoms (i.e., social isolation), on ability to make and sustain lifestyle changes. We found a strong preference for ongoing, group-based support to foster a sense of accountability which motivated and helped to sustain behavior changes. Conclusions and implications for practice Individuals with serious mental illnesses encounter many of the same barriers to weight loss seen in the general population, but they may be more vulnerable to additional obstacles. Lifestyle change interventions for this population should help participants develop the ability to iteratively cope with fluctuating mood and subsequent changes in motivation to eat healthfully and exercise regularly. PMID:26214184

  12. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-07-05

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda.

  13. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  14. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  15. Systematic Dissection of Coding Exons at Single Nucleotide Resolution Supports an Additional Role in Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400

  16. Does social support in addition to ART make a difference? Comparison of households with TASO and MOH PLWHA in Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie; Lorgelly, Paula; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Inder, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Social support in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been indicated to be beneficial to person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their families, but very few ART service providers go beyond ART. This study investigates whether receipt of social support in addition to ART for PLWHA makes the households that they reside in better off than households that have PLWHA but are without social support. The analysis uses data comprising of 450 households, which is a sub-sample from the 2010/2011 Centre for Health Economics Ugandan HIV Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 596 households that was undertaken in Uganda. Data were collected from households of clients that obtained ART from two major ART service providers in Central Uganda; The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) and Ministry of Health (MOH), Uganda. Probit models and ordinary least squares regressions are employed to compare outcomes for individuals from households with a TASO or MOH client. Outcomes for individuals in households with a TASO PLWHA are hypothesised to be superior to those from households with an MOH PLWHA given that the benefits from social support accrue not only to the PLWHA but also to the household and communities they belong to. The results confirm that individuals from a household with a TASO PLWHA are better off in terms of physical health outcomes including better productivity as non-wage labour hours and having more cash in hand and having savings. The findings highlight the importance of additional support to HIV/AIDS clients and have implications for supplementation of ART service provision with other services to maximise the benefits from ART in resource constrained countries like Uganda.

  17. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences) associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to decision making about the most

  18. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    PubMed

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  19. Monkey's health service: an evaluation of the implementation of resources designed to support the learning of primary school-aged children in England about healthy lifestyles and NHS services.

    PubMed

    Medforth, Nicholas; Timpson, Hannah; Greenop, Daz; Lavin, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The National Health Service Institute for Innovation and Improvement was established to help the NHS to improve healthcare by rapidly developing and disseminating knowledge and evidence about new ways of working. One example is the Emergency and Urgent Care Pathway for Children and Young People which focused on providing high quality and safe healthcare for children and young people requiring urgent or emergency treatment for the most common illnesses and injuries. Monkey's Guide to Healthy Living and NHS Services was developed to increase awareness of acute health services in primary school-aged children. This free resource was posted to every primary school in England. A process and impact evaluation was undertaken to explore how the resource was being utilized during 2013-2014. A small number of in-depth case studies were developed involving classroom-based observations and teacher interviews along with a much larger online survey which was emailed to all primary schools in England. On the whole, the resource was viewed as useful, engaging, and informative; with children, teachers, and other professionals particularly valuing the monkey puppet, video clips, and teacher resources. The National Evaluation highlighted that most respondents integrated the materials into the curriculum, used them as a one-off lesson, or developed their own innovative and strategic approaches to make the best use of the resources; almost two-thirds of schools who responded to the survey felt the resources led to pupils knowing about the available NHS services and healthy lifestyles; over half felt pupils were now more informed about the most appropriate services to use.

  20. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles.

  1. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  2. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Edward; Pojednic, Rachele; Polak, Rani; Bush, Jennifer; Trilk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM) into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1) supporting of deans and key personnel, 2) creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3) use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4) provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5) engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice. PMID:25652118

  3. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  4. Healthy Lifestyles of University Students in China and Influential Factors

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Xian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours. PMID:23935418

  5. Healthy lifestyles of university students in China and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Xing, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Xian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours.

  6. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  7. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging.

  8. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required.

  9. Timing of impairment and health-promoting lifestyles in women with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Umberson, Deborah; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Hsui-Rong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory that explains how the timing of impairment in women’s lives influences health-promoting lifestyles among 45 women age 43 to 79 years with impairments of varying onset across the life course. From this grounded theory exploration, we suggest that women created health-related lifestyles, which were comprised of changing abilities, roles, and rituals, in support of perceived self. The ultimate goal of a healthy lifestyle was healthy aging, which was self-determination in the support of positive relationships. Environment and resources had direct influence on perceived self. Our proposed substantive theory provides an understanding of how women develop a healthy lifestyle after the onset of permanent sensory or physical impairment. It also takes steps toward an understanding of how timing of impairment influences the perceptions women have of themselves and their health behaviors. PMID:20207953

  10. Preconception and pregnancy: opportunities to intervene to improve women's diets and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Barker, M; Baird, J; Lawrence, W; Vogel, C; Stömmer, S; Rose, T; Inskip, H; Godfrey, K; Cooper, C

    2016-02-29

    Recently, large-scale trials of behavioural interventions have failed to show improvements in pregnancy outcomes. They have, however, shown that lifestyle support improves maternal diet and physical activity during pregnancy, and can reduce weight gain. This suggests that pregnancy, and possibly the whole periconceptional period, represents a 'teachable moment' for changes in diet and lifestyle, an idea that was made much of in the recent report of the Chief Medical Officer for England. The greatest challenge with all trials of diet and lifestyle interventions is to engage people and to sustain this engagement. With this in mind, we propose a design of intervention that aims simultaneously to engage women through motivational conversations and to offer access to a digital platform that provides structured support for diet and lifestyle change. This intervention design therefore makes best use of learning from the trials described above and from recent advances in digital intervention design.

  11. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three aspects of urolithiasis, i.e. epidemiology, mechanisms linking lifestyle and urolithiasis and lifestyle intervention for preventing urolithiasis. Results Epidemiological evidence links the prevalence of urinary stone formation to general lifestyle factors. Detailed analysis has identified individual lifestyle elements that affect the risk of urinary stone formation. Currently there are several concepts that explain the mechanism of stone formation. Urinary markers like calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and urinary pH are involved in all these concepts. Many studies show that changing (combinations of) specific lifestyle elements has a favourable effect on these urinary markers. Based on this evidence, protocols have been developed that use a combination of these lifestyle changes and medication to prevent stone formation. In well-controlled studies where patients are optimally informed and continuously motivated, these protocols clearly reduce the stone formation rate. In general practice the result is less clear, because the time and tools are insufficient to maintain long-term patient compliance in the use of medication and lifestyle advice. Conclusion The risk of stone formation can be reduced in general practice when the patient’s compliance is optimised by providing individualised advice, continuous information, and feedback and incorporation of the advice into a regular lifestyle. The use of ‘e-tools’ might enable this without increasing the time required from the physician. PMID:26558032

  12. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle.

  13. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2010-11-02

    Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.

  14. The Double Layer Methodology and the Validation of Eigenbehavior Techniques Applied to Lifestyle Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Bishal

    2017-01-01

    A novel methodology, the double layer methodology (DLM), for modeling an individual's lifestyle and its relationships with health indicators is presented. The DLM is applied to model behavioral routines emerging from self-reports of daily diet and activities, annotated by 21 healthy subjects over 2 weeks. Unsupervised clustering on the first layer of the DLM separated our population into two groups. Using eigendecomposition techniques on the second layer of the DLM, we could find activity and diet routines, predict behaviors in a portion of the day (with an accuracy of 88% for diet and 66% for activity), determine between day and between individual similarities, and detect individual's belonging to a group based on behavior (with an accuracy up to 64%). We found that clustering based on health indicators was mapped back into activity behaviors, but not into diet behaviors. In addition, we showed the limitations of eigendecomposition for lifestyle applications, in particular when applied to noisy and sparse behavioral data such as dietary information. Finally, we proposed the use of the DLM for supporting adaptive and personalized recommender systems for stimulating behavior change. PMID:28133607

  15. Feasibility, Preliminary Efficacy, and Lessons Learned From a Garden-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Spees, Colleen K.; Hill, Emily B.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Buell, Jackie L.; White, Susan E.; Kleinhenz, Matthew D.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors remain at increased risk for secondary malignancies, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and physical activity, are strongly linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease and improved health outcomes, yet a paucity of research has been conducted in this vulnerable population. Methods Adult cancer survivors were recruited to participate in Growing Hope, an experimental single-group study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven and evidence-based intervention. For 4 months, 22 participants received group and individual education and had access to harvesting fresh produce at an urban garden. Data on program satisfaction, compliance, diet, and physical activity were collected via surveys; anthropometrics, blood values, and skin carotenoids were objectively measured. Results The intervention resulted in significant improvements in consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .003), decreased consumption of red and processed meats (P = .030) and sugar-sweetened beverages (P = .020). Levels of skin carotenoids, fasting blood glucose, and non–high density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly improved (P = .011, P = .043, and P = .05, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study support the feasibility and efficacy of a multifaceted, garden-based intervention for cancer survivors. In addition, these preliminary results demonstrate a positive impact aligning with the current lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivorship. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to define impact on sustained health outcomes. PMID:27556671

  16. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  17. Influence of lifestyle measures on hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, F; D'Addato, S; Laghi, L; Malagoni, A M; Mandini, S; Boari, B; Borghi, C; Manfredini, R

    2009-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is a common dyslipidaemia encountered in clinical practice. People with hypertriglyceridaemia are frequently obese, insulin-resistant, hypertensive or diabetic, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertriglyceridaemia also contributes to metabolic syndrome, in which an atherogenic diet, sedentary lifestyle, overweight/obesity and genetic factors interact. A multi-factorial intervention for all risk factors is necessary, including weight reduction, dietary modification and increased physical exercise. This review focuses on the influence of diet, sedentary lifestyle and negative habits (such as excessive alcohol intake, smoking and drug addiction) on hypertriglyceridaemia as well as the effects of lifestyle change.

  18. The Strange Lifestyle of Multipartite Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Anne; Michalakis, Yannis; Gutiérrez, Serafín

    2016-01-01

    Multipartite viruses have one of the most puzzling genetic organizations found in living organisms. These viruses have several genome segments, each containing only a part of the genetic information, and each individually encapsidated into a separate virus particle. While countless studies on molecular and cellular mechanisms of the infection cycle of multipartite viruses are available, just as for other virus types, very seldom is their lifestyle questioned at the viral system level. Moreover, the rare available “system” studies are purely theoretical, and their predictions on the putative benefit/cost balance of this peculiar genetic organization have not received experimental support. In light of ongoing progresses in general virology, we here challenge the current hypotheses explaining the evolutionary success of multipartite viruses and emphasize their shortcomings. We also discuss alternative ideas and research avenues to be explored in the future in order to solve the long-standing mystery of how viral systems composed of interdependent but physically separated information units can actually be functional. PMID:27812219

  19. [Lifestyle management approaches in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroaki

    2004-11-01

    Of the lifestyle management approaches to postmenopausal osteoporosis recommended, encouraging walking appears to be more relevant than ensuring appropriate nutritional intake in preventing bone loss. The focus of the current lecture is therefore on encouraging exercise, as it is not hard to imagine the physical impact of exercise on bone mineral density. As has long been pointed out, in fact, the initial management of postmenopausal osteoporosis consists in subjecting the bone to a continual physical stress, including exercise. In this regard, aerobic exercise including walking has been widely recommended;however, there is no clear evidence showing aerobic exercise to be superior to other kinds of exercise, while several studies reported on the benefit of combining aerobic exercise with pharmacological treatments in postmenopausal women, including our own series. Physical exercise programs or guidelines aimed at the prophylaxis of postmenopausal osteoporosis that draw on research evidence supporting the benefit of encouraging physical exercise need yet to be put in place as a matter of urgency.

  20. Do Changes in Lifestyle Engagement Moderate Cognitive Decline in Normal Aging? Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Brent J.; Dixon, Roger A.; McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Do lifestyle activities buffer normal aging-related declines in cognitive performance? The emerging literature will benefit from theoretically broader measurement of both lifestyle activities and cognitive performance, and longer-term longitudinal designs complemented with dynamic statistical analyses. We examine the temporal ordering of changes in lifestyle activities and changes in cognitive neuropsychological performance in older adults. Method We assembled data (n = 952) across a 12-year (5-wave) period from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Latent Change Score models were applied to examine whether (and in which temporal order) changes in physical, social, or cognitive lifestyle activities were related to changes in three domains of cognitive performance. Results Two main results reflect the dynamic coupling among changes in lifestyle activities and cognition. First, reductions in cognitive lifestyle activities were associated with subsequent declines in measures of verbal speed, episodic memory, and semantic memory. Second, poorer cognitive functioning was related to subsequent decrements in lifestyle engagement, especially in social activities. Conclusions The results support the dual contention that (a) lifestyle engagement may buffer some of the cognitive changes observed in late life, and (b) persons who are exhibiting poorer cognitive performance may also relinquish some lifestyle activities. PMID:22149165

  1. Management of pediatric obesity: a lifestyle modification approach.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shamita; Burton, Amy; Oden, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Over the last decades, pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic with worldwide estimates as high as 43 million children and adolescents affected, and this number is rising at an exponential rate. With pediatric obesity comes a host of co-morbidities including impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired liver function. Treatment of this population has proven to be challenging for many reasons. For patients, a new baseline exists consisting of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as a lack of availability of affordable healthy alternatives. In addition, there is an overwhelming presence of energy-dense foods. For physicians, there are many issues including lack of time, training, and reimbursement. The most efficacious and reliable way to treat this population and its co-morbidities is with a healthy, balanced lifestyle consisting of a realistic diet plan and exercise regimen. The is the cornerstone of therapy in the Center for Obesity And its Complications in Health (COACH) clinic which is Children's Medical Center's (Dallas, TX) strategy to combat and treat pediatric overweight and obesity. Lifestyle changes of diet and exercise plans are tailored to each individual's interests and metabolic needs in COACH which is a multi-disciplinary clinic. Additionally, co-morbidities are screened for and treated aggressively to help prevent long-term complications of overweight and obesity. If others do similar interventions in their communities, this global epidemic has the possibility of more positive outcomes than those currently projected.

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) was a randomized controlled trial that examined the impact of long-term participation in an intensive weight loss intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results from this trial suggest that intensive lifestyle interventions are effective in helping patients to achieve management of cardiovascular risk factors and reducing the need to initiate medication usage to manage these conditions, though the benefits in terms of the prevention of CVD morbidity and mortality beyond those achieved through aggressive medical management of hypertension and dyslipidemia is not clear. Additional benefits of participation in an intensive lifestyle intervention such as lowered chronic kidney disease risk, blood pressure, medication usage, improved sleep apnea, and partial remission of diabetes are discussed. PMID:25288176

  3. Self-determination and mental retardation: is there an association with living arrangement and lifestyle satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Duvdevany, I; Ben-Zur, H; Ambar, A

    2002-10-01

    Self-determination and lifestyle satisfaction of 80 adults with mild or medium mental retardation living in group homes or their parents' homes were examined. They were assessed in regard to self-determination, as indicated by choices made in the domestic, financial, health, social, and work domains. Lifestyle satisfaction with residence, the community, associated services, and employment was also assessed. Results show that those from group homes were lower on self-determination but higher on lifestyle satisfaction, providing support for the commitment to normalization and community inclusion to enhance lifestyle satisfaction. However, questions about the extent to which people with mental retardation are afforded decision-making opportunities and self-determined behavior remain. We suggest that service providers and caregivers should encourage and create such opportunities.

  4. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  5. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  6. A practical approach to lifestyle change counselling in primary care.

    PubMed

    Elford, R W; Yeo, M; Jennett, P A; Sawa, R J

    1994-10-01

    Many contemporary medical conditions have been found to be the consequence of lifestyle choices. These adverse habit patterns have their origin in the individuals family and/or natural social network. Primary care practitioners frequently interact with their patients for the purpose of helping them resolve medical problems by clarifying issues or presenting different options. In lifestyle related conditions, the initiation and maintenance of possible behaviour changes is usually the optimal resolution. How people intentionally change well-established behaviour patterns is still not well understood, and most clinicians are not confident in their ability to help patients alter adverse behaviours. Several studies provide support for a 'stage-matched framework' of behaviour change that integrates readiness for change with intervention processes from various theoretical models. This article provides a brief overview of the current thinking with respect to self-initiated and professionally facilitated behaviour change, and then describes a generic five-step approach to individualized lifestyle counselling for use in primary care clinical settings.

  7. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  8. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  9. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women’s health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions. PMID

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change.

  11. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  12. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  13. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants’ perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  14. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  15. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  16. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  17. Health Promoting Lifestyle and its Determinants Among University Students in Sabzevar, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284

  18. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2007-11-06

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per adult per year in 637 placental mammal species and are generally supported. Compared with terrestrial insectivores with generalized primitive traits, mammals that have evolved more specialized lifestyles have divergent mass-specific production rates: (i) increased in groups that specialize on abundant and reliable foods: grazing and browsing herbivores (artiodactyls, lagomorphs, perissodactyls, and folivorous rodents) and flesh-eating marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans); and (ii) decreased in groups that have lifestyles with reduced death rates: bats, primates, arboreal, fossorial, and desert rodents, bears, elephants, and rhinos. Convergent evolution of groups with similar lifestyles is common, so patterns of productivity across mammalian taxa reflect both ecology and phylogeny. The overall result is that groups with different lifestyles have parallel but offset relationships between production rate and body size. These results shed light on the evolution of the fast-slow life-history continuum, suggesting that variation occurs along two axes corresponding to body size and lifestyle.

  19. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bisphosphonates for lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-11-01

    A lifestyle-related disease and osteoporosis are diseases to increase with aging and a lifestyle-related disease has an influence on the bone metabolism. Because the number of patients with lifestyle-related disease is getting larger, it is necessary to prevent fracture in those. Unfortunately, substantial randomized control studies are yet to be done in patients with lifestyle-related disease to clarify if anti-osteoporotic drugs are effective to prevent fractures. It is suggested by the subanalysis in the existing clinical study with usefulness of bisphosphonates with evidence as an osteoporotic therapeutic drug in life-related disease. Here I will review about the effective and problem with bisphosphonate for the lifestyle-related disease with arteriosclerosis.

  20. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  1. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  2. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  3. An innovative approach to providing lifestyle education and behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Katherine; Savas, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is one of the major health challenges of our time. Diabetes UK recently estimated 10% of the total NHS budget is spent on diabetes care. NICE guidance “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults” (2011) and “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk groups” (currently consultation phase) emphasises the importance of prevention. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a precursor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is additionally associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Positive lifestyle changes (healthy eating, increased activity, weight reduction) have been proven to prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes in people diagnosed with IGT. Aims and objectives Working together, Greater Manchester CLAHRC and Salford’s NHS Diabetes Care Call team developed a six-month, telephone-based, lifestyle intervention programme for people with IGT. The aim was to provide a convenient, accessible and tailored service that would motivate and enable people to make positive behaviour changes to prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes. The programme was delivered by a team of trained health advisors who provided standardised, evidence-based education via a series of electronic scripts developed and maintained by the specialist diabetes team. Supporting resources, including a patient education leaflet and DVD designed in-house, were sent by post. Health advisors worked on an individual basis with participants and had access to an online directory of local services and groups to signpost appropriately. The project ran from May 2010 to January 2011, enrolling 55 people with IGT from seven GP practices in Salford. All calls were recorded on the electronic patient record, viewable across primary and secondary care. Key results All 55 participants completed the pathway. Clinical Outcomes: 52% (n=26) reverted to normal fasting and glucose tolerance. 10% (n=5) reduced risk to impaired fasting glucose. 75% (n=38) confirmed weight loss, average 4.8 kg

  4. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jayesh; Chaudhari, S.; Sarkar, Prasanta K.

    2011-01-01

    Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed. PMID:22661838

  5. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.

  6. Joint Associations of Diet, Lifestyle, and Genes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kristin J.; Liu, Zhe; Millen, Amy E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Johnson, Elizabeth; Snodderly, D. Max; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Tinker, Lesley; Sarto, Gloria E.; Robinson, Jennifer; Wallace, Robert B.; Mares, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Healthy diets and lifestyles are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but whether the benefits vary across high risk AMD genotypes is unknown. The objective is to investigate the joint effects of healthy diet and lifestyle with genetic risk on the odds for AMD. Design Healthy lifestyles scores and their interactions with AMD risk genotypes were studied in relation to the prevalence of AMD, assessed six years later. Participants Women 50–79 years of age in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) with exposure and AMD data available (N=1,663). Methods Healthy lifestyle scores (0–6 points) were assigned based on Healthy Eating Index scores, physical activity (MetHrs/week), and pack years of smoking assessed between 1994–1998. Genetic risk was based on Y402H in complement factor H (CFH) and A69S in age-related maculopathy susceptibility locus 2 (ARMS2). Interactions between healthy lifestyle score and genotype in relation to the odds of AMD were assessed. Main Outcome Stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken and graded for AMD six years after exposure assessment (2001–2004). A total of 308 women had early AMD and 29 had late AMD). Results The odds of AMD were 3.3 times greater in women with both low healthy lifestyle score (0–2) and high risk CFH genotype (CC), relative to those who had low genetic risk (TT) and healthy lifestyle scores of 4–6 (95% CI:1.8–6.1). There were no significant additive (SI=1.08, 95% CI: 0.70–1.67) or multiplicative (Pinteraction=0.94) interactions in the full sample. Limiting the sample to those with stable diets prior to AMD assessment (n=728) strengthened the joint effects (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 1.85–11.6) and suggested high risk genotype and low lifestyle score combined had a stronger association than expected by simply adding the two effects (SI=1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.70). Adjusting for dietary lutein and zeaxanthin attenuated, and therefore partially explained the

  7. [Epigenetics and Life-style diseases].

    PubMed

    Waki, Hironori; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Genomic DNA in eukaryotes forms a highly-organized structure called chromatin. Epigenetic regulation of genes involves DNA methylation and modifications of the histone tails such as acetylation and methylation, which lead to a given phenotype without a change in nucleotide sequence. Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the development of life-style diseases. Epigenetic regulation is implicated to contribute to the interplay between the environmental and genetic factors. Advance in DNA sequencing technologies provides novel insights into transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the genes and mechanisms by which genomic polymorphism causes diseases. We will overview recent progress in the epigenetic studies on life-style diseases.

  8. [Healthy lifestyles of the university population].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ojeda, María Angustias; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira

    2015-05-01

    The lifestyle is defined as the set of behavioral patterns and daily habits of a person, which maintained over time may become dimensions of risk or safety depending on their nature. The aim of this study was to know the lifestyles of university students in the following dimensions: diet, exercise, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, sex and road safety. We made a literature review in electronic databases: PubMed, SCIELO and CUIDEN, between 2002-2014; using as keywords habits, lifestyle, health behaviors, young adult and university students. From articles found, stand out as most relevant data that university students have a high presence of favorable beliefs about healthy lifestyles and nevertheless not put into practice. We could conclude that according to different authors, university students in general have not a good eating habits, eating unbalanced diets high in calories. Besides the physical exercise is null, knowing that a good diet and doing exercise have beneficial effects on health. To this must be added the high consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among university students.

  9. Lifestyle Interventions: Reasons for Therapeutic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Angelina M.; Hiebert, Bryan; Malec, Carol A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews studies that indicate lifestyle education and exercise programs improve quality of life, health, and wellness. States that mixed results seem to indicate that something other than physical fitness is significantly contributing to improved psychosocial functioning. Postulates that cognitive factors such as improved self-confidence and…

  10. Lifestyle Drugs: Concept and Impact on Society

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S. Z.; Gupta, V.; Sukhlecha, Anupama; Khunte, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle has changed from being an indicator of the overall well being of an individual to a cause of disease and now “lifestyle” has itself become an object of medical attention. Alcohol has been used enormously as one of the oldest ‘lifestyle’ drugs, and currently sildenafil citrate (Viagra), the drug of choice for erectile dysfunction, exemplifies a turning point in the era of modern lifestyle drugs. This drug has transformed the lifestyles of millions and greatly increased the revenue of many pharmaceutical companies. With the Indian economy growing rapidly at an annual rate of 8-9%, a new era of drug discovery and development coupled with an enormous increase in the marketing of new drugs is being seen. This has certainly made the Indian public vulnerable to issues related to lifestyle drugs. There is a need to study this concept deeply and the impact of these drugs on Indian society, particularly since this topic has already been the centre of many discussions in other developed nations. PMID:21218048

  11. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  12. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  13. Using Genograms Creatively to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…

  14. Institutionalization of a Multidisciplinary Healthy Lifestyles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…

  15. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  16. The Impact of Autism or Severe Challenging Behaviour on Lifestyle Outcome in Community Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders and severe challenging behaviours are reasonably common among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate whether they had an impact on lifestyle among such adults living in staff-supported community housing. Methods: Data were collected on the…

  17. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, J.; Moylan, S.; Camfield, D. A.; Pase, M. P.; Mischoulon, D.; Berk, M.; Jacka, F. N.; Schweitzer, I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22969831

  18. Deprivation, Poverty and Marginalization in Rural Lifestyles in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloke, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Rural problems are obscured by constructions of "idyll-ized" rural life as the spatial expression of self-supporting, happy, problem-free existence in a market economy. (British) Rural Lifestyles study findings suggest that rural problems are associated with a wide range of experiences of marginalization (economic, political, cultural)…

  19. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  20. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  1. Using the internet to translate an evidence-based lifestyle intervention into practice.

    PubMed

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Conroy, Molly B; Hess, Rachel; Bryce, Cindy L; Fiorillo, Anthony B; Fischer, Gary S; Milas, N Carole; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R

    2009-11-01

    Despite evidence-based recommendations for addressing obesity in the clinical setting, lifestyle interventions are lacking in practice. The objective of this study was to translate an evidence-based lifestyle program into the clinical setting by adapting it for delivery via the Internet. We adapted the Diabetes Prevention Program's lifestyle curriculum to an online format, comprising 16 weekly and 8 monthly lessons, and conducted a before-and-after pilot study of program implementation and feasibility. The program incorporates behavioral tools such as e-mail prompts for online self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, and weight, and automated weekly progress reports. Electronic counseling provides further support. Physician referral, automated progress reports, and as-needed communication with lifestyle coaches integrate the intervention with clinical care. We enrolled 50 patients from a large academic general internal practice into a pilot program between November 16, 2006 and February 11, 2007. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) =25 kg/m2, at least one weight-related cardiovascular risk factor, and Internet access were eligible if referring physicians felt the lifestyle goals were safe and medically appropriate. Participants were primarily female (76%), with an average age of 51.94 (standard deviation [SD] 10.82), and BMI of 36.43 (SD 6.78). At 12 months of enrollment, 50% of participants had logged in within 30 days. On average, completers (n = 45) lost 4.79 (SD 8.55) kg. Systolic blood pressure dropped 7.33 (SD 11.36) mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure changed minimally (+0.44 mm Hg; SD 9.27). An Internet-based lifestyle intervention may overcome significant barriers to preventive counseling and facilitate the incorporation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into primary care.

  2. [The characteristics of motivation to follow healthy life-style].

    PubMed

    Karaseva, T V; Ruzhenskaia, E V

    2013-01-01

    The article specifies the notion of motivation to healthy life-style. The main factors developing this motivation are considered. The personal proposal of classification of motives to develop healthy life-style is presented.

  3. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  4. Health Promotion in the Workplace: Assessing Stress and Lifestyle With an Intranet Tool

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, Nadia; Lesma, Alessandro; Gillet, Veronique Bernadette; Pagani, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic noncommunicable conditions, particularly cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, are the major causes of death and morbidity in both industrialized and low- to middle-income countries. Recent epidemiological investigations suggest that management of lifestyle factors, such as stress and lack of physical activity, could have an important value in cardiometabolic conditions, while information technology tools could play a significant facilitatory role. Objectives The objective of our study was to verify the feasibility of using a private website, directed to the workers of a major Italian company, to describe their health profile and lifestyle and work habits using an ad hoc self-administered questionnaire. Methods We administered anonymous multiple choice Web-based questionnaires to 945 participants (683 completed the task) as part of an ongoing health promotion program in a multinational company. Qualitative and quantitative data were synthesized with nonlinear principal component analysis to construct indicators (ie, variables) for stress, control, and lifestyle domains. Considering in addition absenteeism, the Calinski-Harabasz statistic and cluster analysis jointly differentiated seven clusters, which displayed different distributions of standardized classification variables. The final step consisted in assessing the relationship of the resulting seven subject typologies with personal data, illnesses, and metabolic syndrome status, carried out for the most part with descriptive methods. Results Statistical analyses singled out two not-overlapping domains of stress and control, as well as three not-overlapping domains of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol habits. The centroids of the seven clusters generated by the procedure were significantly (P < .001) different considering all possible 21 comparisons between couples of groups. Percentage distributions of variables describing personal information (gender, age group, work category, illness

  5. The application of data mining to explore association rules between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Chao

    2013-01-01

    This study used an efficient data mining algorithm, called DCIP (the data cutting and inner product method), to explore association rules between the lifestyles of factory workers in Taiwan and the metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,216 workers in four companies completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire survey were integrated into the workers' health examination reports to form an attribute database of the metabolic syndrome. Among the association rules derived by DCIP, 80% of those on the list of the top 15 highest support counts are corroborated by medical literature or by healthcare professionals. These findings prove that data mining is a valid and effective research method, and that larger sample sizes will likely produce more accurate associations connecting the metabolic syndrome to specific lifestyles. The rules already verified can serve as a reference guide for the health management of factory workers. The remaining 20%, while still lacking hard evidence, provide fertile ground for future research.

  6. A Gendered Lifestyle-Routine Activity Approach to Explaining Stalking Victimization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R

    2016-05-01

    Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based.

  7. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants from the region of the Levant.

    PubMed

    Aqtash, Salah; Van Servellen, Gwen

    2013-10-01

    Arab immigrants in the United States are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. We explored health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants to the United States from the Middle Eastern region of the Levant. In 218 male and female Arab adults surveyed with the revised Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), the mean for the HPLP-II was 2.73 (range 1-4), with spiritual growth and interpersonal relations the most frequently reported practices and physical activity the least frequently practiced dimension of health-promoting behaviors. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted four determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors: health insurance, acculturation, self-efficacy, and social support. Health promotion programs serving Arab immigrants should take these determinants into consideration.

  8. Ageing, lifestyle modifications, and cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Galioto, A; Ferlisi, A; Pineo, A; Putignano, E; Belvedere, M; Costanza, G; Barbagallo, M

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD. As a paradox, increased longevity due to improved social and economical conditions associated with lifestyle changes in the direction of a rich diet and sedentary habits in the last century, is one of the main contributors to the incremental trend in CVD. The variable increase rate of CVD in different nations may reflect different stages of "epidemiological transition" and it is probable that the relatively slow changes seen in developing populations through the epidemiological transition may occur at an accelerated pace in individuals migrating from nations in need to affluent societies (i.e. Hispanics to the USA, Africans to Europe). Because of restrained economic conditions in the developing world, the greatest gains in controlling the CVD epidemic lies in its prevention. Healthy foods should be widely available and affordable, and healthy dietary practices such as increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of saturated fat, salt, and simple sugars, may be promoted in all populations. Specific strategies for smoking and overweight control may be regulation of marketed tobacco and unhealthy fast food and promotion of an active lifestyle. Greater longevity and economic progress are accompanied by an increasing burden of CVD and other chronic diseases with an important decrease in quality of life, which should question the benefit of these additional years without

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial Lifestyle Interventions for Asian Americans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326

  10. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes.

  11. The Importance of a Theory-Informed Understanding of Additive Bilingual Education: Supporting Bilingualism and Biliteracy in a Melbourne Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Government commitments to supporting instruction in languages other than English have largely been honoured, bilingual education as a form of learning has not been widespread. Acknowledging the benefits of learning a language other than English, the most recent Australian national languages policy statement nonetheless makes no mention of…

  12. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed.

  13. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  14. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  15. Lifestyle, Genetics, and Disease in Sami

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair B.; Johansson, Åsa; Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the lifestyle, genetic origin, diet, and disease in the population of Sami, indigenous people of northern Fennoscandia. Method A survey of the available scientific literature and preliminary results from our own study of the Swedish Sami population. Results The Sami probably have a heterogeneous genetic origin, with a major contribution of continental or Eastern European tribes and a smaller contribution from Asia. The traditional Sami diet, high in animal products, persists in Sami groups still involved with reindeer herding, but others have adopted a diet typical of Western cultures. Early reports indicated a lower prevalence of heart disease and most cancers, except stomach cancer. Recent studies have not found a lower risk of heart disease, but have consistently shown an overall reduced cancer risk. Sami have been reported to share some specific health-related genetic polymorphisms with other European populations, but none that would explain the observed differences in disease risk. Conclusion The genetic structure of the Sami population makes it suitable for studies of the genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of common diseases. The difference in incidence of heart disease between studies may reflect the ongoing transition from a traditional to a more Westernized lifestyle. The ability to compare population segments with different lifestyles, combined with the genetic structure of the population, creates unusual possibilities for studies of the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of common disease. PMID:16909452

  16. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate.

  17. In Arabidopsis thaliana distinct alleles encoding mitochondrial RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 support the generation of additional 5' termini of ccmB transcripts.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Katrin; Jonietz, Christian; Schleicher, Sarah; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Small, Ian; Binder, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In plant mitochondria, the 5' ends of many transcripts are generated post-transcriptionally. We show that the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 (RPF4) supports the generation of extra 5' ends of ccmB transcripts in Landsberg erecta (Ler) and a number of other Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. RPF4 was identified in Ler applying a forward genetic approach supported by complementation studies of ecotype Columbia (Col), which generates the Ler-type extra ccmB 5' termini only after the introduction of the RPF4 allele from Ler. Studies with chimeric RPF4 proteins composed of various parts of the RPF4 proteins from Ler and Col identified differences in the N-terminal and central PPR motifs that explain ecotype-specific variations in ccmB processing. These results fit well with binding site predictions in ccmB transcripts based on the known determinants of nucleotide base recognition by PPR motifs.

  18. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option.

  19. C-reactive protein response to a vegan lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sutliffe, Jay T; Wilson, Lori D; de Heer, Hendrik D; Foster, Ray L; Carnot, Mary Jo

    2015-02-01

    This brief lifestyle intervention, including a vegan diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and various legumes, nuts and seeds, significantly improved health risk factors and reduced systemic inflammation as measured by circulating CRP. The degree of improvement was associated with baseline CRP such that higher levels predicted greater decreases. The interaction between gender and baseline CRP was significant and showed that males with higher baseline CRP levels appeared to have a more robust decrease in CRP due to the intervention than did their female counterparts. It is likely that the vegetable and high fiber content of a vegan diet reduces CRP in the presences of obesity. Neither the quantity of exercise nor the length of stay was significant predictors of CRP reduction. Additionally, those participants who had a vegan diet prior to the intervention had the lowest CRP risk coming into the program. Direct measure of body fat composition, estrogen and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha would enhance current understanding of the specific mechanisms of CRP reduction related to lifestyle interventions.

  20. Lifestyle advice and lifestyle change: to what degree does lifestyle advice of healthcare professionals reach the population, focusing on gender, age and education?

    PubMed

    Brobeck, Elisabeth; Bergh, Håkan; Odencrants, Sigrid; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2015-03-01

    Health promotion practice in health care has a high priority in the endeavour to achieve equal opportunities for health and diversity in health among the population. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there is any connection between the lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals and the lifestyle change of the population, focusing on age, gender and education level. The study is based on the data from a national population survey in Sweden in which 52 595 patients who had attended health care were interviewed by phone. The participants were asked whether healthcare professionals had raised the subject of lifestyle during the visit and whether the advice they gave had contributed to a lifestyle change. The results indicated that lifestyle issues were raised with 32.2% of those who attended health care, particularly among men, younger patients and those with a high education level. When lifestyle issues were raised, the advice contributed to 39.2% of patients making a lifestyle change, to a higher extent among men, older patients and those with a low education level. The study shows that lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals, during both emergency and outpatient healthcare visits, is an important contributor to patients' lifestyle change.

  1. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’ , ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status

  2. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Max; Stubert, Johannes; Reimer, Toralf; Erickson, Nicole; Berling, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast Cancer (BC) is a life-changing event. Compared to other malignancies in women, BC has received considerably more public attention. Despite improved neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment strategies for each characteristic molecular BC subtype, recommendations for evidence-based preventive strategies for BC treatment are not given equivalent attention. This may be partly due to the fact that high-quality long-term prevention studies are still difficult to carry out and are thus underrepresented in international studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the most relevant lifestyle factors associated with BC and to identify and discuss the evidence supporting practical prevention strategies that can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25759623

  3. Dilemmas of talking about lifestyle changes among couples coping with a cardiac event.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Daena J; Lindholm, Kristin A; Bute, Jennifer J

    2006-10-01

    Persons who have experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) and/or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may benefit from a low-fat diet, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. Yet many patients do not make these changes. A spouse or partner's attempts at support may facilitate or interfere with patient behavior change. The present study explores dilemmas that may arise when couples talk about lifestyle changes following one person's MI or CABG. In interviews carried out in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, and surrounding communities with 25 patients and 16 partners we found communicating support for lifestyle change may be interpreted as undesired control or criticism. The caring conveyed by talking may be viewed positively but can also threaten patient autonomy and entrap partners in unwanted expectations and obligations. Finally, lifestyle change conversations may reflect empowered patients collaborating with partners to take control of health but can also serve as potent reminders of loss. These multiple, potentially conflicting meanings give an account for why talking with a partner does not always facilitate patient lifestyle change. Understanding these dilemmas also suggests practical implications for helping patients and partners.

  4. Consumer perspectives on involving family and significant others in a healthy lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Bartels, Stephen; Mueser, Kim; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Kinney, Allison

    2012-11-01

    This focus group study explored the potential benefits and challenges of involving family members and significant others in a healthy lifestyle program for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 people with SMI, who were participants in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Separate focus groups were conducted for high and low achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis revealed that social support for diet and exercise was a perceived benefit to involving others in a healthy lifestyle program. Other perceived benefits were the potential to increase others' understanding of the challenges of living with mental illness and to enhance the quality of relationships. Participants identified practical and logistical concerns that could interfere with participation, including partner reliability and desirability, scheduling, and lack of financial resources. Participants in the high achiever group expressed a greater desire to involve others in exercise than did participants in the low achiever group. Programs aimed at helping people with SMI make lifestyle changes may increase their effectiveness by involving significant others. Mobilizing social support networks for health behavior change is an ideal role for social workers.

  5. The addition of decision support into computerized physician order entry reduces red blood cell transfusion resource utilization in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, Evans R; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-07-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has the potential for cost containment in critically ill patients through practice standardization and elimination of unnecessary interventions. Previous study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of adding a decision support for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion into the hospital CPOE. We evaluated the effect of such intervention on RBC resource utilization during the two-year study period. From the institutional APACHE III database we identified 2,200 patients with anemia, but no active bleeding on admission: 1,100 during a year before and 1,100 during a year after the intervention. The mean number of RBC transfusions per patient decreased from 1.5 +/- 1.9 units to 1.3 +/- 1.8 units after the intervention (P = 0.045). RBC transfusion cost decreased from $616,442 to $556,226 after the intervention. Hospital length of stay and adjusted hospital mortality did not differ before and after protocol implementation. In conclusion, the implementation of an evidenced-based decision support system through a CPOE can decrease RBC transfusion resource utilization in critically ill patients.

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Additional case of Marden-Walker syndrome: support for the autosomal-recessive inheritance adn refinement of phenotype in a surviving patient.

    PubMed

    Orrico, A; Galli, L; Zappella, M; Orsi, A; Hayek, G

    2001-02-01

    In this report, we present a 14-year-old girl, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with severe mental retardation, hypotonia, short stature, and congenital joint contractures. The craniofacial features were scaphocephaly, thin/long and immobile face, marked hypoplasia of the midface, temporal narrowness, blepharophimosis, palpebral ptosis, and strabismus. The combination of such a distinctive craniofacial appearance and psychomotor retardation allows us to recognize a new case of the Marden-Walker syndrome. Our patient represents one of the rare cases in which consanguineous mating supports the autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance of this condition. Furthermore, through refining the phenotype of a surviving patient, this report may contribute to a better recognition of this disorder in older affected children.

  8. Association between maternal feeling about pregnancy and child's lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoko; Goto, Aya; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Sato, Yoshiaki; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The number of children with undesirable lifestyles has recently increased. We tested the hypothesis that maternal feelings about pregnancy might be associated with their attitude towards promoting healthy lifestyles in their children. We used a city database collected from guardians of 204 randomly selected children aged 1 to 3 years in Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima. Maternal feeling about pregnancy was measured using a 10-point scale, and a child lifestyle score was calculated as the sum of desirable lifestyle habits (sleeping, eating, watching TV/videos, and tooth brushing). Associations between maternal feeling and her child's lifestyles were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. For all lifestyle items, proportion of children with undesirable lifestyle habits was higher in the "unhappy group" (those who scored 1 to 9) than in the "happy group" (those who scored 10). In particular, a child's short sleeping hours (odds ratio [OR]=3.01) and lifestyle score of less than 3 ([OR] =3.60) were significantly associated with unhappy feelings. This was apparent among mothers aged 29 (median age) or younger. Our results indicate an association between a mother's unhappy feelings about pregnancy and her child's undesirable lifestyle, especially among relatively younger mothers. These findings provide public health implications important for early familial intervention to improve children's lifestyles.

  9. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564

  10. Effect of active component addition and support modification on catalytic activity of Ag/Al2O3 for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbon - A review.

    PubMed

    More, Pavan M

    2017-03-01

    The effect of active component addition and support modification of Ag/Al2O3 has been reviewed to examine their contribution to HC-SCR of NOx. This review has depicted the possible mechanisms of reduction of NO by hydrocarbon using metal/metal oxide doped Ag/Al2O3. The addition of second metal results in the maximum formation of well dispersed Agn(δ+) clusters. Specifically, addition of Au improves the low-temperature activity of the catalyst. However, the role of second metal also depends on the pretreatment to the catalyst and nature of the reductants. The support modification of Ag/Al2O3 by the addition of different metal oxides has also been reviewed. Modification by MgO showed improvement in activity besides sulfur tolerance. In situ DRIFT study demonstrates that the modification by MgO leads to the inhibition of sulfate formation of Ag and Al2O3. Enhancement in activity after second metal addition and support modification attributed to the synergistic effect and improved surface properties of Ag/Al2O3 catalyst.

  11. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  12. [Immunometabolism of exercise and sedentary lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle leads to the accumulation of visceral fat. This is accompanied by the infiltration of immune cells with pro-inflammatory characteristics in adipose tissue, causing an increased release of cytokines and generating a low-grade inflammatory state. It has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and development of tumors. Exercise can be used as a treatment to improve symptoms of many of these conditions because it promotes an anti-inflammatory effect. In this review we analyze the pro-inflammatory factors present in obesity and the induction of antiinflammatory factors that occur with exercise.

  13. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  14. Using family history information to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent diseases; a discussion of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A family history, reflecting genetic susceptibility as well as shared environmental and behavioral factors, is an important risk factor for common chronic multifactorial diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and many cancers. Discussion The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the evidence for the use of family history as a tool for primary prevention of common chronic diseases, in particular for tailored interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. The following questions are addressed: (1) What is the value of family history information as a determinant of personal disease risk?; (2)How can family history information be used to motivate at-risk individuals to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyles in order to prevent disease?; and (3) What additional studies are needed to assess the potential value of family history information as a tool to promote a healthy lifestyle? Summary In addition to risk assessment, family history information can be used to personalize health messages, which are potentially more effective in promoting healthy lifestyles than standardized health messages. More research is needed on the evidence for the effectiveness of such a tool. PMID:20465810

  15. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Marit B.; Pellerud, Anneli; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø.; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Methods Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. Results Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. Conclusion Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared “not that scary” or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour. PMID:23671705

  16. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  17. Mental retardation and Ullrich-Turner syndrome in cases with 45,X/46,X, +mar: Additional support for the loss of the X-inactivation center hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, H.; Huang, B.; Brown, J.; Howard-Peebles, P.N.; Black, S.H.; Jackson-Cook, C.; Salbert, B.A.; Febles, O.R.; Stevens, C.A.

    1994-08-15

    Four cases having mosaicism for a small marker or ring [45,X/46,X,+mar or 45,X/46,X,+r] chromosome were ascertained following cytogenetic studies requested because of minor anomalies (cases 1, 3, and 4) and/or short stature (cases 2 and 4). While all 4 cases had traits typical of Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS), cases 1, 3, and 4 had manifestations not usually present in UTS, including unusual facial appearance, mental retardation/developmental delay (MR/DD) (cases 3 and 4), and syndactylies (case 1). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), each of the markers in these 4 cases was identified as having been derived from an X chromosome. Replication studies demonstrated a probable early replication pattern for the mar/r(X) in cases 1, 3, and 4, while the marker in case 2 was apparently late replicating. To date, 41 individuals having mosaicism for a small mar/r(X) chromosome have been described. Interestingly, most of the 14 individuals having a presumedly active mar/r(X) demonstrated clinical findings atypical of UTS, including abnormal facial changes (11) and MR/DD (13). MR was noted most frequently in those cases having at least 50% mosaicism for the marker or ring. In contrast, atypical UTS facial appearance or MR/DD was not noted in 14 of the 16 cases with UTS who carried a probable late replicating marker or ring. In conclusion, although the phenotype of 45,S/46,X, mar/r(X) individuals appears to be influenced by the genetic content and degree of mosaicism for the mar/r(X), the most significant factor associated with MR/DD appears to be the activity status of the mar/r(X) chromosome. Thus, our 4 cases provide further support for the hypothesis that a lack of inactivation of a small mar/r(X) chromosome may be a factor leading to the MR and other phenotypic abnormalities seen in this subset of individuals having atypical UTS. 46 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  19. On balance: lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Haggett, Ali

    2016-10-18

    Given the supremacy of the biomedical model in defining our understanding and treatment of a wide range of physcial and psychological disorders, it is perhaps curious that simultaneously, scientists, clinicians, governments and patients routinely employ the concepts of "lifestyle" and "balance" to try to explain the causes of bodily disease and psychological disorder. Concurrently, the health advantages that are assumed to be inherent in a "balanced life" have been exploited by a rapidly expanding consumer market in "wellbeing"-by companies and individuals promoting food supplements, "wearable fitness", diet trends and the self-help material. Exploring the tension between the biomedical doctrine and the parallel preoccupation with balance and lifestyle has provided the impetus for this special issue. Emerging originally from papers presented at an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Exeter in June 2015, and augmented by two further comment pieces, the collection of articles aims to explore the ways in which changing notions of "balance" have been used to understand the causes of mental illness; to rationalise new approaches to its treatment; and to validate advice relating to balance in work and family life.

  20. Dietary and lifestyle factors in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Dietary factors are increasingly recognized to have an important role in triggering symptoms in a large proportion of patients with functional dyspepsia. Fatty foods seem to be the main culprits, but other foods (including carbohydrate-containing foods, milk and dairy products, citrus fruits, spicy foods, coffee and alcohol) have also been implicated. However, blind challenge tests do not provide consistent results. Moreover, although patients identify specific foods as triggers of their symptoms, these patients often do not seem to make behavioural adjustments in an attempt to improve symptoms; that is, any differences in dietary intake and lifestyle between patients and healthy individuals are small. Patients with functional dyspepsia exhibit mixed sensory-motor abnormalities, such as gastric hypersensitivity and impaired gastric accommodation of a meal. Nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate these abnormalities and might thereby trigger postprandial symptoms. Cognitive factors, including anticipation related to previous negative experience with certain foods, might also have a role in triggering symptoms. Studies evaluating the potential beneficial effect of dietary interventions and changes in lifestyle are lacking, and this Review outlines a number of options that could be used as starting points for meaningful large-scale studies in the future.

  1. Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Meléndez, Agustín

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing

  2. Limited mitogenomic degradation in response to a parasitic lifestyle in Orobanchaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weishu; Zhu, Andan; Kozaczek, Melisa; Shah, Neethu; Pabón-Mora, Natalia; González, Favio; Mower, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    In parasitic plants, the reduction in plastid genome (plastome) size and content is driven predominantly by the loss of photosynthetic genes. The first completed mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from parasitic mistletoes also exhibit significant degradation, but the generality of this observation for other parasitic plants is unclear. We sequenced the complete mitogenome and plastome of the hemiparasite Castilleja paramensis (Orobanchaceae) and compared them with additional holoparasitic, hemiparasitic and nonparasitic species from Orobanchaceae. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed minimal gene loss among the seven Orobanchaceae species, indicating the retention of typical mitochondrial function among Orobanchaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the mobile cox1 intron was acquired vertically from a nonparasitic ancestor, arguing against a role for Orobanchaceae parasites in the horizontal acquisition or distribution of this intron. The C. paramensis plastome has retained nearly all genes except for the recent pseudogenization of four subunits of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, indicating a very early stage of plastome degradation. These results lend support to the notion that loss of ndh gene function is the first step of plastome degradation in the transition to a parasitic lifestyle. PMID:27808159

  3. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition, exercise.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have provided a vast amount of literature related to the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Large international variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and the prominent increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in groups that migrated from low- to high-incidence areas provided important evidence that lifestyle factors influence the development of this malignancy. Moreover, there is convincing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary intake is an important etiological factor in colorectal neoplasia. Although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified, several lifestyle factors are likely to have a major impact on colorectal cancer development. Physical inactivity and to a lesser extent, excess body weight, are consistent risk factors for colon cancer. Exposure to tobacco products early in life is associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Diet and nutritional factors are also clearly important. Diets high in red and processed meat increase risk. Excess alcohol consumption, probably in combination with a diet low in some micronutrients such as folate and methionine, appear to increase risk. There is also recent evidence supporting a protective effect of calcium and vitamin D in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia. The relationship between intake of dietary fiber and risk of colon cancer has been studied for three decades but the results are still inconclusive. However, some micronutrients or phytochemicals in fiber-rich foods may be important; folic acid is one such micronutrient that has been shown to protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia and is currently being studied in intervention trials of adenoma recurrence. The overwhelming evidence indicates that primary prevention of colon cancer is feasible. Continued focus on primary prevention of colorectal cancer, in combination with efforts aimed at screening and surveillance, will be vital in

  4. A systematic review of lifestyle counseling for diverse patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Cathy L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Rice, LaShanta J; Nemeth, Lynne S; Wessell, Andrea M; Nietert, Paul J; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita

    2017-03-23

    Prior research and systematic reviews have examined strategies related to weight management, less is known about lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions optimally suited for implementation in primary care practices generally, and among racial and ethnic patient populations. Primary care practitioners may find it difficult to access and use available research findings on effective behavioral and lifestyle counseling strategies and to assess their effects health behaviors among their patients. This systematic review compiled existing evidence from randomized trials to inform primary care providers about which lifestyle and behavioral change interventions are shown to be effective for changing patients' diet, physical activity and weight outcomes. Searches identified 444 abstracts from all sources (01/01/2004-05/15/2014). Duplicate abstracts were removed, selection criteria applied and dual abstractions conducted for 106 full text articles. As of June 12, 2015, 29 articles were retained for inclusion in the body of evidence. Randomized trials tested heterogeneous multi-component behavioral interventions for an equally wide array of outcomes in three population groups: diverse patient populations (23 studies), African American patients only (4 studies), and Hispanic/Mexican American/Latino patients only (2 studies). Significant and consistent findings among diverse populations showed that weight and physical activity related outcomes were more amenable to change via lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions than those associated with diet modification. Evidence to support specific interventions for racial and ethnic minorities was promising, but insufficient based on the small number of studies.

  5. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women’s health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  6. Lifestyle management of erectile dysfunction: the role of cardiovascular and concomitant risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Friedman, Michael; Kostis, John B

    2005-12-26

    The influence and significance of lifestyle factors in erectile dysfunction (ED) have been demonstrated in cross-sectional and prospective, randomized, controlled trials. Recent epidemiologic studies in several countries have shown that modifiable lifestyle or risk factors, including physical activity in particular, are directly related to the occurrence of ED. In this article, we review several recent observational studies, 2 of which include a longitudinal follow-up component in the study design. The levels of physical activity in both of these studies predicted ED prevalence and incidence. Furthermore, the role of lifestyle changes (weight loss, physical activity) were recently demonstrated to be effective in modifying ED in a prospective, randomized Italian trial in moderately obese, sedentary men. Men without overt diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease participated in this landmark study. Other studies have shown that aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors can increase the effectiveness or outcomes associated with pharmacologic management of ED. Taken together, these studies support the value of risk factor modification and lifestyle change in the clinical management in men with ED and concomitant cardiovascular illness.

  7. [Prevention of dementia on the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases: a review].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihike

    2014-04-01

    Recent observational longitudinal studies have indicated the association of cognition with lifestyle and lifestyle-related diseases, which can affect timely through the life as protective or risk factors. In particular, inappropriate lifestyle including diet and exercise induces lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking which promote cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia as vascular risk factors. On the other hand, education during early life, occupational exposure during mid-life, and diet with green leafy vegetables and fish oil, and leisure activities including hobbies, social activities, and physical activities during later life could maintain or accelerate the cognitive reserve function. On the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we should prevent cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia to achieve healthy aging society.

  8. Turkana Children's Sociocultural Practices of Pastoralist Lifestyles and Science Curriculum and Instruction in Kenyan Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng'asike, John Teria

    This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that draws from Western education ideology to unfairly criticize Turkana traditional nomadic cultural practices as resistant to modern education. Yet Turkana people have to rely on the cultural knowledge of their environment for survival. In addition, the community lives in abject poverty caused by the harsh desert environment which has contributed to parents' struggle to support their children's education. Cultural knowledge of Turkana people has received support in research demonstrating the role cultural lifestyles such as nomadic pastoralism play as important survival strategy that enable people to adapt to the harsh desert environment to ensure the survival of their livestock critical for their food security. The study documented ways in which the Kenya national education curriculum, reflecting Western assumptions about education, often alienates and marginalises nomadic children, in its failure to capture their cultural Indigenous knowledge epistemologies. The research investigated the relationships between Turkana children's sociocultural practices of pastoralist lifestyles and the national science curriculum taught in local preschools and first grade science classrooms in Kenya and the extent to which Turkana children's everyday life cultural practices inform science instruction in early childhood grades. Multiple ethnographic methods such as participant and naturalistic observation, focus group interviews, analysis of documents, archival materials, and cultural artifacts were used to explore classrooms instruction and Indigenous sociocultural practices of the Turkana nomads. The findings from the elders' narratives

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  10. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity. PMID:25608589

  11. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)--an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualisation and development of an innovative approach to promoting healthy lifestyles for children and their families.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-20

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  12. The South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: Design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Kandula, Namratha R.; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W.; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-01-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6 weeks of group classes, followed by 12 weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population. PMID:24060673

  13. Factors influencing a health promoting lifestyle in spouses of active duty military.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Posey, Sheena M; Ricciardi, Richard; Agazio, Janice G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the health promoting behaviors (HPBs) of military spouses. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework guiding this study. One hundred twelve female spouses were surveyed regarding their perceived health status, perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and participation in HPBs. Perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, and HPBs were positively related, whereas perceived stress was negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed perceived stress and social support to be predictive of an overall health promoting lifestyle (HPLPII), with the full model explaining 49.7% of the variance.

  14. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in High School Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those

  15. Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Khera, Amit V; Emdin, Connor A; Drake, Isabel; Natarajan, Pradeep; Bick, Alexander G; Cook, Nancy R; Chasman, Daniel I; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Rader, Daniel J; Fuster, Valentin; Boerwinkle, Eric; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ridker, Paul M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2016-12-15

    Background Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of coronary artery disease. The extent to which increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle is unknown. Methods Using a polygenic score of DNA sequence polymorphisms, we quantified genetic risk for coronary artery disease in three prospective cohorts - 7814 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 21,222 in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), and 22,389 in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) - and in 4260 participants in the cross-sectional BioImage Study for whom genotype and covariate data were available. We also determined adherence to a healthy lifestyle among the participants using a scoring system consisting of four factors: no current smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Results The relative risk of incident coronary events was 91% higher among participants at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic scores) than among those at low genetic risk (bottom quintile of polygenic scores) (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 2.09). A favorable lifestyle (defined as at least three of the four healthy lifestyle factors) was associated with a substantially lower risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (defined as no or only one healthy lifestyle factor), regardless of the genetic risk category. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a 46% lower relative risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63). This finding corresponded to a reduction in the standardized 10-year incidence of coronary events from 10.7% for an unfavorable lifestyle to 5.1% for a favorable lifestyle in ARIC, from 4.6% to 2.0% in WGHS, and from 8.2% to 5.3% in MDCS. In the BioImage Study, a favorable lifestyle was associated with significantly less coronary-artery calcification within each genetic risk

  16. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  17. Advances in Gut Microbiome Research, Opening New Strategies to Cope with a Western Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Castaño, Gina P.; Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Reyes, Alejandro; Lizcano, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The “westernization” of global eating and lifestyle habits is associated with the growing rate of chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases. The primary prevention approach is to make nutritional and behavioral changes, however, there is another important determinant of our health that only recently has been considered and is the presence of beneficial microorganisms and their products in our gastrointestinal tract. Microorganisms living in our body can alter the fate of food, drugs, hormones, and xenobiotics, and recent studies point to the use of microorganisms that can counteract the harmful effects of certain compounds introduced or produced endogenously in our body. This review considers the effects of the western lifestyle on adiposity, glucose metabolism, oxidative markers and inflammation profile, emphasizes on the studies that have investigated bacterial strains and products of their metabolism that are beneficial under this lifestyle, and examines the screening strategies that recent studies are using to select the most promising probiotic isolates. In addition, we consider the relevance of studying the microbiota of metabolically healthy people under a western lifestyle for the understanding of the key components that delay the development of chronic diseases. PMID:28119734

  18. Advances in Gut Microbiome Research, Opening New Strategies to Cope with a Western Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Castaño, Gina P; Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Reyes, Alejandro; Lizcano, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The "westernization" of global eating and lifestyle habits is associated with the growing rate of chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases. The primary prevention approach is to make nutritional and behavioral changes, however, there is another important determinant of our health that only recently has been considered and is the presence of beneficial microorganisms and their products in our gastrointestinal tract. Microorganisms living in our body can alter the fate of food, drugs, hormones, and xenobiotics, and recent studies point to the use of microorganisms that can counteract the harmful effects of certain compounds introduced or produced endogenously in our body. This review considers the effects of the western lifestyle on adiposity, glucose metabolism, oxidative markers and inflammation profile, emphasizes on the studies that have investigated bacterial strains and products of their metabolism that are beneficial under this lifestyle, and examines the screening strategies that recent studies are using to select the most promising probiotic isolates. In addition, we consider the relevance of studying the microbiota of metabolically healthy people under a western lifestyle for the understanding of the key components that delay the development of chronic diseases.

  19. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA. PMID:15841256

  20. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  1. The Maasai's Education and Empowerment: Challenges of a Migrant Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jacqueline S.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2002-01-01

    Describes struggle of Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania to preserve migratory lifestyle while remaking their schooling system. Addresses goals, content and method, and outcomes for both indigenous and Western Maasai education. Considers educational implications for migratory lifestyles and recommends listening to, building trust with, and empowering…

  2. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  3. Women, Meaning Making and Lifestyle Change after a Cardiac Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Many US women have had or will experience a cardiac event and little is known about their learning experiences associated with subsequent lifestyle change. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the experiential learning of 22 women who made lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. Meaning making experiences were examined for influence…

  4. Thought-Style and Life-Style: Some Hypothesized Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Richard D.; O'Hearn, George T.

    1982-01-01

    Examines changes in the broad cultural background which provide the context for thinking, and how such life-style changes may have influenced the decline of reasoning skills and styles fundamental to the sciences. Considers peasant/rural farming, new world, and postaffluent society life-styles and science education in the latter. (Author/SK)

  5. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  6. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  7. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  8. Education in Healthy Lifestyles: Curriculum Implications. Fastback 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    The nature of a healthy lifestyle and its significance to quality of life is examined. Following a discussion on what is involved in a healthy lifestyle, major health problems are described: (1) smoking; (2) alcohol and drug abuse; (3) sexually transmitted diseases; (4) diet and obesity; (5) stress; and (6) inadequate sleep. Recommendations are…

  9. Wellness Intervention Effects on Lifestyle, Attitudes and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others

    The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…

  10. A simple healthy lifestyle index as a proxy of wellness: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Daniela; Zanuso, Silvano; Blair, Steven; Pagani, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    The evidence supporting the importance of a healthy lifestyle (active life, healthy diet, not smoking, and low stress) as a part of programs for primary and secondary prevention of cardiometabolic diseases is strong, compelling, and continuously growing. In this study, we test whether a simple web-based healthy lifestyle index, using self-reports, is related to indices of cardiovascular health and metabolic syndrome and could be employed in large wellness programs intended to promote healthy lifestyle. We studied 411 workers in an Italian multinational factory who were enrolled in a voluntary program consisting of a health checkup and an online questionnaire on lifestyle. These domains were combined into a single simple index. Participants were subdivided into three healthy lifestyle index (HI) groups (red, yellow, and green) ranging from poor to good HI quality (HI from red to green: 41.8 ± 14.6; 75.7 ± 8.5; 93.8 ± 2.2; p < 0.05). The groups differed in indicators of cardiovascular and metabolic health (waist circumference females: 82.1 ± 9.56, 78.9 ± 9.3, 72.7 ± 6.6; males: 95.2 ± 11.7, 90.0 ± 9.5, 85.7 ± 6.1 cm; group difference p < 0.05). Moreover, they differed significantly in the likelihood of having more components of the metabolic syndrome and, conversely, fewer components of the ideal cardiovascular health profile (with red having the worst profile). The red group was also characterized by the highest absenteeism. We report for the first time that a web-based self-reported poor health behavior was significantly associated with clinical and laboratory (partial correlation between HI and high-density cholesterol 0.192; body mass index -0.288; systolic blood pressure -0.130; all p < 0.05) results indicating a negative cardiometabolic profile.

  11. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  14. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  15. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  16. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  17. Lifestyle Changes and Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Adults With Spinal Cord Injury in the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ghaisas, Samruddhi; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a major burden to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting their psychological, physical, and social well-being. Lifestyle choices are thought to contribute to the risk of developing PrUs. This article focuses on the interaction between lifestyle choices and the development of PrUs in community settings among participants in the University of Southern California–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS II), a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for adults with SCI. We conducted a secondary cross-case analysis of treatment notes of 47 PUPS II participants and identified four patterns relating PrU development to lifestyle changes: positive PrU changes (e.g., healing PrUs) with positive lifestyle changes, negative or no PrU changes with positive lifestyle changes, positive PrU changes with minor lifestyle changes, and negative or no PrU changes with no lifestyle changes. We present case studies exemplifying each pattern. PMID:25553751

  18. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  19. Osteoporosis risk factors and early life-style modifications to decrease disease burden in women.

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Margaret J; Nazem, Taraneh G; Nachtigall, Richard H; Goldstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis should begin in childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Although genetic determinants of muscle and bone mass may offer other therapeutic options in the future, currently, counseling should primarily focus on lifestyle modification including healthy dietary practices and regular exercise. Vitamin supplementation, particularly vitamin D, should be considered to enhance diet based on patient's need. Attention to estrogen status is also important. In addition, patients should be counseled regularly about cigarette cessation and avoiding moderate alcohol intake.

  20. Transcriptomic and proteomic insights into innate immunity and adaptations to a symbiotic lifestyle in the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis

    DOE PAGES

    Wippler, Juliane; Kleiner, Manuel; Lott, Christian; ...

    2016-11-21

    The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. We generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota. Key adaptations to the symbiosis include (i) the expression of gut-specific digestive enzymes despite the absence of a gut, mostmore » likely for the digestion of symbionts in the host's epidermal cells; (ii) a modified hemoglobin that may bind hydrogen sulfide produced by two of the worm’s symbionts; and (iii) the expression of a very abundant protein for oxygen storage, hemerythrin, that could provide oxygen to the symbionts and the host under anoxic conditions. In addition, we identified a large repertoire of proteins involved in interactions between the worm's innate immune system and its symbiotic microbiota, such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins, lectins, fibrinogen-related proteins, Toll and scavenger receptors, and antimicrobial proteins.We also show how this worm, over the course of evolutionary time, has modified widely-used proteins and changed their expression patterns in adaptation to its symbiotic lifestyle and describe expressed components of the innate immune system in a marine oligochaete. These results provide further support for the recent realization that animals have evolved within the context of their associations with microbes and that their adaptive responses to symbiotic microbiota have led to biological innovations.« less

  1. Transcriptomic and proteomic insights into innate immunity and adaptations to a symbiotic lifestyle in the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wippler, Juliane; Kleiner, Manuel; Lott, Christian; Gruhl, Alexander; Abraham, Paul E.; Giannone, Richard J.; Young, Jacque C.; Hettich, Robert L.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2016-11-21

    The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. We generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota. Key adaptations to the symbiosis include (i) the expression of gut-specific digestive enzymes despite the absence of a gut, most likely for the digestion of symbionts in the host's epidermal cells; (ii) a modified hemoglobin that may bind hydrogen sulfide produced by two of the worm’s symbionts; and (iii) the expression of a very abundant protein for oxygen storage, hemerythrin, that could provide oxygen to the symbionts and the host under anoxic conditions. In addition, we identified a large repertoire of proteins involved in interactions between the worm's innate immune system and its symbiotic microbiota, such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins, lectins, fibrinogen-related proteins, Toll and scavenger receptors, and antimicrobial proteins.We also show how this worm, over the course of evolutionary time, has modified widely-used proteins and changed their expression patterns in adaptation to its symbiotic lifestyle and describe expressed components of the innate immune system in a marine oligochaete. These results provide further support for the recent realization that animals have evolved within the context of their associations with microbes and that their adaptive responses to symbiotic microbiota have led to biological innovations.

  2. Who will deliver comprehensive healthy lifestyle interventions to combat non-communicable disease? Introducing the healthy lifestyle practitioner discipline.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine.

  3. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. [Review of nursing diagnosis sedentary lifestyle in individuals with hypertension: conceptual analysis].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venicios de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to review the components of the nursing diagnosis Sedentary Lifestyle (SL) proposed by NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association)-l in individuals with hypertension. The review was developed based on a concept analysis and supported by the Integrative Literature Review method, through which 43 articles were surveyed from five databases (LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and COCHRANE). The following combinations of descriptors and their English and Spanish equivalents were used: Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension and Sedentary and Hypertension. Based on the review process, we found that the SL definition has changed, some clinical indicators have been identified and other indicators have been added to the definition. The study promotes a direction for diagnostic efficiency of clinical SL indicators, contributing to the refinement and improvement of this diagnosis and its components.

  5. Implementation evaluation of the Telephone Lifestyle Coaching (TLC) program: organizational factors associated with successful implementation.

    PubMed

    Damschroder, Laura J; Reardon, Caitlin M; Sperber, Nina; Robinson, Claire H; Fickel, Jacqueline J; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2016-09-29

    The Telephone Lifestyle Coaching (TLC) program provided telephone-based coaching for six lifestyle behaviors to 5321 Veterans at 24 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical facilities. The purpose of the study was to conduct an evaluation of the TLC program to identify factors associated with successful implementation. A mixed-methods study design was used. Quantitative measures of organizational readiness for implementation and facility complexity were used to purposively select a subset of facilities for in-depth evaluation. Context assessments were conducted using interview transcripts. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Factors most strongly correlated with referral rates included having a skilled implementation leader who used effective multi-component strategies to engage primary care clinicians as well as general clinic structures that supported implementation. Evaluation findings pointed to recommendations for local and national leaders to help anticipate and mitigate potential barriers to successful implementation.

  6. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  7. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility. PMID:23870423

  8. [Healthy lifestyle in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Goldbaum, Moisés; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-23

    The objective was to analyze adolescent, adult, and elderly lifestyles in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed with data from the Health Survey in São Paulo City (ISA-Capital 2008) database. Lifestyle was defined on the basis of physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol abuse and addiction, according to the respective guidelines. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was 36.9% in the elderly, 15.4% in adults, and 9.8% in adolescents, and was higher in females in the elderly and adults. Among individuals with unhealthy lifestyle, 51.5% of the elderly, 32.2% of adults, and 57.9% of adolescents failed to reach the guidelines for adequate diet. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was highest among the elderly, followed by adults and adolescents. Food consumption was the main factor associated with unhealthy lifestyle, demonstrating the importance of interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, especially adequate diet.

  9. Lifestyle and genetics in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temelkova-Kurktschiev, T; Stefanov, T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are multifactorial health threats caused by a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and the environment with dramatically increasing worldwide prevalence. The role of heritability in their etiology is well recognized, however, the numerous attempts made in order certain genetic variants determining individual susceptibility to be identified have had limited success, until recently. At present the advancements in human genetics and the utilization of the genome-wide association approach have led to the identification of over 20 genetic loci associated with, respectively obesity and type 2 diabetes. Most of the genes identified to date, however, have modest effect on disease risk suggesting that both diseases are unlikely to develop without the individual being exposed to obesity- and/or type 2 diabetes-promoting environment. Indeed, unhealthy lifestyle, characterized by physical inactivity and food overconsumption is an unequivocally established risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, on the other hand, have demonstrated that lifestyle modification is effective in obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention. Furthermore, gene-lifestyle interaction studies suggest that genetic susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes may be partially or totally kept under control by healthy lifestyle or lifestyle modification and that lifestyle determines whether an individual is likely to develop the disease. Inherited factors, however, seem to influence individual response to a lifestyle intervention program and even the motivation for lifestyle change. Personalized interventions according to genotype may be, therefore, considered in the future. By then lifestyle modification targeting dietary change and increased physical activity may be recommended for successful obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention irrespectively of genetic susceptibility.

  10. Japanese dietary lifestyle and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tada, Norio; Maruyama, Chizuko; Koba, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Birou, Sadatoshi; Teramoto, Tamio; Sasaki, Jun

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the reasons for low morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) and reconfirm the effectiveness of the Japanese dietary lifestyle for preventing CAD, we herein review the CAD risk transition, and post-war changes in Japanese food and nutrient intake. Large-scale cohort studies in Japan were selectively reviewed. Low serum total cholesterol contributed to preventing CAD, and decreased blood pressure was the major factor favoring stroke reduction. Japanese consumed more plant and marine origin foods, but fewer animal foods with saturated fatty acids (SFA) during the 1960-70s than in recent decades. Adequate control of total energy with restriction of saturated fatty acids from animal foods, increased intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including fish, soybean products, fruits and vegetables together with low salt intake are responsible for promoting CAD and stroke prevention. A diet with adequate total calories and increased intake of fish and plant foods, but decreased intake of refined carbohydrates and animal fat, a so-called Japan diet, appears to be quite effective for prevention of CAD risk factors and is recommended as dietary therapy for preventing CAD.

  11. On balance: lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Haggett, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Given the supremacy of the biomedical model in defining our understanding and treatment of a wide range of physcial and psychological disorders, it is perhaps curious that simultaneously, scientists, clinicians, governments and patients routinely employ the concepts of “lifestyle” and “balance” to try to explain the causes of bodily disease and psychological disorder. Concurrently, the health advantages that are assumed to be inherent in a “balanced life” have been exploited by a rapidly expanding consumer market in “wellbeing”—by companies and individuals promoting food supplements, “wearable fitness”, diet trends and the self-help material. Exploring the tension between the biomedical doctrine and the parallel preoccupation with balance and lifestyle has provided the impetus for this special issue. Emerging originally from papers presented at an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Exeter in June 2015, and augmented by two further comment pieces, the collection of articles aims to explore the ways in which changing notions of “balance” have been used to understand the causes of mental illness; to rationalise new approaches to its treatment; and to validate advice relating to balance in work and family life. PMID:28083120

  12. Internal affairs: investigating the Brucella intracellular lifestyle.

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Salcedo, Suzana P

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella are Gram-negative pathogens of several animal species that cause a zoonotic disease in humans known as brucellosis or Malta fever. Within their hosts, brucellae reside within different cell types where they establish a replicative niche and remain protected from the immune response. The aim of this article is to discuss recent advances in the field in the specific context of the Brucella intracellular 'lifestyle'. We initially discuss the different host cell targets and their relevance during infection. As it represents the key to intracellular replication, the focus is then set on the maturation of the Brucella phagosome, with particular emphasis on the Brucella factors that are directly implicated in intracellular trafficking and modulation of host cell signalling pathways. Recent data on the role of the type IV secretion system are discussed, novel effector molecules identified and how some of them impact on trafficking events. Current knowledge on Brucella gene regulation and control of host cell death are summarized, as they directly affect intracellular persistence. Understanding how Brucella molecules interplay with their host cell targets to modulate cellular functions and establish the intracellular niche will help unravel how this pathogen causes disease.

  13. Influence of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives on interaction between NIMoO{sub 4} and support in Al-Ni-Mo catalysts of hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelkovskaya, V.G.; Surin, S.A.; Nefedov, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Al-Ni-Mo catalysts produced by mixing of NiMoO{sub 4} and alumina hydrooxide (psevdobemit) were investigated by UV reflectance spectroscopy and combination scattering spectroscopy. The catalysts without H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives are characterized by destruction of NiMoO{sub 4} and interaction between Ni, Mo had the support with formation of surface Al-Ni-Mo structures. The study of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives effect on the formation of oxide Ni-Mo phases in the Al-Ni-Mo catalysts has shown, that the introduction of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} allows to stabilize NiMoO{sub 4} and to prevent its decomposition.

  14. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. [Attitude of students to health and healthy life-style].

    PubMed

    Belova, N I; Burtsev, S P; Vorobtsova, E A; Martynenko, A V

    2006-01-01

    Results of sociological survey of attitude of academic first-year students to health and healthy life-style are presented. Concurrence of respondents' opinions with used in scientific literature notions "health and healthy life-style" is established. Respondents emphasized significance of dependence of health from such most vital medical social factors as bad habits, nutrition characteristics and passing leisure. Respondents expressed their opinions about means of health promotion, need of preventive check-ups, importance of being informed on issues of health maintenance. Need to include courses on healthy life-style into academic curriculum is emphasized.

  16. Lifestyle and Self-Management by Those Who Live It: Patients Engaging Patients in a Chronic Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Michelle T; Rubinstein, Elizabeth; Eshelman, Anne; Wee, Corinne; Tankasala, Mrunalini; Li, Jia; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients pursuing organ transplantation have complex medical needs, undergo comprehensive evaluation for possible listing, and require extensive education. However, transplant patients and their supports frequently report the need for more lifestyle and self-management strategies for living with organ transplantation. Objectives: First, to explore feasibility of a successful, patient-run transplant lifestyle educational group (Transplant Living Community), designed to complement medical care and integrated into the clinical setting; and second, to report the major themes of patients’ and supports’ qualitative and quantitative feedback regarding the group. Methods: Informal programmatic review and patient satisfaction surveys. Results: A total of 1862 patient satisfaction surveys were disseminated and 823 were returned (response rate, 44.2%). Patients and their supports reported positive feedback regarding the group, including appreciation that the volunteer was a transplant recipient and gratitude for the lifestyle information. Five areas were associated with the success of Transplant Living Community: 1) a “champion” dedicated to the program and its successful integration into a multidisciplinary team; 2) a health care environment receptive to integration of a patient-led group with ongoing community development; 3) a high level of visibility to physicians and staff, patients, and supports; 4) a clearly presented and manageable lifestyle plan (“Play Your ACES”a [Attitude, Compliance, Exercise, and Support]), and 5) a strong volunteer structure with thoughtful training with the ultimate objective of volunteers taking ownership of the program. Conclusion: It is feasible to integrate a sustainable patient-led lifestyle and self-management educational group into a busy tertiary care clinic for patients with complex chronic illnesses. PMID:27455056

  17. Impact of lifestyle factors and nutrients intake on occurrence of gastrointestinal cancer in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Olfa; Chaaben, Arij Ben; Mezlini, Amel; Moussa, Amel; Omrane, Ines; Jilson, Irene; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Chabchoub, Soufia

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to show the relationship between lifestyle and risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in Tunisian population. The food frequency survey method was used to obtain information about the dietary intake and way of life. Nutrients intake was calculated according to the food composition database. According to our results, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish, as well as coffee seems to be protective against digestive cancer, while the consumption of citrus and olive oil is protective against gastric cancer. Tobacco, alcohol, and tea represent a risk against gastrointestinal cancer. Highly educated people are more conscious of the crucial role of prevention. In addition, nutrients were significantly associated with colorectal and gastric cancer. The findings suggest that lifestyle is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Moreover, higher intake of nutrients from foods was observed more in cases with colorectal and gastric cancer than controls.

  18. Lifestyles through Expenditures: A Case-Based Approach to Saving

    PubMed Central

    Keister, Lisa A.; Benton, Richard; Moody, James

    2016-01-01

    Treating people as cases that are proximate in a behavior space—representing lifestyles—rather than as markers of single variables has a long history in sociology. Yet, because it is difficult to find analytically tractable ways to implement this idea, this approach is rarely used. We take seriously the idea that people are whole packages, and we use household spending to identify groups who occupy similar positions in social space. Using detailed data on household consumption, we identify eight positions that are clearly similar in lifestyle. We then study how the lifestyles we identify are associated with saving, an important measure of household well-being. We find that households cluster into distinct lifestyles based on similarities and differences in consumption. These lifestyles are meaningfully related in social space and save in distinct ways that have important implications for understanding inequality and stratification. PMID:27904877

  19. Seeking Solutions to Solid Waste Management: The Role of Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stum, Marlene S.

    1992-01-01

    Offers consumer education curriculum ideas to increase understanding of households as ecosystems, analyze eco-consciousness and decision making, and examine lifestyle flexibility and the role of values. (SK)

  20. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity. In most of the studies described in this chapter, telomere length was measured in leukocytes (LTL) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), taken from blood draws from the study subjects. Much of this chapter focuses on psychological stress, a widespread factor often intimately tied in with lifestyle or behavioral factors that in turn are related to risks of clinical diseases. Together, these findings suggest that cellular aging is linked to a range of influences, with an individual's life events and lifestyle parameters playing significant roles. Lastly, we propose possible biochemical mechanisms that mediate these associations and discuss future directions.

  1. Evidence on health-promoting lifestyle practices and information and communication technologies: scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Joseph-Shehu, Elizabeth M; Ncama, Busisiwe P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a key role in improving health and maintaining health promoting behaviours. ICTs are therefore one potential solution for promoting healthy lifestyles. In addition, they can assist in the reduction and control of the menace of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. This study will map evidence of interventions that demonstrate the effect of ICTs on health-promoting lifestyle practices that can prevent and control diseases. It is anticipated that this study will help identify areas where there is need for primary research. Methods and analysis The following electronic databases will be searched: PsycArticle (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Science direct, PubMed, Medline (EBSCO) and Google Scholar. The study will be conducted in two stages: the first stage will map out the studies descriptively while the second stage will map the additional inclusion criteria of quality assessment. Two independent reviewers will undertake the data extraction. Relevant outcomes of the studies will be analysed thematically using NVIvo computer software. The authors will code all evidence independently. Thereafter the authors will critically cross-examine the relationship of the research questions to the emerging themes from the selected articles. The authors hope to find a large number of studies on health-promoting lifestyles that encompass six-subscales of health-promoting activities (nutrition, stress management, interpersonal relation, self-actualisation, health responsibility, physical activity) and ICT. Dissemination This study will be presented in conferences related to health promotion and health-promoting lifestyles. It will also be disseminated in print and electronically. Trial registration number CRD42016042568. PMID:28360246

  2. Human longevity: Genetics or Lifestyle? It takes two to tango.

    PubMed

    Passarino, Giuseppe; De Rango, Francesco; Montesanto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging and longevity in humans are modulated by a lucky combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Family studies demonstrated that about 25 % of the variation in human longevity is due to genetic factors. The search for genetic and molecular basis of aging has led to the identification of genes correlated with the maintenance of the cell and of its basic metabolism as the main genetic factors affecting the individual variation of the aging phenotype. In addition, studies on calorie restriction and on the variability of genes associated with nutrient-sensing signaling, have shown that ipocaloric diet and/or a genetically efficient metabolism of nutrients, can modulate lifespan by promoting an efficient maintenance of the cell and of the organism. Recently, epigenetic studies have shown that epigenetic modifications, modulated by both genetic background and lifestyle, are very sensitive to the aging process and can either be a biomarker of the quality of aging or influence the rate and the quality of aging. On the whole, current studies are showing that interventions modulating the interaction between genetic background and environment is essential to determine the individual chance to attain longevity.

  3. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  4. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  5. Lifestyle intervention in childhood obesity: changes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Lifestyle interventions are regarded as the therapy of choice in children with obesity. The efficiency of lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity has been proven by several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Even a stable weight in a growing child with obesity is associated with an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities of obesity. In particular, children aged 5-12 years and children with overweight rather than obesity profit from lifestyle interventions. However, in clinical practice, the degree of weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only moderate, and the success rate 2 years after onset of an intervention is low (<10% with a decrease in BMI SD score of <0.25). Nevertheless, the difficulty of a child with overweight or obesity to reduce their weight might be attributable to not only a lack of motivation but also genetic background and/or adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate, hunger and satiety hormones that occur with weight loss. We must accept that lifestyle interventions are successful only in a subgroup of children with obesity. Regardless, the techniques used and the education of therapists need to be improved. If lifestyle interventions do not result in weight loss in a child with obesity, drug treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk factors should be initiated but is currently seldom performed.

  6. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  7. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  8. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses.

  9. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses. PMID:26535569

  10. Lifestyle Risk Factors and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kamineni, Aruna; Carnethon, Mercedes; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David

    2010-01-01

    Background The combined impact of lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes mellitus later in life is not well established. The objective of this study was to determine how lifestyle factors, assessed in combination, relate to new-onset diabetes in a broad and relatively unselected population of older adults. Methods We prospectively examined associations of lifestyle factors, measured using repeated assessments later in life, with incident diabetes mellitus during a 10-year period (1989–1998) among 4883 men and women 65 years or older (mean [SD] age at baseline, 73[6] years) enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Low-risk lifestyle groups were defined by physical activity level (leisure-time activity and walking pace) above the median; dietary score (higher fiber intake and polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans-fat intake and lower mean glycemic index) in the top 2 quintiles; never smoked or former smoker more than 20 years ago or for fewer than 5 pack-years; alcohol use (predominantly light or moderate); body mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); and waist circumference of 88 cm for women or 92 cm for men. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes defined annually by new use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. We also evaluated fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose levels. Results During 34 539 person-years, 337 new cases of drug-treated diabetes mellitus occurred (9.8 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, and annual income, each lifestyle factor was independently associated with incident diabetes. Overall, the rate of incident diabetes was 35% lower (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59–0.71) for each 1 additional lifestyle factor in the low-risk group. Participants whose physical activity level and dietary, smoking, and alcohol habits were all in the low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of diabetes

  11. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  12. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  13. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  14. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness.

  15. Implementation of a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As in clinical practice resources may be limited compared to experimental settings, translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into daily life settings is challenging. In this study we therefore evaluated the implementation of the APHRODITE lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Dutch primary care. Based on this evaluation we discuss opportunities for refining intervention delivery. Methods A 2.5-year intervention was performed in 14 general practices in the Netherlands among individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) (n = 479) and was compared to usual care (n = 446). Intervention consisted of individual lifestyle counselling by nurse practitioners (n = 24) and GPs (n = 48) and group-consultations. Drop-out and attendance were registered during the programme. After the intervention, satisfaction with the programme and perceived implementation barriers were assessed with questionnaires. Results Drop-out was modest (intervention: 14.6 %; usual care: 13.2 %) and attendance at individual consultations was high (intervention: 80-97 %; usual care: 86-94 %). Providers were confident about diabetes prevention by lifestyle intervention in primary care. Participants were more satisfied with counselling from nurse practitioners than from GPs. A major part of the GPs reported low self-efficacy regarding dietary guidance. Lack of counselling time (60 %), participant motivation (12 %), and financial reimbursement (11 %) were regarded by providers as important barriers for intervention implementation. Conclusions High participant compliance and a positive attitude of providers make primary care a suitable setting for diabetes prevention by lifestyle counselling. Results support a role for the nurse practitioner as the key player in guiding lifestyle modification. Further research is needed on strategies that could increase cost-effectiveness, such as more stringent criteria

  16. Evaluation of the Impact of Nurses’ Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Utilization from Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zeliha; Çelebi, Pınar; Memiş, Ayşegül; Sağlam, Zeynep; Beyhan, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This descriptive study was designed to determine the impact of nurses’ healthy lifestyle behaviors on utilization from breast cancer early diagnosis methods. Materials and Methods The study was carried out with 236 (41.7%) nurses who agreed to participate out of 565 nurses who work in a university hospital from February 12th to February 15th 2011. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was collected by using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. The Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale was improved by Walker, Sechrist and Pender (1987) and was adapted to Turkish by Esin (1997). The data was evaluated by percentage calculation, one -way ANOVA, t-test and Tukey’s test. Results The mean Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale score was 129.09±19.82, the mean scores subscale scores of self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management were 38.52±6.28, 24.95±5.39, 9.41±3.24, 16.99±3.29, 21.22±3.39 and 17.99±3.66 respectively. It was found that Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale total score was higher in nurses with sufficient level of breast cancer knowledge (F=13.115, p=0.000), who perform regular BSE (t=3.191, p=0.002) and who attended training on breast cancer (t=3030, p=0.003). Conclusion It was determined that although the mean total score of nurse’s Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale and their information on breast cancer prevention were above average, the utilization of breast cancer early detection services was not at the expected levels.

  17. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Individualized patient-centered lifestyle recommendations: an expert system for communicating patient specific cardiovascular risk information and prioritizing lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chih-Lin; Nick Street, W; Robinson, Jennifer G; Crawford, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    We propose a proof-of-concept machine-learning expert system that learned knowledge of lifestyle and the associated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks from individual-level data (i.e., Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, ARIC). The expert system prioritizes lifestyle options and identifies the one that maximally reduce an individual's 10-year CVD risk by (1) using the knowledge learned from the ARIC data and (2) communicating for patient-specific cardiovascular risk information and personal limitations and preferences (as defined by variables used in this study). As a result, the optimal lifestyle is not only prioritized based on an individual's characteristics but is also relevant to personal circumstances. We also explored probable uses and tested the system in several examples using real-world scenarios and patient preferences. For example, the system identifies the most effective lifestyle activities as the starting point for an individual's behavior change, shows different levels of BMI changes and the associated CVD risk reductions to encourage weight loss, identifies whether weight loss or smoking cessation is the most urgent change for a diabetes patient, etc. Answers to the questions noted above vary based on an individual's characteristics. Our validation results from clinical trial simulations, which compared original with the optimal lifestyle using an independent dataset, show that the optimal individualized patient-centered lifestyle consistently reduced 10-year CVD risks.

  19. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  20. A 1.1Mb deletion in distal 13q deletion syndrome region with congenital heart defect and postaxial polydactyly: additional support for a CHD locus at distal 13q34 region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng; Ai, Qi; Huang, Can; Chen, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jian; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Jin-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, especially for group 3 deletion (13q33-q34 deletion). Previously we described a patient with congenital heart defect and mental retardation and proposed that a distal 6Mb region might contain the causative gene of congenital heart defect. Here we present a new patient with congenital heart defects (CHD), hand and foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. We identified a 1.1Mb deletion at chromosome 13q34 with high resolution SNP-array BeadChips (HumanOmni1-Quad, Illumina, USA). This chromosome region contains ten annotated genes, including GRK1, TFDP1, RASA3 and GAS6. To our knowledge, this represents the smallest 13q34 deletion identified to date. Our study provides additional support that distal 13q34 deletion region might contain key gene(s) responsible for cardiac development.

  1. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  2. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  3. Lifestyle of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Guedes, Maria de Fatima Santos; Sá, Letícia Marques; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to verify data concerning the relationship between the existent lifestyle and glycemic control in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1). The methods applied included the literature search strategy, selection of studies by means of inclusion and exclusion strategies, according to the characteristics of the studies. The search was conducted in the Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, Cochrame, SciELO and IBECS databases between in the period between 2005 and 2014. The articles selected were studies in humans, investing lifestyle, physical activities and glycemic levels. Of the 1798 studies initially identified, 11 met the eligibility criteria. Among the studies analyzed, 1 cohort; 1 longitudinal prospective, 1 case control and 8 transversal studies that approached the proposed theme were related. Regular physical activity was the variable that presented greatest relationship with the improvement in glycemic levels. Healthy active life, balanced diet, physical activities and education in diabetes improved the glycemic control of the DM1 patient. The results allowed the authors to conclude that a lifestyle based on physical activities interfered directly in the health of patients with DM1, in addition to contributing the glycemic control.

  4. Meta-analysis of the effects of lifestyle modifications on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden.

    PubMed

    Jhamnani, Sunny; Patel, Dhavalkumar; Heimlich, Layla; King, Fred; Walitt, Brian; Lindsay, Joseph

    2015-01-15

    Lifestyle modifications are the crux of atherosclerotic disease management. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of diet and exercise in decreasing coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden. Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of intensive lifestyle measures on atherosclerotic progression in coronary and carotid arteries as measured by baseline and follow-up quantitative coronary angiogram and ultrasonographic carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT), respectively, were included. Studies were excluded if the intervention additionally included a medication. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, reports, and abstracts from major cardiology meetings were searched by 2 researchers independently and verified by the primary investigator. Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Fourteen trials were included. Seven used quantitative coronary angiogram, and 7 used CIMT; 1,343 lesions in 340 patients in the coronary group and 919 patients in the carotid group were analyzed. Overall, lifestyle modifications were associated with a decrease in coronary atherosclerotic burden in percent stenosis by -0.34 (95% CI -0.48 to -0.21) SMD, with no significant publication bias and heterogeneity (p = 0.21, I(2) = 28.25). Similarly, in the carotids, there was a decrease in the CIMT, in millimeter, by -0.21 (95% CI -0.36 to -0.05) SMD and by -0.13 (95% CI -0.25 to -0.02) SMD, before and after accounting for publication bias and heterogeneity (p = 0.13, I(2) = 39.91; p = 0.54, I(2) = 0), respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that intensive lifestyle modifications are associated with a decrease in coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden.

  5. Elderly men with moderate and intense training lifestyle present sustained higher antibody responses to influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Adriana Ladeira; Silva, Léia Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Juliana Ruiz; Matias, Manuella de Sousa Toledo; Boas, Lucy Santos; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio; Benard, Gil

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to verify whether different levels of training performed regularly and voluntarily for many years could have an impact on one of the main issues of immunosenescence: the poor response to vaccines. We recruited 61 healthy elderly men (65-85 years old), 23 with a moderate training (MT) lifestyle (for 17.0 ± 3.2 years), 22 with an intense training (IT) lifestyle (for 25.9 ± 3.4 years), and 16 without a training lifestyle (NT). Fitness was evaluated through the IPAQ and VO2max consumption. The participants were evaluated regarding cognitive aspects, nutritional status, depression, and quality of life. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay prior to influenza vaccination and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-vaccination. Strains used were B, H3N2, and H1N1. Our groups were matched for most characteristics, except for those directly influenced by their lifestyles, such as BMI, VO2max, and MET. In general, MT and IT elderly men showed significantly higher antibody titers to the three vaccine strains post-vaccination than NT elderly men. There were also higher titers against B and H1N1 strains in the trained groups before vaccination. Additionally, there were higher proportions of seroprotected (titers ≥1:40) individuals in the pooled trained groups both at 6 weeks (B and H3N2, p < 0.05) and 6 months (H1N1, p < 0.05; B, p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between the MT and IT groups. Either a moderate or an intense training is associated with stronger and longstanding antibody responses to the influenza vaccine, resulting in higher percentages of seroprotected individuals.

  6. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  7. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  8. Relationships Among Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyle Habits With Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamamura, Misako; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Background While conventional cardiovascular risk factors and certain lifestyle habits are associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it is still unknown whether they are actually associated with arterial stiffness even after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits. The aim of this study was to identify variables that are associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Methods The study participants comprised 724 Japanese T2DM outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle habits were analyzed using self-reported questionnaires. The associations among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits with baPWV were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results The mean age of the study subjects was 57.8 ± 8.6 years, and 62.8% of those were males. The mean HbA1c was 7.0±1.0%, and the estimated duration of T2DM was 9.9 ± 7.2 years. Multiple linear regression analysis that included age and gender demonstrated that age and male sex were positively associated with baPWV. In a model adjusted for numerous conventional cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits, age, duration of T2DM, systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, urinary albumin excretion and poor sleep quality were positively associated with baPWV, while body mass index was negatively associated with baPWV. Conclusions In Japanese T2DM, in addition to several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, poor sleep quality was associated with baPWV even after adjustment for numerous conventional cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits. PMID:28270889

  9. Developing food-based dietary guidelines to promote healthy diets and lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Albert, Janice L; Samuda, Pauline M; Molina, Verónika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the general population in each of these countries. This paper reports on the comprehensive process of developing the guidelines through consensus building among stakeholders, technical assessments and priority setting, and use of qualitative methods to field test messages to ensure public understanding and motivation. Nutritionists in each country received training and support from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Pan American Health Organization's nutritionists.

  10. Imagine HEALTH: results from a randomized pilot lifestyle intervention for obese Latino adolescents using Interactive Guided ImagerySM

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    of intervention group and other relevant co-variates. Conclusions The improvements in physical activity and stress biomarkers following this pilot intervention support the role of guided imagery in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and reducing metabolic disease risk in obese Latino adolescent populations. Future investigations will be needed to determine the full effects of the Imagine HEALTH intervention on insulin resistance, stress, and stress biomarkers. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Registry #: NCT01895595 PMID:24433565

  11. Public health genomics and genetic test evaluation: the challenge of conducting behavioural research on the utility of lifestyle-genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of 'lifestyle-genetic' tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for selling these tests in advance of scientific support. Others are concerned that the tests may not motivate lifestyle improvements, instead causing distress in people receiving adverse test results and complacency in those receiving reassuring results. There is currently no regulatory oversight of genetic test utility, despite consensus in the Public Health Genomics community that clinical utility (including psychological and behavioural impact) of all emerging genetic tests should be evaluated before being introduced for individual use. Clearly, empirical data in this area is much needed, to inform understanding of the potential utility of these tests, and of whether stricter regulation of commercial exploitation is needed. In this article, we review the current situation regarding lifestyle-genetic tests, and discuss the challenges inherent in conducting this kind of behavioural research in the genomics era.

  12. Understanding experiences of participating in a weight loss lifestyle intervention trial: a qualitative evaluation of South Asians at high risk of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Zoe; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    additional and in some cases unachievable burden. Consideration needs to be given to strengthening and supporting lifestyle interventions with community-based approaches in order to help overcome wider social and environmental factors. PMID:24951108

  13. Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Haruka; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Taniai, Makiko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated. PMID:25411525

  14. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  15. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  16. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  17. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. Methods and findings We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011–2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors—cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking—and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%–23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%–27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Conclusions Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition

  19. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  20. Extensive internet involvement--addiction or emerging lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-12-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing "addiction-like" behavioral disorders such as "Internet addiction" to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use--PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of "behavioral addictions", based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to "time" and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills.

  1. Lifestyle strategies for the prevention of vision loss.

    PubMed

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    As the baby boom generation ages, it is anticipated that half a million cases per year will be added to the 19 to 21 million Americans not living in institutions or serving in the military who have low vision or blindness. The 4 major causes of vision loss and blindness in the United States are cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. All 4 diseases involve change in the microcirculation in eye structures. Holistic approaches to health incorporate attention to individuals' lifestyle choices. Relevant research literature was reviewed to identify strategies for lifestyle modification that nurses can use to prevent or slow progression of these diseases. Prevention strategies in general are those that promote avoidance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Because vision loss has been shown to be associated with diminished quality of life and increased mortality, lifestyle changes that prevent or moderate the impact of these diseases are an important focus of nursing care.

  2. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.

  3. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  4. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people.

  5. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures.

  6. [Chronological nutrition and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    Lifestyle controls the circadian rhythms produced by clock genes and affects telomere length that regulates healthspan. Biological clocks are classified into oscillatory (clock genes) and hourglass clocks (telomeres). Clock genes align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, become shorter during cell division. Shortened telomeres have been documented in various pathological states in lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. Human activity is driven by NADH and ATP produced from nutrients, and the resulting NAD and AMP play a predominant role in energy regulation. Caloric restriction and proper exercise increase both AMP and NAD, and extend the healthspan. SIRT1, the NAD-dependent deacetylase, attenuates telomere shortening, while PGC-1alpha, a master modulator of gene expression, is phosphorylated by AMP kinase and deacetylated by SIRT1. Prevention of lifestyle related diseases by chronological nutrition is described based on these mechanisms.

  7. [Genetic analysis of life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Tokihisa; Miki, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    In our country to which the aging society was invited, life-style related diseases, such as cancer, ischemic cardiac disease, apoplexy, and diabetes, are increasing. These life-style related diseases are multi-factor diseases. And genetic factors, environmental factors, and aging factors are concerned. This genetic factors are prescribed by gene polymorphism between individuals. The method of identifying these gene polymorphism has two kinds, microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). If the relation of life-style related diseases and gene polymorphism will be solved from now on, realization of patient-tailored treatment according to the individual, extension of healthy life expectancy, improvement in quality of life, and decrease of medical expenses are expected.

  8. Dietary and lifestyle practices of Hmong in California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard C; Mills, Paul K

    2008-11-01

    As Hmong adapt to life in Fresno, California, their dietary and lifestyle patterns are examined. Data on tobacco and alcohol use, dietary practices, and socio-demographic variables were collected from a convenience sample, stratified by age and sex. The 248 participants were interviewed. Descriptive analyses reveal that more than 63% of Hmong adults were either overweight or obese. Only 57% could speak English fluently, and 71% were economically impoverished. Hmong do not consume tobacco and alcoholic products excessively. Rice, chicken, beef, and eggs were the most frequently identified food items. Fruits and vegetables were also identified. Low alcohol and tobacco consumption may offer Hmong some protection against certain diseases. However, low socioeconomic status and rapid urbanization may have resulted in a shift from a high-energy expenditure lifestyle and high fiber diets to a sedentary lifestyle with high saturated fat food diets, which may be detrimental to the health of many Hmong.

  9. In our country tortilla doesn't make us fat: cultural factors influencing lifestyle goal-setting for overweight and obese Urban, Latina patients.

    PubMed

    Jay, Melanie; Gutnick, Damara; Squires, Allison; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Gerchow, Lauren; Savarimuthu, Stella; Chintapalli, Sumana; Shedlin, Michele G; Kalet, Adina

    2014-11-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latina adults, and goal-setting is a technique often used to promote lifestyle behavior change and weight loss. To explore the meanings and dimensions of goal-setting in immigrant Latinas, we conducted four focus groups arranged by language ability and country of origin in an urban, public, primary care clinic. We used a narrative analytic approach to identify the following themes: the immigrant experience, family dynamics, and health care. Support was a common sub-theme that threaded throughout, with participants relying on the immigrant community, family, and the health care system to support their goals. Participants derived satisfaction from setting and achieving goals and emphasized personal willpower as crucial for success. These findings should inform future research on how goal-setting can be used to foster lifestyle behavior change and illustrate the importance of exploring the needs of Latino sub-groups in order to improve lifestyle behaviors in diverse Latino populations.

  10. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  11. Lateral diffusion of peripheral membrane proteins on supported lipid bilayers is controlled by the additive frictional drags of (1) bound lipids and (2) protein domains penetrating into the bilayer hydrocarbon core.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1-3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both (1) individual bound lipids and (2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the diffusion

  12. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  13. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  14. Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention on Mood and Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Null, Gary; Pennesi, Luanne; Feldman, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This group study explored how an intervention of diet and lifestyle, including a vegan diet, fruit and vegetable juicing, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, and destressing techniques, would affect 27 subjects with anxiety, depression, poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, history of stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Several subjects had overlapping conditions. Videotaped testimonials were obtained describing subjective results. Testimonials stated multiple benefits across all conditions addressed by the study, with subjects often reporting substantial benefits. These results demonstrate that an intervention of diet, juicing, supplements, exercise, and lifestyle may provide considerable benefits for all conditions addressed.

  15. Osteoporosis prevention and management: nonpharmacologic and lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Mindy S; Shen, Wen

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate current evidence regarding the use of dietary and exercise interventions to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The key lifestyle modifications that can decrease risk of fracture in postmenopausal women include regular weight-bearing exercise and a balanced diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Other modifiable lifestyle factors critical to bone health and to decrease fracture risk include the avoidance of smoking, an excessively low body weight, excessive alcohol intake, and fall risks at home. Emerging modifiable factors may include B-vitamin, omega-3 fatty acid, soy isoflavone, and dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation.

  16. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  17. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle.

  18. Lifestyle Assessment: Part 4. The Halton Health Promotion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R.; Albert, W.; Wilson, D. M. C.; Ciliska, D.; Evans, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    In the Region of Halton, a health promotion data base was developed to assist with planning for local services and programs. Three data sources were used: preventable mortality, preventable morbidity, and the prevalence of modifiable risk among community members. Existing information was used for the first two sources, and the community was surveyed for the last. A survey version of the FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 households. FANTASTIC showed itself to be a reliable lifestyle construct with two major factors: a group of psychosocial behaviors, and a set of “bad habits”.

  19. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression.

  20. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2006-09-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.

  1. The influence of lifestyle and gender on sickness absence in Brazilian workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an increasing body of knowledge concerning gender and lifestyle factors as determinants of sickness absence in well-developed countries, the relationship between these variables has not been elucidated in emerging economic power countries, where the burden of non-communicable diseases is particularly high. This study aimed to analyze the relationships among lifestyle-related factors and sick leave and to examine whether gender differences in sickness absence can be explained by differences in socio-demographic, work and lifestyle-related factors among Brazilian workers. Methods In this longitudinal study with a one year follow-up among 2.150 employees of a Brazilian airline company, sick leave was the primary outcome of interest. Independent variables collected by interview at enrolment in the study were gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity and smoking). In addition, the risk for coronary heart disease was determined based on measurement of blood pressure, total cholesterol and glucose levels. The total number of days on sick leave during 12 months follow-up was available from the company register. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic, type of work and lifestyle-related factors on sick leave. Results Younger employees, those with lower educational level, those who worked as air crew members and those with higher levels of stress were more likely to have sick leave. Body mass index and level of physical activity were not associated with sick leave. After adjustment by socio-demographic variables, increased odds for 10 or more days of sick leave were found in smokers (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.05-2.17), and ex-smokers (OR = 1.45, CI = 1.01-2.10). Women were more likely to have 10 or more days of sick leave. Gender differences were reduced mainly when adjusted for type of work (15%) and educational level (7

  2. California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossard, Marcia Hill

    Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that

  3. Healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: an assessment of their persuasive potential.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and analyse the content of previously produced and aired adult-targeted public health advertisements (ads) addressing weight, nutrition or physical activity internationally. Ads were identified via keyword searches of Google, YouTube and websites of relevant government agencies and health organizations, and were eligible for inclusion if they were: in English; produced between 2007 and 2012; targeted at adults; ≤60 s; not promoting a particular commercial brand of food, fitness or weight loss product. Of the 99 ads coded, 59% featured supportive/encouraging messages, 36% presented information about health consequences and 17% focussed on social norms/acceptability issues. Supportive/encouraging messages were more frequently used in physical activity ads, while there were a higher proportion of messages about health consequences in weight ads. Execution style differed across lifestyle topics, with simulation/animation more common in nutrition ads and graphic images and negative personal testimonials in weight ads. Ads addressing weight were more likely to evoke high negative emotion and include potentially stigmatizing content. Understanding how weight and lifestyle issues have been addressed in recent public health advertising will help guide future efforts to test the effectiveness of different message types in facilitating positive behaviour changes.

  4. Pregnant Turkish women with low income: their anxiety, health-promoting lifestyles, and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Oya; Atan, Senay Unsal; Sirin, Ahsen; Sen, Emine; Guneri, Sezer Er; Dag, Hande Yagcan

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents anxiety levels, health-promoting lifestyles and related factors among pregnant Turkish women with low income. A descriptive correlation and cross-sectional study was conducted at a state maternity hospital in Western Turkey. The paper reports on the data (n = 195) from the Spielberg State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The average HPLP score was low (mean 2.57, SD 0.42). The average STAI score was high (40.67 ± 9.48; 46.40 ± 8.09, respectively). A significant relation was detected between the trait anxiety, state anxiety, antenatal visit, perception of social support, living environment, family type and HPLP (P < 0.05). A moderately negative relation was detected between the mean STAI and HPLP scores. The findings indicate information and data should be provided for service planning and community care to support pregnant Turkish women with low income in communities.

  5. The Effect of Interdisciplinary Interventions on Risk Factors for Lifestyle Disease: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P

    2016-06-01

    Interventions that comprise interdisciplinary collaboration including behavioral elements are effective in addressing lifestyle disease risk factors. However, it is not known how best to conduct this collaboration for sustainable change. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the evidence for the effects of interdisciplinary interventions on lifestyle disease risk factors including weight, lipid levels, glycemic control, and blood pressure. To do so, a systematic review of the literature was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science (all years to September 2014). Eighteen articles describing 16 studies of interdisciplinary interventions were identified. Consistent results were found for effects on weight loss but not for effects on blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Effective interventions involved collaborations between dieticians, exercise physiologists, and psychologists and incorporated intensive initial participant engagement. Few studies investigated the long-term effect of interventions, but where this was done, the maintenance of favorable changes required ongoing participant support. Current evidence suggests that interdisciplinary interventions are effective in promoting weight loss and that ongoing support of participants is key to maintaining results beyond initial study duration. Future studies should examine long-term effects in pragmatic trials that address translation to practice.

  6. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  7. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The…

  8. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  9. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  10. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  11. Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Khan, Zulfia; Ansari, M Athar; Khalique, Najam; Anees, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results: Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention. PMID:22279255

  12. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  13. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the "normal-weight metabolically obese" phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority.

  14. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  15. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases.

  16. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  17. Concurrent and convergent validity of the simple lifestyle indicator questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; Bethune, Cheri; Kirby, Allison; Pike, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle issues including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported stress have all been shown to predispose people to higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This study provides further psychometrics on the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ), a short, easy-to-use instrument which measures all these lifestyle characteristics as a single construct. One hundred and ninety-three individuals from St. John's, Newfoundland, and Labrador, Canada completed the SLIQ and reference standards for diet, exercise, stress, and alcohol consumption. The reference standards were a detailed Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), the SF36 Health Status Questionnaire, and a survey of eight questions from a cardiovascular risk questionnaire. Physical activity score was compared with number of steps on a pedometer. Correlations between scores on the SLIQ and the reference standards were the SLIQ versus DHQ (r = 0.679, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus pedometer (r = 0.455, P = 0.002), SLIQ versus alcohol consumption (r = 0.665, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus SRRS (r = -0.264, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus eight-question risk score (r = 0.475, P = 0.001), and SLIQ versus Question 1 on SF36 (r = 0.303, P = 0.001). The SLIQ is sufficiently valid when compared to reference standards to be useful as a brief assessment of an individual's cardiovascular lifestyle in research and clinical settings.

  18. The Social and Lifestyle Characteristics of Australian Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…

  19. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  20. Conducting Psychoeducational Interventions with Drug Abusing Clients: The Lifestyle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William N.; Walters, Glenn D.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a psychoeducational model of intervention for use with drug abusers. Claims that the model may be particularly helpful during the early stages of intervention in reducing resistance to change since it addresses the eight thinking styles believed to shield the drug "lifestyle" from forces that would otherwise lead to change. (RJM)

  1. Diet and lifestyle in CVD prevention and treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing CVD. Thi...

  2. Advertising a "Healthy Lifestyle:" A Cypriot Health Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a health education program entitled "Young Consumer" project, financed by the European Union and implemented by the Cyprus Consumer Association between March and June 2004. The aim of the project was to promote a healthy lifestyle among a group of Cypriot primary school pupils (11-12 years old). Participants were…

  3. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy.

  4. A Preliminary Research on the Lifestyle of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiaowen; Shih, Hongyu; Thiruvadi, Sheela; Song, Yiru

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to explore the lifestyle of international students and also the difficulties faced by them due to the language barrier (difficulty in learning the Chinese language) in Taiwan. Motivation for this study comes from the increasing number of international students, and the related educational policy settings of the…

  5. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  6. Freshman Orientation Sessions Can Teach Incoming Students about Healthful Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Waldrop, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This GEM describes the "Freshman 15 Jeopardy" workshop, a 30-minute nutrition education session aimed to expose incoming college freshmen to the college food environment, to increase their awareness of factors that cause weight gain, and to instruct them on lifestyle choices they could employ to prevent weight gain. This short workshop has not…

  7. Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Closs, Vera Elizabeth; Junges, Vilma Maria; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-01-13

    Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.

  8. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  9. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  10. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  11. Lifestyle Modification for Resistant Hypertension: The TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J.; Mabe, Stephanie; Watkins, Lana; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Craighead, Linda W.; Babyak, Michael; Tyson, Crystal; Young, Kenlyn; Ashworth, Megan; Kraus, William; Liao, Lawrence; Hinderliter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health burden in this country affecting as many as one in five adults being treated for hypertension. RH is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to reduce blood pressure in this high risk population are a national priority. Methods TRIUMPH is a single site, prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie DASH eating plan, and weight management compared to standardized education and physician advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (N=150) will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical practice. The primary end point is clinic blood pressure; secondary endpoints include ambulatory blood pressure and an array of CVD biomarkers including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids, sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory markers. Lifestyle habits, blood pressure and CVD risk factors also will be measured at one year follow-up. Conclusions The TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a standardized education and physician advice counseling session on blood presssure and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4 months of treatment, and will determine whether lifestyle changes can be maintained for a year. PMID:26542509

  12. Obesity and headache/migraine: the importance of weight reduction through lifestyle modifications.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Di Fonzo, Alessia; Penta, Laura; Agostinelli, Sergio; Parisi, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a possible relationship between prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine and obesity. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed in order to assess the possible relationship between obesity and migraine, in particular migraine frequency and disability in children, as well as in adult population studies. Prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine appear to increase in relation to the body mass index, although this evidence is not supported by all the studies examined. Data from literature suggest that obesity can be linked with migraine prevalence, frequency, and disability both in pediatric and adult subjects. These data have important clinical implications and suggest that clinicians should have a special interest for weight reduction of obese children suffering from migraine, prescribing and supporting intensive lifestyle modifications (dietary, physical activities, and behavioral) for the patient and the entire family.

  13. Obesity and Headache/Migraine: The Importance of Weight Reduction through Lifestyle Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Di Fonzo, Alessia; Agostinelli, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a possible relationship between prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine and obesity. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed in order to assess the possible relationship between obesity and migraine, in particular migraine frequency and disability in children, as well as in adult population studies. Prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine appear to increase in relation to the body mass index, although this evidence is not supported by all the studies examined. Data from literature suggest that obesity can be linked with migraine prevalence, frequency, and disability both in pediatric and adult subjects. These data have important clinical implications and suggest that clinicians should have a special interest for weight reduction of obese children suffering from migraine, prescribing and supporting intensive lifestyle modifications (dietary, physical activities, and behavioral) for the patient and the entire family. PMID:24800223

  14. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (p<.05) poorer HRQOL across multiple domains compared to those diagnosed at an earlier age, survivors of leukemia or sarcoma, and healthy populations. A significant proportion also failed to meet national recommendations for dietary intakes (39–94%) and physical activity (65%). Female survivors reported poorer physical functioning and consumed less dietary fiber and fruits and vegetables than did male survivors. They also expressed the strongest interest in participating in diet and exercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions

  15. Health-related lifestyle factors and mammography screening attendance in a Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening.

  16. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tibebu, Abel; Mengistu, Daniel; Negesa, Lemma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN). The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence. Objective This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were ana-lyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016. Results The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52%) were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents. Conclusion The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle modifications and ongoing support for patients should be designed and studies which assess all the components of self-management should be conducted for comparison among different subgroups. PMID:28280305

  17. Diet and lifestyle factors modify immune/inflammation response genes to alter breast cancer risk and prognosis: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundgreen, Abbie; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Wolff, Roger K.; Hines, Lisa; Baumgartner, Kathy; John, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are important mediators of inflammation. We examined 10 of these genes with respect to breast cancer risk and mortality in a genetically admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. Additionally, we explored if diet and lifestyle factors modified associations with these genes. Overall, these genes (collectively) were associated with breast cancer risk among women with >70% NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.0008), with TLR1 rs7696175 being the primary risk contributor (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Overall, TLR1 rs7696175 (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03, 1.91; Padj=0.032), TLR4 rs5030728 (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.30, 2.95; Padj=0.014), and TNFRSF1A rs4149578 (HR 2.71, 95% CI 1.28, 5.76; Padj=0.029) were associated with increased breast cancer mortality. We observed several statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple comparisons, including interactions between our dietary oxidative balance score and CD40LG and TNFSF1A; between cigarette smoking and TLR1, TLR4, and TNF; between body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women and TRAF2; and between regular use of aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TLR3 and TRA2. In conclusion, our findings support a contributing role of certain TNF-α and TLR genes in both breast cancer risk and survival, particularly among women with higher NA ancestry. Diet and lifestyle factors appear to be important mediators of the breast cancer risk associated with these genes. PMID:25332681

  18. Diet and lifestyle factors modify immune/inflammation response genes to alter breast cancer risk and prognosis: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Wolff, Roger K; Hines, Lisa; Baumgartner, Kathy; John, Esther M

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are important mediators of inflammation. We examined 10 of these genes with respect to breast cancer risk and mortality in a genetically admixed population of Hispanic/Native American (NA) (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. Additionally, we explored if diet and lifestyle factors modified associations with these genes. Overall, these genes (collectively) were associated with breast cancer risk among women with >70% NA ancestry (P(ARTP) = 0.0008), with TLR1 rs7696175 being the primary risk contributor (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Overall, TLR1 rs7696175 (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03, 1.91; P(adj) = 0.032), TLR4 rs5030728 (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.30, 2.95; P(adj) = 0.014), and TNFRSF1A rs4149578 (HR 2.71, 95% CI 1.28, 5.76; P(adj) = 0.029) were associated with increased breast cancer mortality. We observed several statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple comparisons, including interactions between our dietary oxidative balance score and CD40LG and TNFSF1A; between cigarette smoking and TLR1, TLR4, and TNF; between body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women and TRAF2; and between regular use of aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TLR3 and TRA2. In conclusion, our findings support a contributing role of certain TNF-α and TLR genes in both breast cancer risk and survival, particularly among women with higher NA ancestry. Diet and lifestyle factors appear to be important mediators of the breast cancer risk associated with these genes.

  19. Protein languages differ depending on microorganism lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Grzymski, Joseph J; Marsh, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups-a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage-utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text-identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function.

  20. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Grzymski, Joseph J.; Marsh, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text–identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function. PMID:24828817

  1. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Implementation of Regressing Suboptimal Health Status among College Students in China: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Hongjie; Jiang, Pingping; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Li, Fei; Wu, Shengwei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Yanyan; Kwan, Hiuyee; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Sun, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    . Further analyses revealed a marked increase (average increased 14.73 points) in lifestyle level among those SHS regression to health after 1.5 years, with respect to the HPLP-II behavioral dimensions, in addition to the total score (t = −15.34, p < 0.001). Conclusions: SHS is highly attributable to unhealthy lifestyles, and the mitigation of modifiable lifestyle risk factors may lead to SHS regression. Increased efforts to modify unhealthy lifestyles are necessary to prevent SHS. PMID:28264509

  2. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.

  3. Evaluation of the psychoeducation given to the elderly at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tambağ, Hatice; Öz, Fatma

    2013-12-01

    The research was carried out as a pre-test, post-test patterned intervention with one group in order to evaluate the psychoeducation given to older people at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction. The research was done with 21 female and 21 male older people staying at the state-owned Seyran Bağlari Nursing Home/Elderly Caring Rehabilitation Center and the Ümitköy Nursing Home. In the psychoeducation program, each session was conducted for a duration of 60-90 min in the nursing homes' education classrooms. After the psychoeducation program, the life satisfaction index, the health promotion lifestyle profile total, and the subscale (nutrition, health responsibility, self realization, stress management, interpersonal support, and exercise) mean scores, significantly increased statistically. It is suggested that the nursing homes' health workers, and especially nurses who work full-time, should promote such psychoeducation.

  4. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  5. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  6. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  7. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  8. Lifestyle interventions targeting dietary habits and exercise in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    BAUER, ISABELLE E.; GÁLVEZ, JUAN F.; HAMILTON, JANE E.; BALANZÁ-MARTÍNEZ, VICENT; ZUNTA-SOARES, GIOVANA; SOARES, JAIR C.; MEYER, THOMAS D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness associated with a high risk of medical comorbidities, long-term disability and premature death. This systematic review examined the current literature on therapeutic interventions targeting nutrition and physical activity in BD and collecting health-related measures such as mood and course of illness. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to June 2015, for studies focusing on lifestyle interventions in BD. Search terms were related to bipolar disorder, nutrition, physical activity, wellbeing, psychosocial interventions and course of illness. We hand searched content pages of Bipolar Disorders and Journal of Affective Disorders and checked references of relevant reviews and dissertations to identify additional papers. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to identified hits, this literature search retrieved six papers. Overall findings point towards a beneficial role of lifestyle interventions on mood, weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, physical activity and overall wellbeing. Methodological limitations include small sample size, gender ratio imbalance, inconsistencies in terms of laboratory measures, and lack of randomized control trials and absence of follow-up and longitudinal studies to determine the benefits of these factors on clinical and functional outcomes over time Conclusions Lifestyle interventions in BD targeting nutrition, exercise, wellbeing alongside beliefs, coping strategies and attitudes towards health show promise in reducing the risk of comorbid ailments in BD. There is still a strong need for studies a) developing interventions which are informed by the patient’s input and b) examining the effectiveness of such interventions targeting general wellness using well-controlled trials. PMID:26724541

  9. A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Sueoka, N; Suganuma, M; Sueoka, E; Okabe, S; Matsuyama, S; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Fujiki, H

    2001-04-01

    In the normal human life span, there occur lifestyle-related diseases that may be preventable with nontoxic agents. This paper deals with the preventive activity of green tea in some lifestyle-related diseases. Green tea is one of the most practical cancer preventives, as we have shown in various in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with epidemiological studies. Among various biological effects of green tea, we have focused on its inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha gene expression mediated through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. Based on our recent results with TNF-alpha-deficient mice, TNF-alpha is an endogenous tumor promoter. TNF-alpha is also known to be a central mediator in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. We therefore hypothesized that green tea might be a preventive agent for chronic inflammatory diseases. To test this hypothesis, TNF-alpha transgenic mice, which overexpress TNF-alpha only in the lungs, were examined. The TNF-alpha transgenic mouse is an animal model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which also frequently develops lung cancer. Expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were inhibited in the lungs of these mice after treatment with green tea in drinking water for 4 months. In addition, judging from the results of a prospective cohort study in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, green tea helps to prevent cardiovascular disease. In this study, a decreased relative risk of death from cardiovascular disease was found for people consuming over 10 cups of green tea a day, and green tea also had life-prolonging effects on cumulative survival. These data suggest that green tea has preventive effects on both chronic inflammatory diseases and lifestyle-related diseases (including cardiovascular disease and cancer), resulting in prolongation of life span.

  10. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  11. Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  12. Lifestyle, education, and prevalence of hypertension in populations of African origin. Results from the International Collaborative Study on Hypertension in Blacks.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J S; Tracy, J A; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Cooper, R S

    1997-01-01

    Lifestyle Incongruity has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in various developing societies. We sought to test this model in an international collaborative study of hypertension in populations of African origin. Data were available for 4770 men and women, aged 25-74, from Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States. The main effects of lifestyle score (LSS) and education on hypertension prevalence were explored, as well as interactions predicted by the Lifestyle Incongruity model. Significant interactions were observed, but only the U.S. men conformed to the pattern predicted. For this group, adjusted ORs for LSS were 4.45 among low-education and 0.71 among high-education subgroups (risk OR = 0.16, 0.03-0.84 95% CI). The Lifestyle Incongruity model therefore received limited support. The model was designed to describe processes in societies experiencing modernization and opportunities for lifestyle differentiation, conditions that may not have been met in some sites.

  13. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  14. The Contributions of Unhealthy Lifestyle Factors to Apparent Resistant Hypertension: Findings from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Daichi; Levitan, Emily B.; Booth, John N.; Calhoun, David A.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Safford, Monika M.; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unhealthy lifestyle factors may contribute to apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH). We examined associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with aTRH in individuals taking antihypertensive medications from three or more classes. Methods Participants (n=2,602) taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes were identified from the population-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. aTRH was defined as having systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg despite the use of three or more antihypertensive medication classes or the use of four or more classes to achieve blood pressure control. Lifestyle factors included obesity, physical inactivity, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, a low DASH diet score and high sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) intake. Results Among participants taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes, 1,293 (49.7%) participants had aTRH. The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle factors in participants with and without aTRH was 55.2% and 51.7% respectively for obesity, 42.2% and 40.5% for physical inactivity, 11.3% and 11.5% for current smoking, 3.1% and 4.0% for heavy alcohol consumption, 23.1% and 21.5% for low DASH diet score, and 25.4% and 24.4% for high Na/K intake. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and geographic region of residence, none of the unhealthy lifestyle factors was associated with aTRH. The associations between each unhealthy lifestyle factor and aTRH remained non-significant after additional adjustment for education, income, depressive symptoms, total calorie intake, and co-morbidities. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle factors did not have independent associations with aTRH among individuals taking three or more antihypertensive medication classes. PMID:23303356

  15. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  16. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  17. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; ...

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  18. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ângela; Andrade, José Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease.

  19. Unlabelled advertorials in Slovenian life-style press: a study of the promotion of health products.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Melita Poler; Erjavec, Karmen; Stular, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses unlabelled advertorials about health products in four life-style magazines and three daily newspapers' life-style supplements in Slovenia. Based on 250 hours of observing the production practice, 20 in-depth interviews with the main participants and a textual analysis of 247 advertorials, supported by three detailed case studies, the process of unlabelled advertorial production was unveiled, reasons for their production explained and their discursive elements of promotion uncovered. Despite their typical news-like appearance, advertorials focus on a product's positive characteristics only and represent an oversimplified viewpoint on health, primarily oriented towards the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. In advertorials, readers are instructed in healthy living and caring about their health through buying the promoted product. No particular differences were found between the magazines and quality dailies' supplements, indicating that the advertorial practice has become a common part of the Slovenian press media scene. The outburst of advertorials in Slovenia is outstanding due to the lack of historical democracy, problems with the supervision of legal transgressions, the small media and advertising market, economic downturns and the financial weakness of the media.

  20. A lifestyle intervention for primary care patients with depression and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Adrienne; Deane, Frank P; Williams, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a diet and exercise lifestyle intervention on mental health outcomes for patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety in primary care. Patients (n=119) referred by general practitioners to the 12-week randomised controlled trial were assigned to either an intervention of six visits to a dual qualified dietitian/exercise physiologist (DEP) where motivational interviewing and activity scheduling were used to engage patients in individually-tailored lifestyle change (focussed on diet and physical activity), or an attention control with scheduled telephone contact. Assessments conducted at baseline (n=94) and 12 weeks (n=60) were analysed with an intent-to-treat approach using linear mixed modelling. Significant improvement was found for both groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores, measures of nutrient intake and total Australian modified Healthy Eating Index (Aust-HEI) scores. Significant differences between groups over time were found only for iron intake and body mass index. Patients participating in individual consultations with a dietitian were more likely to maintain or improve diet quality than those participating in an attention control. This study provides initial evidence to support the role of dietitians in the management of patients with depression and/or anxiety.

  1. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease. PMID:28154734

  2. The challenge of integrating self-management support into clinical settings.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Best practice diabetes mellitus clinical treatment and education takes place in the medical clinic, however, patient outcomes are largely mediated through their own behaviour and lifestyle that occurs after they leave the clinical setting. Once they return home, people usually continue to engage in the social, cultural and lifestyle behaviours that had contributed to having diabetes in the first place. Although a host of factors (e.g. economic, health care team and system, condition and client-related) can impact a client's capacity to self-manage, there are client, organizational and community level strategies that may partially mitigate these difficulties. To address client behaviour, clinicians are increasingly becoming skilled to incorporate self-management support including behavioural counselling interventions into routine practice. At the organizational level, the operation and structure of the clinical setting may create difficulty for staff to provide self-management support. Sustaining benefits on a day-to-day basis presents an additional challenge. This article will review several common implementation barriers to self-management support and describe strategies and techniques used elsewhere to successfully integrate self-management support as a core care component for persons with diabetes.

  3. Assessing the incremental benefit of an extended duration lifestyle intervention for the components of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Patrick; Jiang, Qingmei; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Oral, Elif A; Weintraub, Martha S; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions targeting the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) have been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and suitable treatment strategy for reducing one’s risk of developing coronary artery disease and diabetes. The optimal duration has not yet been defined. We sought to evaluate the incremental benefit of extending a lifestyle intervention from 3 months to 6 months. Methods We evaluated 114 participants with at least three criteria for the MetSyn in a physician-referred 6-month lifestyle intervention between August 2008 and December 2012. Baseline and follow-up physiological, biochemical, and anthropometric data were analyzed for mean change and incremental change at each time point. Results The mean age at enrollment was 53.0±10.2 years, and 42% of participants were males. The mean body mass index at enrollment was 38.2±0.86 kg/m2 for males and 38.6±0.93 kg/m2 for females. Anthropometric measures associated with weight management (body mass index, weight, and body fat percentage) improved significantly with the additional 3-month intervention (P<0.001). Systolic blood pressure (P=0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.00006) and triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic participants (P=0.006, P=0.004, P=0.01, respectively) improved rapidly in the initial 3-month intervention without incremental benefit of the additional 3 months. Improvements in fasting insulin (P=0.01) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.02) for nondiabetic participants required the full 6-month intervention before significant reductions were achieved. Conclusion A 6-month lifestyle intervention yielded significantly better results for variables related to weight management. Standard physiological measures for the MetSyn respond rapidly in a 3-month lifestyle intervention. The long-term impact of an increased duration lifestyle intervention remains to be seen. PMID

  4. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  5. Life be in it: lifestyle choices for active leisure.

    PubMed

    Jobling, A

    2001-07-01

    For members of the community, participation in leisure, sports and recreation is an important lifestyle choice. Individuals with Down syndrome live in our community and they, too, are equally entitled to active lifestyle choices. Children, adolescents and adults with Down syndrome have a wide range of interests and, although reported trends indicate that their engagement in recreational activity is often sedentary and solitary in nature, other factors apart from the syndrome may account for this. Using a perception of difference perspective, this paper will examine certain aspects of their motor development, health and interactions with others which could be viewed as restrictive factors to their ability to participate in active leisure opportunities in the community. Program examples from Australia will be used to illustrate how a perception of difference which facilitates ability rather than disability across community based activities can enable a range of active leisure choices.

  6. Impact of behaviour and lifestyle on bladder health.

    PubMed

    Burgio, K L; Newman, D K; Rosenberg, M T; Sampselle, C

    2013-06-01

    Bladder conditions, including UTI, UI, and bladder cancer, are highly prevalent and affect a wide range of populations. There are a variety of modifiable behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health. Some factors, such as smoking and obesity, increase the risk or severity of bladder conditions, whereas other factors, such as pelvic floor muscle exercise, are protective. Although clinical practice may be assumed to be the most appropriate ground for education on behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health, it is also crucial to extend these messages into the general population through public health interventions to reach those who have not yet developed bladder conditions and to maximize the prevention impact of these behaviors. Appropriate changes in these factors have the potential for an enormous impact on bladder health if implemented on a population-based level.

  7. Role of cellular senescence in lifestyle-related disease.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that age is the chief risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the increase in the risk of such diseases conferred by aging remain unclear. Recently, genetic analyses using various animal models have identified molecules that are crucial for aging. These include components of the DNA repair system, the tumor suppressor pathway, the telomere maintenance system, the insulin/Akt pathway, and other metabolic pathways. Interestingly, most of the molecules that influence the phenotypic changes of aging also regulate cellular senescence, suggesting a causative link between cellular senescence and aging. This review examines the hypothesis that cellular senescence might contribute to lifestyle-related disease.

  8. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care.

  9. Environmental pollutants and lifestyle factors induce oxidative stress and poor prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

    2014-07-01

    of human-made chemicals and unhealthy lifestyle factors involve the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative damage. Overproduction of ROS induces oxidative stress, a state where increased generation of ROS overwhelms antioxidant protection and subsequently leads to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules. Exposure to various environmental pollutants induces synergic and cumulative dose-additive adverse effects on prenatal development, pregnancy outcomes and neonate health. Data from the literature on the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of developmental toxicity following in vivo exposure to environmental pollutants will be reviewed in an attempt to provide an updated basis for future studies on the toxic effect of such pollutants, particularly the notion of increased risk for developmental toxicity due to combined and cumulative exposure to various environmental pollutants. The aims of such studies are to better understand the mechanisms by which environmental pollutants adversely affect conceptus development and to elucidate the impact of cumulative exposures to multiple pollutants on postnatal development and health outcomes.

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Neurodegeneration, and Personalized Lifestyle Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The takeaway message of this advancing science surrounding the causes and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is to recognize MCI symptoms early and intervene with a comprehensive, multifaceted, personalized lifestyle medicine program that is designed to improve neurological function and built on the components described above. The present evidence suggests this approach represents the best medicine available today for beating back the rising tide of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:27330484

  11. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  12. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  13. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Camille A.; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21–39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p = 0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p = 0.0215), MiBP (p = 0.0020) and MEP (p = 0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles. PMID:22739065

  14. Phylogenetics of pond and lake lifestyles in Chaoborus midge larvae.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Barraclough, Timothy G; Barraclough, Jonelle C

    2003-09-01

    Aquatic invertebrates experience strong trade-offs between habitats due to the selective effects of different predators. Diel vertical migration and small body size are thought to be effective strategies against fish predation in lakes. In the absence of fish in small ponds, migration is ineffective against invertebrate predators and large body size is an advantage. Although widely discussed, this phenomenon has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. We reconstructed a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of pond and lake lifestyles among 10 species of northern temperate Chaoborus midge larvae. The mtDNA tree is similar to previous morphological trees for Chaoborus, the only difference being the disruption of the subgenus Chaoborus sensu stricto. At least three shifts have occurred between pond and lake lifestyles, each time associated with evolution of diel vertical migration in the lake taxon. The trend in larval body size with habitat type is sensitive to tree and character reconstruction methods, only weakly consistent with the effects of fish predation. Despite long time periods over which adaptation to each habitat type could have occurred, there remains significant phylogenetic heritability in larval body size. The tree provides a framework for comparative studies of the metapopulation genetic consequences of pond and lake lifestyles.

  15. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  16. Exploring Weight and Lifestyle: Mexican Immigrant Men’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joseph; Powell, Jamie; Agne, April; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite interest in family-centered obesity and diabetes prevention programs for Latinos, few studies have assessed men’s perspectives on obesity-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to explore Mexican immigrant men’s perspectives regarding weight, diet, and physical activity as they relate to the individual and the family. Design and Sample This was a focus group study with a convenience sample of Mexican immigrant men (n=16). Measures A moderator’s guide was used to elicit perceptions of personal and family behaviors influencing weight, and lifestyle. Results Mean age of participants was 41 years (SD+/− 12.7), and 100% were born in Mexico. Mean time in Alabama was 8 years. Perceived benefits of a healthy weight included improved mobility and decreased morbidities. Perceived barriers to a healthy lifestyle included demanding work schedules and an environment not conducive to walking. Participants described immigration as having a negative impact on family unity and established meal structures. Conclusion Previous studies among Latinas cite husband resistance as a barrier to sustained diet and lifestyle change; however, men in this study voiced openness to programs for obesity and diabetes prevention. Future family-centered programs should engage men and promote communication within the family on common goals related to health and illness prevention. PMID:23078420

  17. Cigar magazines: using tobacco to sell a lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, L.; Malone, R.; George, A.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the content of two cigar "lifestyle" magazines, Cigar Aficionado and Smoke.
DESIGN—Content analysis of cigar focused articles.
SUBJECTS—Cigar focused articles (n = 353) from Cigar Aficionado and Smoke magazines.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Primary focus; mention of health effects, environmental tobacco smoke, or scientific research; quotation and description of individuals; characteristics such as sex, age, ethnicity, smoking status, affiliation, and stance towards cigars; and overall image of cigars.
RESULTS—Cigar business-focused articles were the largest category (40%, n = 143), followed by articles about cigar events (12%, n = 42). Notable were articles featuring cigar benefits to raise money for health charities. Celebrities were featured in 34% (n = 121) of articles and 96% (n = 271) favoured cigar use. Only four (1%) articles featured health effects of cigars as a primary focus.
CONCLUSIONS—Cigar Aficionado and Smoke broke new ground in tobacco marketing by combining promotion of product, lifestyle, and industry in the same vehicle and linking the medium directly to product related events that extended its reach. The creation and marketing of new tobacco use sites challenges the increasing "isolation" of smokers, and positions cigar use as a socially welcome relief from restrictions. Public health advocates should anticipate and challenge other new tobacco marketing vehicles as communications technologies advance and public spaces for smoking shrink.


Keywords: cigars; cigar magazines; lifestyles; tobacco marketing PMID:11544394

  18. Lipid profile of coronary risk subjects following yogic lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, A S; Reddy, K S; Sachdeva, U

    1999-01-01

    The effect of yogic lifestyle on the lipid status was studied in angina patients and normal subjects with risk factors of coronary artery disease. The parameters included the body weight, estimation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and the cholesterol - HDL ratio. A baseline evaluation was done and then the angina patients and risk factors subjects were randomly assigned as control (n = 41) and intervention (yoga) group (n = 52). Lifestyle advice was given to both the groups. An integrated course of yoga training was given for four days followed by practice at home. Serial evaluation of both the groups was done at four, 10 and 14 weeks. Dyslipidemia was a constant feature in all cases. An inconsistent pattern of change was observed in the control group of angina (n = 18) and risk factor subjects (n = 23). The subjects practising yoga showed a regular decrease in all lipid parameters except HDL. The effect started from four weeks and lasted for 14 weeks. Thus, the effect of yogic lifestyle on some of the modifiable risk factors could probably explain the preventive and therapeutic beneficial effect observed in coronary artery disease.

  19. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Martina, Camille A; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21-39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p=0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p=0.0215), MiBP (p=0.0020) and MEP (p=0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles.

  20. [Dementia and lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese aging society].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the number of elderly patients with dementia has been increasing in Japan because of both the extension of average life expectancy and a considerable rise in the incidence of dementia with age. For these reasons, dementia in Japan has become common, and more than half of all cases are Alzheimer disease. This disease has typically been considered to be a degenerative disorder due to genetic abnormalities, but recent epidemiological studies have indicated that lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity in midlife could accelerate the dementing process, via either vascular changes in cerebral infarction or Alzheimer-related pathological changes with plaque and tangle formations which result in dementia in later life. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a high intake of vegetables and fish, an active daily life, and lifelong education might positively influence cognitive function as neuroprotective factors. Therefore, we should try to prevent dementia based on the clinical and hygienic management of the lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases, even in the youth.

  1. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  2. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  3. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  4. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  5. Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes: current role of lifestyle, natural product, and pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Galassetti, Pietro R; Coker, Robert H

    2008-05-01

    Common complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are eye, kidney and nerve diseases, as well as an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The overwhelming influence of these conditions contributes to a decreased quality of life and life span, as well as significant economic consequences. Although obesity once served as a surrogate marker for the risk of T2D, we know now that excess adipose tissue secretes inflammatory cytokines that left unchecked, accelerate the progression to insulin resistance and T2D. In addition, excess alcohol consumption may also increase the risk of T2D. From a therapeutic standpoint, lifestyle interventions such as dietary modification and/or exercise training have been shown to improve glucose homeostasis but may not normalize the disease process unless weight loss is achieved and increased physical activity patterns are established. Furthermore, utilization of natural products may serve as a significant adjunct in the fight against insulin resistance but further research is needed to ascertain their validity. Since it is clear that pharmaceutical therapy plays a significant role in the treatment of insulin resistance, this review will also discuss some of the newly developed pharmaceutical therapies that may work in conjunction with lifestyle interventions, and lessen the burden of behavioral change as the only strategy against the development of T2D.

  6. Ten-week lifestyle changing program reduces several indicators for metabolic syndrome in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Mecca, Marita S; Moreto, Fernando; Burini, Franz Hp; Dalanesi, Reinaldo C; McLellan, Kátia Cp; Burini, Roberto C

    2012-01-19

    We aim to investigate the effectiveness of a 10-week lifestyle intervention focusing on physical activity and high fiber intake for reducing indicators for metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese individuals. A prospective study of 50 overweight (OW) adults (22 in the general educational group - G1; 28 in the high fiber nutrition group - G2) was performed. Both groups were offered dietary counseling and supervised exercise. Clinical, anthropometric, dietary and plasma biochemical tests were performed at baseline - time 0 (T0) and after 10 weeks - time 1 (T1). Both groups improved their dietary quality, but only G2 presented higher intake of fruit and vegetables (servings/day), higher plasma β-carotene levels and a 24% reduction of MetS incidence. Additionally G2 showed greater reductions in body fat (4%), and waist circumference (7%), obesity class III (2%) and obesity class II (14%) rate. Lifestyle intervention, including a high dietary fiber intake, improved healthy eating index and decreased body fat composition and plasma lipid concentrations leading to MetS incidence reduction.

  7. A systematic review of lifestyle interventions for chronic diseases in rural communities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Manuscripts focused on dietary intake and physical activity and published through March 15, 2016, were identified by use of PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six involved randomized controlled trials; 7 used quasi-experimental designs; 4 had a pre-/post-design; and 1 was an observational study. Eight studies were multi-site (or multi-county), and 3 focused on churches. Primary emphasis by racial/ethnic group included: African Americans (6); Whites (2); Hispanics (3); and two or more groups (7). Most studies (17) sampled adults; one included children. Two studies targeted families. Conclusions Additional lifestyle intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches promoting healthy diet and exercise and chronic disease prevention in rural communities. Studies that include rigorous designs, adequate sample sizes, and generalizable results are needed to overcome the limitations of published studies. PMID:27376159

  8. Dietary and lifestyle variables in relation to incidence of Parkinson's disease in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, Andreas; Ghika, Apostolia; Stathopoulos, Panayiotis; Vassilopoulos, Dimitris; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Identification of dietary and lifestyle variables associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) may offer pathogenetic clues and prevention opportunities. In a population-based prospective cohort study, 26,173 participants in the EPIC-Greece cohort had sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical, dietary and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrolment and periodically reassessed with follow-up contacts. Based on these data, subjects were screened as possible PD cases if they (1) reported either a medical diagnosis of PD or use of anti-PD drugs and (2) did not report preceding causes of secondary parkinsonism. For diagnostic validation, possible incident PD cases were assessed by a focused 3-item telephone questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between potential predictors and incident PD. The main multivariate model included gender, age, marital status, schooling years, farming occupation, smoking status, caffeinated coffee, body mass index, physical activity and energy intake. Additional models included all above variables plus one dietary item at a time. Incidence rate adjusted to the European population was 16.9 per 100,000 person-years. In multivariate models, incident PD exhibited strong positive association with consumption of milk, but not cheese or yoghurt. This finding may help narrow down the search for potential dairy product components with a facilitatory role in PD. Concerning other dietary components, inverse association was found between polyunsaturated fat intake and incident PD. Also, inverse association was found with tobacco smoking, in line with previous studies, but not with caffeine.

  9. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children.

  10. The Role of Environment and Lifestyle in Determining the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hedström, Anna Karin; Olsson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    MS is a complex disease where both genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease susceptibility. The substantially increased risk of developing MS in relatives of affected individuals gives solid evidence for a genetic base for susceptibility, whereas the modest familial risk, most strikingly demonstrated in the twin studies, is a very strong argument for an important role of lifestyle/environmental factors in determining the risk of MS, sometimes interacting with MS risk genes. Lifestyle factors and environmental exposures are harder to accurately study and quantify than genetic factors. However, it is important to identify these factors since they, as opposed to risk genes, are potentially preventable. We have reviewed the evidence for environmental factors that have been repeatedly shown to influence the risk of MS: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure habits /vitamin D status, and smoking. We have also reviewed a number of additional environmental factors, published in the past 5 years, that have been described to influence MS risk. Independent replication, preferably by a variety of methods, may give still more firm evidence for their involvement.

  11. A Study on Dietary Habits and Lifestyle of Girls with Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jae-Seong; Moon, Hyeok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to analyze the change in the obesity index in girls receiving a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), based on treatment duration, and to aid in nutritional counseling by investigating dietary habits and lifestyle. Methods Anthropometric examinations were conducted on 62 girls treated with GnRHa from January 2010 through July 2014. Parents were asked to fill out questionnaires on patient dietary habits and lifestyle. Results The group taking GnRHa for over 1 year had a higher rate of obesity increase than the group taking GnRHa for less than 1 year, but they had common habits related to obesity, which should be corrected. In addition, 69.2% of the normal weight group taking GnRHa for over 1 year gained weight, and needed more intensive programs, which include physical exercise and nutritional education. Although girls with precocious puberty showed a decrease in the intake of high-calorie foods with nutritional intervention regardless of treatment duration, they still had problems that needed improvement, such as shorter meals and lack of exercise. Conclusion Girls with precocious puberty and their parents should emphasize maintenance of proper body weight, especially when treatment for over 1 year is anticipated. Consistent education in nutrition, ways to increase intensity and duration of physical activity, and the need to slow down mealtimes are important in managing obesity; doctors need to perform regular checkups and provide nutritional counseling. PMID:27437190

  12. An Analysis of Anthropometric Indicators and Modifiable Lifestyle Parameters Associated with Hypertensive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Laing, Edwin F.; Owusu, Isaac K.

    2016-01-01

    The surge in prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease has been linked with modifiable lifestyle practices and increased body fat. This study sought to compare the association between different modifiable lifestyle practices, adiposity indices, renal function parameters, and hypertension as well as the predictive implications for levels of these parameters in target cardiac organ damage among an urban Ghanaian hypertensive population. Using a hospital-based case-control study design, 241 Ghanaian indigenes from the Kumasi metropolis were recruited for this study. The case group was made up of 180 hypertensives and 61 normotensives served as controls. In addition to sociodemographic data, standard haemodynamic, anthropometric, renal function, and cardiac organ damage assessments were done. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranged from 13.3% to 16.6% depending on the equation used in estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Percentage cluster distribution by chronic kidney disease was observed to be significantly tilted toward the upper quartiles (3rd and 4th) of the haemodynamic parameters measured. Chronic kidney disease was significantly higher among self-reported smokers and alcoholic hypertensives. In this urban population, adiposity was associated with hypertension and renal insufficiency. Chronic kidney disease was associated with hypertension and cardiac abnormalities. PMID:27774313

  13. Genetic, Physiological, and Lifestyle Predictors of Mortality in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Mackenbach, Johan; Vokó, Zoltán; Lhachimi, Stefan; Ikram, M. Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G.; Newman, Anne B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J.; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kocher, Thomas; Launer, Lenore J.; Franceschini, Nora; Schipper, Maarten; Hofman, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the quality of 162 variables, focusing on the contribution of genetic markers, used solely or in combination with other characteristics, when predicting mortality. Methods. In 5974 participants from the Rotterdam Study, followed for a median of 15.1 years, 7 groups of factors including age and gender, genetics, socioeconomics, lifestyle, physiological characteristics, prevalent diseases, and indicators of general health were related to all-cause mortality. Genetic variables were identified from 8 genome-wide association scans (n = 19 033) and literature review. Results. We observed 3174 deaths during follow-up. The fully adjusted model (C-statistic for 15-year follow-up [C15y] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75, 0.77) predicted mortality well. Most of the additional information apart from age and sex stemmed from physiological markers, prevalent diseases, and general health. Socioeconomic factors and lifestyle contributed meaningfully to mortality risk prediction with longer prediction horizon. Although specific genetic factors were independently associated with mortality, jointly they contributed little to mortality prediction (C15y = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.55, 0.57). Conclusions. Mortality can be predicted reasonably well over a long period. Genetic factors independently predict mortality, but only modestly more than other risk indicators. PMID:22397355

  14. Using lifestyle medicine in U.S. health care to treat obesity: too many bariatric surgeries?

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of Americans are classified as obese. Many clinicians perform bariatric surgery (BSx) when it is said that lifestyle intervention failed. However, BSx is medically complex, with extremely variable success, certain failures, major complications, and sometimes death. Although many studies declare BSx as more effective for producing weight loss than nonsurgical lifestyle management, these conclusions are flawed when lifestyle management between cohorts are not identical. Lifestyle behavior change is essential to success for both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss, as over 50% of BSx patients regain weight without lifestyle modification. Indeed, programs that include self-reward and reinforcement are extremely effective. It is therefore possible that successful BSx is simply an intrinsic reward for an intensive change in lifestyle behavior. Accounting for the costs and risks associated with BSx, providing state and federal resources for lifestyle behavior change programs could provide a key opportunity for the war against obesity.

  15. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  16. Design of Lifestyle Intervention Trials to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Women with Overweight or Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Lifestyle Interventions for Expectant Moms (LIFE-Moms) Consortium is designed to determine, in pregnant women with overweight or obesity, whether various behavioral and lifestyle interventions reduce excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and subsequent adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and obesity in offspring. The design and planning process of the LIFE-Moms Consortium is described. Design and Methods The LIFE-Moms Consortium is a collaboration among seven clinical centers, a Research Coordinating Unit, and the NIH designed to support each clinical center’s conduct of a separate trial of a unique intervention. Specific common measures, procedures, and eligibility criteria are consistent across the 7 trials allowing data to be combined in exploratory analyses and/or compared readily. Results Numerous committees and working groups were created to define common measures and outcomes during pregnancy and through 1 year postpartum, develop Consortium policies and oversee progress of the trials. The primary outcome for the Consortium is excessive GWG. Secondary outcomes include maternal, neonatal and infant anthropometric measures, physical activity, sleep, and complications of pregnancy and delivery. Conclusion A multi-center consortium of independent, lifestyle interventions with common measures and outcomes may enhance the ability to identify promising interventions for improving outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. PMID:26708836

  17. Non-sedentary Lifestyle Can Reduce Hip Fracture Risk among Older Caucasians Adults: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W. Larry; Fraser, Gary E.; Knutsen, Synnove F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The beneficial effect of physical activity on reducing hip fracture risk has been supported in many previous studies. The present cohort study explores the relationship between total daily physical activity expressed as MET-hour/day and hip fracture risk among men over 50 years of age and postmenopausal women (n=22,836). Methodology Associations between self-reported hip fracture incidence and total daily physical activity and selected lifestyle factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results In gender-specific multivariable models, total activity above average (≥ 51 MET-hours per day for men, ≥ 48 MET-hours per day for women) compared to those with sedentary lifestyle (< 40 MET-hours per day) reduced the risk of hip fracture by 60% among men (HR=0.40, 95%CI: 0.23–0.70) (Ptrend=0.002) and 48% among women (HR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.32–0.84) (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that a moderate level of physical activity and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle can reduce the risk of hip fracture among the elderly. PMID:27774433

  18. A Long-Term Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Physical Function: the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bray, George A.; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. METHODS Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45–76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes (n=964) at four clinics in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including an expanded short physical performance battery (SPPBexp), 20-m and 400-m walk, and grip and knee extensor strength 8 years post-randomization, during the trial’s weight maintenance phase. RESULTS Eight years post-randomization, individuals randomized to ILI had better SPPBexp scores (adjusted mean (SE) difference: 0.055 (0.022), p=0.01) and faster 20-m and 400-m walk speeds (0.032 (0.012) m/sec, p=0.01, and 0.025 (0.011) m/sec, p=0.02, respectively) compared to those randomized to DSE. Achieved weight loss greatly attenuated the group differences in physical function and the intervention effect was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS An intensive lifestyle intervention has long-term benefits for mobility function in overweight and obese middle-aged and older individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25452229

  19. Clinical Validation of the "Sedentary Lifestyle" Nursing Diagnosis in Secondary School Students.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Renato; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Guedes, Nirla Gomes; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios

    2016-06-01

    This study clinically validated the nursing diagnosis of "sedentary lifestyle" (SL) among 564 Brazilian adolescents. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for defining characteristics, and Mantel-Haenszel analysis was used to identify related factors. The measures of diagnostic accuracy showed that the following defining characteristics were statistically significant: "average daily physical activity less than recommended for gender and age," "preference for activity low in physical activity," "nonengagement in leisure time physical activities," and "diminished respiratory capacity." An SL showed statistically significant associations with the following related factors: insufficient motivation for physical activity; insufficient interest in physical activity; insufficient resources for physical activity; insufficient social support for physical activity; attitudes, beliefs, and health habits that hinder physical activity; and insufficient confidence for practicing physical exercises. The study highlighted the four defining characteristics and six related factors for making decisions related to SL among adolescents.

  20. Diet, lifestyle and behavioural risk: can behavioural modification change future risk of cancer?

    PubMed

    Oluwatosin, A

    2009-06-01

    There is ample evidence in the literature that supports the notion that diet, lifestyle and behaviour influence the risk of developing cancer. It was opined that the most dramatic reduction in cancer incidence and mortality are likely to result from population shift in unhealthy behaviour such as smoking, intake of high fat and high calorie food, physical inactivity and unprotected exposure to the sun or unprotected sex. In this paper, I will discuss different strategies that have been used in the control of cancer in the past and at present. I will also explore different concepts of health education and health promotion, as well as various applications of theories and models for ensuring behavioural modifications. In conclusion, I suggest strategies for influencing health promotion and health education for effective behavioural modification that could change the future risk of cancer particularly in the West African sub region.

  1. Nurse-led motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes (MILD-project): protocol for a cluster, randomized, controlled trial on implementing lifestyle recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Jansink, Renate; Braspenning, Jozé; van der Weijden, Trudy; Niessen, Louis; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The diabetes of many patients is managed in general practice; healthcare providers aim to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. These measures may decrease insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension. They may also prevent cardiovascular disease and complications of diabetes. However, professionals do not adhere optimally to guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes is intended to improve diabetes care in accordance with the national guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Primary care nurses will be trained in motivational interviewing embedded in structured care in general practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study evaluating the effects of the nurses' training on patient outcomes. Methods/Design A cluster, randomized, controlled trial involving 70 general practices (35 practices in the intervention arm and 35 in the control arm) starting in March 2007. A total of 700 patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited. The patients in the intervention arm will receive care from the primary care nurse, who will receive training in an implementation strategy with motivational interviewing as the core component. Other components of this strategy will be adaptation of the diabetes protocol to local circumstances, introduction of a social map for lifestyle support, and educational and supportive tools for sustaining motivational interviewing. The control arm will be encouraged to maintain usual care. The effect measures will be the care process, metabolic parameters (glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure and lipids), lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol), health-related quality of life, and patients' willingness to change behaviors. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 14 months. Discussion Applying

  2. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  3. Design of a family-based lifestyle intervention for youth with type 2 diabetes: the TODAY study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and is increasing at an alarming rate in youth. Although weight loss through lifestyle change is one of the primary treatment recommendations for adults with type 2 diabetes, the efficacy of this approach has not been tested with youth. This paper provides a summary of the reviews and meta-analyses of pediatric weight-loss interventions that informed the design and implementation of an intensive, family-based lifestyle weight management program for adolescents with type 2 diabetes and their families developed for the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. A total of 1092 youth have been screened, and 704 families have been randomized for inclusion in this 15-center clinical trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The TODAY study is designed to test three approaches (metformin, metformin plus rosiglitazone and metformin plus an intensive lifestyle intervention) to the treatment of a diverse cohort of youth, 10–17 years of age, within 2 years of their diagnosis. The principal goal of the TODAY Lifestyle Program (TLP) is to decrease baseline weight of youth by 7–10% (or the equivalent for children who are growing in height) through changes in eating and physical activity habits, and to sustain these changes through ongoing treatment contact. The TLP is implemented by interventionists called Personal Activity and Nutrition Leaders (PALs) and delivered to youth with type 2 diabetes, and at least one family support person. The TLP provides a model for taking a comprehensive, continuous care approach to the treatment of severe overweight in youth with comorbid medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:19823189

  4. Modelling innovative interventions for optimising healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" phase I research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Balague, Laura; Calderon, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Background The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC) services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Methods and design Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs) of the Basque Health Service – OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls). Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. Discussion There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1) the commitment of professional and community partners

  5. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education

  6. Data-as-a-Service Platform for Delivering Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine: Concept and Structure of the DAPHNE Project

    PubMed Central

    Bailador del Pozo, Gonzalo; Andrés, Javier; Lobstein, Tim; Manco, Melania; Lewy, Hadas; Bergman, Einat; O'Callaghan, David; Doherty, Gavin; Kudrautseva, Olga; Palomares, Angel; Ram, Roni; Olmo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is related to many health problems and diseases. The current obesity epidemic, which is a major health problem, is closely related to a lack of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, and increased energy intake; with evidence to show increasing incidence of these issues in the younger population. Tackling obesity and its comorbid conditions requires a holistic approach encompassing attention on physical activity, healthy diet, and behavioral activation in order to enable and maintain meaningful and long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective The objective of the Data-as-a-Service Platform for Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine (DAPHNE) project is to develop a breakthrough information communications technology (ICT) platform for tracking health, weight, physical activity, diet, lifestyle, and psychological components within health care systems, whereby the platform and clinical support is linked. Methods The DAPHNE platform aims to deliver personalized guidance services for lifestyle management to the citizen/patient by means of (1) advanced sensors and mobile phone apps to acquire and store continuous/real-time data on lifestyle aspects, behavior, and surrounding environment; (2) individual models to monitor their health and fitness status; (3) intelligent data processing for the recognition of behavioral trends; and (4) specific services for personalized guidance on healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. It is well known that weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are particularly difficult. This tool will address some of the issues found with conventional treatment/advice in that it will collect data in real time, thereby reducing reliability issues known with recalling events once they have passed and will also allow adjustment of behavior through timely support and recommendations sent through the platform without the necessity of formal one-to-one visits between patient and clinician

  7. Effect of Education Intervention on Lifestyle of Patients with Hypertension among the Rural Population of Lorestan Province

    PubMed Central

    Shayesteh, Hajar; Mirzaei, Amin; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mansourian, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the most common chronic health problems across the world, resulting in significant global responsibility in developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to survey the effect of educational intervention on the lifestyle of patients with hypertension. Methods This study was a case-control intervention study on 86 patients with hypertension that were selected by simple random sampling from the rural regions of Aligoudarz County in Lorestan Province. Before the intervention, both groups completed the standard questionnaire of HPLP II; two months after the intervention, both groups completed the same questionnaire. The results were analyzed using SPSS software, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean age and standard deviation in case and control groups were 59.95 ± 7.9 and 64.51 ± 9.2 years, respectively. The mean of the total lifestyle scores was significantly increased in the case group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the average scores for the three dimensions of physical activity, nutrition, and stress management after educational intervention in the case group compared to the control group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05, for all). Conclusion Based on the relationship between lifestyle and hypertension, it seems that implementing educational programs in the fields of nutrition, physical activity, and stress management is essential to improvement in disease knowledge and behavior modification among patients with hypertension. PMID:27924284

  8. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    nutrition (χ2 1=3.5; P=.04, for N=384) as well as psychological variables (physical activity intention, P=.04; nutrition intention, P=.03; nutrition planning, P=.02; and general social support to live healthily, P=.01). When predicting a healthy lifestyle at follow-up, baseline lifestyle (odds ratio, OR, 2.25, 95% CI 1.73-2.92; P<.01) and the intervention (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.00-3.82; P=.05) were found to be significant predictors. Physical activity planning mediated the effect of the intervention on the adoption of an overall healthy lifestyle (consisting of activity and nutrition, R 2 adj=.08; P<.01), indicating that if the stage-matched intervention increased planning, the adoption of a healthy lifestyle was more likely. Conclusions Matching an intervention to the motivational readiness of employees can make a health promotion program effective. Employees’ motivation, planning, social support, and lifestyle can be supported by a stage-matched intervention that focuses on both physical activity and healthy nutrition. Occupational settings provide a potential to implement parsimonious computer-based health promotion programs and to facilitate multiple behavior change. PMID:26429115

  9. Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.

    PubMed

    Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5

  10. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.

  11. Adolescent Lifestyle and Behaviour: A Survey from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 years of age. Results Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16–18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Conclusion Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population. PMID:20886001

  12. Lifestyles, diets, and Native American exposure factors related to possible lead exposures and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, S; Harper, B L

    2001-06-01

    Lead exposure is still a national concern, and it is possible that Native Americans who live on reservations and pursue traditional lifestyles may be at higher risk through both their unique exposure profiles and their potentially greater sensitivity. A major component of the exposure assessment is the diet. For tribal members, traditional lifestyles that include native foods, medicines, and traditional practices have evolved and proven to be the most healthful over many thousands of years of coexistence with the environment. However, a completely traditional diet may not be fully available for a variety of reasons; so, one must also consider the adverse health consequences caused by the loss of healthy native foods and medicines, the contamination of remaining native foods, the inability to practice one's religion, and the possibly lower quality of the substitute diet. Health evaluations of lead exposure on reservations should therefore consider at least two types of diets in addition to the typical suburban diet: (a) traditional diets composed of native foods and medicines that would result in increased exposure if the plants and animals are contaminated and (b) disadvantaged or commodity food diets that result in widespread vitamin and mineral deficits of the sort known to increase absorption of and response to lead. Additional exposure to lead might come from reservation housing which is often older, although the prevalence of lead-based paint on reservations is unknown. The degree of physiological response could also be affected by widespread exposures to other neurotoxins (such as mercury and PCBs in fish), underlying disease patterns, and genetics. Although each of these factors is plausible, their prevalence singly or in combination is unknown. Any correlation between these risk factors and blood lead levels on reservations is also unknown. This paper begins to address these gaps by discussing the range of traditional and current diets that may exist among

  13. Cellulose production in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae: a compromise between epiphytic and pathogenic lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, Eva; Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Genome sequencing and annotation have revealed a putative cellulose biosynthetic operon in the strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, the causal agent of bacterial apical necrosis. Bioinformatics analyses and experimental methods were used to confirm the functionality of the cellulose biosynthetic operon. In addition, the results showed the contribution of the cellulose operon to important aspects of P. syringae pv. syringae biology, such as the formation of biofilms and adhesion to the leaf surface of mango, suggesting that this operon increases epiphytic fitness. However, based on the incidence and severity of the symptoms observed in tomato leaflets, cellulose expression reduces virulence, as cellulose-deficient mutants increased the area of necrosis, whereas the cellulose-overproducing strain decreased the area of necrosis compared with the wild type. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the epiphytic and pathogenic stages of the P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 lifestyle are intimately affected by cellulose production.

  14. Life-style and metformin for the prevention of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Campagnoli, Carlo; Abbà, Chiara; Ambroggio, Simona; Brucato, Tiziana; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2013-02-01

    In western women, the endometrium is frequently exposed, even after menopause, to the endogenous hormonal stimulation. Such a stimulation increases the risk of pathologic conditions such as endometrial hyperplasia and type I (endometrioid) endometrial adenocarcinoma. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance and type II diabetes promote the endometrial stimulation, and are recognized risk factors for endometrial cancer. Furthermore, chronic hyperinsulinemia linked both to obesity and metabolic syndrome influences endometrial proliferation through direct and indirect actions. Intentional weight loss, calorie restriction and physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of the endometrial pathology. Biological mechanisms include reduction in insulin and sex steroid hormone levels. In addition to life-style modifications, the antidiabetic metformin may be proposed as preventive agent. Metformin reduces the metabolic syndrome, lowers insulin and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women, and it is a potent inhibitor of endometrial cancer cell proliferation.

  15. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  16. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  17. Prevention in psychiatry: effects of healthy lifestyle on cognition.

    PubMed

    Merrill, David A; Small, Gary W

    2011-03-01

    People are living longer than ever. With greater longevity, a critical question becomes whether or not our memories endure across the life span. This article reviews the common forms of age-related memory change and the emerging evidence related to putative risk and protective factors for brain aging. With increasing awareness of Alzheimer disease and related dementias, patients, families, and clinicians are eager for concise and accurate information about the effects and limitations of preventative strategies related to lifestyle choices that may improve cognitive health.

  18. Behavioral economics: merging psychology and economics for lifestyle interventions.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change.

  19. End of Life (Supporting a Terminally Ill Loved One)

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life When terminal illness affects a loved one, it isn't always easy to know how to react. Find out how to offer support and ... support to a loved one who has a terminal illness can be challenging. What can you say ...

  20. The Role of FCS in the Obesity Epidemic. Supporting Healthy Lifestyle Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadrick, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Individuals are bombarded every day with data on obesity and its health consequences, with information on weight loss treatments and their successes and failures, and with tips on how to reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity. Obesity has become a global epidemic, termed globesity (World Health Organization, 2003), and seen by many…

  1. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices.

  2. Perceptions of online lifestyle counseling among individuals living in rural India.

    PubMed

    Laxmi, Vidya; Sharma, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Amadi, Chioma; Mohan, Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The burden of lifestyle related chronic diseases have increased in recent times. The objective of this pilot study was to explore perceptions about using online lifestyle counseling services among individuals living in rural settings in India. A pilot convenient sample of 100 individuals living in rural settings of Chennai with age 18 years and above was enrolled for the study. Information was gathered about socio-demographic characteristics, health behavior, current disease status; familiarity with technology and perceptions about online lifestyle counseling. The average age of the individuals was 34 years (SD=15). More than half of the individuals had access to computers at home and workplace. Individuals indentified various barriers for unable to obtain lifestyle counseling. Nearly 47% of the individuals were interested in obtaining online lifestyle counseling. There is an urgent need for evaluating the role of an online lifestyle counseling intervention among individuals living in rural settings.

  3. The challenge of contemporary nurse education programmes. Perceived stressors of nursing students: mental health and related lifestyle issues.

    PubMed

    Timmins, F; Corroon, A M; Byrne, G; Mooney, B

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the lifestyle behaviours of nursing students. The research tool was a 146-item questionnaire based upon the College Lifestyle and Attitudinal National survey. Most students considered their mental health as either good or very good. Those in the final year were more likely to rate their mental health poorly. Many experienced programme-related stressors including examinations and assignments and studies in general. More than one-third also reported stressors related to relationships with clinical staff and clinical assessment of competence. There is a concern that the added demands of modern nursing programmes place the student under considerably more pressure, because of competing demands. While many students talk to their peers or family, many do not and prefer rather to go it alone, with some choosing to escape through alcohol or drugs. The support and encouragement of healthy coping mechanisms among nursing students is paramount to ensure a healthy nursing workforce for the future. Nursing students support the mental and physical health of others, and therefore in many ways ought to a role model. Nurturing and supporting their mental health is crucial to the future of profession.

  4. Resource allocation in health care: the allocation of lifestyles to providers.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, U E

    1987-01-01

    . Part of such an algorithm, of course, would be a sensible determination of the lifestyles the health care process needs to support among the providers of care. Under the ideal circumstances envisaged by libertarian thinkers, the determination of these matters could safely be entrusted to the free market. For reasons not difficult to fathom, however, no modern society is willing to adopt that form of arbitration over resource allocation in health care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  5. The emergence of "lifestyle medicine" as a structured approach for management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Egger, Garry J; Binns, Andrew F; Rossner, Stephan R

    2009-02-02

    Chronic diseases with a lifestyle-based aetiology currently make up a significant proportion of primary care consultations, but management often falls between the demands of public and clinical health. A modified clinical approach, based around the concept of "lifestyle medicine", helps fill the gap by adding behavioural, motivational and environmental skills to conventional medical practice. When used in a multidisciplinary setting, lifestyle medicine offers potential cost and effectiveness benefits, which are beginning to be realised.

  6. Characteristics and Lifestyle Behaviors of Employees Who Work for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-02

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Characteristics and Lifestyle Behaviors of Employees who Work for the Department of Defense 6. AUTHOR(S) Greta D. Toth...PROPOSAL DEFENSE THESIS x SCHOLARLY PROJECT_ Date: 2 MARCH 1992 Student: GRETA D. TOH Social Security Number: Title: CHARACTEISTICS AND LIFESTYLE BFHAVIORS...the School of Nursing Student Affairs Office immediately following defense. ) CHARACTERISTICS AND LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS OF EMPLOYEES WHO WORK FOR THE

  7. Unhealthy Lifestyle Practices and Medical-Care Costs in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL & Monterey, California AD-A279 580 STTTIC ELECTE • S MAY•2 5.1994 THESIS UNHEALTHY LIFESTYLE PRACTICES AND MEDICAL-CARE...5. FUNDING NUMBERS Unhealthy Lifestyle Practices and Medical-Care Costs in the Military 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy H. Weber 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...associated costs, can be pr. vented through personal decisions not to use unhealthy lifestyle practices (e.g., smoking, not exercising). A statistical

  8. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  9. Short-Term Lifestyle Strategies for Sustaining Cognitive Status.

    PubMed

    Howard, Elizabeth P; Morris, John N; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A; Fries, Brant E; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being.

  10. A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Jonathan N.; Mendoza, Jorge E.; Steffan, Shawn A.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Weimer, Paul J.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle. PMID:24452028

  11. Relationships among nurses' professional self-concept, health, and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Desiree

    2011-02-01

    According to the American Nurses Association, the entire profession of nursing exists to serve and improve society's health. Thus, to become a nurse, individuals must master a body of knowledge surrounding numerous health aspects. While acquiring the unique knowledge, skills, and values of their profession, nurses form perceptions of personal adequacy in their role, known as professional or nurse self-concept. Given the centrality of health to the profession, it would seem logical that nurses would personally value health and integrate core health behaviors into their professional self-concept and everyday lives. Yet the prevailing evidence leaves in question whether nurses associate their personal health and lifestyles with their professional roles. This article explores the relationships among nurse self-concept, health status, and healthy lifestyle practices in a sample of Midwestern nurses in an attempt to better understand if nurses who integrate healthy behaviors into their everyday lives feel a stronger sense of professional adequacy relative to nurses who do not.

  12. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.

  13. Fostering Multiple Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors for Primary Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716

  14. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakai, K; Ohno, Y; Obata, K; Aoki, K

    1993-12-01

    To examine the prognostic significance of lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer, we conducted a follow-up study of 258 incident bladder cancer patients, who were originally recruited in a case-control study in metropolitan Nagoya. Information on individual survivals was obtained from the computer data-file of the tumor registry of the Nagoya Bladder Cancer Research Group. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations of 5-year survivorship with educational attainment, marital status, drinking habits and consumption of green tea in males, and age at first consultation, histological type and grade of tumor, stage and distant metastasis in both sexes. After adjustment for age, stage, histology (histological type and grade) and distant metastasis by means of a proportional hazards model, drinking of alcoholic beverages was significantly associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer in males. Its adjusted hazard ratio was 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.79), favoring patients who had taken alcoholic beverages. In detailed analysis, ex-drinkers and all levels of current drinkers demonstrated hazard ratios smaller than unity, although no clear dose-response relationship was detected. No prognostic significance was found for such lifestyle factors as smoking habit, uses of artificial sweeteners and hairdye, and consumption of coffee, black tea, matcha (powdered green tea) and cola.

  15. Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Starkuviene, Skirmante; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries.

  16. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  17. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mortality among German vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Chang-Claude, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R

    1993-04-01

    Lifestyle characteristics of a cohort of 1904 Germans adhering mainly to a vegetarian diet were examined in relation to their mortality after 11 years of follow-up. Poisson regression modelling was performed to consider the simultaneous effects of different variables on mortality from all causes, cancer (ICD 140-208) and cardiovascular diseases (ICD 390-459). Compared to a low level of self-reported physical activity, those with a medium or high level of activity experienced only half the mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity showed no beneficial effect for cancer mortality in this cohort. The body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for mortality among men but essentially unrelated to mortality among women. Those in the middle third of the BMI distribution experienced the lowest mortality. A negative association between BMI and cancer mortality lost statistical significance when the first 5 years of follow-up were deleted, suggesting that a lower BMI was a consequence of prevalent disease. Both the duration of vegetarianism and the vegetarian status (strict versus moderate) showed a moderate effect on all cause and cancer mortality. A longer duration of vegetarianism (> or = 20 years) was associated with a lower risk, pointing to a real protective effect of this lifestyle. A lower risk of death among moderate vegetarians suggests that sound nutritional planning may be more important than absolute avoidance of meat.

  18. A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Steffan, Shawn A; Carey, Cayelan C; Weimer, Paul J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2014-03-07

    Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle.

  19. Association of Lifestyle-Related Comorbidities With Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association of periodontitis with lifestyle-related comorbidities (LCs) using data in the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2002 to 2013. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Using this precisely extracted database, the correlations between LCs (cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, and obesity) and periodontitis were investigated while adjusting for confounding bias. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate differences in variable factors. Among a total of 1,025,340 samples, 321,103 (31.3%) cases were diagnosed with periodontitis. Statistically significant associations were found between all LCs except myocardial infarction and periodontitis (P < 0.005). Periodontitis is significantly and positively correlated with LCs (except for myocardial infarction) after adjusting for confounding bias. In particular, lifestyle-related diseases, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis seem to be intimately related to periodontitis. PMID:26376407

  20. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.