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Sample records for additional lifestyle support

  1. Changing Group and Organizational Cultures To Support Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Group and organizational cultures play an important role in helping people to adopt healthier lifestyles. Culture can be assessed by looking at social expectations for behavior, called group norms. Cultural norms can be changed to support healthy lifestyles through a systematic and participatory process. Such a change effort would modify: (1)…

  2. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses. PMID:25087266

  3. Combined model for diabetes lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    Gyuk, Peter; Szabo, Istvan; Vassanyi, Istvan; Kosa, Istvan; Kovacs, Levente

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of diabetes mellitus is a public health related problem of modern healthcare. Surveys show that current methods to estimate the required amount of insulin are quite inefficient in practice as they are based on experience. This paper offers a new approach to predict the glucose level of people with diabetes. It combines two efficient models of the literature: one for nutrient absorption and one for glucose control. The combination of them tracks the blood sugar level considering nutrition composition, applied insulin and initial glucose level. Compared to already existing mixed meal models, the current version takes into account a more detailed nutrition composition (protein, lipid, monosaccharide, fiber and starch) supported by our expert dietary systems. Although the model gives satisfactory results even with parameter sets taken from literature, parameter training by genetic algorithms yields a better tracking of the patients. PMID:24743081

  4. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  5. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  6. Do practitioners and friends support patients with coronary heart disease in lifestyle change? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) but outcomes from secondary prevention interventions which support lifestyle change have been disappointing. This study is a novel, in-depth exploration of patient factors affecting lifestyle behaviour change within an intervention designed to improve secondary prevention for patients with CHD in primary care using personalised tailored support. We aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of factors affecting lifestyle change within a trial of this intervention (the SPHERE Study), using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews, with patients in general practice. Methods Interviews (45) were conducted in purposively selected general practices (15) which had participated in the SPHERE Study. Individuals, with CHD, were selected to include those who succeeded in improving physical activity levels and dietary fibre intake and those who did not. We explored motivations, barriers to lifestyle change and information utilised by patients. Data collection and analysis, using a thematic framework and the constant comparative method, were iterative, continuing until data saturation was achieved. Results We identified novel barriers to lifestyle change: such disincentives included strong negative influences of social networks, linked to cultural norms which encouraged consumption of ‘delicious’ but unhealthy food and discouraged engagement in physical activity. Findings illustrated how personalised support within an ongoing trusted patient-professional relationship was valued. Previously known barriers and facilitators relating to support, beliefs and information were confirmed. Conclusions Intervention development in supporting lifestyle change in secondary prevention needs to more effectively address patients’ difficulties in overcoming negative social influences and maintaining interest in living healthily. PMID:23984815

  7. Comprehensive Lifestyle Support for Adults with Challenging Behavior: From Rhetoric to Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann; Turnbull, Rud

    1999-01-01

    The parents of a 31-year-old man with mental retardation, mental illness, and behavioral disorders describe how his relatively independent life style is maintained through comprehensive lifestyle support including friends, home, work, community connections, transportation, and family. Anecdotal accounts illustrate interventions effective with…

  8. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  9. Health Value, Perceived Social Support, and Health Self-Efficacy as Factors in a Health-Promoting Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Erin S.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Herman, Keith C.

    2007-01-01

    During their college years, students may adopt health-promoting lifestyles that bring about long-term benefits. Objective and Participants: The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of health value, family/friend social support, and health self-efficacy in the health-promoting lifestyles of a diverse sample of 162 college students.…

  10. Internet Interventions to Support Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cotterez, Alex; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-hour means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Results Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Conclusion Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. PMID:24332469

  11. The Look AHEAD Study: A Description of the Lifestyle Intervention and the Evidence Supporting It

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, designed to determine whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. The study began in 2001 and is scheduled to conclude in 2012. A total of 5,145 participants, with a mean age of 60 years and body mass index of 36.0 kg/m2, have been randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention or to enhanced usual care condition (i.e., Diabetes Support and Education). This article describes the lifestyle intervention and the empirical evidence to support it. The two principal intervention goals are to induce a mean loss ≥ 7% of initial weight and to increase participants’ moderately-intense physical activity to ≥ 175 minutes a week. For the first 6 months, participants attend one individual and three group sessions per month and are encouraged to replace two meals and one snack a day with liquid shakes and meal bars. From months 7−12, they attend one individual and two group meetings per month and continue to replace one meal per day (which is recommended for the duration of the program). Starting at month 7, more intensive behavioral interventions, as well as weight loss medication, are available from a toolbox, designed to help participants with limited weight loss. In years 2−4, treatment is provided mainly on an individual basis and includes at least one on-site visit per month and a second contact by telephone, mail, or e-mail. Short-term (6−8 weeks) refresher groups and motivational campaigns also are offered three times yearly to help participants reverse small weight gains. After year 4, participants are offered monthly individual visits, as well as one refresher group and one campaign a year. The intervention is delivered by a multi-disciplinary team that includes medical staff who monitor participants at risk of hypoglycemic episodes. The study's evidence-based protocol should be

  12. The Effect of Health Promoting Intervention on Healthy Lifestyle and Social Support in Elders: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Davoud; Eftekhar Ardebili, Hasan; Shojaeizadeh, Dvoud; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the problems pertaining to old age originate from unhealthy lifestyle and low social support. Overcoming these problems requires precise and proper policy-making and planning. Objectives: The aim of the current research is to investigate the effect of health promoting interventions on healthy lifestyle and social support in elders. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial lasting for 12 months on 464 elders aged above 60 years who were under the aegis of health homes in Tehran, Iran. Participants were selected through double stage cluster sampling and then divided into intervention and control groups (232 individuals in each). Tools for gathering data were a demographic checklist and two standard questionnaires called Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile version 2 and personal resource questionnaire part 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including paired t test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of elders in this study was 65.9 ± 3.6 years (ranging between 60 and 73 years old). Results showed that the differences between the mean post-test scores of healthy lifestyle and its six dimensions as well as perceived social support and its five dimensions in the control and intervention groups were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Aging is an inevitable stage of life. However, effective health promoting interventions can procrastinate it, reduce its consequences and problems, and turn it into a pleasant and enjoyable part of life. PMID:25389486

  13. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  14. Social Support and Lifestyle vs. Medical Diabetes Self-Management in the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Parker, Melissa M.; Moffet, Howard H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Schillinger, Dean; Karter, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In chronic illness self-care, social support may influence some health behaviors more than others. Purpose Examine the relationship between social support and seven individual chronic illness self-management behaviors including two healthy “lifestyle” behaviors (physical activity and diet) and five more highly-skilled and diabetes-specific (“medical”) behaviors (checking feet, oral medication adherence, insulin adherence, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and primary care appointment attendance). Methods Using cross-sectional administrative and survey data from 13,366 patients with type 2 diabetes, we specified Poisson regression models to estimate adjusted relative risks (ARR) of practicing each self-management behavior at higher vs lower levels of social support. Results Higher levels of emotional support and social network scores were significantly associated with lifestyle behaviors [healthful eating ARR (95%CI) 1.14 (1.08, 1.21) and 1.10 (1.05, 1.16), and physical activity 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) and 1.20 (1.12, 1.28)]. Both social support measures were also associated with checking feet [ARR 1.21 (1.12, 1.31) and 1.10 (1.02, 1.17)]. Neither measure was significantly associated with other medical behaviors. Conclusions Social support was associated with increased adherence to lifestyle self-management behaviors, but was not associated with increased medical self-management behaviors, other than foot self-examination. PMID:24794624

  15. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  16. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  17. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  18. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  19. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. PMID:23871299

  20. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability. PMID:26479983

  1. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs. PMID:18330527

  2. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  3. Associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity, and support for obesity prevention polices among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Keyserling, Thomas C.; Johnston, Larry; Smith, Tosha W.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rafferty, Ann P; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. Methods We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants’ support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants’ residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. Results The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Conclusions Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner

  4. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more

  5. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes with the Support of a Lay Health Advisor: Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Health Trainer Services in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Visram, Shelina; Clarke, Charlotte; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. Participants 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. Setting Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. Results The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff). Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally ‘person-centred’ in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. Conclusions Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact on health

  6. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  7. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  8. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  9. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  10. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  11. The Advent of Lifestyle Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Byung-Il; Kong, In Deok

    2013-01-01

    The fact that lifestyle is closely associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diseases has been known for more than three decades. Smoking may cause lung cancer, and a lifestyle of fast food consumption and little exercise can cause metabolic diseases. The importance of lifestyle changes in terms of a new medical paradigm to solve chronic diseases is becoming popular in modern times. Lifestyle medicine is a medicine based on personal lifestyle. To apply it to patients and ordinary people, physicians have to cooperate with experts in many fields such as nutrition, exercise, psychology, etc. In addition, patients must be partners in the treatment rather than passive recipients. The advent of lifestyle medicine has been caused by changes in disease patterns. In the past, acute diseases like infectious disease were prevalent; however, in the late 20th century, chronic diseases such as metabolic diseases, cancers, neurological disease, etc. increased in occurrence. As lifestyle is closely related with these diseases, the attitudes toward medicine need to be changed. Recently, the concept of “Lifestyle Medicine” was proposed, and we predict it will be an important field in future medicine. PMID:26064831

  12. Targeted Support and Telecare in Staffed Housing for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Impact on Staffing Levels and Objective Lifestyle Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jonathan; Firth, Caroline; Puppa, Michael; Wilson, Rick; Felce, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased provision of out-of-family residential support is required because of demographic changes within the intellectual disabilities population. Residential support now has to be provided in a climate requiring both financial constraint and high quality service outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the quality of life consequences of…

  13. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  14. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  16. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Steven M; Schippers, Mandy; Maher, Carol A; Marshall, Alison L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patients' preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 221 of 296 eligible) accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for "how much" they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented "not at all"; 10 represented "very much"). Results. Most (n = 155, 70%) desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. "Print and post" communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10), followed by email and telephone (both 5/10), text messaging (1/10), and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10). Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p < 0.001), telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p < 0.001), and email (coefficient = 2.059, p = 0.02). Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = -0.100, p < 0.001), texting (coefficient = -0.096, p < 0.001), and social network messages (coefficient = -0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls. PMID:26491667

  19. Person-Centered Planning and Outcome Management: Maximizing Organizational Effectiveness in Supporting Quality Lifestyles among People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Jane M.; Reid, Dennis H.

    This text describes how human service personnel can best determine the desires of consumers with disabilities and how human service agencies can provide optimal support. This book is a synthesis of knowledge about the outcomes of the lives of people with disabilities and how human service agencies operate. While the first area of concentration is…

  20. Influence of modifying additives on the electronic state of supported palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestryakov, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.; Fuentes, S.; Bogdanchikova, N.; Barrera, A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of modifying additives of Ce, Zr, La and Cs oxides on the electronic state of palladium supported on γ-Al 2O 3 has been studied by IR-spectroscopy of adsorbed CO, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and H 2 chemisorption. The modified supports have been prepared using impregnation, coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. It is established that Ce and Zr oxide additives increase the effective charge of palladium ions whereas La and Cs oxides lower it. The effect of metal-support interaction is stronger in samples prepared by sol-gel than by coprecipitation

  1. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  2. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  3. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Hellgren, Lars Ingvar; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134 kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition. PMID:21773017

  4. Lifestyle and diet.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  6. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  7. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  8. Catalytic functionalities of supported sulfides. I. Effect of support and additives on the CoMo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, G.; Massoth, F.E.; Shabtai, J.

    1984-01-01

    C-S hydrogenolysis (HDS) of thiophene, hydrogenation (HYD) of 1-hexene, and hydrocracking (HCG) of 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, were used as separate model test reactions to differentiate and assess the catalytic functionalities of sulfided CoMo catalysts, and their dependence on the nature of the support and incorporation of additives. Rate constants and relative catalyst activities for these three reaction types were determined. HDS and HYD activities of CoMo supported on different types of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were higher, while the HCG activity was lower compared with CoMo supported on SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/-MgO, or TiO/sub 2/. For SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ supports both HDS and HYD activities decreased with increase in SiO/sub 2/ content from 10 to 75%, while HCG activity showed the opposite trend. Additives to a finished CoMo catalyst at 0.5% level caused variations in HDS and HCG activities, while HYD was essentially unaffected. HDS was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/Cl, but depressed by NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. HCG was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/Cl, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. Additives at 5% level, prior to or after CoMo impregnation, showed a strong depressing effect on HDS and a lesser effect on HYD, while HCG was strongly promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, Ti isopropoxide, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The changes in catalytic functionalities are rationalized in terms of different interactions between CoMo phase, support, and additives. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  9. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  10. Report on the Implementation of the Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…

  11. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  12. Making the Connection--Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence Supported and Non-Evaluated Lifestyle Interventions in Healthcare: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Irene; Heinen, Maud; Geense, Wytske; Mesters, Ilse; Wensing, Michel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Many implementation barriers relate to lifestyle interventions (LIs) being developed by scientists. Exploring whether implementation of non-evaluated LIs is less complicated, might offer insight how to improve the use of effective interventions. This study aimed to identify influencing factors for implementation and compare factors between…

  13. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  14. Recycling of fly ash for preparing porous mullite membrane supports with titania addition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Zhou, Jian-er; Lin, Bin; Ji, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Guangyao

    2010-08-15

    In order to effectively utilize industrial waste fly ash, porous mullite ceramic membrane supports were prepared from fly ash and calcined bauxite with chemically pure titania as sintering additive. The effects of TiO(2) on the sintering behaviors and main properties of porous mullite were studied in detail. Due to the addition of titania, the sintering of the flyash-based mullite was inhibited at low temperatures, but effectively improved at high temperatures, the latter is suitable for preparing porous mullite membrane supports by incomplete sintering. Titania entered into liquid glassy phase with low high-temperature viscosity during sintering, resulting in the improvement of sintering activity, as well as the lowering of secondary mullitization temperature (where 2.0% titania). Between 1300 and 1500 degrees C, with increasing titania content, the samples exhibit increased trends in both linear shrinkage percent and bulk density, but a slightly decreased trend in open porosity, at all sintering temperatures. At 1300-1500 degrees C, the samples sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2h exhibit the lowest shrinkage and bulk density, as well as the highest open porosities in the investigated titania content range of 0-6.0 wt.%. Also, with increasing titania content, the pore size decreases slightly but the three-point flexural strength increases gradually at 1450 degrees C. PMID:20452727

  15. [Lifestyle diseases in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Hillert, A

    2007-10-01

    Psychosocial disorders and lifestyle trends have become more important in dermatology. Lifestyle diseases are a biopsychosocial phenomenon that can only be diagnosed and treated by paying attention to the quickly changing sociocultural aspects. The naming and popularization of the particular lifestyle diseases takes place by the media, but there is only an imprecise medical classification of these phenomena. This article gives an overview of the current situation and medical conditions of lifestyle diseases and try to assign them to an established psychosomatic diagnosis, based on the clinical symptomatic. Most often somatoform disorders, somatization disorders with a repeated presentation of physical symptoms which cannot be medically objectified or depressive disturbances are found. PMID:17701144

  16. The effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-08-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of small group teaching materials devised by the English National Literacy Strategy, or a wide variety of other materials including other published intervention programmes, reading scheme-based, computer-based and individually designed interventions, or a combination of ALS and other interventions. The influence of a broad range of contextual factors were investigated, especially whether children's qualities, school factors such as socio-economic status and class size, and delivery differences made significant differences to the outcomes of the different interventions. The study used a naturalistic quasi-experimental design, in which teachers were asked to record details of their children and interventions without altering their professional decisions, which has not been used before in investigating literacy difficulties in context. ALS was marginally more effective than other interventions in the majority of classes, but was clearly superior in value for money terms. Children's qualities did not appear to affect outcomes. Although children receiving additional help made better than average progress, overall catch-up was limited, especially in spelling. PMID:18697191

  17. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  18. Effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle support on the development of diabetes in participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes: J-DOIT1, a pragmatic cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sano, Yoshiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Okazaki, Kentaro; Sato, Juichi; Suzuki, Sadao; Morita, Satoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Izumi, Kazuo; Kato, Masayuki; Ishizuka, Naoki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle coaching on preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting 40 groups from 17 healthcare divisions in Japan: companies (31), communities (6) and mixed settings (3). Participants Participants aged 20–65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were invited from the 17 healthcare divisions. Randomisation The groups were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control arm by independent statisticians according to a computer-generated list. Intervention The intervention arm received a 1-year telephone-delivered intervention provided by three private lifestyle support centres (at different frequencies: low-frequency (3 times), middle-frequency (6 times) and high-frequency (10 times) support calls). The intervention and control arms both received self-help devices such as a weight scale and pedometer. Outcomes Participants were followed up using data from annual health check-ups and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome was the development of T2DM defined as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, the diagnosis of diabetes, or use of an antidiabetic drug, confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Of 14 473 screened individuals, participants were enrolled in either the intervention (n=1240) arm or control (n=1367) arm. Overall, the HR for the development of T2DM in the intervention arm during 5.5 years was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). In the subanalysis, the HR was 0.59 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) in the subgroup that received phone calls the most frequently, compared with the control arm. A limitation of the study includes a lack of blinding. Conclusions High-frequency telephone-delivered lifestyle support could effectively prevent T2DM in participants with IFG in a primary healthcare setting, although low-frequency and middle-frequency phone calls did not. Trial

  19. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts. PMID:25687469

  20. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  1. Lifestyle Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Pojednic, Rachele M.; Phillips, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    The actual causes of premature adult deaths, the preponderance of noncommunicable chronic diseases, and their associated costs are related to unhealthy behaviors, such as poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Although recommended as the first line of prevention and management, providers often do not provide behavioral change counseling in their care. Medical education in lifestyle medicine is, therefore, proposed as a necessary intervention to allow all health providers to learn how to effectively and efficiently counsel their patients toward adopting and sustaining healthier behaviors. Lifestyle medicine curricula, including exercise, nutrition, behavioral change, and self-care, have recently evolved in all levels of medical education, together with implementation initiatives like Exercise is Medicine and the Lifestyle Medicine Education (LMEd) Collaborative. The goal of this review is to summarize the existing literature and to provide knowledge and tools to deans, administrators, faculty members, and students interested in pursuing lifestyle medicine training or establishing and improving an LMEd program within their institution. PMID:26413038

  2. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  3. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  4. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  5. Effectiveness of a mHealth Lifestyle Program With Telephone Support (TXT2BFiT) to Prevent Unhealthy Weight Gain in Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Hebden, Lana; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight gained in young adulthood often persists throughout later life with associated chronic disease risk. Despite this, current population prevention strategies are not specifically designed for young adults. Objective We designed and assessed the efficacy of an mHealth prevention program, TXT2BFiT, in preventing excess weight gain and improving dietary and physical activity behaviors in young adults at increased risk of obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Methods A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects and analyzing researchers were blinded. A total of 250 18- to 35-year-olds with a high risk of weight gain, a body mass index (BMI) of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 with at least 2 kg of weight gain in the previous 12 months, or a BMI of 25.0 to 31.9 kg/m2 were randomized to the intervention or control group. In the 12-week intervention period, the intervention group received 8 text messages weekly based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, 1 email weekly, 5 personalized coaching calls, a diet booklet, and access to resources and mobile phone apps on a website. Control group participants received only 4 text messages and printed dietary and physical activity guidelines. Measured body weight and height were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed via online surveys at baseline and at 12 weeks, including self-reported weight and dietary and physical activity measures. Results A total of 214 participants—110 intervention and 104 control—completed the 12-week intervention period. A total of 10 participants out of 250 (4.0%)—10 intervention and 0 control—dropped out, and 26 participants (10.4%)—5 intervention and 21 control—did not complete postintervention online surveys. Adherence to coaching calls and delivery of text messages was over 90%. At 12 weeks, the intervention group were 2.2 kg (95% CI 0.8-3.6) lighter than controls (P=.005). Intervention participants consumed more

  6. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  7. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  8. Lifestyle, Nutrition and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Kang, Jae Hee

    2009-01-01

    The only proven strategy to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the use of ocular hypotensive therapy among people diagnosed with ocular hypertension. In this review, various modifiable lifestyle factors, such as exercise, diet and cigarette smoking, that may influence intraocular pressure and that have been studied in relation to the risk of developing POAG are discussed. Epidemiologic studies on lifestyle factors are few, and the current evidence suggests that there are no environmental factors that are clearly associated with POAG; however, a few factors merit further study. This review also outlines future directions for research into the primary prevention of POAG. PMID:19680048

  9. Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1(J-DOIT1), a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach. The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. Methods For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in

  10. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  11. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  12. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  13. Lifestyle Discussions During Doctor-Older Patient Interactions: The Role of Time in the Medical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Peck, B. Mitchell; Browning, Colette; Forjuoh, Samuel N.

    2007-01-01

    Context Although physician influence can be especially powerful with older adults, relatively little is known about how primary care physicians (PCPs) interact with their patients regarding lifestyle issues. Objective To document the length of time that PCPs discuss lifestyle issues with their older patients and to examine patient, physician, and contextual correlates. Design Descriptive and multivariate analysis of videotapes of physician-patient encounters. Setting Medical encounters from 3 primary care ambulatory settings. Patients There were 116 ongoing medical encounters with patients aged 65 years or older. Main outcome measures Total time spent in physical activity (PA) discussions and total time spent discussing PA, nutrition, and smoking during the medical encounter. Results Very little time was spent in lifestyle discussions. On average, PA was discussed for less than a minute (58.28 seconds) and nutrition for slightly less than 90 seconds (83.11 seconds). Only about 10% of the average 17-minute, 22-second encounter was spent on physical activity, nutrition, or smoking topics. Physician supportiveness score (beta = 8.92, P ≤ .001) and the number of topics discussed (beta = 106.39, P ≤ .001) were significantly correlated with the length of all lifestyle discussion. Lifestyle discussions were also more likely to occur during longer visits. Conclusion There is a critical need for additional training of primary care providers on how to discuss lifestyle issues in the most time-efficient but effective manner to achieve positive behavior change associated with improved health outcomes. There is also a need for the institutionalization of policies to encourage more lifestyle discussions. PMID:18311398

  14. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  15. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  16. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  17. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke. PMID:26105161

  18. Implementation of new Healthy Conversation Skills to support lifestyle changes - what helps and what hinders? Experiences of Sure Start Children's Centre staff.

    PubMed

    Tinati, Tannaze; Lawrence, Wendy; Ntani, Georgia; Black, Christina; Cradock, Sue; Jarman, Megan; Pease, Anna; Begum, Rufia; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Barker, Mary

    2012-07-01

    Effective communication is necessary for good relationships between healthcare practitioners and clients. This study examined barriers and facilitators to implementing new communication skills. One hundred and ten Sure Start Children's Centre staff attended one of 13 follow-up workshops in Southampton, UK between May 2009 and February 2011 to reflect on the use of new skills following a training course in communication, reflection and problem-solving. Barriers and facilitators were assessed with an adapted Problematic Experiences of Therapy scale (PETS). Staff reported frequency of skill use, and described what made it more difficult or easier to use the skills. Complete data were available for 101 trainees. The PETS indicated that staff had confidence in using the skills, but felt that there were practical barriers to using them, such as lack of time. Skills were used less often when staff perceived parents not to be engaging with them (Spearman's correlation r(s) = -0.42, P < 0.001), when staff felt less confident to use the skills (r(s) = -0.37, P < 0.001) and when there were more practical barriers (r(s) = -0.37, P < 0.001). In support of findings from the PETS, content analysis of free text responses suggested that the main barrier was a perceived lack of time to implement new skills. Facilitators included seeing the benefits of using the skills, finding opportunities and having good relationships with parents. Understanding the range of barriers and facilitators to implementation is essential when developing training to facilitate ongoing support and sustain skill use. Special attention should be given to exploring trainees' perceptions of time, to be able to address this significant barrier to skill implementation. Staff training requires a multi-faceted approach to address the range of perceived barriers. PMID:22452549

  19. Lifestyle and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Prince, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is associated with a number of lifestyle factors, including nutritional factors such as intake of calcium, protein, dairy food, fruits and vegetables and vitamin D status, and behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Ensuring adequate calcium intake and vitamin D status and having regular weight-bearing physical activity throughout life are important for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Studies have shown that smoking and excessive alcohol intake have adverse effects on bone health and increase the risk of fracture. There is evidence suggesting that adequate protein intake and higher intake of fruits and vegetables are beneficial to bone health. PMID:25416958

  20. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  1. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  2. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  3. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  4. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's own…

  5. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  6. Study of the effects of potassium addition to supported iron catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.; Moskovits, M.

    1988-10-20

    The Fischer-Tropsch activity of supported iron catalysts prepared via electrochemical techniques has been evaluated as a function of potassium addition. Catalyst pretreatment in 0.09, 0.18, and 0.27 M K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solutions generated potassium levels of 1.7, 2.8, and 3.9 wt %, respectively. Pretreatment in 0.18 M KOH provided a catalyst with 2.3 wt% potassium and facilitated comparison of the effects of the basicity of the pretreatment solution upon catalyst activity. A maximum in catalyst activity and CO conversion was noted upon increasing K content, followed by a sharp decline in activity at potassium levels in excess of the maximum. The hydrogenation ability of the catalyst decreased, and a shift to higher molecular weight products was observed, with increasing potassium content. The type of pretreatment solution had little effect on the catalyst activity or the product selectivity.

  7. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Anđić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on α-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.

  8. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Deanna M.; Bland, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one's genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual's health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient's health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health. PMID:23878520

  9. "Fitness Freaks": A Healthier Lifestyle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the lifestyles of young people are affected by health and fitness considerations. An analysis of data from 3253 Health Related Behavior Questionnaires, completed by fourth-year secondary school pupils is presented. (IAH)

  10. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  11. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  12. Reduction of sludge generation by the addition of support material in a cyclic activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Moacir Messias de; Lermontov, André; Araujo, Philippe Lopes da Silva; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    An innovative biomass carrier (Biobob®) was tested for municipal wastewater treatment in an activated sludge system to evaluate the pollutant removal performance and the sludge generation for different carrier volumes. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale cyclic activated sludge system (CASS®) built with three cylindrical tanks in a series: an anoxic selector (2.1 m(3)), an aerobic selector (2.5 m(3)) and the main aerobic reactor (25.1 m(3)). The results showed that by adding the Biobob® carrier decreased the MLVSS concentration, which consequently reduced the waste sludge production of the system. Having 7% and 18% (v/v) support material in the aerobic reactor, the observed biomass yield decreased 18% and 36%, respectively, relative to the reactor operated with suspended biomass. The addition of media did not affect the system's performance for COD and TSS removal. However, TKN and TN removal were improved by 24% and 14%, respectively, using 18% (v/v) carrier. PMID:23831747

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Mobile Application for Personal Lifestyle Check-Up and Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Sekyoung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed (1) to help individuals analyze their own health status by checking their lifestyle, (2) to develop a user-friendly mobile application that offered prescriptions for lifestyle improvement, and (3) to examine whether the developed application had positive effects on users. Materials and Methods: In order to develop a lifestyle analysis engine that would operate in an Android® (Google, Mountain View, CA)-based mobile application, survey data on health awareness behaviors of 25,124 participants from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Additionally, in order for the users to be aware of their lifestyles and explore the effects of the developed mobile application on lifestyle management and improvement, an additional survey of the lifestyle awareness and levels of motivation for lifestyle improvement of 152 users was conducted. Results: The differences between lifestyles before and after using the application were examined. A paired t test was used for questions regarding (1) the level of motivation to improve lifestyles and (2) changes in lifestyle. The lifestyle score was lower after using the program than before using it. Conversely, the level of motivation to improve lifestyle was greater after the program than before it. Both results were statistically significant. Conclusions: By using the KNHANES, this study developed a mobile application that compared the quantified lifestyles of individuals and enabled individuals to check easily their health statuses, whenever and wherever necessary. The program developed in this study contributed to motivating individuals to be aware of and to improve their lifestyles. PMID:25384255

  14. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  15. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10−16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

  16. Telomeres, lifestyle, cancer, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Shammas, Masood A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been growing evidence that lifestyle factors may affect the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of telomeres in human health and aging and to summarize possible lifestyle factors that may affect health and longevity by altering the rate of telomere shortening. Recent findings Recent studies indicate that telomere length, which can be affected by various lifestyle factors, can affect the pace of aging and onset of age-associated diseases. Summary Telomere length shortens with age. Progressive shortening of telomeres leads to senescence, apoptosis, or oncogenic transformation of somatic cells, affecting the health and lifespan of an individual. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased incidence of diseases and poor survival. The rate of telomere shortening can be either increased or decreased by specific lifestyle factors. Better choice of diet and activities has great potential to reduce the rate of telomere shortening or at least prevent excessive telomere attrition, leading to delayed onset of age-associated diseases and increased lifespan. This review highlights the role of telomeres in aging and describes the lifestyle factors which may affect telomeres, human health, and aging. PMID:21102320

  17. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  18. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  19. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  20. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  1. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry. PMID:25154133

  2. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  3. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  4. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  5. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  6. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  7. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei supragenome and its influence in species evolution and lifestyle adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The broad ecological distribution of L. casei makes it an insightful subject for research on genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation. To explore evolutionary mechanisms that determine genomic diversity of L. casei, we performed comparative analysis of 17 L. casei genomes representing strains collected from dairy, plant, and human sources. Results Differences in L. casei genome inventory revealed an open pan-genome comprised of 1,715 core and 4,220 accessory genes. Extrapolation of pan-genome data indicates L. casei has a supragenome approximately 3.2 times larger than the average genome of individual strains. Evidence suggests horizontal gene transfer from other bacterial species, particularly lactobacilli, has been important in adaptation of L. casei to new habitats and lifestyles, but evolution of dairy niche specialists also appears to involve gene decay. Conclusions Genome diversity in L. casei has evolved through gene acquisition and decay. Acquisition of foreign genomic islands likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats, notably plant-associated niches. Loss of unnecessary ancestral traits in strains collected from bacterial-ripened cheeses supports the hypothesis that gene decay contributes to enhanced fitness in that niche. This study gives the first evidence for a L. casei supragenome and provides valuable insights into mechanisms for genome evolution and lifestyle adaptation of this ecologically flexible and industrially important lactic acid bacterium. Additionally, our data confirm the Distributed Genome Hypothesis extends to non-pathogenic, ecologically flexible species like L. casei. PMID:23035691

  9. Relationships between lifestyle factors and neutrophil functions in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Machida, Kazuhiko; Saiki, Chinatsu; Murayama, Rumiko; Sugita, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between neutrophil functions and lifestyle factors in the elderly. The subjects (84 males, 73.9+/-5.8 years old; and 63 females, 70.0+/-4.6 years old) belonged to a recreational seniors club in Japan. Investigations of the subjects' stress, exercise habits, smoking habits, and alcohol-drinking habits were performed. The phagocytosis and superoxide productivity of the neutrophils were measured with a nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test. In addition, leukocyte counts and serum total protein (TP) levels were determined. The results revealed that aging, high serum levels, and stress-coping factors (e.g., having hobbies, keeping pets, and close links with friends or family) significantly correlated with preferable neutrophil functions. In addition, significant effects of lifestyle factors on the balance between phagocytosis and subsequent superoxide production were observed. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that there are correlations between neutrophil functions and lifestyle factors in the elderly. PMID:12357457

  10. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  11. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  12. Lifestyle Changes After Laryngeal or Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer affect your emotional health? Lifestyle changes after laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer You can’ ... people want to know if there are specific lifestyle changes they can make to reduce their risk ...

  13. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... is possible. By committing to and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, some people are able to reverse their pre- ... can avoid many diabetes complications by adopting a healthy lifestyle. How much can be avoided usually depends on ...

  14. Identifying Molecular Targets of Lifestyle Modifications in Colon Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Molly M.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; approximately 20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that could influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals. PMID:23675573

  15. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  16. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  17. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (<1year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  18. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  19. Cognitive reserve and lifestyle: moving towards preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Wirth, Miranka; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    The large majority of neuroimaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients have supported the idea that lifestyle factors may protect against the clinical manifestations of AD rather than influence AD neuropathological processes (the cognitive reserve hypothesis). This evidence argues in favor of the hypothesis that lifestyle factors act as moderators between AD pathology and cognition, i.e., through indirect compensatory mechanisms. In this review, we identify emerging evidence in cognitively normal older adults that relate lifestyle factors to established AD neuroimaging biomarkers. While some of these investigations are in agreement with the compensatory view of cognitive reserve, other studies have revealed new clues on the neural mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of lifestyle factors on the brain. Specifically, they provide novel evidence suggesting direct effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes. We propose a tentative theoretical model where lifestyle factors may act via direct neuroprotective and/or indirect compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, we suggest that neuroprotective mechanisms may have a major role during early stages and compensatory mechanisms in later stages of the disease. In the absence of an effective treatment for AD and considering the potential of lifestyle factors in AD prevention, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying lifestyle effects on the brain seems crucial. We hope to provide an integrative view that may help to better understand the complex effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes, starting from the preclinical stage. PMID:26321944

  20. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  1. Lifestyle Change: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R.W.; Yeo, M.A.; Hougesen, B.; Todd, V.

    1989-01-01

    Many relationships between behaviour and disease are now recognized by both health care professionals and the public. In lifestyle counselling, caregivers help patients to change their unhealthy habits. The primary care office seems an ideal setting for implementing behaviour change strategies, but studies suggest that physicians only sporadically elicit behavioural risk factors and infrequently counsel patients to modify risky behaviours. Physicians have been introduced to the goals of clinical prevention, but with the limited application of clinical prevention research to practical office approaches, they often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to achieve them. The individual intervention and group program strategies described in this paper have been adapted to the primary care setting, and we hope they will help family physicians to play an effective role in lifestyle change.

  2. Hurler-Scheie phenotype with parental consanguinity. Report of an additional case supporting the concept of genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kaibara, N; Katsuki, I; Hotokebuchi, T; Takagishi, K; Kure, T

    1983-05-01

    The Hurler-Scheie phenotype in a 27-year-old woman of first-cousin parentage is possibly the first reported in the orthopedic literature. The patient exhibited short stature, coarse facies, corneal clouding, multiple stiff joints, normal intelligence, and a long history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, which has not been relieved after operation. The irreversible nerve damage was apparently produced by the marked thickening of the transverse carpal ligament. Surgical findings in this case and data from published reports emphasize the need for early surgical treatment of the associated carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with the Hurler-Scheie phenotype. Parental consanguinity present in this patient is further evidence supporting the concept of a third mutant allele different from both the Hurler gene and the Scheie gene. PMID:6404579

  3. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  4. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  5. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  6. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  7. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. PMID:27401481

  8. Systematic Dissection of Coding Exons at Single Nucleotide Resolution Supports an Additional Role in Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400

  9. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Azza; Kilani, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB). Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time) was self-reported using the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR) total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population. PMID:26052460

  10. Anorexia Nervosa: A Lifestyle Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves

    1983-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a real lifestyle disorder. The apparent increase in frequency has been linked to the change of position of women in society. If families have an important role to play in the maintenance of the drama, they also hold the key to its resolution. The family physician in early contact with the anorectic patient is in an important position to involve the family in therapy and maximize the chances of recovery. The steps required are reframing, preparing the family involved for family therapy, exploring the benefits of change, and follow up. Imagesp555-a PMID:21283351

  11. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:25348049

  12. Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: a brief update.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Desai, Nisarg R; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Carpi, Angelo

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and defective spermatogenesis is increasing probably due to environmental and lifestyle-related factors. The aim of this review is to briefly describe and comment on the principal lifestyle factors. The recent findings that the electromagnetic waves following the use of the cell phone and the prolonged exposure to the noise stress cause relevant testicular dysfunction in man or animals reinforce the hypothesis of the importance of lifestyle-related factors. PMID:18771892

  13. Surgery, drugs, lifestyle, and hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Dalessandri, K M; Organ, C H

    1995-04-01

    Heart disease is the number-one cause of death in the United States, and more money is spent on its treatment each year than for any other condition. Both epidemiologic and experimental data clearly show that elevated plasma cholesterol levels increase the risk of death from coronary heart disease. Genetic insufficiencies can cause high blood cholesterol, but most people with high cholesterol do not have genetic abnormalities; rather, they have lifestyles that include high-fat diets and little exercise. Cholesterol can be managed aggressively with coronary artery bypass surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, partial ileal bypass, and even liver transplant. Antihyperlipidemic drugs include bile-acid-binding resins, nicotinic acid, fibric acid derivatives, hydroxymethyglutaryl coenzyme A-reductase inhibitors, and the antioxidant probucol. Strict programs of low-fat diets and exercise are also effective for reducing cholesterol, lowering blood pressure, and preventing heart disease without the side effects associated with surgery and drug therapy. Such lifestyle changes are critical to reducing the incidence of heart disease in this country. PMID:7694974

  14. Healthy Lifestyles of University Students in China and Influential Factors

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Xian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours. PMID:23935418

  15. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J; Focht, Brian C; Taylor, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA) is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality). Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1) what is OA?, 2) effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principles for OA patients, 3) goal-setting and barriers, and 4) translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora of assessments and cognitive therapy topics that could be utilized in the care strategy that we are promoting, but the present topics were selected for their low clinician and patient burden and promising results in trials with OA patients. Clinicians who are comfortable and knowledgeable about a

  16. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care.

    PubMed

    Garver, Matthew J; Focht, Brian C; Taylor, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA) is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality). Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1) what is OA?, 2) effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principles for OA patients, 3) goal-setting and barriers, and 4) translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora of assessments and cognitive therapy topics that could be utilized in the care strategy that we are promoting, but the present topics were selected for their low clinician and patient burden and promising results in trials with OA patients. Clinicians who are comfortable and knowledgeable about a

  17. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging. PMID:26971802

  18. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  19. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. PMID:26859253

  20. Model development of healthy-lifestyle behaviors for rural Muslim Indonesians with hypertension: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Mayumi; Tashiro, Junko; Maftuhah; Sugiarto, Heri; Yulaikhah, Lily; Carbun, Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a significant health issue in Indonesia. Health professionals in a rural district of West Java identified hypertension as a priority health issue. In this study, we describe healthy-lifestyle behaviors as perceived by the district's middle-aged Muslims with hypertension. A qualitative case-study design was used. Twelve married couples, directly or indirectly impacted by hypertension, and who visited community health centers, were purposively recruited. Semistructured interviews provided data that were systematically analyzed for categories and subcategories. Categories of healthy-lifestyle behaviors currently practiced were eating behavior, physical activity, resting, not smoking, managing stress, seeking health information, seeking health care, caring other people, and fulfilling an obligation to God. Categories of reasons for practicing healthy-lifestyle behaviors were behavioral beliefs, competence, religious support, prior experience, social support, and health system support. Categories for not practicing healthy-lifestyle behaviors were personal, social, and environmental barriers. To achieve healthy-lifestyle behavior changes, it is essential for rural middle-aged Muslim individuals to be supported by reinforcing their positive reasons and to address their negative reasons to practice healthy-lifestyle behaviors. PMID:26248167

  1. The role of lifestyle in perpetuating substance use disorder: the Lifestyle Balance Model.

    PubMed

    Davies, Glyn; Elison, Sarah; Ward, Jonathan; Laudet, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Conceptualizing aetiology underpinning an individual's substance use disorder (SUD) not only facilitates insight and understanding, but also serves to identify targets for treatment and aid practitioners in selecting the most appropriate interventions. There is now a wealth of literature on aetiology and treatment approaches, and in more recent years, also literature to support the concept of 'recovery' from a condition which was previously thought of as a chronic, relapsing condition. The burgeoning literature around research into recovery is revealing how recovery can best be defined and what factors might be associated with recovery from SUD. To add further to this growing body of literature, a new six-domain, explanatory biopsychosocial model of substance dependence and recovery, the Lifestyle Balance Model (LBM) is proposed. Based on research findings and theory reported in the literature, the LBM is a generic model depicting six domains of biopsychosocial functioning and includes within it the role of lifestyle. The LBM has been constructed as a domain model, allowing conceptualisation of the relationships between the six domain areas that perpetuate dependence and may also be associated with recovery from SUD, providing service users and clinicians with a tool for the delivery of case formulation and identification of target areas for intervention. PMID:25595205

  2. Patients’ experiences of lifestyle discussions based on motivational interviewing: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to World Health Organization about 75% of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer could be prevented if the risk factors tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol could be eliminated. Patients often need help in monitoring themselves to make the proper lifestyle changes and it is important that adequate support is provided to enable the patients to take control over their health. Motivational interviewing is a framework that can help to facilitate this movement. The aim of this study was to describe how patients in primary health care settings experience lifestyle discussions based on motivational interviewing. Methods This study has a descriptive design and qualitative content analysis was used as the method. Sixteen patients who had each visited a registered nurse for lifestyle discussions were interviewed. Results The results show that the lifestyle discussions could enable self-determination in the process of lifestyle change but that certain conditions were required. Mutual interaction between the patient and the nurse that contributes to a sense of well-being in the patients was a necessary condition for the lifestyle discussion to be helpful. When the discussion resulted in a new way of thinking about lifestyle and when patient initiative was encouraged, the discussion could contribute to change. The patient’s free will to make a lifestyle change and the nurse’s sensitivity in the discussions created fertile soil for change. Conclusions This study focuses on MI-based discussions, and the result shows that a subset of patients, who self-reported that they are motivated and aware of their role in making lifestyle changes, appreciate these strategies. However, it is not known whether discussions would be experienced in the same way if RNs used another method or if patients who were less motivated, engaged, or aware of their role in making lifestyle changes were

  3. Timing of impairment and health-promoting lifestyles in women with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Umberson, Deborah; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Hsui-Rong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory that explains how the timing of impairment in women’s lives influences health-promoting lifestyles among 45 women age 43 to 79 years with impairments of varying onset across the life course. From this grounded theory exploration, we suggest that women created health-related lifestyles, which were comprised of changing abilities, roles, and rituals, in support of perceived self. The ultimate goal of a healthy lifestyle was healthy aging, which was self-determination in the support of positive relationships. Environment and resources had direct influence on perceived self. Our proposed substantive theory provides an understanding of how women develop a healthy lifestyle after the onset of permanent sensory or physical impairment. It also takes steps toward an understanding of how timing of impairment influences the perceptions women have of themselves and their health behaviors. PMID:20207953

  4. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  5. Cultural capital and attitudes toward homosexuals: exploring the relation between lifestyles and homonegativity.

    PubMed

    Slootmaeckers, Koen; Lievens, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential of cultural capital as explanatory factor in understanding homonegativity. Building on recent findings suggesting the need for a cultural component in understanding homonegativity, this article explores the relation between lifestyles (the measurable expression of cultural capital) and homonegativity. Using the "Social-Cultural Changes in Flanders 2006" survey (a population-wide survey in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium), we observed that homonegativity is lowest in lifestyle clusters where cultural capital is higher. This effect, furthermore, is maintained even after controlling for other homonegativity correlates. These results suggest that cultural capital, expressed by lifestyles, is a valuable addition to the understanding of homonegativity. PMID:24325144

  6. Lifestyle behaviours and weight among hospital-based nurses

    PubMed Central

    ZAPKA, JANE M.; LEMON, STEPHENIE C.; MAGNER, ROBERT P.; HALE, JANET

    2008-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to (i) describe the weight, weight-related perceptions and lifestyle behaviours of hospital-based nurses, and (ii) explore the relationship of demographic, health, weight and job characteristics with lifestyle behaviours. Background The obesity epidemic is widely documented. Worksite initiatives have been advocated. Nurses represent an important part of the hospital workforce and serve as role models when caring for patients. Methods A sample of 194 nurses from six hospitals participated in anthropometric measurements and self-administered surveys. Results The majority of nurses were overweight and obese, and some were not actively involved in weight management behaviours. Self-reported health, diet and physical activity behaviours were low, although variable by gender, age and shift. Reports of co-worker norms supported low levels of healthy behaviours. Conclusions Findings reinforce the need to address the hospital environment and culture as well as individual behaviours for obesity control. Implications for nursing management Nurse managers have an opportunity to consider interventions that promote a climate favourable to improved health habits by facilitating and supporting healthy lifestyle choices (nutrition and physical activity) and environmental changes. Such efforts have the potential to increase productivity and morale and decrease work-related disabilities and improve quality of life. PMID:19793242

  7. Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Bush, Ashley I; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Cooper, James; de Jager, Celeste A; Erickson, Kirk I; Fraser, Gary; Kesler, Shelli; Levin, Susan M; Lucey, Brendan; Morris, Martha Clare; Squitti, Rosanna

    2014-09-01

    Risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by older age, genetic factors, and several medical risk factors. Studies have also suggested that dietary and lifestyle factors may influence risk, raising the possibility that preventive strategies may be effective. This body of research is incomplete. However, because the most scientifically supported lifestyle factors for Alzheimer's disease are known factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, it is reasonable to provide preliminary guidance to help individuals who wish to reduce their risk. At the International Conference on Nutrition and the Brain, Washington, DC, July 19-20, 2013, speakers were asked to comment on possible guidelines for Alzheimer's disease prevention, with an aim of developing a set of practical, albeit preliminary, steps to be recommended to members of the public. From this discussion, 7 guidelines emerged related to healthful diet and exercise habits. PMID:24913896

  8. Obesity: dietary and lifestyle management.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Jennifer M; DeMattia, Laure G

    2014-10-01

    Lifestyle modifications should be recommended for every patient dealing with overweight or obesity. Behavior modification is the cornerstone of management. Motivational interviewing, goal setting, and self-monitoring are three techniques with proven efficacy for weight reduction. Because an energy deficit is required to promote weight loss, goal setting should be focused on achieving an overall caloric reduction. No single diet has proven to be superior to others overall in terms of weight loss outcomes. However, a low-carbohydrate (ie, ketogenic) diet has been shown to reduce insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and may be considered for this subgroup of patients. There continue to be conflicting views regarding the superiority of low glycemic index foods for weight loss. Exercise alone has not been shown to produce substantial weight loss, but it is helpful during the weight loss phase to preserve lean muscle mass, and it has a role in weight maintenance. Though sleep deprivation has been implicated in weight gain, the effect of improving sleep quality/duration on reducing excess weight has yet to be studied adequately. PMID:25325916

  9. Management of pediatric obesity: a lifestyle modification approach.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shamita; Burton, Amy; Oden, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Over the last decades, pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic with worldwide estimates as high as 43 million children and adolescents affected, and this number is rising at an exponential rate. With pediatric obesity comes a host of co-morbidities including impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired liver function. Treatment of this population has proven to be challenging for many reasons. For patients, a new baseline exists consisting of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as a lack of availability of affordable healthy alternatives. In addition, there is an overwhelming presence of energy-dense foods. For physicians, there are many issues including lack of time, training, and reimbursement. The most efficacious and reliable way to treat this population and its co-morbidities is with a healthy, balanced lifestyle consisting of a realistic diet plan and exercise regimen. The is the cornerstone of therapy in the Center for Obesity And its Complications in Health (COACH) clinic which is Children's Medical Center's (Dallas, TX) strategy to combat and treat pediatric overweight and obesity. Lifestyle changes of diet and exercise plans are tailored to each individual's interests and metabolic needs in COACH which is a multi-disciplinary clinic. Additionally, co-morbidities are screened for and treated aggressively to help prevent long-term complications of overweight and obesity. If others do similar interventions in their communities, this global epidemic has the possibility of more positive outcomes than those currently projected. PMID:23893368

  10. Clients’ Experiences of a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ruth S.M.; Lok, Kris Y.W.; Sea, Mandy M.M.; Woo, Jean

    2009-01-01

    There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients’ experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists’ capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist’s capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification. PMID:20054457

  11. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing kids to lots of allergens, ... rest of the population -- much lower rates of asthma. "We found Amish children had extremely low levels ...

  12. Prevention of Dementia: Focus on Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, Maria Cristina; Nelles, Gereon; Pientka, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize current knowledge on the possible advantages of lifestyle interventions, with particular attention to physical fitness, cognitive activity, leisure and social activity as well as nutrition. There is a large amount of published papers providing partial evidence and asserting the need for immediate, appropriate preventive lifestyle measures against dementia and AD development. Nevertheless, there are currently great difficulties in drafting effective guidelines in this field. This depends mainly upon lack of randomized controlled trials assessing benefits versus risks of particular lifestyle interventions strategies. However, due to the rapid increase of dementia burden, lifestyle factors and their amelioration should be already made part of decision making in light of their health-maintaining effects while awaiting for results of well-designed large prospective cohort studies in dementia. PMID:20721289

  13. HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE: A SAUDI PROFILE

    PubMed Central

    AI-Shahri, Mohammad Z.

    1996-01-01

    The negative effects on health by behavior such as cigarette smoking, lack of physical exercise, non-control of body weight and non-use of seat belts were empirically documented. Available findings of the various studies on lifestyle of the Saudi Arabian community were not encouraging. If the general health status of the Saudi population is to be improved, an enforcement of healthy lifestyles must be considered. PMID:23008551

  14. The effect of diet supplementation and addition of zinc in vitro on the growth-supporting property of amniotic fluid in African women.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P C; Ross, S M; Dhupelia, I; Naeye, R L

    1979-09-01

    The effect of diet supplementation throughout pregnancy on third-trimester amniotic fluid growth-supporting activity (GSP) was studied in 100 African women; 32 were given zinc supplementation, 22 each animal and vegetable supplements, respectively, and 24 served as control subjects. No difference in GSP was noted in any of the four groups, the majority of fluids (65%) being noninhibitory. Zinc levels in fluids from African women were much lower than those described for other population groups at corresponding periods of gestation. Although zinc levels in liquor rose following dietary zinc supplementation, these remained lower than values described in white patients. In vitro addition of zinc (up to 153 mu moles per liter final concentration) to 17 noninhibitory African liquors resulted in these fluids becoming inhibitory. PMID:474664

  15. Rationing organs using psychosocial and lifestyle criteria.

    PubMed

    Corley, M C; Westerberg, N; Elswick, R K; Connell, D; Neil, J; Sneed, G; Witcher, V

    1998-08-01

    The role of patient psychosocial and lifestyle characteristics in decisions about the allocation of scarce health care resources has not been examined. In this national survey using the Criteria for Selection of Transplant Recipient (CSTR) Scale, organ transplant coordinators (N = 559) identified the psychosocial and lifestyle criteria they believe should be considered in patient selection/rejection for organ transplant. Using factor analysis to reduce the data, six factors were identified: current lifestyle/psychiatric problems, family/socioeconomic issues, habits, controlled lifestyle/psychiatric issues, cost, and stigmatized conditions. Patients who were in prison for a serious crime, used cocaine, had AIDS, or were HIV positive (criteria making up the Stigma factor), were more likely to be labeled for exclusion from transplant than those with other psychosocial/lifestyle characteristics. When transplant coordinators perceived that patients' psychosocial and lifestyle problems were under control or corrected, they were more likely to consider them for a transplant. For all but the cost factor, criteria were most stringent for heart transplants. Although over 90% of the coordinators assessed patients and participated in patient selection for transplant, master's prepared nurses were more likely than nurses with other educational preparation to be involved in organ recipient selection. These findings can serve as a prototype for how decisions are made for allocating other scarce health care resources. PMID:9679809

  16. Optimization of the β-Elimination/Michael Addition Chemistry on Reversed-Phase Supports for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of O-Linked Protein Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    We previously adapted the β-elimination/Michael addition chemistry to solid-phase derivatization on reversed-phase supports, and demonstrated the utility of this reaction format to prepare phosphoseryl peptides in unfractionated protein digests for mass spectrometric identification and facile phosphorylation-site determination. Here, we have expanded the use of this technique to β-N-acetylglucosamine peptides, modified at serine/threonine, phosphothreonyl peptides, and phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides, followed in sequence by proline. The consecutive β-elimination with Michael addition was adapted to optimize the solid-phase reaction conditions for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The analyte remained intact during derivatization and was recovered efficiently from the silica-based, reversed-phase support with minimal sample loss. The general use of the solid-phase approach for enzymatic dephosphorylation was demonstrated with phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides and was used as an orthogonal method to confirm the identity of phosphopeptides in proteolytic mixtures. The solid-phase approach proved highly suitable to prepare substrates from low-level amounts of protein digests for phosphorylation-site determination by chemical-targeted proteolysis. The solid-phase protocol provides for a simple, robust, and efficient tool to prepare samples for phosphopeptide identification in MALDI mass maps of unfractionated protein digests, using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories. The use of a solid-phase analytical platform is expected to be readily expanded to prepare digest from O-glycosylated- and O-sulfonated proteins for mass spectrometry-based structural characterization. PMID:23997661

  17. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  18. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  19. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  20. Effect of genotype on success of lifestyle intervention in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Peter; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Laakso, Markku; Fritsche, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Lifestyle intervention programs including increased physical activity and healthy nutrition have been proven to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. This is achieved mainly by reducing body weight and improving insulin sensitivity. However, response to lifestyle or dietary interventions does differ between individuals, and the genetic or environmental factors that may account for these differences are not yet precisely characterized. Identification of these factors would be desirable in order to provide an individually tailored preventive strategy for patients at risk of developing diabetes. This review summarizes the so far known genetic variations, which determine responders and nonresponders to a lifestyle intervention. In addition, general methodological approaches to study gene-lifestyle interactions are described. PMID:17165091

  1. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women’s health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions. PMID

  2. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women's health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions. PMID

  3. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity. PMID:24996220

  4. Effects of Educational Intervention on Health-Promoting Lifestyle and Health-Related Life quality of Methamphetamine Users and Their Families: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Bastaminia, Amir; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Dastoorpoor, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Family-centered empowerment of drug and stimulant users is an effective program for a better response to treatment, prevention of treatment adverse effects, and promotion quality of life (QoL) and lifestyle in the process of discontinuing drug abuse. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention, based on family-centered empowerment and Pender's health promotion models, on health-promoting lifestyle and health-related QoL among methamphetamine users and their families. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, methamphetamine users, who were admitted to Tehran University of Medical Sciences Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, were randomly allocated to three groups: a group for training of methamphetamine users who were in recovery phase (intervention group 1;95 subjects);a group for training of a family member of methamphetamine users who were in recovery phase (intervention group 2; 95 subjects); and a control group (95 subjects). A demographic checklist and a standard questionnaire covering health-promoting lifestyle, health-related QoL, self-efficacy, perceived affect, perceived social support, and perceived barriers dimensions were used to gather required data. Independent-samples t test, paired-samples t-test, and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that after adjusting for effects of pretest scores, the difference between mean post-test scores of health-promoting lifestyle scale, health-related QoL scale, and all constructs of Pender's health promotion model (self-efficacy, perceived affect, perceived social support, and perceived barriers) in the intervention group 1 and control group were significant (P< 0.0001). In addition, changes in mean scores of lifestyle scale (42.4 ± 13.6), QoL scale (29.1 ± 14.2), self-efficacy (16.1 ± 2.6), perceived affect (16.1 ± 8), social support (35.4 ± 12.4), and barriers (17.2 ± 15.8) before and after intervention were

  5. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  6. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  7. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants’ perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  8. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per adult per year in 637 placental mammal species and are generally supported. Compared with terrestrial insectivores with generalized primitive traits, mammals that have evolved more specialized lifestyles have divergent mass-specific production rates: (i) increased in groups that specialize on abundant and reliable foods: grazing and browsing herbivores (artiodactyls, lagomorphs, perissodactyls, and folivorous rodents) and flesh-eating marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans); and (ii) decreased in groups that have lifestyles with reduced death rates: bats, primates, arboreal, fossorial, and desert rodents, bears, elephants, and rhinos. Convergent evolution of groups with similar lifestyles is common, so patterns of productivity across mammalian taxa reflect both ecology and phylogeny. The overall result is that groups with different lifestyles have parallel but offset relationships between production rate and body size. These results shed light on the evolution of the fast–slow life-history continuum, suggesting that variation occurs along two axes corresponding to body size and lifestyle. PMID:17940028

  9. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2007-11-01

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per adult per year in 637 placental mammal species and are generally supported. Compared with terrestrial insectivores with generalized primitive traits, mammals that have evolved more specialized lifestyles have divergent mass-specific production rates: (i) increased in groups that specialize on abundant and reliable foods: grazing and browsing herbivores (artiodactyls, lagomorphs, perissodactyls, and folivorous rodents) and flesh-eating marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans); and (ii) decreased in groups that have lifestyles with reduced death rates: bats, primates, arboreal, fossorial, and desert rodents, bears, elephants, and rhinos. Convergent evolution of groups with similar lifestyles is common, so patterns of productivity across mammalian taxa reflect both ecology and phylogeny. The overall result is that groups with different lifestyles have parallel but offset relationships between production rate and body size. These results shed light on the evolution of the fast-slow life-history continuum, suggesting that variation occurs along two axes corresponding to body size and lifestyle. PMID:17940028

  10. Health Promoting Lifestyle and its Determinants Among University Students in Sabzevar, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284

  11. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  12. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  13. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  14. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  15. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  16. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jayesh; Chaudhari, S.; Sarkar, Prasanta K.

    2011-01-01

    Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed. PMID:22661838

  17. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  18. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life. PMID:26272989

  19. Lifestyle in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Robabeh; Janbabai, Ghasem; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most commonly diagnosed cancers is breast cancer that leads to mortality and morbidity among Iranian women. Behavioural risk factors, such as common lifestyle patterns are often associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. Aim This study aimed to investigate lifestyle of breast cancer patients admitted to Cancer Research Center of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using convenient sampling method. Sample size consisted of 150 cancer patients, and data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire on dimensions of lifestyle containing four dimensions of self-care, exercise and physical activity, diet and coping with stress. Maximum score in different dimensions, based on 100% of marks earned, was evaluated in three categories of undesirable, relatively desirable and desirable. Data were analysed with SPSS-19 software using descriptive statistics (relative and absolute frequencies, mean and standard deviation). Results In total of 150 women, the mean age of patients was 51.9 ± 1.04 (27-78). The majority of participants were married, housewives, with high school education. Among the four parts of healthy lifestyle, desirable level of physical activity and exercise had the least participants, and in the dimensions of physical activity and exercise, the lowest level related to walking, followed by daily exercise. Most of the participants had undesirable level of self-care and lowest frequency related to mammography after 40-year-old, followed by annual check-up and Pap-smear. With regard to nutrition, most of them were at desirable level. Conclusion The results indicated undesirable levels in two lifestyle dimensions (self-care and physical activity and exercise) in the majority of participants for a year before contracting breast cancer. Primary prevention programs should be implemented with a comprehensive approach, thus, effective strategies are

  20. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area. PMID:24296742

  1. Interplay between synchronization of multivesicular release and recruitment of additional release sites support short-term facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cells synapses.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Simon; Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-08-13

    Synaptic short-term plasticity is a key regulator of neuronal communication and is controlled via various mechanisms. A well established property of mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses is the extensive short-term facilitation during high-frequency bursts. We investigated the mechanisms governing facilitation using a combination of whole-cell electrophysiological recordings, electrical minimal stimulation, and random-access two-photon microscopy in acute mouse hippocampal slices. Two distinct presynaptic mechanisms were involved in short-term facilitation, with their relative contribution dependent on extracellular calcium concentration. The synchronization of multivesicular release was observed during trains of facilitating EPSCs recorded in 1.2 mM external Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]e). Indeed, covariance analysis revealed a gradual augmentation in quantal size during trains of EPSCs, and application of the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-D-glutamylglycine showed an increase in cleft glutamate concentration during paired-pulse stimulation. Whereas synchronization of multivesicular release contributed to the facilitation in 1.2 mM [Ca(2+)]e, variance-mean analysis showed that recruitment of more release sites (N) was likely to account for the larger facilitation observed in 2.5 mM [Ca(2+)]e. Furthermore, this increase in N could be promoted by calcium microdomains of heterogeneous amplitudes observed in single mossy fiber boutons. Our findings suggest that the combination of multivesicular release and the recruitment of additional release sites act together to increase glutamate release during burst activity. This is supported by the compartmentalized spatial profile of calcium elevations in boutons and helps to expand the dynamic range of mossy fibers information transfer. PMID:25122902

  2. Managing a Bone Healthy Lifestyle After Attending Multifaceted Group Education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie Lunde; Lomborg, Kirsten; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Wind, Gitte

    2016-09-01

    We examined patients with osteoporosis implementation of recommendations regarding a bone healthy lifestyle after the patients attended multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE). Our findings suggest that GE can support and influence patients' transfer of preventive actions. Still patients are challenged by concerns related to social roles and physical ability. We investigated if and how patients implemented knowledge from attending multifaceted osteoporosis GE in their daily lives. An interpretive description design using ethnographic field work was applied. In all 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE at a Danish hospital participated. Data consisted of field work and individual interviews in the participants' everyday environment after completion of GE. After attending multifaceted GE, participants experienced increased attention to and reflected more on how to implement osteoporosis preventive actions or activities. Participants who felt confident on how to act and experienced a clear need and motivation, or who could make the preventive activity into a social event, demonstrated an increased implementation of the preventive activity. On the contrary, attending GE was in some cases not sufficient to overcome social and physical concerns, or to eliminate uncertainty about recommendations or to make participants identify with the osteoporosis diagnosis, which thus impeded implementation of a bone healthy lifestyle. Attending multifaceted GE can support and influence participants' transfer of preventive actions into daily life. Being aware of how concerns about valued social roles and physical ability interfere with the implementation of medical recommendations obviously needs attention during GE. PMID:27146664

  3. Deviant Lifestyles and Violent Victimization at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and…

  4. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  5. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  6. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  7. Using Genograms Creatively to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…

  8. Institutionalization of a Multidisciplinary Healthy Lifestyles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…

  9. Lifestyle Interventions: Reasons for Therapeutic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Angelina M.; Hiebert, Bryan; Malec, Carol A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews studies that indicate lifestyle education and exercise programs improve quality of life, health, and wellness. States that mixed results seem to indicate that something other than physical fitness is significantly contributing to improved psychosocial functioning. Postulates that cognitive factors such as improved self-confidence and…

  10. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  11. An Association Rule Mining-Based Framework for Understanding Lifestyle Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyun; Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Ho; Lee, Seung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. Methods We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age). We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. Results Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. Conclusion Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously. PMID:24551181

  12. Answers to Clinical Questions in the Primary Care Management of People with Obesity: Lifestyle Management.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Neil S; Horn, Deborah Bade

    2016-07-01

    Lifestyle modification is not a short-term endeavor, and maintaining a healthy weight requires sustained changes in dietary and physical activity. Intensive behavioral intervention can help modify deep-rooted behaviors and provide the support required to both initiate and maintain the behavioral changes that are needed to achieve weight loss goals. PMID:27565105

  13. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, J.; Moylan, S.; Camfield, D. A.; Pase, M. P.; Mischoulon, D.; Berk, M.; Jacka, F. N.; Schweitzer, I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22969831

  14. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  15. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  16. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  17. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different

  18. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  19. The application of data mining to explore association rules between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Chao

    2013-01-01

    This study used an efficient data mining algorithm, called DCIP (the data cutting and inner product method), to explore association rules between the lifestyles of factory workers in Taiwan and the metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,216 workers in four companies completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire survey were integrated into the workers' health examination reports to form an attribute database of the metabolic syndrome. Among the association rules derived by DCIP, 80% of those on the list of the top 15 highest support counts are corroborated by medical literature or by healthcare professionals. These findings prove that data mining is a valid and effective research method, and that larger sample sizes will likely produce more accurate associations connecting the metabolic syndrome to specific lifestyles. The rules already verified can serve as a reference guide for the health management of factory workers. The remaining 20%, while still lacking hard evidence, provide fertile ground for future research. PMID:24067239

  20. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants from the region of the Levant.

    PubMed

    Aqtash, Salah; Van Servellen, Gwen

    2013-10-01

    Arab immigrants in the United States are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. We explored health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants to the United States from the Middle Eastern region of the Levant. In 218 male and female Arab adults surveyed with the revised Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), the mean for the HPLP-II was 2.73 (range 1-4), with spiritual growth and interpersonal relations the most frequently reported practices and physical activity the least frequently practiced dimension of health-promoting behaviors. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted four determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors: health insurance, acculturation, self-efficacy, and social support. Health promotion programs serving Arab immigrants should take these determinants into consideration. PMID:24037811

  1. A Gendered Lifestyle-Routine Activity Approach to Explaining Stalking Victimization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R

    2016-05-01

    Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based. PMID:25630959

  2. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. PMID:25761662

  3. Diet, lifestyle, and nonstatin trials: review of time to benefit.

    PubMed

    Denke, Margo A

    2005-09-01

    How rapidly benefits accrue from nonstatin, lipid-lowering therapies is a 21st-century question posed to data collected in the 20th century. The 3 early dietary trials conducted in institutional settings where diet was strictly controlled demonstrate that, compared with a control diet, cholesterol-lowering diets reduce coronary event rates over several years. These data do not reveal whether a more homogeneous high-risk population would demonstrate an earlier time to benefit. Dietary counseling trials of men with coronary disease conducted in the 1950s and 1960s failed to demonstrate a consistent benefit from dietary therapy, in part because of confounding factors from methodologic flaws in trial design. By the 1980s and 1990s, improvements in trial design, such as larger numbers of subjects, control of confounding risk factors, and limiting trial end points to those directly attributable to atherosclerotic events, were in place. Subsequently, 5 randomized clinical trials showed a consistent benefit of dietary therapy, with significant reductions by 1 to 2 years in fatal events, nonfatal events, and total mortality; 2 of these studies, each including omega-3 fatty acids as part of the dietary intervention, reported a rapid and significant time to benefit (within 3 to 6 months). Additional lifestyle benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (a surrogate for physical activity) and smoking cessation clearly show long-term benefit at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Nonstatin drug and surgical therapies either have shown no significant benefit (estrogen, dextrothyroxine) or benefit after 1 to 5 years of therapy (intestinal bypass surgery, cholestyramine, clofibrate, niacin, and a combination of niacin and clofibrate). In conclusion, rapid time to benefit has been observed in older lifestyle and nonstatin trials that have included omega-3 fatty acids as a component of dietary therapy. Lifestyle changes in diet, physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation remain important

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial Lifestyle Interventions for Asian Americans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326

  5. Patients' experiences with lifestyle counselling in general practice: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Walseth, Liv Tveit; Abildsnes, Eirik; Schei, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    Objective (1) To elucidate the relevance of Habermas's theory as a practical deliberation procedure in lifestyle counselling in general practice, using a patient perspective. (2) To search for topics which patients consider of significance in such consultations. Design Qualitative observation and interview study. Setting General practice. Subjects A total of 12 patients were interviewed after lifestyle consultations with their GPs. Main outcome measures How the patients perceived the counselling, how it affected them, and what they wanted from their GP in follow-up consultations. Results The GP should be a source of medical knowledge and a caretaker, but also actively discuss contextual reasons for lifestyle choices, and be a reflective partner exploring values and norms. The patients wanted their GP to acknowledge emotions and to direct the dialogue towards common ground where advice was adjusted to the concrete life situation. A good, personal doctor–patient relationship created motivation and obligation to change, and allowed counselling to be interpreted as care. Conclusion The findings underscore the necessity of a patient-centred approach in lifestyle counselling and support the relevance of Habermas's theory as practical guidance for deliberation. Implications The findings suggest that GPs should trust the long-term effects of investing in a good relationship and personalized care in lifestyle consultations. The study should incite the GP to act as an encouraging informer, an explorer of everyday life and reasons for behaviour, a reflective partner, and a caretaker, adjusting medical advice to patients' identity, context, and values. PMID:21294605

  6. Comparison of lifestyle in fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013

    PubMed Central

    Khosrorad, Tahereh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Alavimajd, Hamid; Shahsavari, Soodeh; Bakhtiari, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major reproductive health in gynecology. According to the world health organization, there are currently 50-80 million infertile couples in the world. Objective: Considering the critical effects of lifestyle on reproductive health, this study aimed to compare the lifestyle of fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross sectional study that was done on 216 fertile and infertile couples attending Infertility Center and six medical centers that were selected through the convenience sampling. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic and fertility-related information and also lifestyle items on nutrition, physical activity, perceived social support, responsibility for health, and inappropriate health behaviors. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, independent t, chi-square and Generalized Estimating equation were performed to analyze the data. Results: Fertile and infertile women (86.1% and 73. 1% respectively, p= 0. 03) as well as fertile and infertile men were significantly different in terms of physical activity (87% and 96.3% p<0.001, respectively) and perceived social support (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between fertile and infertile women in nutrition (p<0.001). Similar differences were observed in responsibility for health and inappropriate health behaviors between fertile and infertile men. However, all of the dimensions of lifestyle, except nutrition, were significantly different between fertile and infertile couples. Conclusion: As lifestyle plays a crucial role in reproductive health, the inappropriate lifestyle of infertile couples has to be modified through effective measures such as awareness promotion, behavioral changes, and development of a healthy environment. PMID:26568759

  7. Dual lifestyle of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilm and gingival cells.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Akito; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Kuboniwa, Masae; Amano, Atsuo

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of marginal periodontitis, and recent findings have consolidated its role as an important and unique pathogen. This bacterium has a unique dual lifestyle in periodontal sites including subgingival dental plaque (biofilm) and gingival cells, as it has been clearly shown that P. gingivalis is able to exert virulence using completely different tactics in each environment. Inter-bacterial cross-feeding enhances the virulence of periodontal microflora, and such metabolic and adhesive interplay creates a supportive environment for P. gingivalis and other species. Human oral epithelial cells harbor a large intracellular bacterial load, resembling the polymicrobial nature of periodontal biofilm. P. gingivalis can enter gingival epithelial cells and pass through the epithelial barrier into deeper tissues. Subsequently, from its intracellular position, the pathogen exploits cellular recycling pathways to exit invaded cells, by which it is able to control its population in infected tissues, allowing for persistent infection in gingival tissues. Here, we outline the dual lifestyle of P. gingivalis in subgingival areas and its effects on the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:26456558

  8. Staff perceptions of addressing lifestyle in primary health care: a qualitative evaluation 2 years after the introduction of a lifestyle intervention tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preventive services and health promotion in terms of lifestyle counselling provided through primary health care (PHC) has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality in the population. Health professionals in general are positive about and willing to develop a health-promoting and/or preventive role. A number of obstacles hindering PHC staff from addressing lifestyle issues have been identified, and one facilitator is the use of modern technology. When a computer-based tool for lifestyle intervention (CLT) was introduced at a number of PHC units in Sweden, this provided an opportunity to study staff perspectives on the subject. The aim of this study was to explore PHC staff’s perceptions of handling lifestyle issues, including the consultation situation as well as the perceived usefulness of the CLT. Methods A qualitative study was conducted after the CLT had been in operation for 2 years. Six focus group interviews, one at each participating unit, including a total of 30 staff members with different professions participated. The interviews were designed to capture perceptions of addressing lifestyle issues, and of using the CLT. Interview data were analysed using manifest content analysis. Results Two main themes emerged from the interviews: a challenging task and confidence in handling lifestyle issues. The first theme covered the categories responsibilities and emotions, and the second theme covered the categories first contact, existing tools, and role of the CLT. Staff at the units showed commitment to health promotion/prevention, and saw that patients, caregivers, managers and politicians all have responsibilities regarding the issue. They expressed confidence in handling lifestyle-related conditions, but to a lesser extent had routines for general screening of lifestyle habits, and found addressing alcohol the most problematic issue. The CLT, intended to facilitate screening, was viewed as a complement, but was not considered an important

  9. Ethical aspects of paternal preconception lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Boukje; de Wert, Guido; Steegers, Eric A; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2013-07-01

    This Clinical Opinion points to a potential conflict between the scarcity of evidence on paternal preconception risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the view that preconception care should be also directed at men. We argue that from an ethical perspective, responsible fatherhood starts already before conception, as long as the evidence increases on the benefits of paternal preconception lifestyle (modification). Our explorative study suggests that the strength of the evidence for paternal preconception lifestyle modification is important for men. We argue that 5 aspects together determine the moral responsibility of prospective fathers to modify their behavior: the strength of the evidence of the risk factor, the modifiability of the risk, the efforts necessary to eliminate or diminish the risk factor, the severity of harm, and the probability that harm will occur and that it will be prevented by modifying the risk factor. The case of paternal preconception smoking illustrates the analysis. PMID:23313726

  10. Stress factors in modern urban lifestyles: an Indonesian perspective.

    PubMed

    Soewondo, S

    1996-09-01

    An Indonesian perspective of lifestyle in an urban environment is likely to be sharper because of how recent and substantial urbanisation has been. Contrasts between rural and new urban ways of life make the stressors more obvious than they may be to those in societies where the industrial revolution occurred much earlier. Additionally, the post-industrial society is grafted onto a recent industrial society in cities like Jakarta. The impact on nutritional flows through work patterns, eating styles and family life requires attention. There are medical-physiological and psychological approaches to the understanding of stress. In this way, an appreciation of factors other than the food supply itself on nutritional status can be gained. These include fashion, peer pressure, relationships, physical activity patterns and food patterns. Management of these stressors provides additional opportunities for preventive health. PMID:24394567

  11. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option. PMID:27142061

  12. A systematic review of lifestyle monitoring technologies.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, Simon; Bradley, David; Blackburn, Steve; Cardinaux, Fabien; Hawley, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    The evidence base for lifestyle monitoring is relatively weak, even though there are significant numbers of commercial installations around the world. We conducted a literature review to summarize the current position with regard to lifestyle monitoring based on sensors in the home. In total, 74 papers met the inclusion criteria. Only four papers reported trials involving 20 or more subjects, with a further 21 papers reporting trials involving one or more subjects. Most papers (n = 49) were concerned with technology development. Motion detection was the most common of the technologies employed, followed by door and electrical appliance usage. The predominant monitoring strategy was that of detecting changes in activity. However, little attention has been given to determining when or how changes in the profile of activity should be used to raise a call for assistance from a health or care professional. Lifestyle monitoring remains a relatively immature research area in which there is little detailed understanding of how to provide comprehensive and effective systems. PMID:21508080

  13. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  14. Lifestyle and hypertension--an overview.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J

    1999-01-01

    Dietary and other lifestyle factors play a major role in the prevalence of hypertension. Many of the behaviours likely to reduce blood pressure also have independent beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors to general health and survival. This is particularly the case with weight control, exercise, dietary patterns characterised by a low intake of saturated fat and a high intake of fruit, vegetables and fish and moderation of heavy alcohol consumption. High salt intakes remain a major contributor to hypertension, especially when potassium intake is low. Smoking has a dominant effect in increasing cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Clustering of risk factors is often associated with clustering of unhealthy lifestyle characteristics and both are most prominent in lower socio-economic groups and in Developing Countries adopting a more sedentary lifestyle and Western diet patterns. Recent trials suggest substantial cardiovascular benefits by a combination of weight control and sodium moderation in the elderly, by non-vegetarian diets rich in fruit and vegetables and low in saturated fat, and by incorporation of regular fish meals into weight control diets. PMID:10423098

  15. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stansław

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  16. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Stason, William B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  17. How Well Can We Control Dyslipidemias Through Lifestyle Modifications?

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Gabriele; Vaccaro, Olga; Costabile, Giuseppina; Rivellese, Angela A

    2016-07-01

    The role for lifestyle modifications to correct dyslipidemia(s) is reviewed. Dietary composition is crucial. Replacing saturated fat with MUFA or n-6 PUFA lowers plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol and ameliorates the LDL/HDL ratio. Replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates has diverging effects due to the heterogeneity of carbohydrate foods. Diets rich in refined carbohydrates increase fasting and postprandial triglycerides, whereas the consumption of fiber-rich, low GI foods lowers LDL cholesterol with no detrimental effects on triglycerides. The role of polyphenols is debated: available evidence suggests a lowering effect of polyphenol-rich foods on postprandial triglycerides. As for functional foods, health claims on a cholesterol lowering effect of psyllium, beta-glucans and phytosterols are accepted by regulatory agencies. The importance of alcohol intake, weight reduction, and physical activity is discussed. In conclusion, there is evidence that lifestyle affects plasma lipid. A multifactorial approach including multiple changes with additive effects is the best option. This may also ensure feasibility and durability. The traditional Mediterranean way of life can represent a useful model. PMID:27216846

  18. C-reactive protein response to a vegan lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sutliffe, Jay T; Wilson, Lori D; de Heer, Hendrik D; Foster, Ray L; Carnot, Mary Jo

    2015-02-01

    This brief lifestyle intervention, including a vegan diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and various legumes, nuts and seeds, significantly improved health risk factors and reduced systemic inflammation as measured by circulating CRP. The degree of improvement was associated with baseline CRP such that higher levels predicted greater decreases. The interaction between gender and baseline CRP was significant and showed that males with higher baseline CRP levels appeared to have a more robust decrease in CRP due to the intervention than did their female counterparts. It is likely that the vegetable and high fiber content of a vegan diet reduces CRP in the presences of obesity. Neither the quantity of exercise nor the length of stay was significant predictors of CRP reduction. Additionally, those participants who had a vegan diet prior to the intervention had the lowest CRP risk coming into the program. Direct measure of body fat composition, estrogen and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha would enhance current understanding of the specific mechanisms of CRP reduction related to lifestyle interventions. PMID:25637150

  19. The Importance of a Theory-Informed Understanding of Additive Bilingual Education: Supporting Bilingualism and Biliteracy in a Melbourne Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Government commitments to supporting instruction in languages other than English have largely been honoured, bilingual education as a form of learning has not been widespread. Acknowledging the benefits of learning a language other than English, the most recent Australian national languages policy statement nonetheless makes no mention of…

  20. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  1. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’ , ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status

  2. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate. PMID:10211194

  3. Dilemmas of talking about lifestyle changes among couples coping with a cardiac event.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Daena J; Lindholm, Kristin A; Bute, Jennifer J

    2006-10-01

    Persons who have experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) and/or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may benefit from a low-fat diet, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. Yet many patients do not make these changes. A spouse or partner's attempts at support may facilitate or interfere with patient behavior change. The present study explores dilemmas that may arise when couples talk about lifestyle changes following one person's MI or CABG. In interviews carried out in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, and surrounding communities with 25 patients and 16 partners we found communicating support for lifestyle change may be interpreted as undesired control or criticism. The caring conveyed by talking may be viewed positively but can also threaten patient autonomy and entrap partners in unwanted expectations and obligations. Finally, lifestyle change conversations may reflect empowered patients collaborating with partners to take control of health but can also serve as potent reminders of loss. These multiple, potentially conflicting meanings give an account for why talking with a partner does not always facilitate patient lifestyle change. Understanding these dilemmas also suggests practical implications for helping patients and partners. PMID:16790307

  4. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Max; Stubert, Johannes; Reimer, Toralf; Erickson, Nicole; Berling, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast Cancer (BC) is a life-changing event. Compared to other malignancies in women, BC has received considerably more public attention. Despite improved neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment strategies for each characteristic molecular BC subtype, recommendations for evidence-based preventive strategies for BC treatment are not given equivalent attention. This may be partly due to the fact that high-quality long-term prevention studies are still difficult to carry out and are thus underrepresented in international studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the most relevant lifestyle factors associated with BC and to identify and discuss the evidence supporting practical prevention strategies that can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25759623

  5. Necessary components for lifestyle modification interventions to reduce diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Elizabeth M; Kramer, M Kaye

    2012-04-01

    Several efficacy trials and subsequent dissemination studies indicate that behavioral lifestyle interventions for diabetes risk reduction require, at a minimum, provision of 4 to 6 months of frequent intervention contact to induce clinically meaningful weight losses of at least 5% of initial body weight. Weekly contact during the first several months of intervention, followed by less frequent but regular therapeutic contact for a longer time period, appears necessary for participants to adopt and enact behavioral self-regulatory skills such as the self-monitoring of diet, weight, and physical activity and the problem solving of common physical, social, and cognitive barriers that impede sustained weight loss. In-person contact is associated with the largest effect sizes but may not be a necessary component for clinically meaningful weight loss. Regardless of intervention mode, setting, or provider, the interactive process of feedback and social support is crucial for skill development and sustained weight loss. PMID:22350807

  6. Physician Gender and Lifestyle Counselling to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Katharina; Gansefort, Dirk; Herr, Raphael M.; Görig, Tatiana; Bock, Christina; Mayer, Manfred; Schneider, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, it is not clear whether lifestyle counselling behaviour differs between female and male PCPs. Nonetheless, this information might be helpful to develop need-based advanced training for female and male PCPs. Therefore, our aim was to identify potential gender differences in the implementation of health promotion and the prevention of CVD in primary care. Design and Methods In a Germany-wide survey called the ÄSP-kardio Study, we collected data from 4074 PCPs (40% female; from October 2011 to March 2012). We compared the provision of prevention measures, the attitude towards counselling, and the potential barriers in counselling among female and male German PCPs. We used chi2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis. Results We found differences in all of the above-mentioned aspects. Female PCPs were less likely to perceive barriers than male and more likely to ask patients about lifestyle, for example, nutrition (OR=1.62, P≤0.001). Additionally, female PCPs were more likely to feel well prepared (84.2% vs. 76.0%, P≤0.001) and successful (75.6% vs. 68.0%, P≤0.001). Male PCPs were more likely to mention barriers in daily practice that hinder lifestyle counselling. Conclusions Overall, both female and male PCPs had a positive attitude towards lifestyle counselling. Nevertheless, in view of the barriers that they indicated, incentives such as better reimbursement may help output-oriented PCPs to translate their positive attitude into action. Moreover, awareness of gender differences may help PCPs to acquire the specific advanced training that they need for effective lifestyle counselling in CVD. Significance for public health Lifestyle counselling is an important instrument to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Here, primary care physicians (PCPs) play an important role as health advisors. Our study was able to

  7. Effects of Additional Intra-aortic Balloon Counter-Pulsation Therapy to Cardiogenic Shock Patients Supported by Extra-corporeal Membranous Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Liao, Che-Wei; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Lin, Jiunn-Lee; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2016-01-01

    Extra-corporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) has been applied in patients with cardiopulmonary failure. One critical drawback of peripheral ECMO is an increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload which could be counterbalanced by the combination of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation (IABP) therapy. We hypothesized that an add-on therapy with IABP could improve outcomes in patients receiving ECMO support. We included patients (>18 years old) from 2002 to 2013 requiring ECMO support due to cardiogenic shock in a medical center. A total of 529 patients (227 ECMO alone and 302 combined IABP plus ECMO) were included. The mortality rates at 2 weeks (48.5 vs. 47.7%) after ECMO implantation were not different between the two groups (ECMO vs. combined group). After adjustment for propensity score and potential confounders, the odds ratios of outcomes within 14 days (combined group vs. ECMO) for poor LV systolic function, high preload, multi-organ failure and mortality were not different. The results remained similar for subgroup analysis. Compared with ECMO alone, combined IABP and ECMO treatment did not improve outcomes in patients with circulatory failure. PMID:27032984

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  9. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564

  10. Association of western diet & lifestyle with decreased fertility.

    PubMed

    Nazni, P

    2014-11-01

    It has been accepted that food customs are closely associated with the quality of life in both men and women's reproductive life. Food customs are speculated to not only influence the present lifestyle but also to induce gynaecological disorders such as dysmenorrhoea, spermatogenesis and irregular menstruation. though there is no consistent definition of regular or normal menstruation, epidemiologic evaluation of menstrual cycle has been becoming an important issue. In addition, latent development of organic diseases such as endometriosis, which are accompanied by dysmenorrhoea, is a concern under the current nutritional environment. Thus, it is an important issue to evaluate the present situation of eating habits in couples and estimate the influence of these habits on the quality of reproductive functions. A multi-faceted therapeutic approach to improving fertility involves identifying harmful environmental and occupational risk factors, while correcting underlying nutritional imbalances to encourage optimal reproduction and its function. PMID:25673548

  11. [Immunometabolism of exercise and sedentary lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle leads to the accumulation of visceral fat. This is accompanied by the infiltration of immune cells with pro-inflammatory characteristics in adipose tissue, causing an increased release of cytokines and generating a low-grade inflammatory state. It has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and development of tumors. Exercise can be used as a treatment to improve symptoms of many of these conditions because it promotes an anti-inflammatory effect. In this review we analyze the pro-inflammatory factors present in obesity and the induction of antiinflammatory factors that occur with exercise. PMID:25238479

  12. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  13. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  14. Managing lifestyle factors in adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah

    2015-07-15

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of disability in older people in the UK. The symptoms of joint pain and stiffness can lead to reduced joint function and deformity. Addressing lifestyle factors, namely exercise and maintaining an optimum weight, can reduce pain and improve joint function. This article focuses on how, by using the concept of goal setting, nurses can work with patients to develop a plan for becoming more active and for losing weight - if the patient is overweight - to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. PMID:26174284

  15. Addiction: lifestyle choice or medical diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Nutt, David

    2013-06-01

    The concept of addiction is under threat from the current UK government's attempt to define it as a lifestyle choice rather than an illness. This overturns the previous government's rational policy on drug treatment and is both dishonest and damaging. It is dishonest because addiction fulfils all the criteria for an illness. It is damaging because proven treatments for many addictions exist and the failure to optimize these means that more patients will die, get blood-borne viruses, and encourage others into drug use. In this paper, I detail these issues and suggest ways to avoid irreparable damage to the current care provisions that are proving effective. PMID:23692233

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Promotion of oxygen reduction reaction durability of carbon-supported PtAu catalysts by surface segregation and TiO₂ addition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Chen, Hong-Shuo; Lai, Chien-Ming; Lin, Jiunn-Nan; Tsai, Li-Duan; Wang, Kuan-Wen

    2014-02-12

    Highly effective carbon supported-Pt75Au25 catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared though titanium dioxide modification and post heat treatment. After accelerated durability test (ADT) of 1700 cycles, the ORR activity of PtAu/C catalysts modified by TiO2 and air heat treatment is 3 times higher than that of the commercial Pt/C. The enhancement of ORR activity is attributed to surface and structural alteration by air-induced Pt surface segregation and lower unfilled d states. On the contrary, for TiO2 modified and H2 treated PtAu/C catalysts, the deterioration of the ORR activity may be due to the loss of electrochemical surface area after ADT and the increase of d-band vacancy. PMID:24447040

  18. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Marit B.; Pellerud, Anneli; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø.; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Methods Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. Results Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. Conclusion Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared “not that scary” or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour. PMID:23671705

  19. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  20. Promotoras as facilitators of change: Latinas’ perspectives after participating in a lifestyle behaviour intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Albarran, CR; Heilemann, MV; Koniak-Griffin, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe immigrant Latinas’ perspectives of a lifestyle behavior intervention, focusing on their interactions with and perceptions of the promotoras who delivered the program in the United States. Background Immigrant Latinas in the United States have high obesity rates, which contribute to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Interventions using the promotora model appear to be effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk by improving dietary habits, physical activity, and selected clinical variables among Latinas. However, there has been very limited inquiry into what it is about these interventions and promotoras that facilitates behavior change, from the perspective of participants. Design Grounded theory methodology guided the data collection and analysis. Methods This qualitative study was completed in 2012 in California, after the end of a lifestyle behavior intervention. Four focus groups and seven one-on-one interviews were conducted with a total of 18 immigrant Latina intervention participants. Results Women described promotoras as helping them change by motivating them through three interconnected elements: tools, support, and knowledge. Latinas viewed their ability to make lifestyle changes as connected with their emotional and psychological health, and saw promotoras as counselors who provided emotional and social support. In this respect, the intervention was emotionally therapeutic for this sample of Latinas, although this was not the original intention of the program. Conclusion Promotoras provided the backbone of the intervention and were crucial in motivating Latinas to implement lifestyle changes. Future lifestyle behavior interventions should include a strong component of mental and emotional well-being. PMID:24628424

  1. Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: study design of a randomized controlled trial for physically inactive adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomised controlled trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a value-based intervention program to encourage a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults aged 30 to 50 years. The conceptual framework of the program is based on an innovative behavioural therapy called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) that aims to increase an individual’s psychological flexibility and support behaviour change towards a higher quality and more meaningful life. Methods Participants will be randomly allocated to a feedback group (FB) or an Acceptance and Commitment based (ACT + FB) group. Both the groups will receive written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity levels and offered an opportunity to attend a body composition analysis. In addition, the Acceptance and Commitment based group will attend six group sessions and be given a pedometer for self-monitoring of their daily physical activity throughout the 9-week intervention. The group sessions aim to clarify individual values and enhance committed actions towards the goal of achieving a more meaningful life. Participants will also be taught new skills to work on subjective barriers related to physical activity. Physical activity will be measured objectively by an accelerometer over seven consecutive days and by self-reported questionnaires at the baseline, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 15 months after the baseline measures. In addition, psychological well-being will be measured through the questionnaires, which assess mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility, psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Discussion This study’s objective is to demonstrate a research protocol for a randomized controlled study motivating a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values among physically inactive adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and intervention efficacy on physical activity and psychological well-being, and

  2. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  3. Lifestyle components and primary breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer primary prevention is a high research priority due to the high psychological and economic costs. The disease is a multistep process and several risk factors have been recognized. Over the past three decades numerous studies have investigated the association of lifestyle with breast cancer, showing independent effects of various factors. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of lifestyle patterns, such as physical activity, diet, smoking, hormone therapy, and experience of psychological stress in the modulation of breast cancer in women, and discuss commonly accepted biological mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for the associations. The findings indicate that regular physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity is probably linked with the decreased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females and suggestive for a decrease of the risk in premenopausal women. In contrast, the consumption of high-fat diet, alcohol intake, and use of combined estrogen and synthetic progestagen hormonal therapy may increase the risk. Epidemiological findings dealing with a role of smoking and experience of psychological stress are conflicting. PMID:25605138

  4. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, stress and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis’ molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuro-immune and immuno-metabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  5. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  6. Promoting Patient Phronesis: Communication Patterns in an Online Lifestyle Program Coordinated with Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Rief, John J.; Mitchell, Gordon R.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Bhargava, Tina D.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Fischer, Gary S.; Hess, Rachel; Kolb, N. Randall; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R.; McTigue, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Phronesis, or practical wisdom developed through experience, is an Aristotelian concept that can shed light on the capacities of patients to make health-related decisions and engage in healthy behaviors. In this article, the authors develop a conceptual framework for understanding the role of phronesis in lifestyle change as well as its relationship to patient activation, which is considered to be a critical component of the Chronic Care Model and patient education in general. The authors develop the concept of phronesis by analyzing qualitatively the comments made by 35 participants working to manage chronic health issues in a weight-loss study. The authors iteratively coded transcribed passages of exit interviews for phronesis and patient activation. These passages provide experientially grounded content for evaluating the use of phronesis and its development among individuals engaging in lifestyle change. Phronesis is expressed in 31% of participant responses to questions regarding the relationship between the online lifestyle intervention, participant health, and participant readiness to engage in productive clinical encounters with health care practitioners. Of those responses, 73% express some level of patient activation. The authors conclude that phronesis may be an important new tool for understanding successful self-management support, with potential usefulness in the creation of tailored lifestyle interventions, the development of patient activation, and the ability of participants to enact health-related behaviors. PMID:22984212

  7. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women’s health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  8. Birth weight and later life adherence to unhealthy lifestyles in predicting type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively assess the joint association of birth weight and established lifestyle risk factors in adulthood with incident type 2 diabetes and to quantitatively decompose the attributing effects to birth weight only, to adulthood lifestyle only, and to their interaction. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), Nurses’ Health Study (1980-2010), and Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2011). Participants 149 794 men and women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and validated by a supplementary questionnaire. Unhealthy lifestyle was defined on the basis of body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the alternate healthy eating index. Results During 20-30 years of follow-up, 11 709 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.59) per kg lower birth weight and 2.10 (1.71 to 2.58) per unhealthy lifestyle factor. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes associated with a combination of per kg lower birth weight and per unhealthy lifestyle factor was 2.86 (2.26 to 3.63), which was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P for interaction<0.001). The attributable proportions of joint effect were 22% (95% confidence interval 18.3% to 26.4%) to lower birth weight alone, 59% (57.1% to 61.5%) to unhealthy lifestyle alone, and 18% (13.9% to 21.3%) to their interaction. Conclusion Most cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, but simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors could further prevent additional cases. PMID:26199273

  9. Turkana Children's Sociocultural Practices of Pastoralist Lifestyles and Science Curriculum and Instruction in Kenyan Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng'asike, John Teria

    This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that draws from Western education ideology to unfairly criticize Turkana traditional nomadic cultural practices as resistant to modern education. Yet Turkana people have to rely on the cultural knowledge of their environment for survival. In addition, the community lives in abject poverty caused by the harsh desert environment which has contributed to parents' struggle to support their children's education. Cultural knowledge of Turkana people has received support in research demonstrating the role cultural lifestyles such as nomadic pastoralism play as important survival strategy that enable people to adapt to the harsh desert environment to ensure the survival of their livestock critical for their food security. The study documented ways in which the Kenya national education curriculum, reflecting Western assumptions about education, often alienates and marginalises nomadic children, in its failure to capture their cultural Indigenous knowledge epistemologies. The research investigated the relationships between Turkana children's sociocultural practices of pastoralist lifestyles and the national science curriculum taught in local preschools and first grade science classrooms in Kenya and the extent to which Turkana children's everyday life cultural practices inform science instruction in early childhood grades. Multiple ethnographic methods such as participant and naturalistic observation, focus group interviews, analysis of documents, archival materials, and cultural artifacts were used to explore classrooms instruction and Indigenous sociocultural practices of the Turkana nomads. The findings from the elders' narratives

  10. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity. PMID:25608589

  11. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)--an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualisation and development of an innovative approach to promoting healthy lifestyles for children and their families.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity. PMID:25608589

  12. Factors influencing a health promoting lifestyle in spouses of active duty military.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Posey, Sheena M; Ricciardi, Richard; Agazio, Janice G

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors influencing the health promoting behaviors (HPBs) of military spouses. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical framework guiding this study. One hundred twelve female spouses were surveyed regarding their perceived health status, perceived stress, self-efficacy, social support, and participation in HPBs. Perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, and HPBs were positively related, whereas perceived stress was negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed perceived stress and social support to be predictive of an overall health promoting lifestyle (HPLPII), with the full model explaining 49.7% of the variance. PMID:23531168

  13. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  14. Let's Talk about Lifestyle Changes to Prevent Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention let’s talk about Lifestyle Changes To Prevent Stroke You can do plenty to make your heart and blood vessels healthy, even if you’ve had a stroke. A healthy lifestyle plays a big part in decreasing your risk ...

  15. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  16. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  17. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  18. Wellness Intervention Effects on Lifestyle, Attitudes and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others

    The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…

  19. Women, Meaning Making and Lifestyle Change after a Cardiac Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Many US women have had or will experience a cardiac event and little is known about their learning experiences associated with subsequent lifestyle change. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the experiential learning of 22 women who made lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. Meaning making experiences were examined for influence…

  20. Lifestyle Orientations in Late Adolescence and Patterns of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    This paper presents selected research findings from Monitoring the Future, an annual series of national surveys focusing on lifestyles and drug use among representative samples of American high school seniors that has been conducted every year since 1975. The presentation focuses on two issues: aspects of lifestyle currently associated with drug…

  1. Family Lifestyles May Be as Important to Health as Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160105.html Family Lifestyles May Be as Important to Health as Genes Shared habits and environment contribute to heart ... HealthDay News) -- Shared lifestyles and surroundings may play as strong a role as genes in diseases that ...

  2. The Maasai's Education and Empowerment: Challenges of a Migrant Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jacqueline S.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2002-01-01

    Describes struggle of Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania to preserve migratory lifestyle while remaking their schooling system. Addresses goals, content and method, and outcomes for both indigenous and Western Maasai education. Considers educational implications for migratory lifestyles and recommends listening to, building trust with, and empowering…

  3. Lifestyle Behaviors as Predictors of Malignant Neoplasm Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, L. S.; And Others

    The relationship between lifestyle behaviors and the onset of neoplasm development has been researched extensively. This study took a multivariate approach in attempting to identify lifestyle variables which could predict group membership among subjects diagnosed as having cancer and those subjects who have not been diagnosed as having cancer.…

  4. Education in Healthy Lifestyles: Curriculum Implications. Fastback 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    The nature of a healthy lifestyle and its significance to quality of life is examined. Following a discussion on what is involved in a healthy lifestyle, major health problems are described: (1) smoking; (2) alcohol and drug abuse; (3) sexually transmitted diseases; (4) diet and obesity; (5) stress; and (6) inadequate sleep. Recommendations are…

  5. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  6. Lifestyle Preferences as Determinants of Women's Differentiated Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A 1999 British survey of 1,960 females and 1,691 males incorporated preference theory. Results showed that women's lifestyle preferences are a major determinant of fertility, employment patterns, and job choice. However, lifestyle preferences no longer determine occupational choice. (Contains 71 references.) (Author/JOW)

  7. Cardiovascular disease prevention and lifestyle interventions: effectiveness and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L

    2003-01-01

    Over the past half century scientific data support the strong relationship between the way a person or population lives and their risk for developing or dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). While heredity can be a major factor for some people, their personal health habits and environmental/cultural exposure are more important factors. CVD is a multifactor process that is contributed to by a variety of biological and behavioral characteristics of the person including a number of well-established and emerging risk factors. Not smoking, being physically active, eating a heart healthy diet, staying reasonably lean, and avoiding major stress and depression are the major components of an effective CVD prevention program. For people at high risk of CVD, medications frequently need to be added to a healthy lifestyle to minimize their risk of a heart attack or stroke, particularly in persons with conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia. Maintaining an effective CVD prevention program in technologically advanced societies cannot be achieved by many high-risk persons without effective and sustained support from a well-organized health care system. Nurse-provided or nurse-coordinated care management programs using an integrated or multifactor approach have been highly effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality of high-risk persons. PMID:14518600

  8. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: a randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M; Avery, Elizabeth F; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-11-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 28 group sessions over 12 months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress toward behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12 months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18 months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12 months than participants in the control group. PMID:25245954

  9. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: A randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-01-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 30 group sessions over 12-months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress towards behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12-months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18-months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12-months than participants in the control group. PMID:25245954

  10. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  11. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    PubMed

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  12. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  14. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  15. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  16. Lifestyle Changes and Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Adults With Spinal Cord Injury in the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ghaisas, Samruddhi; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a major burden to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting their psychological, physical, and social well-being. Lifestyle choices are thought to contribute to the risk of developing PrUs. This article focuses on the interaction between lifestyle choices and the development of PrUs in community settings among participants in the University of Southern California–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS II), a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for adults with SCI. We conducted a secondary cross-case analysis of treatment notes of 47 PUPS II participants and identified four patterns relating PrU development to lifestyle changes: positive PrU changes (e.g., healing PrUs) with positive lifestyle changes, negative or no PrU changes with positive lifestyle changes, positive PrU changes with minor lifestyle changes, and negative or no PrU changes with no lifestyle changes. We present case studies exemplifying each pattern. PMID:25553751

  17. Sex Differences in Relationship between Stress Responses and Lifestyle in Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akiko; Akamatsu, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationships between stress responses and lifestyle, including sleeping and eating behaviors, in Japanese workers according to sex. Methods Questionnaires about stress responses and lifestyle were completed by 3,017 workers in a financial enterprise (41.5% men, 58.5% women). Data were collected in Japan in August 2011. Participants were classified into stress and nonstress groups. Relationships between stress responses and lifestyle were investigated using logistic regression analysis with stress response as a dependent variable. Results There were 254 (8.4%) participants in the stress group and 2,763 (91.6%) in the nonstress group. The results showed that sleeping for shorter periods [odds ratio (OR) = 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58–5.60] was associated with stress responses in women, whereas we found no relationship between stress responses and lifestyle among men. However, working overtime was associated with stress responses in men (OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.43–5.15). Eating at night was associated with stress responses in the univariate analysis (men: OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.16–3.80; women: OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.09–2.39). Conclusion This study showed that stress responses were related to lifestyle among women but not among men. Among women, stress responses were related to sleeping for shorter periods, whereas they were related to working long hours among men. In addition, stress responses were related to eating at night in the univariate analysis, although this relationship was not seen in the multivariate analysis, in either sex. PMID:24932418

  18. Biomechanical and lifestyle risk factors for medial tibia stress syndrome in army recruits: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Golby, Jim; Greeves, Julie; Spears, Iain R

    2011-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in active populations and has been suggested to be a result of both biomechanical and lifestyle factors. The main aim of this study was to determine prospectively whether gait biomechanics and lifestyle factors can be used as a predictor of MTSS development. British infantry male recruits (n=468) were selected for the study. Plantar pressure variables, lifestyle factors comprising smoking habit and aerobic fitness as measured by a 1.5 mile timed-run were collected on the first day of training. Injury data were collected during the 26 week training period and incidence rate was 7.9% (n=37). A logistic regression model for membership of the MTSS and non-MTSS groups was developed. An imbalance in foot pressure with greater pressure on the medial side than on the lateral side was the primary risk factor. Low aerobic fitness, as deduced from a 1.5 mile timed-run and smoking habit were also important, but were additive risk factors for MTSS. In conclusion, "poor" biomechanics were the strongest predictors of MTSS development but lifestyle factors were also important. The logistic regression model combining all three risk factors was capable of predicting 96.9% of the non-injured group and 67.5% of the MTSS group with an overall accuracy of 87.7%. While the model has yet to be validated against an external sample and limitations exist with regards to the quality of the data collected, it is nonetheless suggested that the combined analysis of biomechanical and lifestyle factors has the potential to improve the prediction of MTSS. PMID:21247766

  19. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Lifestyle and dietary factors in prostate cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Discacciati, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of prostate cancer (PCa) is still largely unknown and the only well-established risk factors are those that are non-modifiable (age, race, and family history). Therefore, the identification of lifestyle and dietary factors which might prevent PCa development and progression is of paramount importance from a public health point of view. Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity may have a dual effect on PCa: an increased risk of aggressive PCa and a decreased risk of localized PCa. Both occupational and leisure time physical activity have been observed to be associated with a reduced PCa risk. Different dietary factors including coffee have been examined in several epidemiological studies, but results have been mostly inconsistent. However, these inconsistencies can be, at least partly, explained by the fact that the majority of those studies examined total PCa risk only and, in addition, they did not take into account the different genetic characteristics within the study populations. Therefore, the future epidemiological studies should focus on the analysis of PCa subtypes separately in order to examine possible etiological heterogeneity of PCa in relation to some exposures. In addition, differences in the genetic characteristics of the study participants should be taken into account to explore the possibility of gene-environment interactions. PMID:24531774

  3. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  4. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women. PMID:26155795

  5. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  6. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility. PMID:23870423

  7. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should not pay.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Lifestyle treatments can be defined as those which may have in impact on quality of life but do not affect health outcomes. Particular treatment options may be preferred by patients because they are for example, easier to use, take up less time or taste better. The impact on adherence needs to be considered. Treatment options that promote greater adherence to therapy are likely to be more efficacious and so are not, by definition, lifestyle treatments. The NHS is facing unprecedented financial pressure and resources are limited. When lifestyle treatments are more expensive than standard therapy, they should not be funded by the NHS. PMID:27349724

  8. Promotion to change lifestyle: securing participation and success.

    PubMed

    George, Morris; Tanner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Corporate wellness programs designed to promote employee health are becoming increasingly popular due to their improved productivity, lower health care costs, and reduced absenteeism. The success of the lifestyle intervention measures they promote depends on employees' participation, which is a key challenge. The study uses partial least squares (PLS) path modeling and logistic regression to (a) identify, based on the health belief model, the factors likely to influence employee participation in personal coaching and health challenges, and (b) study their impact on lifestyle and overall health among participants. Results show that participation is influenced by initial lifestyle, attendance in educational events, peer influence, and communication through different channels. PMID:25405631

  9. Deciding if lifestyle is a problem: GP risk assessments or patient evaluations? A conversation analytic study of preventive consultations in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Nielsen, Søren Beck; Reventlow, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse the interaction between patients and GPs in preventive consultations with an emphasis on how patients answer GPs’ questions about lifestyle, and the conditions these answers impose on the process of establishing agreement about lifestyle as a problem or not. Design. Six general practitioners (GPs) video-recorded 15 annual preventive consultations. From these, 32 excerpts of discussions about lifestyle were analysed using conversation analysis (CA). Results. GPs used an interview format to assess risk in patients’ lifestyles. In some cases patients adhered to this format and answered the GPs’ questions, but in many cases patients gave what we have termed “anticipatory answers”. These answers indicate that the patients anticipate a response from their GPs that would highlight problems with their lifestyle. Typically, in an anticipatory answer, patients bypass the interview format to give their own evaluation of their lifestyle and GPs accept this evaluation. In cases of “no-problem” answers from patients, GPs usually encouraged patients by adding support for current habits. Conclusion. Patients anticipated that GPs might assess their lifestyles as problematic and they incorporated this possibility into their responses. They thereby controlled the definition of their lifestyle as a problem or not. GPs generally did not use the information provided in these answers as a resource for further discussion, but rather relied on standard interview procedures. Staying within the patients’ frame of reference and using the patients’ anticipatory answers might provide GPs with a better point of departure for discussion regarding lifestyle. PMID:26467342

  10. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all). Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05). Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05) and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05) was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05). Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05). NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05). Conclusion Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  11. Lifestyle and Self-Management by Those Who Live It: Patients Engaging Patients in a Chronic Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Michelle T; Rubinstein, Elizabeth; Eshelman, Anne; Wee, Corinne; Tankasala, Mrunalini; Li, Jia; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients pursuing organ transplantation have complex medical needs, undergo comprehensive evaluation for possible listing, and require extensive education. However, transplant patients and their supports frequently report the need for more lifestyle and self-management strategies for living with organ transplantation. Objectives: First, to explore feasibility of a successful, patient-run transplant lifestyle educational group (Transplant Living Community), designed to complement medical care and integrated into the clinical setting; and second, to report the major themes of patients’ and supports’ qualitative and quantitative feedback regarding the group. Methods: Informal programmatic review and patient satisfaction surveys. Results: A total of 1862 patient satisfaction surveys were disseminated and 823 were returned (response rate, 44.2%). Patients and their supports reported positive feedback regarding the group, including appreciation that the volunteer was a transplant recipient and gratitude for the lifestyle information. Five areas were associated with the success of Transplant Living Community: 1) a “champion” dedicated to the program and its successful integration into a multidisciplinary team; 2) a health care environment receptive to integration of a patient-led group with ongoing community development; 3) a high level of visibility to physicians and staff, patients, and supports; 4) a clearly presented and manageable lifestyle plan (“Play Your ACES”a [Attitude, Compliance, Exercise, and Support]), and 5) a strong volunteer structure with thoughtful training with the ultimate objective of volunteers taking ownership of the program. Conclusion: It is feasible to integrate a sustainable patient-led lifestyle and self-management educational group into a busy tertiary care clinic for patients with complex chronic illnesses. PMID:27455056

  12. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 1 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Catherine; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Gingras, Véronique; Desjardins, Katherine; Strychar, Irene; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a major upward shift in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors (central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in patients with type 1 diabetes, which could have either an additive or a synergistic effect on risk for cardiovascular disease. These metabolic changes are occurring in parallel to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the widespread use of intensive insulin therapy. Poor lifestyle habits (poor diet quality, sedentary behaviours and smoking) are known to be driving factors for increased CMR factors in the general population. The objective of this review is to explore the lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes and its potential association with CMR factors. Evidence suggests that adherence to dietary guidelines is low in subjects with type 1 diabetes with a high prevalence of patients consuming an atherogenic diet. Sedentary habits are also more prevalent than in the general population, possibly because of the additional contribution of exercise-induced hypoglycemic fear. Moreover, the prevalence of smokers is still significant in the population with type 1 diabetes. All of these behaviours could trigger a cascade of metabolic anomalies that may contribute to increased CMR factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. The intensification of insulin treatment leading to new daily challenges (e.g. carbohydrates counting, increase of hypoglycemia) could contribute to the adoption of poor lifestyle habits. Preventive measures, such as identification of patients at high risk and promotion of lifestyle changes, should be encouraged. The most appropriate therapeutic measures remain to be established. PMID:24485215

  14. Lifestyles of American Widows and Widowers in Urban America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Helena Z.

    1982-01-01

    The American pattern of isolated nuclear families makes the early stages of widowhood very difficult. Widows and widowers need to learn to use resources for social interaction and social relations that can help them adapt to their changed lifestyles. (SK)

  15. Student's Life-Style Classifications: Key to Improved Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1986-01-01

    Classifies student life-styles as entrepreneurs, superiors, regulars, suppliants, marginals, and underclass. Identifies demographic and attitudinal differences among these groups and discusses implications for programming decisions in adult literacy programs. (SK)

  16. Seeking Solutions to Solid Waste Management: The Role of Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stum, Marlene S.

    1992-01-01

    Offers consumer education curriculum ideas to increase understanding of households as ecosystems, analyze eco-consciousness and decision making, and examine lifestyle flexibility and the role of values. (SK)

  17. Human longevity: Genetics or Lifestyle? It takes two to tango.

    PubMed

    Passarino, Giuseppe; De Rango, Francesco; Montesanto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging and longevity in humans are modulated by a lucky combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Family studies demonstrated that about 25 % of the variation in human longevity is due to genetic factors. The search for genetic and molecular basis of aging has led to the identification of genes correlated with the maintenance of the cell and of its basic metabolism as the main genetic factors affecting the individual variation of the aging phenotype. In addition, studies on calorie restriction and on the variability of genes associated with nutrient-sensing signaling, have shown that ipocaloric diet and/or a genetically efficient metabolism of nutrients, can modulate lifespan by promoting an efficient maintenance of the cell and of the organism. Recently, epigenetic studies have shown that epigenetic modifications, modulated by both genetic background and lifestyle, are very sensitive to the aging process and can either be a biomarker of the quality of aging or influence the rate and the quality of aging. On the whole, current studies are showing that interventions modulating the interaction between genetic background and environment is essential to determine the individual chance to attain longevity. PMID:27053941

  18. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge

    PubMed Central

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans. PMID:26826704

  19. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans. PMID:26826704

  20. Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Depression in Urban Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Shao, Pei; Ni, Chunping; Hua, Qianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore health-promoting lifestyles, depression and provide further insight into the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and depression in an urban community sample of elderly Chinese people. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study of 954 community-dwelling urban elderly Chinese (aged ≥ 60) was conducted from July to December 2010. Lifestyles and depression were assessed using the revised Chinese Version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-C) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results In this cohort, 15.8% of elderly urban adults met the criteria for depression. Over half of the sample (62.1%) scored greater than 100 on the HPLP-C, with range of score sum from 55 to 160. There were significant correlations between self-actualization (OR = 1.167, 95%CI: 1.111–1.226), nutrition (OR = 1.118, 95%CI: 1.033–1.209), physical activity (OR = 1.111, 95%CI: 1.015–1.216) and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study. The significant associations found do not represent directional causation. Further longitudinal follow-up is recommended to investigate the specific causal relationship between lifestyles and depression. Conclusions Depression was common with medium to high levels of health-promoting lifestyles among urban elderly Chinese people. Lifestyle behaviors such as self-actualization, good nutrition habits and frequent physical activity were correlated to fewer depressive symptoms. Healthy lifestyles should be further developed in this population and measures should be taken for improving their depression. PMID:25781326

  1. Tracing Lifestyle Adaptation in Prokaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle adaptation of microbes due to changes in their ecological niches or acquisition of new environments is a major driving force for genetic changes in their respective genomes. Moving into more specialized niches often results in the acquisition of new gene sets via horizontal gene transfer to utilize previously unavailable metabolites, while genetic ballast is shed by gene loss and/or gene inactivation. In some cases, larger genome rearrangements can be observed, such as the incorporation of whole genetic islands, providing a range of new phenotypic capabilities. Until recently these changes could not be comprehensively followed and identified due to the lack of complete microbial genome sequences. The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically changed the scientific landscape and today microbial genomes have become increasingly abundant. Currently, more than 2,900 genomes are published and more than 11,000 genome projects are listed in the Genomes Online Database‡. Although this wealth of information provides many new opportunities to assess microbial functionality, it also creates a new array of challenges when a comparison between multiple microbial genomes is required. Here, functional genome distribution (FGD) is introduced, analyzing the diversity between microbes based on their predicted ORFeome. FGD is therefore a comparative genomics approach, emphasizing the assessments of gene complements. To further facilitate the comparison between two or more genomes, degrees of amino-acid similarities between ORFeomes can be visualized in the Artemis comparison tool, graphically depicting small and large scale genome rearrangements, insertion and deletion events, and levels of similarity between individual open reading frames. FGD provides a new tool for comparative microbial genomics and the interpretation of differences in the genetic makeup of bacteria. PMID:22363326

  2. Tracing lifestyle adaptation in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle adaptation of microbes due to changes in their ecological niches or acquisition of new environments is a major driving force for genetic changes in their respective genomes. Moving into more specialized niches often results in the acquisition of new gene sets via horizontal gene transfer to utilize previously unavailable metabolites, while genetic ballast is shed by gene loss and/or gene inactivation. In some cases, larger genome rearrangements can be observed, such as the incorporation of whole genetic islands, providing a range of new phenotypic capabilities. Until recently these changes could not be comprehensively followed and identified due to the lack of complete microbial genome sequences. The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically changed the scientific landscape and today microbial genomes have become increasingly abundant. Currently, more than 2,900 genomes are published and more than 11,000 genome projects are listed in the Genomes Online Database. Although this wealth of information provides many new opportunities to assess microbial functionality, it also creates a new array of challenges when a comparison between multiple microbial genomes is required. Here, functional genome distribution (FGD) is introduced, analyzing the diversity between microbes based on their predicted ORFeome. FGD is therefore a comparative genomics approach, emphasizing the assessments of gene complements. To further facilitate the comparison between two or more genomes, degrees of amino-acid similarities between ORFeomes can be visualized in the Artemis comparison tool, graphically depicting small and large scale genome rearrangements, insertion and deletion events, and levels of similarity between individual open reading frames. FGD provides a new tool for comparative microbial genomics and the interpretation of differences in the genetic makeup of bacteria. PMID:22363326

  3. Lifestyle and LUTS: what is the correlation in men?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review the primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence linking lifestyle factors and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and their relevance in men. An extensive literature search from January 2013 to August 2014 was conducted, reviewed and summarized in conjunction with key prior evidence. Recent findings The main findings from this review include: 1) Epidemiological data repeatedly show a favorable relationship between a healthy eating habits and regular physical activity level and a lower risk for LUTS or progression of LUTS, 2) certain specific nutrients or dietary factors may contribute to the link between diet and LUTS due to their anti-inflammatory potential, and 3) very little research has been conducted to test the epidemiological findings in randomized controlled trials. Summary Rigorously designed clinical trials are needed to confirm the association between lifestyle factors and LUTS and the effect of lifestyle modification on the development or progression of LUTS. Nevertheless, a healthy lifestyle is known to closely relate with chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, promoting a healthy lifestyle with good quality diet and regular physical activity is beneficial not only for potentially improving or reducing LUTS but also for cardiovascular and overall health. Clinicians are encouraged to include healthy lifestyle counseling in their routine care for patients with LUTS. PMID:25393271

  4. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  5. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  6. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  7. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses. PMID:26535569

  8. Effect of the healthy MOMs lifestyle intervention on reducing depressive symptoms among pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Welmerink, Diana B; Welch, Kathleen B; Sinco, Brandy R; Guzmán, J Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Depression during the prenatal and postpartum periods is associated with poor maternal, perinatal and child outcomes. This study examines the effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored, social support-based, healthy lifestyle intervention led by trained community health workers in reducing depressive symptoms among pregnant and early postpartum Latinas. A sample of 275 pregnant Latinas was randomized to the Healthy MOMs Healthy Lifestyle Intervention (MOMs) or the Healthy Pregnancy Education (control) group. More than one-third of participants were at risk for depression at baseline. MOMs participants were less likely than control group participants to be at risk for depression at follow-up. Between baseline and 6 weeks postpartum, MOMs participants experienced a significant decline in depressive symptoms; control participants experienced a marginally significant decline. For MOMs participants, most of this decline occurred during the pregnancy intervention period, a time when no change occurred for control participants. The change in depressive symptoms during this period was greater among MOMs than control participants ("intervention effect"). From baseline to postpartum, there was a significant intervention effect among non-English-speaking women only. These findings provide evidence that a community-planned, culturally tailored healthy lifestyle intervention led by community health workers can reduce depressive symptoms among pregnant, Spanish-speaking Latinas. PMID:22638902

  9. How body mass and lifestyle affect juvenile biomass production in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grady, John M.; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the mass-specific rate of biomass production during gestation and lactation, here called maternal productivity, has been shown to vary with body size and lifestyle. Metabolic theory predicts that post-weaning growth of offspring, here termed juvenile productivity, should be higher than maternal productivity, and juveniles of smaller species should be more productive than those of larger species. Furthermore because juveniles generally have similar lifestyles to their mothers, across species juvenile and maternal productivities should be correlated. We evaluated these predictions with data from 270 species of placental mammals in 14 taxonomic/lifestyle groups. All three predictions were supported. Lagomorphs, perissodactyls and artiodactyls were very productive both as juveniles and as mothers as expected from the abundance and reliability of their foods. Primates and bats were unproductive as juveniles and as mothers, as expected as an indirect consequence of their low predation risk and consequent low mortality. Our results point the way to a mechanistic explanation for the suite of correlated life-history traits that has been called the slow–fast continuum. PMID:24403339

  10. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses. PMID:26535569

  11. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  12. Targeting Lifestyle Behavior Change in Adults with NAFLD During a 20-min Consultation: Summary of the Dietary and Exercise Literature.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Avery, Leah; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely linked to poor diet, lack of physical activity/exercise, and being overweight. In the absence of approved pharmaceutical agents, lifestyle modification, encompassing dietary change and increased physical activity/exercise to initiate weight loss, is the recommended therapy for NAFLD. Despite this, the use of lifestyle therapy within clinical settings is lacking with limited guidance available about what it should involve, how it should be delivered, and whether it can be feasibly delivered as part of standard care. This paper highlights the evidence for the use of lifestyle modification in NAFLD. While there is evidence to support use of behavioral strategies to support lifestyle behavior change in other clinical populations, these are yet to be assessed in people with NAFLD. However, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that behavioral intervention targeting diet and physical activity to promote weight loss in general is effective and a number of practical strategies are presented on how this could be achieved. PMID:26908279

  13. Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables. Methods A total of 106 healthy women, 22–59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought. Results In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance. Conclusion Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference. PMID:20977316

  14. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Khera, Shveta; Vempati, R P; Sharma, Ratna; Bijlani, R L

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence exists for the place of mind body medicine in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Excessive anxiety is maladaptive. It is often considered to be the major component of unhealthy lifestyle that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of not only psychiatric but also many other systemic disorders. Among the approaches to reduce the level of anxiety has been the search for healthy lifestyles. The aim of the study was to study the short-term impact of a comprehensive but brief lifestyle intervention, based on yoga, on anxiety levels in normal and diseased subjects. The study was the result of operational research carried out in the Integral Health Clinic (IHC) at the Department of Physiology of All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The subjects had history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, 'stress'), gastrointestinal problems (non ulcer dyspepsia, duodenal ulcers, irritable bowel disease, Crohn's disease, chronic constipation) and thyroid disorders (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism). The intervention consisted of asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, group support, individualized advice, and lectures and films on philosophy of yoga, the place of yoga in daily life, meditation, stress management, nutrition, and knowledge about the illness. The outcome measures were anxiety scores, taken on the first and last day of the course. Anxiety scores, both state and trait anxiety were significantly reduced. Among the diseased subjects significant improvement was seen in the anxiety levels of patients of hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, cervical spondylitis and those with psychiatric disorders. The observations suggest that a short educational programme for lifestyle modification and stress management leads to remarkable reduction in the anxiety scores within a period of 10 days. PMID:16850902

  15. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  16. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  17. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:27233056

  18. Breast cancer survival among young women: a review of the role of modifiable lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Darren R; Brockton, Nigel T; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Courneya, Kerry S; Knight, Julia A; Olivotto, Ivo A; Quan, May Lynn; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Almost 7% of breast cancers are diagnosed among women age 40 years and younger in Western populations. Clinical outcomes among young women are worse. Early age-of-onset increases the risk of contralateral breast cancer, local and distant recurrence, and subsequent mortality. Breast cancers in young women (BCYW) are more likely to present with triple-negative (TNBC), TP53-positive, and HER-2 over-expressing tumors than among older women. However, despite these known differences in breast cancer outcomes and tumor subtypes, there is limited understanding of the basic biology, epidemiology, and optimal therapeutic strategies for BCYW. Several modifiable lifestyle factors associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer have also been implicated in improved prognosis among breast cancer survivors of all ages. Given the treatment-related toxicities and the extended window for late effects, long-term lifestyle modifications potentially offer significant benefits to BCYW. In this review, we propose a model identifying three main areas of lifestyle factors (energy imbalance, inflammation, and dietary nutrient adequacy) that may influence survival in BCYW. In addition, we provide a summary of mechanisms of action and a synthesis of previous research on each of these topics. PMID:26970739

  19. Lifestyle of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Guedes, Maria de Fatima Santos; Sá, Letícia Marques; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to verify data concerning the relationship between the existent lifestyle and glycemic control in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1). The methods applied included the literature search strategy, selection of studies by means of inclusion and exclusion strategies, according to the characteristics of the studies. The search was conducted in the Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, Cochrame, SciELO and IBECS databases between in the period between 2005 and 2014. The articles selected were studies in humans, investing lifestyle, physical activities and glycemic levels. Of the 1798 studies initially identified, 11 met the eligibility criteria. Among the studies analyzed, 1 cohort; 1 longitudinal prospective, 1 case control and 8 transversal studies that approached the proposed theme were related. Regular physical activity was the variable that presented greatest relationship with the improvement in glycemic levels. Healthy active life, balanced diet, physical activities and education in diabetes improved the glycemic control of the DM1 patient. The results allowed the authors to conclude that a lifestyle based on physical activities interfered directly in the health of patients with DM1, in addition to contributing the glycemic control. PMID:27076018

  20. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  1. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  2. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  3. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fesel, Philipp H; Zuccaro, Alga

    2016-08-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi often occur in the rhizosphere, although examples exist where shoot-endophytes support host growth and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Fungal endophytes which colonize their hosts without any visible disease symptoms have been recognized to be fundamental components of various ecosystems. Initial efforts have been taken to decipher the genetic basis of beneficial plant-fungus interactions and of lifestyle transitions. This review gives a short overview on well established experimental systems amenable to genetic manipulation and of known genome sequence for dissecting plant-fungal endophyte interactions with a special focus on Arabidopsis thaliana associations. PMID:27280851

  5. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  6. Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Noto, Haruka; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Taniai, Makiko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2014-11-01

    Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated. PMID:25411525

  7. Lifestyle drugs: determining their value and who should pay.

    PubMed

    Mitrany, D

    2001-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs are used to alleviate or enhance: (i) lifestyle problems or conditions, regardless of the cause; and (ii) health problems for which the underlying cause is in the realm of personal responsibility. It is the particular use of a drug, rather than its inherent properties, that determines whether it is called a lifestyle drug. The increasing availability of, and high demand for, lifestyle drugs contributes to their expanding role in healthcare. In the absence of objective pharmacoeconomic data, the subjective value or cost effectiveness of these agents varies among patients, medical professionals, regulatory agencies and payors. Most nations rely on value systems that are implied, rather than clearly articulated. The aims of largely institutional payors, and the individual patients and their physicians do not always coincide, creating tensions over who should pay for these drugs. Cost-sharing between patient and payer, drug limitations and prior authorisation protocols are some methods used to manage access to these drugs. There is an urgent need to formulate coherent values, priorities and strategies for dealing with lifestyle drugs. To do this, local and national regulatory agencies, politicians, healthcare providers, insurers and patients need to formulate broad areas of consensus. Finally, we must not forget compassion for the patient as we apply the dictates of institutional policy. PMID:11465305

  8. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  9. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed Central

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed. PMID:25248655

  10. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns. PMID:8376662

  11. Behavioral lifestyle intervention in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Looney, Shannon M; Raynor, Hollie A

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  12. Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Haruka; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Taniai, Makiko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated. PMID:25411525

  13. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Molarius, Anu; Berglund, Kenneth; Eriksson, Charli; Eriksson, Hans G; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Nordström, Eva; Persson, Carina; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Starrin, Bengt; Ydreborg, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question). The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment), economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In

  14. Understanding experiences of participating in a weight loss lifestyle intervention trial: a qualitative evaluation of South Asians at high risk of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Zoe; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    additional and in some cases unachievable burden. Consideration needs to be given to strengthening and supporting lifestyle interventions with community-based approaches in order to help overcome wider social and environmental factors. PMID:24951108

  15. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  16. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  17. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. Objective: We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45–75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). Results: The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31–0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (−0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (−0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (−0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (−0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P < 0.005). No significant associations were observed for other individual lifestyle components. Conclusions: Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto

  18. A randomised controlled trial of a tele-based lifestyle intervention for colorectal cancer survivors ('CanChange'): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer survivors may suffer from a range of ongoing psychosocial and physical problems that negatively impact on quality of life. This paper presents the study protocol for a novel telephone-delivered intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Methods/Design Approximately 350 recently diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors will be recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and randomised to the intervention or control condition. The intervention focuses on symptom management, lifestyle and psychosocial support to assist participants to make improvements in lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy diet, weight management, and smoking cessation) and health outcomes. Participants will receive up to 11 telephone-delivered sessions over a 6 month period from a qualified health professional or 'health coach'. Data collection will occur at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention or six months follow-up (Time 2), and at 12 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 3). Primary outcome measures will include physical activity, cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for survivors in the intervention and control conditions will be conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about an innovative intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000399392 PMID:19689801

  19. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    PubMed Central

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-01-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of “behavioral addictions”, based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to “time” and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills. PMID:22408585

  20. Extensive internet involvement--addiction or emerging lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-12-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing "addiction-like" behavioral disorders such as "Internet addiction" to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use--PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of "behavioral addictions", based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to "time" and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills. PMID:22408585

  1. Childhood Lifestyle and Clinical Determinants of Adult Ideal

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Tomi T.; Pahkala, Katja; Venn, Alison; Woo, Jessica G; Oikonen, Mervi; Dwyer, Terence; Mikkilä, Vera; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Smith, Kylie J.; Gall, Seana L.; Morrison, John A.; Viikari, Jorma S.A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Magnussen, Costan G.; Juonala, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association recently defined ideal cardiovascular health by simultaneous presence of seven health behaviors and factors. The concept is associated with cardiovascular disease incidence, and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. To effectively promote ideal cardiovascular health already early in life, childhood factors predicting future ideal cardiovascular health should be investigated. Our aim was thus to comprehensively explore childhood determinants of adult ideal cardiovascular health in population based cohorts from three continents. Methods The sample comprised a total of 4409 participants aged 3–19 years at baseline from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS; N=1883) from Finland, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH; N=1803) from Australia and Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS; N=723) from the United States. Participants were re-examined 19–31 years later when aged 30–48 years. Results In multivariable analyses, independent childhood predictors of adult ideal cardiovascular health were family socioeconomic status (P<0.01; direct association) and BMI (P<0.001; inverse association) in all cohorts. In addition, blood pressure (P=0.007), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.001) and parental smoking (P=0.006) in the YFS, and own smoking (P=0.001) in CDAH were inversely associated with future ideal cardiovascular health. Conclusions Among several lifestyle and clinical indicators studied, higher family socioeconomic status and non-smoking (parental/own) in childhood independently predict ideal cardiovascular health in adulthood. As atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are rooted in childhood, our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children who are from low socioeconomic status families, and who smoke or whose parents smoke, to prevent cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. PMID:24075574

  2. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people. PMID:23576888

  3. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  4. Health lifestyles: audience segmentation analysis for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Flora, J A

    1991-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application of market segmentation techniques in order to improve the planning and implementation of public health education programs. Seven distinctive patterns of health attitudes, social influences, and behaviors are identified using cluster analytic techniques in a sample drawn from four central California cities, and are subjected to construct and predictive validation: The lifestyle clusters predict behaviors including seatbelt use, vitamin C use, and attention to health information. The clusters also predict self-reported improvements in health behavior as measured in a two-year follow-up survey, e.g., eating less salt and losing weight, and self-reported new moderate and new vigorous exercise. Implications of these lifestyle clusters for public health education and intervention planning, and the larger potential of lifestyle clustering techniques in public health efforts, are discussed. PMID:2055779

  5. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures. PMID:26403310

  6. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return. PMID:16162381

  7. In our country tortilla doesn't make us fat: cultural factors influencing lifestyle goal-setting for overweight and obese Urban, Latina patients.

    PubMed

    Jay, Melanie; Gutnick, Damara; Squires, Allison; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Gerchow, Lauren; Savarimuthu, Stella; Chintapalli, Sumana; Shedlin, Michele G; Kalet, Adina

    2014-11-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latina adults, and goal-setting is a technique often used to promote lifestyle behavior change and weight loss. To explore the meanings and dimensions of goal-setting in immigrant Latinas, we conducted four focus groups arranged by language ability and country of origin in an urban, public, primary care clinic. We used a narrative analytic approach to identify the following themes: the immigrant experience, family dynamics, and health care. Support was a common sub-theme that threaded throughout, with participants relying on the immigrant community, family, and the health care system to support their goals. Participants derived satisfaction from setting and achieving goals and emphasized personal willpower as crucial for success. These findings should inform future research on how goal-setting can be used to foster lifestyle behavior change and illustrate the importance of exploring the needs of Latino sub-groups in order to improve lifestyle behaviors in diverse Latino populations. PMID:25418230

  8. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  9. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  10. California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossard, Marcia Hill

    Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that

  11. Lifestyle Assessment: Part 4. The Halton Health Promotion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R.; Albert, W.; Wilson, D. M. C.; Ciliska, D.; Evans, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    In the Region of Halton, a health promotion data base was developed to assist with planning for local services and programs. Three data sources were used: preventable mortality, preventable morbidity, and the prevalence of modifiable risk among community members. Existing information was used for the first two sources, and the community was surveyed for the last. A survey version of the FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 households. FANTASTIC showed itself to be a reliable lifestyle construct with two major factors: a group of psychosocial behaviors, and a set of “bad habits”.

  12. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression. PMID:26194155

  13. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  14. Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41–60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. PMID:22254039

  15. [Bone and calcium metabolism in life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that life-style related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia are associated with bone and calcium metabolism. Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased fracture risks, independently of bone mineral density, with abnormality of parathyroid hormone secretion and impaired osteoblastic function. On the other hand, osteocalcin secreted from bone is reported to regulate glucose metabolism. Thus, bone, calcium and glucose metabolism may be deeply associated with each other. In this review, we describe the association between life-style related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus, and metabolism of bone and calcium. PMID:26923977

  16. Beliefs and attitudes toward vegetarian lifestyle across generations.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41-60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. PMID:22254039

  17. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Type/Location: Custodial Service, Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment... Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA. * Additional Information:...

  18. Healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: an assessment of their persuasive potential.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and analyse the content of previously produced and aired adult-targeted public health advertisements (ads) addressing weight, nutrition or physical activity internationally. Ads were identified via keyword searches of Google, YouTube and websites of relevant government agencies and health organizations, and were eligible for inclusion if they were: in English; produced between 2007 and 2012; targeted at adults; ≤60 s; not promoting a particular commercial brand of food, fitness or weight loss product. Of the 99 ads coded, 59% featured supportive/encouraging messages, 36% presented information about health consequences and 17% focussed on social norms/acceptability issues. Supportive/encouraging messages were more frequently used in physical activity ads, while there were a higher proportion of messages about health consequences in weight ads. Execution style differed across lifestyle topics, with simulation/animation more common in nutrition ads and graphic images and negative personal testimonials in weight ads. Ads addressing weight were more likely to evoke high negative emotion and include potentially stigmatizing content. Understanding how weight and lifestyle issues have been addressed in recent public health advertising will help guide future efforts to test the effectiveness of different message types in facilitating positive behaviour changes. PMID:26152146

  19. The Effect of Interdisciplinary Interventions on Risk Factors for Lifestyle Disease: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P

    2016-06-01

    Interventions that comprise interdisciplinary collaboration including behavioral elements are effective in addressing lifestyle disease risk factors. However, it is not known how best to conduct this collaboration for sustainable change. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the evidence for the effects of interdisciplinary interventions on lifestyle disease risk factors including weight, lipid levels, glycemic control, and blood pressure. To do so, a systematic review of the literature was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science (all years to September 2014). Eighteen articles describing 16 studies of interdisciplinary interventions were identified. Consistent results were found for effects on weight loss but not for effects on blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Effective interventions involved collaborations between dieticians, exercise physiologists, and psychologists and incorporated intensive initial participant engagement. Few studies investigated the long-term effect of interventions, but where this was done, the maintenance of favorable changes required ongoing participant support. Current evidence suggests that interdisciplinary interventions are effective in promoting weight loss and that ongoing support of participants is key to maintaining results beyond initial study duration. Future studies should examine long-term effects in pragmatic trials that address translation to practice. PMID:27178494

  20. The influence of prediagnostic demographic and lifestyle factors on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma survival.

    PubMed

    Thrift, Aaron P; Nagle, Christina M; Fahey, Paul P; Russell, Anne; Smithers, Bernard M; Watson, David I; Whiteman, David C

    2012-09-01

    Demographic and lifestyle factors, in particular tobacco smoking and alcohol, are well established causes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, little is known about the effect of these factors on survival. We included all 301 patients with incident ESCC, recruited into a population-based case-control study of esophageal cancer in Australia. Detailed information about demographic and lifestyle factors was obtained at diagnosis, and deaths were identified using the National Death Index. Median follow-up for all-cause mortality was 6.4 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, pretreatment AJCC tumor stage, treatment and presence of comorbidities. Two hundred and thirteen patients (71%) died during follow-up. High lifetime alcohol consumption was independently associated with poor survival. Relative to life-long nondrinkers and those consuming<1 drink/week, the HRs for those with average consumption of 7-20 drinks/week or ≥21 drinks/week were 2.21 (95% CI=1.27-3.84) and 2.08 (95% CI=1.18-3.69), respectively. There was a suggestion of worse survival among current smokers (HR=1.42, 95% CI=0.89-2.28); however, the risk of early death was greatest among current smokers who reported regularly (≥7 drinks/week) consuming alcohol (HR=3.84, 95% CI=2.02-7.32). Other lifestyle factors putatively associated with risk of developing ESCC were not associated with survival. In addition to increasing disease risk, heavy alcohol consumption may be independently associated with worse survival among patients with ESCC. Future clinical follow-up studies should consider alcohol as a potential prognosticator, in addition to known clinicopathologic factors. PMID:22213172

  1. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  2. Freshman Orientation Sessions Can Teach Incoming Students about Healthful Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Waldrop, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This GEM describes the "Freshman 15 Jeopardy" workshop, a 30-minute nutrition education session aimed to expose incoming college freshmen to the college food environment, to increase their awareness of factors that cause weight gain, and to instruct them on lifestyle choices they could employ to prevent weight gain. This short workshop has not…

  3. A Preliminary Research on the Lifestyle of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiaowen; Shih, Hongyu; Thiruvadi, Sheela; Song, Yiru

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to explore the lifestyle of international students and also the difficulties faced by them due to the language barrier (difficulty in learning the Chinese language) in Taiwan. Motivation for this study comes from the increasing number of international students, and the related educational policy settings of the…

  4. Lifestyle May Be Key to Improving ADHD in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... also help their kids by promoting healthy lifestyle habits. For the study, researchers looked at 184 children with ADHD and ... Disorders , suggest that following more of these healthy habits could benefit ... ADHD medications," said study author Kathleen Holton. She is a member of ...

  5. Teaching Sexuality from Divergent Life-Style Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Caryl T.; Hotvedt, Mary

    A unique approach to teaching human sexuality at the college level is to present the content and raise sociological and interpersonal value questions from different lifestyle viewpoints. Developing a course such as this has involved securing approval and encouragement from university administration who trust faculty judgment but who are under…

  6. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  7. Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary, Physically Active Lifestyle Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Marybeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fit for life program at a university and to use the findings from an extensive literature review, consultations with formative and summative committees, and data collection to develop an interdisciplinary, physically active lifestyle (IPAL) course model. To address the 5 research questions examined in…

  8. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    PubMed

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  9. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The hypothesis that…

  10. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  11. Advertising a "Healthy Lifestyle:" A Cypriot Health Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a health education program entitled "Young Consumer" project, financed by the European Union and implemented by the Cyprus Consumer Association between March and June 2004. The aim of the project was to promote a healthy lifestyle among a group of Cypriot primary school pupils (11-12 years old). Participants were asked to…

  12. Nonusers of Academic Libraries: Academic Lifestyles and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that nonusers of academic libraries should be identified and studied because they are part of the same three groups they expect to attract: faculty, staff, and students. The results of the application of lifestyles research to public library user groups are reviewed, and their implications for academic library reference services are…

  13. The Education and Lifestyle of the Chinese Literati. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    This teaching package describes the education and lifestyle of the Chinese literati, popular from the Ming to the Qing dynasties (1368-1911). It consists of four lesson plans and a teacher's guide to a slide set. The latter illustrates painting formats popular during the late Ming period (1573-1644), hanging scrolls, handscrolls, the album leaf,…

  14. Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

  15. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  16. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  17. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  18. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:25929408

  19. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  20. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  1. THE ROLE OF LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION IN DYSMETABOLIC SYNDROME MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle modification should be the primary therapeutic intervention in individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome, given the fact that obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are primary underlying risk factors for its development. Most individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome need to l...

  2. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  3. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development. PMID:26923982

  4. Diet and lifestyle in CVD prevention and treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing CVD. Thi...

  5. Life-Style Classification of Adult High School Noncompleters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1987-01-01

    The study sought to identify and describe life-style classifications that exist among adult high school noncompleters and to analyze significant differences that exist among categories. Findings suggest six broad classifications: (1) Entrepreneurs, (2) Superiors, (3) Regulars, (4) Suppliants, (5) Marginals, and (6) Underclass. (Author/CH)

  6. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  7. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  8. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Colon Tissue Associated With Diet, Lifestyle, and Related Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Pellatt, Daniel F; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Several diet and lifestyle factors may impact health by influencing oxidative stress levels. We hypothesize that level of cigarette smoking, alcohol, anti-inflammatory drugs, and diet alter gene expression. We analyzed RNA-seq data from 144 colon cancer patients who had information on recent cigarette smoking, recent alcohol consumption, diet, and recent aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use. Using a false discovery rate of 0.1, we evaluated gene differential expression between high and low levels of exposure using DESeq2. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to determine networks associated with de-regulated genes in our data. We identified 46 deregulated genes associated with recent cigarette use; these genes enriched causal networks regulated by TEK and MAP2K3. Different differentially expressed genes were associated with type of alcohol intake; five genes were associated with total alcohol, six were associated with beer intake, six were associated with wine intake, and four were associated with liquor consumption. Recent use of aspirin and/or ibuprofen was associated with differential expression of TMC06, ST8SIA4, and STEAP3 while a summary oxidative balance score (OBS) was associated with SYCP3, HDX, and NRG4 (all up-regulated with greater oxidative balance). Of the dietary antioxidants and carotenoids evaluated only intake of beta carotene (1 gene), Lutein/Zeaxanthine (5 genes), and Vitamin E (4 genes) were associated with differential gene expression. There were similarities in biological function of de-regulated genes associated with various dietary and lifestyle factors. Our data support the hypothesis that diet and lifestyle factors associated with oxidative stress can alter gene expression. However genes altered were unique to type of alcohol and type of antioxidant. Because of potential differences in associations observed between platforms these findings need replication in other populations. PMID:26230583

  10. Health-related lifestyle factors and mammography screening attendance in a Swedish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening. PMID:24787378

  11. The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and stress are among the most common lifestyle-related health problems. Most of the current disease prevention and management models are not satisfactorily cost-effective and hardly reach those who need them the most. Therefore, novel evidence-based controlled interventions are necessary to evaluate models for prevention and treatment based on self-management. This randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress. The offered interventions are based on cognitive behavioral approaches, and are designed for enhancing general well-being and supporting personalized lifestyle changes. Methods/Design 339 obese individuals reporting stress symptoms were recruited and randomized to either (1) a minimal contact web-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) intervention including an approach of health assessment and coaching methods, (2) a mobile-guided intervention comprising of mindfulness, acceptance and value-based exercises, (3) a face-to-face group intervention using mindfulness, acceptance and value-based approach, or (4) a control group. The participants were measured three times during the study (pre = week 0, post = week 10, and follow-up = week 36). Psychological well-being, lifestyles and habits, eating behaviors, and user experiences were measured using online surveys. Laboratory measurements for physical well-being and general health were performed including e.g. liver function, thyroid glands, kidney function, blood lipids and glucose levels and body composition analysis. In addition, a 3-day ambulatory heart rate and 7-day movement data were collected for analyzing stress, recovery, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Food intake data were collected with a 48 -hour diet recall interview via telephone. Differences in the effects of the interventions would be

  12. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Grzymski, Joseph J.; Marsh, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text–identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function. PMID:24828817

  13. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure. PMID:26268844

  14. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  15. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  16. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA) and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS), and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI). Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588 PMID:18173844

  17. Relationship of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and health-related lifestyle in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ka Lok; Tong, Kai Yu; Yip, Shea Ping

    2008-12-12

    The associations between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and several health-related lifestyle factors were evaluated in 85 healthy human subjects. Results showed that the frequency of fruit intake, exercise and television watching were associated with serum BDNF level. There was a higher serum BDNF level from the group with fruit intake five to six times per week. Subjects with moderate frequency of exercise (1-30 times of 30 min exercise per month) showed higher serum BDNF level than the group with exercise more than 30 times per month. There was a significant positive correlation between serum BDNF and the daily average watching television time in the younger age group (18-35). The result of this study supports the need for larger studies with different health-related lifestyle in healthy subjects or subjects with disorders. PMID:18852019

  18. From 'What the F#@% is a Facebook?' to 'Who Doesn't Use Facebook?': The role of criminal lifestyles in the adoption and use of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Moule, Richard K; Pyrooz, David C; Decker, Scott H

    2013-11-01

    Concerns about a digital divide persist and recent calls have been made for understanding how lifestyles influence Internet adoption and use. Online criminal behaviors have drawn attention from law enforcement, but diffusion of innovation theory suggests higher propensities for crime, particularly street crime, reduces the likelihood of Internet use. Drawing from this theory and research on the role of street criminal lifestyles on technology adoption, this study examined patterns of Internet use among a sample of 585 individuals at-risk for and involved in street crime. Results from our logistic and negative binomial regression analyses lead to two general conclusions: (1) compared to research on the general population, similar predictors and lower rates of Internet participation and usage are observed, and (2) mixed evidence suggests participation in criminal lifestyles contributes to digital inequality. The results support a theory of technological diffusion to marginalized populations. We conclude by discussing the expansion of technology, digital inequality, and crime. PMID:24090841

  19. Health-related variables and predictors of Health-promoting Lifestyle in cardiovascular disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipouya, Hossein; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Shojaeizadeh, Davood; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Vali; Makrani, Azam Seyfi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principal cause for death in the world is cardiovascular disease. Poor lifestyle is a contributing element in this regard. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of health-related variables and lifestyle variables on the results of exercise stress tests in patients with cardiovascular disease in Iran. Methods The study population in this case-control study was 220 patients who were candidates for exercise stress tests in Mazandaran Province (Iran) in 2015. The patients were divided randomly into two groups based on the results of their exercise stress tests, i.e., positive (110 patients) and negative (110 patients). The data collection tool was a standard questionnaire entitled “Health promotion lifestyle profile-II.” The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, the chi-squared test, and logistic regression by SPSS version 22 software. Results The risk of a positive exercise stress test increases with age. The age group above 65 was 1.049 times more at risk of a positive exercise stress test than the age group of less than 45. The people with dyslipidemia had 1.635 times greater risk of positive exercise stress tests than the group without dyslipidemia. In addition, patients with hypertension had 1.579 times greater risk of positive exercise stress tests than the group without hypertension. The lack of individual health responsibility (Odds ratio (OR): 1.622), stress management (OR: 1.592), and physical activity (OR: 1.245) contributed more to positive exercise tests than the other risk factors. Conclusion Educational interventions can improve the responsibility for health, physical activity, and stress management among people with the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27280004

  20. Lifestyle Factors and Visible Skin Aging in a Population of Japanese Elders

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Milojevic, Ai; Michikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Nakano, Makiko; Iwasawa, Satoko; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Ono, Masaji; Kinjo, Yoshihide; Akiba, Suminori; Takebayashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Background The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with these visible signs of aging. Methods The study subjects were 802 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged at least 65 years and living in the town of Kurabuchi (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan), a mountain community with a population of approximately 4800. The facial skin condition of subjects was assessed quantitatively using a standardized facial imaging system and subsequent computer image analysis. Lifestyle information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The association between skin condition and lifestyle factors was examined using multivariable regression analysis. Results Among women, the mean values for facial texture, hyperpigmentation, and pores were generally lower than those among age-matched men. There was no significant difference between sexes in the severity of facial wrinkling. Older age was associated with worse skin condition among women only. After adjusting for age, smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with skin condition among both men and women. Conclusions Our study revealed significant differences between sexes in the severity of hyperpigmentation, texture, and pores, but not wrinkling. Smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with signs of visible skin aging in this study population. PMID:19700917

  1. Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  2. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  3. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND THE ROLE OF DIETARY LIFESTYLES IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Eberstein, Jacqueline A.

    2008-01-01

    Since Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no cure or preventive treatment, an urgent need exists to find a means of preventing, delaying the onset, or reversing the course of the disease. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that lifestyle factors, especially nutrition, may be crucial in controlling AD. Unhealthy lifestyle choices lead to an increasing incidence of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension — components of the metabolic syndrome. These disorders can also be linked to AD. Recent research supports the hypothesis that calorie intake, among other nongenetic factors, can influence the risk of clinical dementia. In animal studies, high calorie intake in the form of saturated fat promoted AD-type amyloidosis, while calorie restriction via reduced carbohydrate intake prevented it. Pending further study, it is prudent to recommend to those at risk for AD — e.g., with a family history or features of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, insulin insensitivity, etc. — to avoid foods and beverages with added sugars; to eat whole, unrefined foods with natural fats, especially fish, nuts and seeds, olives and olive oil; and to minimize foods that disrupt insulin and blood sugar balance. PMID:18466323

  4. The Role of Physical Education Lessons and Recesses in School Lifestyle of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Frömel, Karel; Svozil, Zbyněk; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigates school lifestyle among adolescents in terms of physical activity (PA) structure: (1) adolescents participating in a physical education lesson (PEL) versus (2) aggregate recess time exceeding 60 minutes. METHODS The research was conducted in 24 secondary schools in the Czech Republic (boys N = 208, girls N = 433). For the whole day (1-3 days) participants wore the ActiTrainer accelerometer, which monitored PA, and heart rate. A total of 1122 school days were recorded. RESULTS Both boys and girls participating in a PEL reported significantly better results compared with nonparticipating individuals regarding all indicators of volume and intensity of school PA (SPA). In most SPA indicators, longer aggregate recess time (>60 minutes) had a statistically significant effect, particularly on the volume of SPA. The recommended 500 steps/hours for SPA was achieved by 83% of boys participating in PEL and 69% of girls. In contrast just 32% of nonparticipating boys and 31% of girls reached this level. With longer recess time the recommendation was met by 43% of boys (42% of girls) compared with 26% of boys (23% of girls) with shorter recess time. CONCLUSIONS An increase in SPA and an improved lifestyle in adolescents on school days are significantly supported more by PELs than by longer recess time. PMID:26762826

  5. Unlabelled advertorials in Slovenian life-style press: a study of the promotion of health products.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Melita Poler; Erjavec, Karmen; Stular, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses unlabelled advertorials about health products in four life-style magazines and three daily newspapers' life-style supplements in Slovenia. Based on 250 hours of observing the production practice, 20 in-depth interviews with the main participants and a textual analysis of 247 advertorials, supported by three detailed case studies, the process of unlabelled advertorial production was unveiled, reasons for their production explained and their discursive elements of promotion uncovered. Despite their typical news-like appearance, advertorials focus on a product's positive characteristics only and represent an oversimplified viewpoint on health, primarily oriented towards the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. In advertorials, readers are instructed in healthy living and caring about their health through buying the promoted product. No particular differences were found between the magazines and quality dailies' supplements, indicating that the advertorial practice has become a common part of the Slovenian press media scene. The outburst of advertorials in Slovenia is outstanding due to the lack of historical democracy, problems with the supervision of legal transgressions, the small media and advertising market, economic downturns and the financial weakness of the media. PMID:23264980

  6. Survey of Australian practitioners' provision of healthy lifestyle advice to clients who are obese.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Samantha; James, Carole; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Collins, Clare; Guest, Maya; Kable, Ashley; Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is a global issue, with healthcare practitioners increasingly involved in clinical interactions with people who are overweight or obese. These interactions are opportunities to provide evidence-based healthy lifestyle advice, and impact on public health. This study used a cross-sectional survey of Australian healthcare practitioners to investigate what influenced the provision of healthy lifestyle advice to obese and overweight clients. A modified theory of planned behavior was used to explore knowledge translation processes. Knowledge translation was linked to three factors: (i) a healthcare practitioner's education and confidence in the currency of their knowledge; (ii) personal characteristics - whether they accepted that providing this advice was within their domain of practice; and (iii) the existence of organizational support structures, such as access to education, and best practice guidelines. To fulfill the potential role healthcare practitioners can play in the provision of evidence-based health promotion advice requires organizations to provide access to practice guidelines and to instill a belief in their workforce that this is a shared professional domain. PMID:22435756

  7. Strategies for Implementing and Sustaining Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes as Part of Hypertension Management in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Giger, Joyce Newman; Strickland, Ora L.; Van Harrison, R.; Coverson, Dorothy; Shah, Nirav R.; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline M.; Jones, Loretta; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Batts-Turner, Marian L.; Jamerson, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans with high blood pressure (BP) can benefit greatly from therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) such as diet modification, physical activity, and weight management. However, they and their health care providers face many barriers in modifying health behaviors. A multidisciplinary panel synthesized the scientific data on TLC in African Americans for efficacy in improving BP control, barriers to behavioral change, and strategies to overcome those barriers. Therapeutic lifestyle change interventions should emphasize patient self-management, supported by providers, family, and the community. Interventions should be tailored to an individual’s cultural heritage, beliefs, and behavioral norms. Simultaneously targeting multiple factors that impede BP control will maximize the likelihood of success. The panel cited limited progress with integrating the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan into the African American diet as an example of the need for more strategically developed interventions. Culturally sensitive instruments to assess impact will help guide improved provision of TLC in special populations. The challenge of improving BP control in African Americans and delivery of hypertension care requires changes at the health system and public policy levels. At the patient level, culturally sensitive interventions that apply the strategies described and optimize community involvement will advance TLC in African Americans with high BP. PMID:19491553

  8. A lifestyle intervention for primary care patients with depression and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Adrienne; Deane, Frank P; Williams, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a diet and exercise lifestyle intervention on mental health outcomes for patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety in primary care. Patients (n=119) referred by general practitioners to the 12-week randomised controlled trial were assigned to either an intervention of six visits to a dual qualified dietitian/exercise physiologist (DEP) where motivational interviewing and activity scheduling were used to engage patients in individually-tailored lifestyle change (focussed on diet and physical activity), or an attention control with scheduled telephone contact. Assessments conducted at baseline (n=94) and 12 weeks (n=60) were analysed with an intent-to-treat approach using linear mixed modelling. Significant improvement was found for both groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores, measures of nutrient intake and total Australian modified Healthy Eating Index (Aust-HEI) scores. Significant differences between groups over time were found only for iron intake and body mass index. Patients participating in individual consultations with a dietitian were more likely to maintain or improve diet quality than those participating in an attention control. This study provides initial evidence to support the role of dietitians in the management of patients with depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26453120

  9. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  10. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  11. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  12. Assessing the incremental benefit of an extended duration lifestyle intervention for the components of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Patrick; Jiang, Qingmei; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Oral, Elif A; Weintraub, Martha S; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions targeting the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) have been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and suitable treatment strategy for reducing one’s risk of developing coronary artery disease and diabetes. The optimal duration has not yet been defined. We sought to evaluate the incremental benefit of extending a lifestyle intervention from 3 months to 6 months. Methods We evaluated 114 participants with at least three criteria for the MetSyn in a physician-referred 6-month lifestyle intervention between August 2008 and December 2012. Baseline and follow-up physiological, biochemical, and anthropometric data were analyzed for mean change and incremental change at each time point. Results The mean age at enrollment was 53.0±10.2 years, and 42% of participants were males. The mean body mass index at enrollment was 38.2±0.86 kg/m2 for males and 38.6±0.93 kg/m2 for females. Anthropometric measures associated with weight management (body mass index, weight, and body fat percentage) improved significantly with the additional 3-month intervention (P<0.001). Systolic blood pressure (P=0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.00006) and triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic participants (P=0.006, P=0.004, P=0.01, respectively) improved rapidly in the initial 3-month intervention without incremental benefit of the additional 3 months. Improvements in fasting insulin (P=0.01) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.02) for nondiabetic participants required the full 6-month intervention before significant reductions were achieved. Conclusion A 6-month lifestyle intervention yielded significantly better results for variables related to weight management. Standard physiological measures for the MetSyn respond rapidly in a 3-month lifestyle intervention. The long-term impact of an increased duration lifestyle intervention remains to be seen. PMID

  13. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should pay.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Robert Ian

    2016-08-01

    With the NHS under increasing financial pressure and healthcare costs soaring year on year, it is perhaps not surprising that assessment agencies focus on cost-effectiveness analysis when assessing new therapies. Such an approach does not however, always take sufficient account of treatment burden, lifestyle and patient choice and therefore new equally effective but perhaps "easier to take" formulations and faster delivery systems for current therapies do not always take precedence in current treatment guidelines. In arguing that the NHS should pay for so-called lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis the counterintuitive nature of some of the current decision making is discussed and a more holistic approach to improve NHS efficiency is presented. PMID:27373763

  14. Health perception and healthy lifestyle behaviors of female factory workers.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Emine

    2016-07-01

    This study aims at the assessment of heath perception and healthy lifestyle behaviors of female workers at a food industry factory. Sociodemographic characteristics, a questionnaire form encompassing health-related characteristics, and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors (HLSB) Scale II are utilized for data collection. The percentage of smokers is determined to be 20.9% among the workers and about 35.6% of them are considered as slightly overweight or overweight, based on their body mass index values. About 81.7% of the workers perceive their health as good. The average of the HLSB scores of the workers is found to be at the medium level (122 ± 21.4). The HLSB scores of the nonsmokers are significantly higher (p <.05). Among the subgroups of the scale, the highest score is obtained for spiritual development (24.3 ± 5.1) and the lowest is obtained for physical activity (15.4 ± 4.3). PMID:26067209

  15. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  16. Lifestyle and sarcopenia-etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2012-10-01

    The term sarcopenia describes the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function in old age. As the world population continues to grow older, more attention is given to the phenomena of sarcopenia and the search for strategies of prevention and treatment. The progression of sarcopenia is affected by age-related physiological and systemic changes in the body, including alterations in skeletal muscle tissue, hormonal changes, increased inflammatory activities, and oxidative stress. Sarcopenia progression is also affected by lifestyle factors which are far more controllable. These factors include various aspects of nutrition, physical activity, exercise, alcohol intake, and tobacco use. Raising the public awareness regarding the impact of these factors, as causes of sarcopenia and potential strategies of prevention and treatment, is of great importance. In this review we aim to describe various lifestyle factors that affect the etiology, prevention, and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:23908848

  17. [Smoking among the unemployed: impact of structural factors on lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Kłos, Jan; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, questions arise about its relationship to the state of public health. One of the responses might be to investigate health behaviors of people who suffer most from the crisis, which is the unemployed. This study focuses on the many links between smoking among the jobless and other aspects of their lifestyle as well as selected social factors. In our research, we used statistical methods and a questionnaire. based survey. The research was conducted in 2007 and it covered 1,068 unemployed persons registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. The prevalence of smoking among the unemployed is higher than the national average and is associated with their socio-economic status, gender and such lifestyle aspects as the amount of alcohol consumed, the amount of free time, body mass index, the number of meals consumed, the number of persons the unemployed can rely on, and the amount of time devoted to exercise. PMID:20301929

  18. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  19. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  20. Barriers to Lifestyle Behavioral Change in Migrant South Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians’ belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  1. [Healthy lifestyle formation and lower dependence on atmosphere oxygen in working].

    PubMed

    Usti'yantsev, S L

    2016-01-01

    Studies covered 38 males in laboratory and 81 males in industrial conditions of 13 metallurgic enterprises and revealed some reliable phenomena caused by dry voluntary apnea of 10-60 seconds. At muscular rest and during physical exertion, evidences are that voluntary apnea forms transitory hypercapnic portion of blood in pulmonary arterial flow. First finding is that this portion in other blood behaves as an anabolic wave carrying increased concentration of low-molecular CO2 material and releasing additional (wave, according to authors) O2 from its depot in the body. This oxygen, in conditions of increased blood pressure due to apnea, is used for synthesis of additional ATP. These phenomena characterize formation and development a new beneficial physiologic system in workers--a functional system of motivation to healthy lifestyle. PMID:27048140

  2. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  3. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  4. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Neurodegeneration, and Personalized Lifestyle Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bland, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The takeaway message of this advancing science surrounding the causes and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is to recognize MCI symptoms early and intervene with a comprehensive, multifaceted, personalized lifestyle medicine program that is designed to improve neurological function and built on the components described above. The present evidence suggests this approach represents the best medicine available today for beating back the rising tide of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:27330484

  6. Prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle patterns among overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Choi, Seung W

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18-65 years old, average age 31.9 (s.d. = 11.8), average BMI 30.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. = 7.5). Categorically, 25.5% were healthy weight, 29.0% were overweight, 33.7% were class I-II obesity, and 11.8% class III obesity. A stratified random sample was used to estimate the prevalence of the 21 lifestyle patterns (7 eating, 7 exercise, and 7 coping) in the general population, and the prevalence of patterns in the complete dataset was further analyzed by gender, age, and BMI. Finally, we analyzed the odds ratio of the pattern prevalence for each BMI category. We found that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping were highly prevalent among this population. In general, the prevalence of these patterns rose with increasing BMI and is correlated with advancing age. Gender differences were seen with many of the patterns, most noticeably among the coping patterns. The odds ratio for 18 of the 21 patterns was >1.0 and steadily increased with higher BMI categories. We conclude that unhealthy lifestyle patterns in diet, exercise, and coping are highly prevalent among the overweight and obese population. Pattern recognition represents a new method to analyze the cluster of behaviors, attitudes, and traits seen among this population. PMID:19875995

  7. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  8. Evidence of Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Mannu, GS; Zaman, MJS; Gupta, A; HU, Rehman; Myint, PK

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The growth of ageing populations in developing countries with progressively urbanized lifestyles are major contributors. The key risk factors for CHD such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are likely to increase in the future. These risk factors are modifiable through lifestyle. Objectives: To review current literature on the potential benefit of cholesterol lowering in CHD risk reduction with a particular focus on the evidence of non-pharmacological/lifestyle management of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Medline/PubMed systematic search was conducted using a two-tier approach limited to all recent English language papers. Primary search was conducted using key words and phrases and all abstracts were subsequently screened and relevant papers were selected. The next tier of searching was conducted by (1) reviewing the citation lists of the selected papers and (2) by using PubMed weblink for related papers. Over 3600 reports were reviewed. Results: Target cholesterol levels set out in various guidelines could be achieved by lifestyle changes, including diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity with the goal of reducing total cholesterol to <200 mg/dL and LDL-C <100mg/dL. Various dietary constituents such as green tea, plant sterols, soy protein have important influences on total cholesterol. Medical intervention should be reserved for those patients who have not reached this goal after 3 months of non-pharmacological approach. Conclusion: CHD remains as a leading cause of death worldwide and hypercholesterolemia is an important cause of CHD. Non-pharmacological methods provide initial as well as long-term measures to address this issue. PMID:22998604

  9. What do ethics have to do with lifestyle change?

    PubMed

    Starzomski, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The discussions around health and health care suggest that many of the diseases prevalent in our society today are a direct result of lifestyle choices made by citizens. As these discussions continue, there is mounting evidence relating personal habits and lifestyle to major causes of mortality and morbidity. This evidence, coupled with the technological advances in health care and the resource allocation issues around health care delivery, is leading to a plethora of ethical concerns, questions and challenges. There has been little movement in society to begin to address these issues, although there is growing recognition that to solve these dilemmas a collaborative partnership of providers and consumers is required. In this paper, selected ethical issues associated with lifestyle and behaviour change are explored, with emphasis on the dilemmas that may occur as a result of differences in values. Various conceptual approaches to the issue of 'voluntariness' and several models for examining whether or not health risks are voluntary will be reviewed briefly. The use of interdisciplinary ethical decision making, and ongoing consumer and health care provider collaboration and dialogue, are emphasized as a means of beginning to solve these dilemmas. PMID:11654952

  10. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  11. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, L; Francini, L; Petri, C; Mascherini, G; Scacciati, I; Maffulli, N; Galanti, G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. METHODS: A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. RESULTS: Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruited reported low levels of physical activity (70 subjects). Slightly more than 50% of the subjects undertook physical activity more than once a week, while 13% did it only once. Food intolerances were reported by 7 subjects (8%), with a high consumption of fruits, cereals and dairy products, low consumption of fish and alcohol, and meat consumption in the normal range. There was a high satisfaction in general quality of life. CONCLUSION: Questionnaire investigations play a role to identify the presence of degenerative chronic conditions in working communities. The self-reported perception of quality of life does not necessarily agree with the lifestyle habits found. Awareness of this aspect could be helpful to plan lifestyle interventions and promote healthy living habits. PMID:25147766

  12. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Camille A.; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21–39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p = 0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p = 0.0215), MiBP (p = 0.0020) and MEP (p = 0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles. PMID:22739065

  13. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  14. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  15. Power and powerlessness: GPs' narratives about lifestyle counselling

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Walseth, Liv Tveit; Flottorp, Signe A; Stensland, Per S

    2012-01-01

    Background Power in doctor–patient relationships is asymmetrically distributed. The doctor holds resources the patient needs and has a mandate to promote healthy living. Power may benefit or harm the patients' health, and the doctor–patient relationship. Aim To identify aspects of power and powerlessness in GPs' narratives about lifestyle counselling. Design and setting A qualitative study using focus groups from peer-group meetings of Norwegian GPs attending continuing medical education. Method GPs discussed case stories about lifestyle counselling in focus groups. The discussions were transcribed and the text analysed using systematic text condensation. Results Aspects of power concerning the framework of the consultation and the GPs' professional role were found. Also identified were: power expressed by opportunistic approaches to change patients' lifestyle; rhetoric communication; paternalism; and disclosure. GPs reported powerlessness in complex communication, when there were difficulties reaching goals, and when patients resisted or ignored their proposals. Conclusion Case-study discussions in peer groups disclose several aspects of power and powerlessness that occur in consultations. Consciousness about aspects of power may facilitate counselling that benefits the patient and the doctor–patient relationship. PMID:22429431

  16. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60–83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind–body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre–post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population. PMID:24723885

  17. A Study on Dietary Habits and Lifestyle of Girls with Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jae-Seong; Moon, Hyeok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to analyze the change in the obesity index in girls receiving a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa), based on treatment duration, and to aid in nutritional counseling by investigating dietary habits and lifestyle. Methods Anthropometric examinations were conducted on 62 girls treated with GnRHa from January 2010 through July 2014. Parents were asked to fill out questionnaires on patient dietary habits and lifestyle. Results The group taking GnRHa for over 1 year had a higher rate of obesity increase than the group taking GnRHa for less than 1 year, but they had common habits related to obesity, which should be corrected. In addition, 69.2% of the normal weight group taking GnRHa for over 1 year gained weight, and needed more intensive programs, which include physical exercise and nutritional education. Although girls with precocious puberty showed a decrease in the intake of high-calorie foods with nutritional intervention regardless of treatment duration, they still had problems that needed improvement, such as shorter meals and lack of exercise. Conclusion Girls with precocious puberty and their parents should emphasize maintenance of proper body weight, especially when treatment for over 1 year is anticipated. Consistent education in nutrition, ways to increase intensity and duration of physical activity, and the need to slow down mealtimes are important in managing obesity; doctors need to perform regular checkups and provide nutritional counseling. PMID:27437190

  18. [Selected lifestyle and health condition indices of adults with varied models of eating].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse certain lifestyle parameters and health condition indices among people with traditional and vegetarian models of eating. The research conducted shows that vegetarians present a higher level of caring about their health, which is expressed on a scale of pro-health behaviours, than people with traditional model of eating. A higher percentage of them take up physical activity in their free time (80% vs. 70%), additionally, they more seldom drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. Alcohol abstinence is declared by 75% of vegans, 25% of lacto-ovo vegetarians and only 8% of people with traditional model of eating. Tobacco non-smoking is declared by 94% of vegans, 74% of lacto-ovo vegetarians and 67% of traditional eating people. It has also been shown that some psychosomatic health indices, especially concerning digestive duct/system, remain varied in regard to the model of eating followed. The research has proven that vegetarian model of eating influences other--non-eating--pro-health behaviours and in this way it shapes healthy lifestyle of research subjects. PMID:20803902

  19. Association of prostate specific antigen concentration with lifestyle characteristics in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hee-Yeon; Park, Hyosoon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and serum total prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration and examined the population-based distribution of total PSA by age among 2,246 Korean men with a median age of 45 years. We obtained data about demographic and lifestyle characteristics based on self-reporting using a questionnaire. We also performed physical examinations, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical measurements. The PSA concentration increased with age and there was a significant difference in total PSA concentration between the age groups of 21-60 years and >60 years. Age>60 years, height≥1.8 m, a low frequency of alcohol consumption, and taking nutritional supplements showed a significantly increased odds ratio for increased PSA when 3.0 ng/ mL was chosen as the PSA cut-off level. Smoking status, BMI, percent body fat, diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, herbal medicine use, vitamin use, and diet were not significantly associated with total PSA regardless of the cut-off level. When interpreting a single PSA test, height, alcohol consumption, and nutritional supplement use should be considered, in addition to age. PMID:23317241

  20. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby H

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60-83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind-body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre-post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population. PMID:24723885

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Current Role of Lifestyle, Natural Product, and Pharmacological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Nicholas P.; Galassetti, Pietro R.; Coker, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Common complications of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are eye, kidney and nerve diseases, as well as an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The overwhelming influence of these conditions contributes to a decreased quality of life and life span, as well as significant economic consequences. Although obesity once served as a surrogate marker for the risk of T2D, we know now that excess adipose tissue secretes inflammatory cytokines that left unchecked, accelerate the progression to insulin resistance and T2D. In addition, excess alcohol consumption may also increase the risk of T2D. From a therapeutic standpoint, lifestyle interventions such as dietary modification and/or exercise training have been shown to improve glucose homeostasis but may not normalize the disease process unless weight loss is achieved and increased physical activity patterns are established. Furthermore, utilization of natural products may serve as a significant adjunct in the fight against insulin resistance but further research is needed to ascertain their validity. Since it is clear that pharmaceutical therapy plays a significant role in the treatment of insulin resistance, this review will also discuss some of the newly developed pharmaceutical therapies that may work in conjunction with lifestyle interventions, and lessen the burden of behavioral change as the only strategy against the development of T2D. PMID:18423879

  2. Dietary and lifestyle variables in relation to incidence of Parkinson's disease in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, Andreas; Ghika, Apostolia; Stathopoulos, Panayiotis; Vassilopoulos, Dimitris; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Identification of dietary and lifestyle variables associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) may offer pathogenetic clues and prevention opportunities. In a population-based prospective cohort study, 26,173 participants in the EPIC-Greece cohort had sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical, dietary and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrolment and periodically reassessed with follow-up contacts. Based on these data, subjects were screened as possible PD cases if they (1) reported either a medical diagnosis of PD or use of anti-PD drugs and (2) did not report preceding causes of secondary parkinsonism. For diagnostic validation, possible incident PD cases were assessed by a focused 3-item telephone questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between potential predictors and incident PD. The main multivariate model included gender, age, marital status, schooling years, farming occupation, smoking status, caffeinated coffee, body mass index, physical activity and energy intake. Additional models included all above variables plus one dietary item at a time. Incidence rate adjusted to the European population was 16.9 per 100,000 person-years. In multivariate models, incident PD exhibited strong positive association with consumption of milk, but not cheese or yoghurt. This finding may help narrow down the search for potential dairy product components with a facilitatory role in PD. Concerning other dietary components, inverse association was found between polyunsaturated fat intake and incident PD. Also, inverse association was found with tobacco smoking, in line with previous studies, but not with caffeine. PMID:23377703

  3. A systematic review of lifestyle interventions for chronic diseases in rural communities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Manuscripts focused on dietary intake and physical activity and published through March 15, 2016, were identified by use of PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six involved randomized controlled trials; 7 used quasi-experimental designs; 4 had a pre-/post-design; and 1 was an observational study. Eight studies were multi-site (or multi-county), and 3 focused on churches. Primary emphasis by racial/ethnic group included: African Americans (6); Whites (2); Hispanics (3); and two or more groups (7). Most studies (17) sampled adults; one included children. Two studies targeted families. Conclusions Additional lifestyle intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches promoting healthy diet and exercise and chronic disease prevention in rural communities. Studies that include rigorous designs, adequate sample sizes, and generalizable results are needed to overcome the limitations of published studies. PMID:27376159

  4. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children. PMID:23656302

  5. Using lifestyle medicine in U.S. health care to treat obesity: too many bariatric surgeries?

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of Americans are classified as obese. Many clinicians perform bariatric surgery (BSx) when it is said that lifestyle intervention failed. However, BSx is medically complex, with extremely variable success, certain failures, major complications, and sometimes death. Although many studies declare BSx as more effective for producing weight loss than nonsurgical lifestyle management, these conclusions are flawed when lifestyle management between cohorts are not identical. Lifestyle behavior change is essential to success for both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss, as over 50% of BSx patients regain weight without lifestyle modification. Indeed, programs that include self-reward and reinforcement are extremely effective. It is therefore possible that successful BSx is simply an intrinsic reward for an intensive change in lifestyle behavior. Accounting for the costs and risks associated with BSx, providing state and federal resources for lifestyle behavior change programs could provide a key opportunity for the war against obesity. PMID:25757003

  6. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  7. Lifestyle habits of 12,800 IVF patients: Prevalence of negative lifestyle behaviors, and impact of region and insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Domar, Alice D; Rooney, Kristin L; Milstein, Melissa; Conboy, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle habits of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment are largely unknown. Therefore, this prospective study aimed to determine the prevalence of negative lifestyle habits in women undergoing IVF and determine if habits are related to the region in the United States and/or by mandated insurance coverage. A total of 12,811 ART patients were surveyed in infertility clinics throughout the US. They took an online questionnaire added to the patient portal of electronic medical record eIVF, a fertility-specific electronic health record. Of the women surveyed, 17-23% of patients drank alcohol, 2-7% smoked, 62-68% drank caffeine, < 1% used recreational drugs, and 47-62% exercised during their IVF treatment. There were a few statistically significant regional differences in health habits (p < 0.001) but there were no differences in health habits between women who resided in a state with mandated insurance coverage versus those without insurance coverage. This is the first prospective assessment of lifestyle habits across regions in the USA and by insurance coverage. The study concluded that women undergoing IVF engage in behaviors which may negatively impact their cycle. Women in certain parts of the US had significantly worse habits than other regions, but the availability of mandated insurance coverage did not impact health habits. PMID:26414657

  8. [Research and application: scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population].

    PubMed

    Wang, W J

    2016-07-01

    There is a large population at high risk for diabetes in China, and there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of diabetes in the country over the past 30 years. Interventions targeting the individual risk factors of diabetes can effectively prevent diabetes; these include factors such as an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, overweight, and obesity, among others. Evaluation of related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after intervention using appropriate scales can measure population demands and the effectiveness of interventions. Scientificity and practicability are basic requirements of scale development. The theoretical basis and measuring items of a scale should be consistent with the theory of behavior change and should measure the content of interventions in a standardized and detailed manner to produce good validity, reliability, and acceptability. The scale of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of lifestyle intervention in a diabetes high-risk population is a tool for demand evaluation and effect evaluation of lifestyle intervention that has good validity and reliability. Established by the National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, its use can help to decrease the Chinese population at high risk for diabetes through targeted and scientifically sound lifestyle interventions. Future development of intervention evaluation scales for useing in high-risk populations should consider new factors and characteristics of the different populations, to develop new scales and modify or simplify existing ones, as well as to extend the measurement dimensions to barriers and supporting environment for behaviors change. PMID:27412829

  9. Applying the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary Model in a Primary Care-Based Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Lv, Nan; Azar, Kristen; Xiao, Lan; Yank, Veronica; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The majority of adults in the U.S. can be classified as overweight or obese (68%), putting them at risk for Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other adverse health outcomes. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that providers offer or refer obese adults to intensive, multicomponent lifestyle interventions. However, there is a critical need for interventions that have been shown to be pragmatic and effective among diverse populations, scalable across different clinical settings and systems, and sustainable over time. The Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) tool can be used to assess the degree to which trials of behavioral lifestyle interventions provide evidence to support this need. We used our recently completed trial, Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care (E-LITE), as a case study and assessed the domains of PRECIS to explore the degree to which we felt it achieved its intended pragmatic design (completed in December 2014). Overall, the systematic assessment using the PRECIS tool revealed that the E-LITE trial design was very pragmatic in nature. Its results and the subsequent adoption of the intervention into actual practice also suggest high potential for implementation of primary care interventions. PMID:26296556

  10. A Long-Term Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Physical Function: the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bray, George A.; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. METHODS Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45–76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes (n=964) at four clinics in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including an expanded short physical performance battery (SPPBexp), 20-m and 400-m walk, and grip and knee extensor strength 8 years post-randomization, during the trial’s weight maintenance phase. RESULTS Eight years post-randomization, individuals randomized to ILI had better SPPBexp scores (adjusted mean (SE) difference: 0.055 (0.022), p=0.01) and faster 20-m and 400-m walk speeds (0.032 (0.012) m/sec, p=0.01, and 0.025 (0.011) m/sec, p=0.02, respectively) compared to those randomized to DSE. Achieved weight loss greatly attenuated the group differences in physical function and the intervention effect was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS An intensive lifestyle intervention has long-term benefits for mobility function in overweight and obese middle-aged and older individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25452229

  11. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  12. A Randomized-Controlled, Pilot Intervention on Diabetes Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles in the New York City Korean Community

    PubMed Central

    Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Wyatt, Laura C.; Chun, Kay; Lee, Linda; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Asian Americans experience diabetes at a higher rate than non-Hispanic whites. Diabetes prevention programs using lifestyle interventions have been shown to produce beneficial results, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Korean community. We explore the impact and feasibility of a pilot Community Health Worker (CHW) intervention to improve health behaviors and promote diabetes prevention among Korean Americans using a randomized controlled trial. Between 2011 and 2012, a total of 48 Korean Americans at risk for diabetes living in New York City (NYC) participated in the intervention. Participants were allocated to treatment or control groups. A community-based participatory research approach guided development of the intervention, which consisted of 6 workshops held by CHWs on diabetes prevention, nutrition, physical activity, diabetes complications, stress and family support, and access to health care. Changes over 6 months were examined for clinical measurements (weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol); health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, food behaviors, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and mental health); and health access (insurance and self-reported health). In this small pilot study, changes were seen in weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, physical activity nutrition, diabetes knowledge, and mental health. Qualitative findings provide additional contextual information that inform ways in which CHWs may influence health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program can be successful among a Korean American population in NYC, and important insight is provided for ways that programs can be tailored to meet the needs of vulnerable populations. PMID:23813322

  13. Clinical Validation of the "Sedentary Lifestyle" Nursing Diagnosis in Secondary School Students.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Renato; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Guedes, Nirla Gomes; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios

    2016-06-01

    This study clinically validated the nursing diagnosis of "sedentary lifestyle" (SL) among 564 Brazilian adolescents. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for defining characteristics, and Mantel-Haenszel analysis was used to identify related factors. The measures of diagnostic accuracy showed that the following defining characteristics were statistically significant: "average daily physical activity less than recommended for gender and age," "preference for activity low in physical activity," "nonengagement in leisure time physical activities," and "diminished respiratory capacity." An SL showed statistically significant associations with the following related factors: insufficient motivation for physical activity; insufficient interest in physical activity; insufficient resources for physical activity; insufficient social support for physical activity; attitudes, beliefs, and health habits that hinder physical activity; and insufficient confidence for practicing physical exercises. The study highlighted the four defining characteristics and six related factors for making decisions related to SL among adolescents. PMID:26054358

  14. Chemical alterations and regulations of biomolecules in lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Noriyuki

    2016-06-01

    We know experientially that not only nutrient factors but also non-nutritive functional food factors are playing important roles in maintenance of homeostasis, health promotion, and disease prevention. Although some of these effective behaviors are supported by accumulating scientific evidences, it is in general difficult to determine properly in human. Therefore, the discovering of novel biomarker and developments of the analytical method are one of the prudent strategies to understand disease etiology and evaluate efficacies of functional food factors via monitoring the pathophysiological alteration in live body, tissue, and cells. This review describes recent our findings on (1) formation mechanism, bioactivities, quantitative determination of cholesterol ozonolysis product, secosterol as possible biomarker for lifestyle-related disease, and (2) chemical biology approach for the investigating molecular mechanisms of most promising cancer chemopreventive food factors, isothiocyanate-inducing bioactivities. PMID:26856708

  15. Developing food-based dietary guidelines to promote healthy diets and lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Albert, Janice L; Samuda, Pauline M; Molina, Verónika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the general population in each of these countries. This paper reports on the comprehensive process of developing the guidelines through consensus building among stakeholders, technical assessments and priority setting, and use of qualitative methods to field test messages to ensure public understanding and motivation. Nutritionists in each country received training and support from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Pan American Health Organization's nutritionists. PMID:17996630

  16. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions. PMID:21645344

  17. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Carter-Kent, Christine; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions. PMID:21645344

  18. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  19. Outcomes of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes or pre-diabetes.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Chris; Skinner, Margot; Hale, Leigh

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes, a long-term condition increasing in prevalence, requires ongoing healthcare management. Exercise alongside lifestyle education and support is effective for diabetes management. AIM To investigate clinical outcomes and acceptability of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes/prediabetes at programme completion and 3-month follow-up. METHODS The 12-week community programme included twice-weekly sessions of self-management education and exercise, supervised by a physiotherapist, physiotherapy students and a nurse. Clinical outcomes assessed were cardiorespiratory fitness, waist circumference, exercise behaviour and self-efficacy. A standardised evaluation form was used to assess programme acceptability. RESULTS Clinically significant improvements were found from baseline (n = 36) to programme completion (n = 25) and 3-months follow-up (n = 20) for the six minute walk test (87 m (95%CI 65-109; p ≤ 0.01), 60 m (95%CI 21-100; p ≤ 0.01)), waist circumference (-3 cm (95%CI -6 to -1), -3 cm (95%CI -6 to 1)), exercise behaviour (aerobic exercise 53 min/week (95%CI 26 to 81; p ≤ 0.01), 71 min/week (95%CI 25 to 118; p ≤ 0.01)) and self-efficacy (0.7 (95%CI -0.2 to 1.6), 0.8 (95%CI 0.04 to 1.5)). Good programme acceptability was demonstrated by themes suggesting a culturally supportive, motivating, friendly, informative atmosphere within the programme. The attrition rate was 30% but there were no adverse medical events related to the programme. DISCUSSION The programme was safe and culturally acceptable and outcomes demonstrated clinical benefit to participants. The attrition rate was largely due to medical reasons unrelated to the programme. This model of a community-based lifestyle programme has the potential to be reproduced in other regions and in adults with similar long-term conditions. KEYWORDS Diabetes Mellitus Type II; Prediabetic state; Co-morbidity; Exercise; Self-management. PMID:27477555

  20. Design of a family-based lifestyle intervention for youth with type 2 diabetes: the TODAY study.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and is increasing at an alarming rate in youth. Although weight loss through lifestyle change is one of the primary treatment recommendations for adults with type 2 diabetes, the efficacy of this approach has not been tested with youth. This paper provides a summary of the reviews and meta-analyses of pediatric weight-loss interventions that informed the design and implementation of an intensive, family-based lifestyle weight management program for adolescents with type 2 diabetes and their families developed for the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. A total of 1092 youth have been screened, and 704 families have been randomized for inclusion in this 15-center clinical trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The TODAY study is designed to test three approaches (metformin, metformin plus rosiglitazone and metformin plus an intensive lifestyle intervention) to the treatment of a diverse cohort of youth, 10-17 years of age, within 2 years of their diagnosis. The principal goal of the TODAY Lifestyle Program (TLP) is to decrease baseline weight of youth by 7-10% (or the equivalent for children who are growing in height) through changes in eating and physical activity habits, and to sustain these changes through ongoing treatment contact. The TLP is implemented by interventionists called Personal Activity and Nutrition Leaders (PALs) and delivered to youth with type 2 diabetes, and at least one family support person. The TLP provides a model for taking a comprehensive, continuous care approach to the treatment of severe overweight in youth with comorbid medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:19823189

  1. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program: study protocol for the Kerala diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India currently has more than 60 million people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and this is predicted to increase by nearly two-thirds by 2030. While management of those with T2DM is important, preventing or delaying the onset of the disease, especially in those individuals at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM, is urgently needed, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes in Kerala, India. Methods/design A total of 60 polling booths are randomised to the intervention arm or control arm in rural Kerala, India. Data collection is conducted in two steps. Step 1 (Home screening): Participants aged 30–60 years are administered a screening questionnaire. Those having no history of T2DM and other chronic illnesses with an Indian Diabetes Risk Score value of ≥60 are invited to attend a mobile clinic (Step 2). At the mobile clinic, participants complete questionnaires, undergo physical measurements, and provide blood samples for biochemical analysis. Participants identified with T2DM at Step 2 are excluded from further study participation. Participants in the control arm are provided with a health education booklet containing information on symptoms, complications, and risk factors of T2DM with the recommended levels for primary prevention. Participants in the intervention arm receive: (1) eleven peer-led small group sessions to motivate, guide and support in planning, initiation and maintenance of lifestyle changes; (2) two diabetes prevention education sessions led by experts to raise awareness on T2DM risk factors, prevention and management; (3) a participant handbook containing information primarily on peer support and its role in assisting with lifestyle modification; (4) a participant workbook to guide self-monitoring of lifestyle behaviours, goal setting and goal review; (5) the health education

  2. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  3. A Computerized Lifestyle Application to Promote Multiple Health Behaviors at the Workplace: Testing Its Behavioral and Psychological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fleig, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    nutrition (χ2 1=3.5; P=.04, for N=384) as well as psychological variables (physical activity intention, P=.04; nutrition intention, P=.03; nutrition planning, P=.02; and general social support to live healthily, P=.01). When predicting a healthy lifestyle at follow-up, baseline lifestyle (odds ratio, OR, 2.25, 95% CI 1.73-2.92; P<.01) and the intervention (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.00-3.82; P=.05) were found to be significant predictors. Physical activity planning mediated the effect of the intervention on the adoption of an overall healthy lifestyle (consisting of activity and nutrition, R 2 adj=.08; P<.01), indicating that if the stage-matched intervention increased planning, the adoption of a healthy lifestyle was more likely. Conclusions Matching an intervention to the motivational readiness of employees can make a health promotion program effective. Employees’ motivation, planning, social support, and lifestyle can be supported by a stage-matched intervention that focuses on both physical activity and healthy nutrition. Occupational settings provide a potential to implement parsimonious computer-based health promotion programs and to facilitate multiple behavior change. PMID:26429115

  4. Lifestyle-Related Factors and Atopy in Seven Danish Population-Based Studies from Different Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of allergic respiratory disease tends to increase in populations that adopt the so-called Westernized lifestyle. We investigated the association between atopy and several possible lifestyle-related factors in seven Danish population-based studies. Methods A total of 20048 persons participated in the seven studies. We used logistic regression to analyse the associations between possible determinants and atopy defined as serum specific IgE or skin prick test positivity against inhalant allergens. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, individual participant data meta-analyses were performed. Results Atopy was significantly associated with younger age (OR per 1 year increase in age: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98); male sex (OR for males versus females: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), heavy drinking (OR for heavy drinkers versus light drinkers: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27), never smoking (OR for current versus never smokers: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.80), and higher educational level (OR for educated versus uneducated: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.41). Atopy was not associated with blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, physical activity or body mass except in women only, where we found a positive association (OR for obese vs. normal weight: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.39) with ptrend = 0.032. Conclusions Of interest for preventive purposes, we found that atopy was associated with some of the reversible lifestyle-related factors that characterize a Westernized lifestyle. PMID:26372449

  5. Application of Latent Class Analysis to Identify Behavioral Patterns of Response to Behavioral Lifestyle Interventions in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Tyson, Crystal; Stevens, Victor J.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Dalcin, Arlene; Brantley, Phillip J.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Background Examining responders and non-responders to behavioral lifestyle interventions among overweight/obese adults with additional comorbidities may aid in refining and tailoring obesity treatment. Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of latent class analysis to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions based on adherence to diet and exercise recommendations. Method Repeated measures latent class analysis was applied to two clinical trial datasets, combination of two active interventions in the PREMIER Trial (n=501) and phase 1 of the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial (WLM; n=1685), to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions. Treatment response was based on adherence to daily recommendations for fruit/vegetable, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and exercise at baseline and 6 months. Results In PREMIER, three distinct latent classes emerged: responders (45.9 %), non-responders (23.6 %), and early adherers (30.5 %). Responders and Early Adherers had greater weight loss at 6 and 18 months and were more likely to meet behavioral recommendations at 18 months than Non-responders. For WLM, there were four latent classes: partial responders (16 %), non-responders (40 %), early adherers (2 %), and fruit/veggie only responders (41 %). Non-responders in WLM had significantly less weight loss at 6 months compared to that of the other three latent classes. Conclusion Latent class analysis is a useful method to apply to clinical trial data to identify distinct patterns of response to behavioral interventions. Overweight/ obese participants who respond to behavioral lifestyle treatment (i.e., meet behavioral recommendations) have significantly greater weight loss than that of participants who do not make behavioral changes. PMID:25331853

  6. Evaluation of lifestyle interventions to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk in primary care (E-LITE): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficacy research has shown that intensive individual lifestyle intervention lowers the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Translational research is needed to test real-world models of lifestyle interventions in primary care settings. Design E-LITE is a three-arm randomized controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two lifestyle interventions: information technology-assisted self-management, either alone or in combination with care management by a dietitian and exercise counselor, in comparison to usual care. Overweight or obese adults with pre-diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (n = 240) recruited from a community-based primary care clinic are randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions. Treatment will last 15 months and involves a three-month intensive treatment phase followed by a 12-month maintenance phase. Follow-up assessment occurs at three, six, and 15 months. The primary outcome is change in body mass index. The target sample size will provide 80% power for detecting a net difference of half a standard deviation in body mass index at 15 months between either of the self-management or care management interventions and usual care at a two-sided α level of 0.05, assuming up to a 20% rate of loss to 15-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include glycemic control, additional cardiovascular risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Potential mediators (e.g., treatment adherence, caloric intake, physical activity level) and moderators (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, baseline mental status) of the intervention's effect on weight change also will be examined. Discussion This study will provide objective evidence on the extent of reductions in body mass index and related cardiometabolic risk factors from two lifestyle intervention programs of varying intensity that could be implemented as part of routine health care. Trial registration NCT00842426

  7. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  8. Health, schooling and lifestyle among young adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Unto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Laitinen, Jaana

    2006-11-01

    This was a longitudinal, general population study based on a Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, using a structural equation approach to estimate the health production function and health input functions for four lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise and unhealthy diet) for males and females. In particular, we examined the productive and allocative effects of education on health. We used 15D, a generic measure of health-related quality of life, as a single index score measure but we also estimated models for some of its dimensions. Among the males, the important factors impacting on health were education and all the four lifestyle factors, as well as some exogenous variables at 31 years and variables describing parents' background, and health and behaviour at 14 years. An increase of five years in schooling increased the health score by 0.008, of which about 50% was due to direct effect and 50% due to indirect effects. Among the females, education does not impact on health, but health was affected by the use of alcohol, exercise and diet, but not by smoking. Our results indicate that policy options that increase education among men will increase their health indirectly via healthier lifestyles. However, since the total effect was rather modest and the direct effect insignificant, an increase of schooling is not a cost-effective way to increase health given the present high educational level of Finland. The young adults' and particularly women's internationally high educational status in Finland might be a reason why we find only a modest effect of schooling on health and the non-existence of such effects among women. PMID:16786496

  9. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group. PMID:22444325

  10. Adolescent Lifestyle and Behaviour: A Survey from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 years of age. Results Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16–18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Conclusion Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population. PMID:20886001

  11. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  12. Dispersed cells represent a distinct stage in the transition from bacterial biofilm to planktonic lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chen, Yicai; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Tan, Bryan Giin Chyuan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria assume distinct lifestyles during the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Increased levels of the intracellular messenger c-di-GMP determine the transition from planktonic to biofilm growth, while a reduction causes biofilm dispersal. It is generally assumed that cells dispersed from biofilms immediately go into the planktonic growth phase. Here we use single-nucleotide resolution transcriptomic analysis to show that the physiology of dispersed cells from Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is highly different from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. In dispersed cells, the expression of the small regulatory RNAs RsmY and RsmZ is downregulated, whereas secretion genes are induced. Dispersed cells are highly virulent against macrophages and Caenorhabditis elegans compared with planktonic cells. In addition, they are highly sensitive towards iron stress, and the combination of a biofilm-dispersing agent, an iron chelator and tobramycin efficiently reduces the survival of the dispersed cells. PMID:25042103

  13. Cellulose production in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae: a compromise between epiphytic and pathogenic lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, Eva; Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Genome sequencing and annotation have revealed a putative cellulose biosynthetic operon in the strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, the causal agent of bacterial apical necrosis. Bioinformatics analyses and experimental methods were used to confirm the functionality of the cellulose biosynthetic operon. In addition, the results showed the contribution of the cellulose operon to important aspects of P. syringae pv. syringae biology, such as the formation of biofilms and adhesion to the leaf surface of mango, suggesting that this operon increases epiphytic fitness. However, based on the incidence and severity of the symptoms observed in tomato leaflets, cellulose expression reduces virulence, as cellulose-deficient mutants increased the area of necrosis, whereas the cellulose-overproducing strain decreased the area of necrosis compared with the wild type. In conclusion, the results of this study show that the epiphytic and pathogenic stages of the P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 lifestyle are intimately affected by cellulose production. PMID:26109133

  14. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  15. Cigaret Smoking and Lifestyle Modification: Patients' Views on Physicians' Roles

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Linda; Vanderheyden, Debbie

    1986-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-eight patients completed a Health Habits Questionnaire in family practice waiting rooms. The questions covered lifestyle and health habits, how to improve health, and what the family physician could do to help. Current smokers believed they should quit smoking, and some thought the physician could help by providing advice and encouragement. Physicians should continue to educate their patients about the health risks of smoking, to advise patients repeatedly, if necessary, to quit and to reinforce abstinence on a continuing basis. More research is needed, however, to assess the effectiveness of these recommendations in relation to long-term abstinence from cigarets. PMID:21267206

  16. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  17. Unusual high levels of ciclosporin in a female patient--the impact of lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Jürgen Roth, Heinz; Wintergalen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of ciclosporin whole blood levels is essential to be aware of any change in drug pharmacokinetics due to interaction with additionally applied drugs, phytochemical drugs or nutritional and environmental factors. While monitoring ciclosporin levels in a 23-year old Caucasian woman diagnosed to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis a 6-fold higher value than expected was measured. Because the kind and the dose of prescribed drugs were unchanged a drug to drug interaction could be ruled out. Additionally, phytochemical drugs, antibiotics, antimycotics or nutritional factors such as grapefruit juice as well as alcohol and tobacco were denied by the patient. She kept her protein and sodium poor diet free of citrus fruits, rare in meat and rich in vegetables unchanged before and during the course of the unexpected high ciclosporin levels. As the elevated ciclosporin levels were closely related to her cooking habits by means of a brand new steamer we advised her to refrain from preparing her vegetarian meals in this steamer. Since then ciclosporin levels were again in relation to the administered dosage without any episode of unexpected high ciclosporin values. Repeating the experiment some weeks later no episode of unexpected high ciclosporin values occurred. Unfortunately we could only identify the cause (steamer) but not the definite reason why. The report illustrates that the bioavailability of ciclosporin may not only be influenced by drug to drug interactions with prescribed or phytochemical drugs and herbal remedies but also by some yet unknown or unidentified factors or chemicals induced or altered by eating and cooking behavior or lifestyle in general. Therefore a careful assessment of the patient's anamnestic data and lifestyle combined with an unorthodox way of thinking as well as close-meshed drug monitoring is essential to obtain the desired pharmacologic effects and to avoid adverse toxic effects. PMID:16122154

  18. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices. PMID:22258282

  19. A Tale about Lifestyle Changes: Comments on "Toward a Technology of 'Nonaversive' Behavioral Support."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    1990-01-01

    In response to Horner and others (EC 232 976), this paper contrasts the constricted life of their adult son (who has mental retardation, autism, and emotional problems) when he lived in a group home and worked at a sheltered workshop where aversive techniques were used, with his present life with nondisabled housemates and competitive employment.…

  20. The Role of FCS in the Obesity Epidemic. Supporting Healthy Lifestyle Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadrick, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Individuals are bombarded every day with data on obesity and its health consequences, with information on weight loss treatments and their successes and failures, and with tips on how to reduce caloric intake and increase physical activity. Obesity has become a global epidemic, termed globesity (World Health Organization, 2003), and seen by many…

  1. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  2. Who empowers women towards healthier lifestyles? Example from western Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ksenija; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Suljić, Petra; Todorović, Goran; Vuletić, Silvije; Cović, Ana

    2009-04-01

    This article explores who among the doctors, other health care workers, family or somebody else most frequently advised women about their lifestyle changes related to cardiovascular health (including smoking, nutritional habits and physical activity). We analyzed who advised the most, in relation to the parameters important in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases: age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). Sample was a part of comprehensive Croatian Adult Health Survey, comprised of women from Primorje-Goran, Istra and Lika-Senj Counties. Results indicated low frequency of advising on lifestyle changes in primary health care in all three counties, with most advice from general practitioners on nutritional habits. Family and other health care workers advised about smoking and nutrition and had strong influence in the youngest age groups. The GPs failure to counsel younger population and disease-free women could be regarded as the missed opportunity for avoidance of preventable risk factors that are associated with cardiovascular diseases. Other subjects in the health care process, as well as the family and media could fill the gaps between the patients and health care system messages. In order to create and develop such heterogeneous network approaches to training various programs and activities have to take into account all specific gender and regional characteristics. PMID:19563164

  3. Lifestyle medicine consulting walking meetings for sustained weight loss.

    PubMed

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Crane, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    With rates of obesity and diabetes rising worldwide, effective ways of managing weight are becoming more important. We present the case study of a middle-aged Caucasian-American woman (body mass index (BMI) 27.8, overweight category) who wanted to lose weight. The patient participated in a behaviour modification programme with a physician trained in lifestyle medicine as well as health and wellness coaching. After the 14-week programme, which included 9, 1 h long walking sessions with the clinician, the patient lost 11 Ibs (BMI 24.7, normal category). The programme included a combination of increasing physical activity, eating appropriate quantities of healthy foods, goal setting and a positive attitude. The patient has kept her BMI at or below 24.1 for over 2 years. This case demonstrates a novel approach to weight loss management--walking therapeutic sessions--and also outlines critical components of lifestyle medicine counselling that facilitate the process of sustainable weight loss and lasting change. PMID:26833954

  4. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations. PMID:23004010

  5. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites. PMID:26644135

  6. A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Steffan, Shawn A; Carey, Cayelan C; Weimer, Paul J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2014-03-01

    Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle. PMID:24452028

  7. A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Jonathan N.; Mendoza, Jorge E.; Steffan, Shawn A.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Weimer, Paul J.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle. PMID:24452028

  8. Lifestyle among former cancer patients in Brazil in 2013.

    PubMed

    Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar; de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Gomes, Fabio da Silva; de Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges; Szwarcwald, Celia Landman; Eluf Neto, José

    2016-02-01

    People who have been diagnosed with cancer tend to adopt healthier lifestyles. This study analyzes the prevalence of smoking, eating fruits and vegetables, exercise and the use of alcoholic beverages among individuals who reported to have been diagnosed with cancer in the PNS (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde or National Health Survey). The prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for consuming fruits and vegetables, sedentary lifestyle (no exercise), use of alcoholic beverages, being overweight and tobacco use. The associa-tion between having received a diagnosis of cancer and the risk and protection factors was analyzed using a Poisson regression, adjusted by sociodemographic variables and other chronic comorbidities. The analyses were stratified by time since the diagnosis and the type of cancer related to the factors analyzed. The types of cancer most often reported were breast and cervix in women, and prostate and stomach in men. Among those who had cancer diagnoses, there was a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, higher proportion of ex-smokers, however, increased use of alcohol. There was no difference in the frequency of exercise or incidence of being overweight between the two groups. Measures to promote health and prevent chronic diseases should be implemented in the follow-up of people who have had cancer, in an effort to ensure integrated healthcare. PMID:26910146

  9. Mental distress and social conditions and lifestyle in northern Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, V.; Jacobsen, B. K.

    1989-01-01

    In a cross sectional survey of risk factors for coronary heart disease three questions about mental distress were included in a questionnaire completed by 13,704 people, 64% of the total population aged 20-54 in one municipality. Overall, 860 (12.5%) of the men and 1141 (16.8%) of the women reported having at least one symptom of mental distress. There were no distinct differences between the age groups. Single people, separated and divorced people, and those who reported that the financial situation of the family during their childhood was difficult reported more mental problems. Heavy smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and, in men, little or no physical activity in leisure time were also associated with a high prevalence of mental distress. By multiple regression analyses, marital state, financial situation of family during childhood, and current lifestyle were found to be highly significantly associated with mental distress. Including a few questions on mental distress in health surveys provides a way to establish relations between such symptoms and social conditions and lifestyle in large numbers of subjects. PMID:2504341

  10. Fostering Multiple Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors for Primary Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716

  11. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  12. Association of Lifestyle-Related Comorbidities With Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association of periodontitis with lifestyle-related comorbidities (LCs) using data in the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database from 2002 to 2013. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Using this precisely extracted database, the correlations between LCs (cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, and obesity) and periodontitis were investigated while adjusting for confounding bias. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate differences in variable factors. Among a total of 1,025,340 samples, 321,103 (31.3%) cases were diagnosed with periodontitis. Statistically significant associations were found between all LCs except myocardial infarction and periodontitis (P < 0.005). Periodontitis is significantly and positively correlated with LCs (except for myocardial infarction) after adjusting for confounding bias. In particular, lifestyle-related diseases, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis seem to be intimately related to periodontitis. PMID:26376407

  13. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  14. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. PMID:25460625

  15. Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors in Menopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrami, Fereshte Shabani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining health promoting lifestyle behaviors of age-specific groups of women provides valuable information for designing health promotion intervention programs. Hence the present study was conducted to assess health promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study examined health promoting lifestyle behaviors in 400 menopausal women admitted to health care centers in Neka city-north of Iran-from March 2015 to July 2015. Health promoting lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a demographic characteristics form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) through simple convenience sampling. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistics at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: The mean score of participants’ health promoting lifestyle behaviors was 136.43±19.61, ranging from 88 to 194. The logistic regression test revealed women’s health promoting lifestyle behaviors to be significantly related to their place of residence (P=0.009, odds ratio=1.73) and their spouse’s level of education (P=0.027, odds ratio=0.58). The Pearson correlation test showed significant relationships between mean score of the six sub-scale of health promoting lifestyle behaviors with each other (P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings have implications for addressing the role of men to promote health promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural menopausal women.

  16. Influence of lifestyle on the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota A.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that requires insulin treatment from the time of diagnosis. Its clinical course depends on both genetic and environmental factors, and the lifestyle of a patient modulates their interaction. The evidence about the influence of lifestyle on the course of T1DM is increasing. In this paper, we present evidence on the relationship between lifestyle parameters and diabetes-related outcomes. We discuss the most commonly addressed factors associated with lifestyle, such as physical activity, nutrition and smoking, and those with sparse evidence in T1DM, such as socioeconomic status, sleep duration, psychological stress and illicit drugs intake. PMID:24701225

  17. Children's perceptions of the factors helping them to be 'resilient' to sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Jenny; Arundell, Lauren; Hume, Clare; Ball, Kylie

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increased risk of sedentary lifestyles associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, some children living in disadvantaged areas display 'resilience' to unhealthy behaviours whereby they manage to engage in regular physical activity and avoid high levels of screen time. It is important to understand what is helping these children to do well. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of 'resilient' children regarding factors that assist them to engage in high levels of physical activity and low screen time. In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 38 children (7-13 years) living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Themes that emerged relating to physical activity included: parental support and encouragement of physical activity, having a supportive physical environment and having friends to be active with. Themes relating to screen time included: individual preferences to be active, knowledge of health risks associated with sedentary behaviour, having a home environment supportive of physical activity and parental rules. The results provide valuable insights regarding factors that may help children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods to be physically active and reduce their screen time and may inform future studies targeting this important population group. PMID:23748161

  18. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for < 3 days/week = 1.44; 95% CI 1.20–1.71 for BMI and 1.47; 95% CI 1.22–1.76 for WHtR) and vegetable (aOR for < 3 days/week = 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.59 for WHtR) intakes, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (aOR for < 3

  19. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    barriers impacted on their relationship with patients. Conclusion Capacity to provide interventions of sufficient intensity is an important condition for effective health literacy support for lifestyle change. This has implications for workforce development and the organisation of primary health care. PMID:22639799

  20. Effectiveness of a Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Obesity among Chinese Primary School Students: CLICK-Obesity Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Leslie, Eva; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study) in Mainland China. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control) in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events) together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge. Results Overall, 1108 (93.7%) of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09), although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87) by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02), decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84) and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95), change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40), and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors. Conclusions The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving