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Sample records for additional lifestyle support

  1. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  2. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses. PMID:25087266

  3. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.

  4. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  5. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  6. [Nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity, and supportive care during chemotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Lümmen, G; Jäger, T; Sommer, F; Ebert, T; Schmitz-Draeger, B

    2006-05-01

    With improvements in cancer survival rates, more patients with cancer are living longer and the influence of nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity as well as supportive care during and after chemotherapy is of increasing interest. In several malignancies smoking cessation increases cancer survival. Similar effects are expected by healthy nutrition. Regular physical activity of cancer patients reduces drug interactions of chemotherapy, decreases the number of comorbid conditions, and helps patients maintain independence as long as possible. For supportive care during chemotherapy the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are more effective for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. There are several colony-stimulating factors (e.g. GCSF, erythropoietin) for hematopoietic recovery post-chemotherapy. Altogether supportive care of chemotherapy reduces toxicity and increases efficacy.

  7. Do practitioners and friends support patients with coronary heart disease in lifestyle change? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) but outcomes from secondary prevention interventions which support lifestyle change have been disappointing. This study is a novel, in-depth exploration of patient factors affecting lifestyle behaviour change within an intervention designed to improve secondary prevention for patients with CHD in primary care using personalised tailored support. We aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of factors affecting lifestyle change within a trial of this intervention (the SPHERE Study), using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews, with patients in general practice. Methods Interviews (45) were conducted in purposively selected general practices (15) which had participated in the SPHERE Study. Individuals, with CHD, were selected to include those who succeeded in improving physical activity levels and dietary fibre intake and those who did not. We explored motivations, barriers to lifestyle change and information utilised by patients. Data collection and analysis, using a thematic framework and the constant comparative method, were iterative, continuing until data saturation was achieved. Results We identified novel barriers to lifestyle change: such disincentives included strong negative influences of social networks, linked to cultural norms which encouraged consumption of ‘delicious’ but unhealthy food and discouraged engagement in physical activity. Findings illustrated how personalised support within an ongoing trusted patient-professional relationship was valued. Previously known barriers and facilitators relating to support, beliefs and information were confirmed. Conclusions Intervention development in supporting lifestyle change in secondary prevention needs to more effectively address patients’ difficulties in overcoming negative social influences and maintaining interest in living healthily. PMID:23984815

  8. Technology-supported dietary and lifestyle interventions in healthy pregnant women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, O A; McCarthy, M; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the actuality of delivering effective lifestyle interventions in clinical practice is hampered by a high demand for resources. The use of technology to assist lifestyle interventions needs to be explored as a valid method of reducing strain on resources, and enhancing the effectiveness and population reach of interventions. The aim was to systematically review the literature on the use of technology-supported lifestyle interventions for healthy pregnant women and their impact on maternal outcomes. Online databases and registries were searched in March 2013. Primary outcomes of selected English language studies were fasting maternal glucose, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes were intervention uptake and acceptance, and dietary or physical activity modification. Studies whose subjects were diagnosed with GDM prior to intervention were excluded. The minimal number of eligible studies and varying outcomes precluded formal meta-analysis of the data. Initially, 203 articles were identified and screened. Seven articles, including five randomised controlled trials, met inclusion criteria for the current review. Results demonstrate several potential benefits associated with technology-supported interventions in pregnancy, despite minimal search results. Although communication technology holds potential as a safe therapeutic tool for the support of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy, there is a paucity of data on its effectiveness. Further RCTs examining the effectiveness of communication technology are required, particularly among those most likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions, such as overweight and obese pregnant women.

  9. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  10. Internet Interventions to Support Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cotterez, Alex; Durant, Nefertiti; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet presents a widely accessible, 24-hour means to promote chronic disease management. The objective of this review is to identify studies that used Internet based interventions to promote lifestyle modification among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed using the terms: [internet, computer, phone, smartphone, mhealth, mobile health, web based, telehealth, social media, text messages] combined with [diabetes management and diabetes control] through January 2013. Studies were included if they described an Internet intervention, targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, focused on lifestyle modification, and included an evaluation component with behavioral outcomes. Results Of the 2803 papers identified, nine met inclusion criteria. Two studies demonstrated improvements in diet and/or physical activity and two studies demonstrated improvements in glycemic control comparing web-based intervention with control. Successful studies were theory-based, included interactive components with tracking and personalized feedback, and provided opportunities for peer support. Website utilization declined over time in all studies that reported on it. Few studies focused on high risk, underserved populations. Conclusion Web-based strategies provide a viable option for facilitating diabetes self-management. Future research is needed on the use of web-based interventions in underserved communities and studies examining website utilization patterns and engagement over time. PMID:24332469

  11. The Look AHEAD Study: A Description of the Lifestyle Intervention and the Evidence Supporting It

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, designed to determine whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. The study began in 2001 and is scheduled to conclude in 2012. A total of 5,145 participants, with a mean age of 60 years and body mass index of 36.0 kg/m2, have been randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention or to enhanced usual care condition (i.e., Diabetes Support and Education). This article describes the lifestyle intervention and the empirical evidence to support it. The two principal intervention goals are to induce a mean loss ≥ 7% of initial weight and to increase participants’ moderately-intense physical activity to ≥ 175 minutes a week. For the first 6 months, participants attend one individual and three group sessions per month and are encouraged to replace two meals and one snack a day with liquid shakes and meal bars. From months 7−12, they attend one individual and two group meetings per month and continue to replace one meal per day (which is recommended for the duration of the program). Starting at month 7, more intensive behavioral interventions, as well as weight loss medication, are available from a toolbox, designed to help participants with limited weight loss. In years 2−4, treatment is provided mainly on an individual basis and includes at least one on-site visit per month and a second contact by telephone, mail, or e-mail. Short-term (6−8 weeks) refresher groups and motivational campaigns also are offered three times yearly to help participants reverse small weight gains. After year 4, participants are offered monthly individual visits, as well as one refresher group and one campaign a year. The intervention is delivered by a multi-disciplinary team that includes medical staff who monitor participants at risk of hypoglycemic episodes. The study's evidence-based protocol should be

  12. The Effect of Health Promoting Intervention on Healthy Lifestyle and Social Support in Elders: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Davoud; Eftekhar Ardebili, Hasan; Shojaeizadeh, Dvoud; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many of the problems pertaining to old age originate from unhealthy lifestyle and low social support. Overcoming these problems requires precise and proper policy-making and planning. Objectives: The aim of the current research is to investigate the effect of health promoting interventions on healthy lifestyle and social support in elders. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial lasting for 12 months on 464 elders aged above 60 years who were under the aegis of health homes in Tehran, Iran. Participants were selected through double stage cluster sampling and then divided into intervention and control groups (232 individuals in each). Tools for gathering data were a demographic checklist and two standard questionnaires called Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile version 2 and personal resource questionnaire part 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including paired t test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of elders in this study was 65.9 ± 3.6 years (ranging between 60 and 73 years old). Results showed that the differences between the mean post-test scores of healthy lifestyle and its six dimensions as well as perceived social support and its five dimensions in the control and intervention groups were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Aging is an inevitable stage of life. However, effective health promoting interventions can procrastinate it, reduce its consequences and problems, and turn it into a pleasant and enjoyable part of life. PMID:25389486

  13. Approaches to Dispute Resolution in Additional Support Needs in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004 aimed, among other things, to increase parents' rights in relation to the education of their children. In addition to the creation of the Additional Supports Needs Tribunals for Scotland, parents were given new rights to challenge local authority decisions through mediation and…

  14. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  15. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  16. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.4 Supporting affidavit; additional information. (a... together with any other person and the amount and source of all income during the immediately preceding five calendar years plus income to date of application. (12) Any other information which the...

  18. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  19. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication.

  20. Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L

    2016-04-01

    Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability. PMID:26479983

  1. Targeting cultural changes supportive of the healthiest lifestyle patterns. A biosocial evidence-base for prevention of obesity.

    PubMed

    Booth, David A; Booth, Phil

    2011-02-01

    This paper argues that the rise in obesity can be slowed only by universal education based on a type of evidence that does not yet exist. On top of literacy and numeracy, people need the ability to preempt the fattening effect of a decrease in habitual physical activity by altering familiar patterns of eating, drinking and exercise in ways that are both maintainable within the individual's social and physical environment and also effective at decreasing weight to the asymptote for each sustained change. Hence the prevention of obesity requires locally valid evidence on which changes to specific customary habits actually do avoid unhealthy fattening. Interventions need to focus on antecedents to individuals' common lapses from the healthy changes in these customs. Yet no research has been funded into the public's descriptions of feasible changes that cause a step down in weight, let alone into the environmental conditions for individuals' maintenance of those changes. As a result, public health policies on obesity lack scientific basis. When will a start be made on systematic identification of cultural supports to readily executed patterns of lifestyle behaviour which improve health to extents that have been directly measured?

  2. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  3. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  4. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes with the Support of a Lay Health Advisor: Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Health Trainer Services in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Visram, Shelina; Clarke, Charlotte; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. Participants 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. Setting Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. Results The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff). Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally ‘person-centred’ in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. Conclusions Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact on health

  5. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  6. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  7. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  8. [Lifestyle modifications].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    Lifestyle modifications are important in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH2014) recommend salt reduction (< 6 g/day), increased intake of vegetables/fruit and fish (fish oil), reduced intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, weight loss (body mass index < 25kg/m2), exercise (≥ 30 min/day), reduction of alcohol intake (≤ 20-30 mL/day in men, ≤ 10-20 mL/day in women as ethanol), and quitting smoking. These lifestyle modifications are capable of reducing blood pressure and ameliorating other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the reduction in blood pressure is mild to moderate and the adherence to lifestyle modifications has been still suboptimal. PMID:26619658

  9. Lifestyle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Douglas M. C.; Ciliska, Donna

    1984-01-01

    An important aspect of health promotion is the assessment of lifestyle factors over which patients have some control. Health professionals often do not have time to integrate a comprehensive lifestyle inquiry into a busy practice. This article, the first in a six-part series on lifestyle assessment, describes the development and rationale of a simple patient questionnaire called FANTASTIC, which initially was used as a mnemonic memory aid for patients and physicians in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University. The inventory encompasses the physical, emotional and social components of health believed to be relevant to morbidity, mortality and quality of life. A retest reliability study demonstrated acceptable overall reliability, and the inadequate components of the checklist have been improved. Patient acceptance of both the written and microcomputer versions of the questionnaire has been high.

  10. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  11. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  12. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term supported housing includes facilities to provide temporary shelter to eligible individuals as well as...

  13. Additional Support for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Regions of Northwest Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenborg, Carolien B.; Nakken, H.; van der Meulen, B. F.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    One in 10 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) exhibits behaviors that represent a significant challenge to the people who support them. Parents and staff (such as direct support professionals) often are challenged in trying to find a solution to overcome or reduce these behaviors. A form of additional professional support (i.e., external…

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Targeted Support and Telecare in Staffed Housing for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Impact on Staffing Levels and Objective Lifestyle Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jonathan; Firth, Caroline; Puppa, Michael; Wilson, Rick; Felce, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased provision of out-of-family residential support is required because of demographic changes within the intellectual disabilities population. Residential support now has to be provided in a climate requiring both financial constraint and high quality service outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the quality of life consequences of…

  16. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Steven M.; Schippers, Mandy; Maher, Carol A.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patients' preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 221 of 296 eligible) accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”). Results. Most (n = 155, 70%) desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10), followed by email and telephone (both 5/10), text messaging (1/10), and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10). Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p < 0.001), telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p < 0.001), and email (coefficient = 2.059, p = 0.02). Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p < 0.001), texting (coefficient = −0.096, p < 0.001), and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls. PMID:26491667

  17. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  18. Physical activity, healthy lifestyle behaviors, neighborhood environment characteristics and social support among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Richards, Justin; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Banks, Emily; Eades, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity is the third leading cause of the burden of disease for Australian Aboriginal adults. The neighborhood environment and social support are known to influence physical activity (PA) participation. This study examined these factors in relation to achieving PA recommendations in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor (SEEF) Study in New South Wales, Australia were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants for PA-related attributes, including achieving PA recommendations. ORs for achieving PA recommendations were estimated in both groups. Overall, 63.1% of Aboriginal (n = 314) and 65.4% of non-Aboriginal (n = 59,175) participants met PA recommendations. Odds of healthy sleep duration were lower, and receiving GP advice to be active was higher, among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants. Aboriginal respondents had higher odds of reporting that the crime rate made it unsafe to walk and that local public transport was inaccessible. They had higher odds of disagreeing they have local shops, footpaths or free/low cost recreation facilities. PA correlates were similar in both groups. The factors relating to PA were similar in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Neighborhood and social features were less PA-favorable for Aboriginal participants suggesting multiple possible avenues for increasing PA in this older population group. PMID:27419016

  19. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Hellgren, Lars Ingvar; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134 kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition. PMID:21773017

  20. Review of the Additional Support for Learning Act: "Adding Benefits for Learners"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the Minister for Children and Early Years, gave a commitment to Parliament to establish a working group to report on how the "Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004" (the Act) is affecting children and young people who: (1) are looked after; (2) are young carers; (3) have mental health disorders; and (4) have…

  1. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placement in permanent housing or in a living environment appropriate to his or her health and social needs... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  2. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  4. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  5. A Support Program for English as an Additional Language Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the most diverse countries in the world. To provide meaningful health care, the Canadian health care system requires nursing health care teams reflecting this diversity. Meeting this demand should be a specific goal of Canadian nursing schools. Nursing students with English as an Additional Language (EALs) are graduating and passing national licencing exams at a lower rate than nursing students whose first language is English. It is the premise of the article that EALs require both academic and nonacademic forms of support during their years of nursing education. A literature review reveals that EALs facing academic crisis benefit from individual and group English language support, aimed at improving their understanding and use of English in an academic environment. Studies also suggest that group sessions help improve EALs' psychosocial functioning. This article provides an overview of the establishment and implementation of a proactive nursing support program, purposely designed to address the challenges faced by EALs. PMID:25288563

  6. Report on the Implementation of the Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…

  7. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  8. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  9. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  10. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  11. Postural control in response to a perturbation: role of vision and additional support.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vennila; Vennila, Krishnan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the availability of vision and additional support on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments and their interaction. Eight healthy adults were exposed to external perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing with and without holding onto a walker in full vision and while blindfolded. Electrical activity of the trunk and leg muscles and center of pressure (COPAP) displacement were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APA and CPA. The results showed that with full vision, there was no difference in both APA and CPA in standing with and without holding onto a walker. With subjects holding onto a walker, CPA in standing blindfolded were comparable to CPA in full vision; this was seen in changes in the electrical activity of most of the muscles at the individual muscle, joint, and the muscle group levels as well as in COPAP displacement. The findings suggest that (1) in conditions where vision is available, vision overrules simultaneously available proprioceptive information from the support, (2) while in conditions where vision is not available, proprioceptive information from the support or support itself could be substituted for vision. It is possible to suggest that using a non-stabilizing support could be a valuable strategy to improve postural control when visual information is not available or compromised.

  12. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  13. Making the Connection--Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence Supported and Non-Evaluated Lifestyle Interventions in Healthcare: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Glind, Irene; Heinen, Maud; Geense, Wytske; Mesters, Ilse; Wensing, Michel; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Many implementation barriers relate to lifestyle interventions (LIs) being developed by scientists. Exploring whether implementation of non-evaluated LIs is less complicated, might offer insight how to improve the use of effective interventions. This study aimed to identify influencing factors for implementation and compare factors between…

  14. Recycling of fly ash for preparing porous mullite membrane supports with titania addition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Zhou, Jian-er; Lin, Bin; Ji, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Guangyao

    2010-08-15

    In order to effectively utilize industrial waste fly ash, porous mullite ceramic membrane supports were prepared from fly ash and calcined bauxite with chemically pure titania as sintering additive. The effects of TiO(2) on the sintering behaviors and main properties of porous mullite were studied in detail. Due to the addition of titania, the sintering of the flyash-based mullite was inhibited at low temperatures, but effectively improved at high temperatures, the latter is suitable for preparing porous mullite membrane supports by incomplete sintering. Titania entered into liquid glassy phase with low high-temperature viscosity during sintering, resulting in the improvement of sintering activity, as well as the lowering of secondary mullitization temperature (where 2.0% titania). Between 1300 and 1500 degrees C, with increasing titania content, the samples exhibit increased trends in both linear shrinkage percent and bulk density, but a slightly decreased trend in open porosity, at all sintering temperatures. At 1300-1500 degrees C, the samples sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2h exhibit the lowest shrinkage and bulk density, as well as the highest open porosities in the investigated titania content range of 0-6.0 wt.%. Also, with increasing titania content, the pore size decreases slightly but the three-point flexural strength increases gradually at 1450 degrees C.

  15. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  16. Lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawuła, Wanda; Ulańska, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Different environmental and lifestyle factors may interfere with the normal disjunction of sister chromatids/chromosomes during meiosis and may cause aneuploidy. The aim of the study was to examine the association between lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy. The study population consisted of 212 healthy men under 45 years of age attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had a normal semen concentration of 20-300×10⁶mL or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10⁶/mL). All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Results from the study suggest that lifestyle factors are related to sperm aneuploidy. A positive relationship was found between coffee drinking everyday and the lack of chromosome X or Y, as well as coffee drinking 1-6 times per week and additional chromosome 18. Wearing boxer shorts decrease the copy number changes in the whole chromosome 18, the number of additional chromosome 18 and the lack of chromosome 13. Additionally, obesity (BMI 30-40 kg/m²) was positively associated with additional chromosome 21 after being adjusted for potential confounders. These findings demonstrate that changing the men's lifestyle habits may contribute to reduction of the incidence of sperm aneuploidy. It is necessary that men continue to follow sensible health advice concerning excess weight, coffee drinking and wearing tight fitting underwear. As this is the first such study to examine different lifestyle factors and sperm aneuploidy, the results need to be confirmed on larger population.

  17. [Lifestyle and health].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K

    2000-01-01

    The total environments to which individuals have been exposed throughout the lifestages from birth to the present time have been composing the individual and community lifestyles. Such lifestyles are known to determine the risks for developments of cancers, circulatory diseases, and other chronic diseases. To establish new theory and practice programs for disease prevention and health promotion in the environmental and preventive medicine, we have quantitatively investigated correlations of lifestyles, or ways of daily living, to comprehensive health potentials in the cohort of industrial workers. The total lifestyles were evaluated by the originally-designed 8 health-practices such as smoking, alcohol-drinking, physical exercise, and working and sleeping patterns. The data indicate that individuals having good lifestyles showed much younger health ages calculated based on the health-check-up data, and lower risks for developing lifestyle-related diseases than those with poor lifestyles. The physical health potentials were assessed by the biomarker-measurements such as lymphocyte chromosome-DNA alterations, natural-killer activities and serum IgE levels. The psycho-mental health potentials were evaluated by both the quality-of-life-related questionnaires and the stress-related hormonal and cytokine levels such as cortisol and interleukines. The comprehensive health potentials have been shown to be significantly lower in poor-lifestyle people than in good-lifestyle ones. The changes in poor to good lifestyles through health education and learning were also shown to result in promotion of such health potentials.

  18. Effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle support on the development of diabetes in participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes: J-DOIT1, a pragmatic cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sano, Yoshiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Okazaki, Kentaro; Sato, Juichi; Suzuki, Sadao; Morita, Satoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Izumi, Kazuo; Kato, Masayuki; Ishizuka, Naoki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle coaching on preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting 40 groups from 17 healthcare divisions in Japan: companies (31), communities (6) and mixed settings (3). Participants Participants aged 20–65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were invited from the 17 healthcare divisions. Randomisation The groups were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control arm by independent statisticians according to a computer-generated list. Intervention The intervention arm received a 1-year telephone-delivered intervention provided by three private lifestyle support centres (at different frequencies: low-frequency (3 times), middle-frequency (6 times) and high-frequency (10 times) support calls). The intervention and control arms both received self-help devices such as a weight scale and pedometer. Outcomes Participants were followed up using data from annual health check-ups and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome was the development of T2DM defined as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, the diagnosis of diabetes, or use of an antidiabetic drug, confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Of 14 473 screened individuals, participants were enrolled in either the intervention (n=1240) arm or control (n=1367) arm. Overall, the HR for the development of T2DM in the intervention arm during 5.5 years was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). In the subanalysis, the HR was 0.59 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) in the subgroup that received phone calls the most frequently, compared with the control arm. A limitation of the study includes a lack of blinding. Conclusions High-frequency telephone-delivered lifestyle support could effectively prevent T2DM in participants with IFG in a primary healthcare setting, although low-frequency and middle-frequency phone calls did not. Trial

  19. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  20. Morphological and nanomechanical behavior of supported lipid bilayers on addition of cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lia M C; Giannotti, Marina I; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Sanz, Fausto

    2013-07-30

    The addition of surfactants to lipid bilayers is important for the modulation of lipid bilayer properties (e.g., in protein reconstitution and development of nonviral gene delivery vehicles) and to provide insight on the properties of natural biomembranes. In this work, the thermal behavior, organization, and nanomechanical stability of model cationic lipid-surfactant bilayers have been investigated. Two different cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and a novel derivative of the amino acid serine (Ser16TFAc), have been added (up to 50 mol %) to both liposomes and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) composed by the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. The thermal phase behavior of mixed liposomes has been probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the morphology and nanomechanical properties of mixed SLBs by atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS). Although DSC thermograms show different results for the two mixed liposomes, when both are deposited on mica substrates similar trends on the morphology and the mechanical response of the lipid-surfactant bilayers are observed. DSC thermograms indicate microdomain formation in both systems, but while CTAB decreases the degree of organization on the liposome bilayer, Ser16TFAc ultimately induces the opposite effect. Regarding the AFM-FS studies, they show that microphase segregation occurs for these systems and that the effect is dependent on the surfactant content. In both SLB systems, different microdomains characterized by their height and breakthrough force Fb are formed. The molecular organization and composition is critically discussed in the light of our experimental results and literature data on similar lipid-surfactant systems. PMID:23782267

  1. Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Rua, F; Lorino, H; Lemaire, F; Harf, A

    1991-11-01

    Breathing through an endotracheal tube and a demand valve may increase the work performed by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure support (PS) is known to reduce this work and might therefore compensate for this increased requirement. To test this hypothesis, we measured the work of breathing (WOB) in 11 patients whose tracheas were intubated. Five had no intrinsic lung disease, but six had chronic obstructive lung disease. We compared WOB measurements taken under several sets of conditions: during assisted breathing at four levels of PS, during unassisted breathing and connection to a T-piece, and after extubation of the trachea. During unassisted breathing via the ventilator circuit (PS set at 0 cmH20), the WOB per minute was greater than that after extubation, with a mean increase (+/- standard deviation) of 68 +/- 38% (10.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.01). While breathing through the T-piece, the WOB was 27 +/- 18% greater than after tracheal extubation (8.2 +/- 5.1 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.7 J.min-1, P less than 0.05). The principal reason why inspiratory work decreased after extubation was that the ventilatory requirement decreased. For each patient, we determined retrospectively, after extubation, the level of PS that had reduced WOB to its postextubation value and obtained levels ranging from 3.4 to 14.4 cmH2O. The PS level at which additional WOB was compensated for, was greater in patients with chronic lung disease than in those free of lung disease (12.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 5.7 +/- 1.5 cm H2O, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  3. How Good Are We at Implementing the Additional Support for Learning Act? How Good Can We Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…

  4. Lifestyle and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    2011-07-01

    Lifestyle factors, in particular dietary intake, have been recognized as important, modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Consuming a heart-healthy diet lowers the individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. Data on the relationship between lifestyle and atrial fibrillation are controversial; however, the strong association between obesity, atrial/ventricular dysfunction and a nonhealthy lifestyle and atrial fibrillation, suggests that a correction of nutritional habits could prevent the development of arrhythmias through a reduction of underlying cardiac diseases. Today, the Mediterranean diet is considered one of the most effective in terms of its prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  5. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  6. Lifestyle strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2014-10-01

    Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower the risk of CVD. These strategies also play important roles in avoiding ever developing risk factors. Despite overwhelming knowledge in this area, adherence to lifestyle strategies remains suboptimal. Challenges remain in helping the public to act upon the current knowledge in this area. Recent guidelines for managing cholesterol and blood pressure provide new guidance in these areas. Controversy, however, exists related to specific recommendations in both of these areas. Similar strategies that are applied to adults for improving lifestyle habits and practices to lower CVD risk also apply to children and adolescents. A clear consensus exists that lifestyle strategies play a critical role in preventing, managing, and reducing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

  7. Macrocyclic cyclooctene-supported AlCl-salen catalysts for conjugated addition reactions: effect of linker and support structure on catalysis.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Nandita; Takatani, Tait; Sherrill, C David; Weck, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    AlCl-salen (salen=N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine dianion) catalysts supported onto macrocyclic oligomeric cyclooctene through linkers of varying length and flexibility have been developed to demonstrate the importance of support architecture on catalyst activity. The role played by the support and the linkers in dictating catalyst activity was found to vary for reactions with contrasting mechanisms, such as the bimetallic cyanide and the monometallic indole addition reactions. While the flexible support significantly enhanced the cyanide addition reaction, most likely by improving salen-salen interactions in the transition state, it lowered the reaction rate for the monometallic indole reaction. For both reactions, significant increase in catalytic activity was observed for catalysts with the longest linkers. The effect of the flexible macrocyclic support on catalysis was further exemplified by the enhanced activity of the supported catalyst in comparison with its unsupported analogue for the conjugate addition of tetrazoles, which is known to be catalyzed by dimeric mu-oxo-salen catalysts. Our studies with the cyclooctene supported AlCl-salen catalysts provides significant insights for rationally designing highly efficient AlCl-salen catalysts for a diverse set of reactions.

  8. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  9. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  10. Effectiveness of a mHealth Lifestyle Program With Telephone Support (TXT2BFiT) to Prevent Unhealthy Weight Gain in Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Hebden, Lana; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight gained in young adulthood often persists throughout later life with associated chronic disease risk. Despite this, current population prevention strategies are not specifically designed for young adults. Objective We designed and assessed the efficacy of an mHealth prevention program, TXT2BFiT, in preventing excess weight gain and improving dietary and physical activity behaviors in young adults at increased risk of obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Methods A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects and analyzing researchers were blinded. A total of 250 18- to 35-year-olds with a high risk of weight gain, a body mass index (BMI) of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 with at least 2 kg of weight gain in the previous 12 months, or a BMI of 25.0 to 31.9 kg/m2 were randomized to the intervention or control group. In the 12-week intervention period, the intervention group received 8 text messages weekly based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, 1 email weekly, 5 personalized coaching calls, a diet booklet, and access to resources and mobile phone apps on a website. Control group participants received only 4 text messages and printed dietary and physical activity guidelines. Measured body weight and height were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed via online surveys at baseline and at 12 weeks, including self-reported weight and dietary and physical activity measures. Results A total of 214 participants—110 intervention and 104 control—completed the 12-week intervention period. A total of 10 participants out of 250 (4.0%)—10 intervention and 0 control—dropped out, and 26 participants (10.4%)—5 intervention and 21 control—did not complete postintervention online surveys. Adherence to coaching calls and delivery of text messages was over 90%. At 12 weeks, the intervention group were 2.2 kg (95% CI 0.8-3.6) lighter than controls (P=.005). Intervention participants consumed more

  11. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  12. Stabilization of solid-supported phospholipid multilayer against water by gramicidin addition.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Bae; Kim, Yongdeok; An, Hyeun Hwan; Kim, Hee-Soo; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2014-03-20

    It was demonstrated that hydrophobicity of solid supported planar dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) phospholipid multilayer can be greatly increased by incorporating a transmembrane protein, gramicidin, into the DPPC membrane. The contact angle of deionized water droplet on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane increased from 0° (complete wetting) without gramicidin to 55° after adding 15 mol % gramicidin. The increased hydrophobicity of the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane allowed the membrane to remain stable at the air/water interface as well as underwater. The Au nanoparticles deposited on the gramicidin-modified DPPC membrane reproduced the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak after being kept underwater or in phosphate-buffered saline solution for 5 days, attesting to the membrane stability in an aqueous environment. The enhanced underwater stability of the lipid multilayer substantially broadens the potential application of the lipid multilayer which includes biosensing, enzymatic fuel cell, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate.

  13. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  14. 24 CFR 906.41 - Additional supporting documentation for acquisition of non-public housing for homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional supporting documentation... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC...

  15. Lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clissold, T L; Hopkins, W G; Seddon, R J

    1991-03-27

    Lifestyle behaviours of 183 women before and during pregnancy were investigated by retrospective questionnaire in the first few days postpartum. The threshold of cigarette smoking for a reduction in birth weight was exceeded at full term by 17% of the women, but only 1% exceeded a similar threshold for alcohol consumption. Consumption below the recommended minimum level for one or more major food groups was reported by 35% of the women during pregnancy. Only 36% of the women were vigorously active before pregnancy, and only 13% remained so throughout pregnancy. Level of education was a significant predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviours. Concern for their baby's and their own health were the main reasons given for change in behaviour during pregnancy, while doctor's advice and antenatal classes were cited infrequently. A new approach to lifestyle enhancement by health professionals might promote desirable changes in relation to smoking and possibly also food consumption and physical activity.

  16. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  17. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  18. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  19. Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1(J-DOIT1), a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach. The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. Methods For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in

  20. Lifestyle, Nutrition and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Kang, Jae Hee

    2009-01-01

    The only proven strategy to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the use of ocular hypotensive therapy among people diagnosed with ocular hypertension. In this review, various modifiable lifestyle factors, such as exercise, diet and cigarette smoking, that may influence intraocular pressure and that have been studied in relation to the risk of developing POAG are discussed. Epidemiologic studies on lifestyle factors are few, and the current evidence suggests that there are no environmental factors that are clearly associated with POAG; however, a few factors merit further study. This review also outlines future directions for research into the primary prevention of POAG. PMID:19680048

  1. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  2. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed. PMID:26411443

  3. Health lifestyle theory and the convergence of agency and structure.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C

    2005-03-01

    This article utilizes the agency-structure debate as a framework for constructing a health lifestyle theory. No such theory currently exists, yet the need for one is underscored by the fact that many daily lifestyle practices involve considerations of health outcomes. An individualist paradigm has influenced concepts of health lifestyles in several disciplines, but this approach neglects the structural dimensions of such lifestyles and has limited applicability to the empirical world. The direction of this article is to present a theory of health lifestyles that includes considerations of both agency and structure, with an emphasis upon restoring structure to its appropriate position. The article begins by defining agency and structure, followed by presentation of a health lifestyle model and the theoretical and empirical studies that support it.

  4. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  5. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  6. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  7. Life-style intervention: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Jordan-Marsh, M; Gilbert, J; Ford, J D; Kleeman, C

    1984-01-01

    Improving one's life-style may improve one's health. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to promote compliance with newly adopted health habits. This paper presents a conceptual framework that individuals can learn to assess their life-styles and plan for health-behavior changes. It can also be used by professionals from different disciplines who are developing programs to teach healthy life-style choices. The framework is organized into three ideas: (1) Health status to a large extent reflects the individual's styles of living (a composite of beliefs, emotions, and action patterns). (2) These styles can be encouraged or sabotaged by the individual's support structures (relationships, environments, and equipment). (3) The change process can be seen as a series of steps that cycle through phases of readiness appraisal, decision making, experimentation, and reevaluation. clinical examples and documentation from relevant theory and research illustrate and substantiate the framework.

  8. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  9. Survivorship: healthy lifestyles, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed.

  10. Promoting healthy lifestyles with aging: development and validation of the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP) using the Rasch measurement model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and validate the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a self-report measure for examining various aspects of health-related lifestyle in older adults. Data derived from 253 community-dwelling older adults were analyzed through the Rasch measurement model. Unidimensionality and data-model fit of HELP were largely supported through the analyses of principal components of residuals, fit statistics, local dependency, and differential item functioning. The item hierarchy formed through logits provided an expected pattern of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Acceptable to good person separation and reliability statistics supported the clinical applicability and consistency of the HELP scores. Finally, analysis of the rating scale structure confirmed the functioning of the 0- to 5-point rating scale used. HELP can assist in monitoring lifestyle risk factors and measuring the outcome of services aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles among older adults.

  11. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  12. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  13. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  14. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  15. [Lifestyle and climate change].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2009-10-26

    The majority of physicians are aware of the urgency of preventing major global warming, and of the global health consequences such warming could bring. Therefore, we should perhaps be more motivated to mitigate these climate changes. The Danish Medical Association should stress the importance of preventing major global climate health disasters, and the need for ambitious international reduction agreements. In our advice and treatment of patients, focus could be on mutually shared strategies comprising mitigation of global warming and changing of life-style habits to improve our general health.

  16. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-08-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise.

  17. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  18. Regulating alternative lifestyles in entomopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason M; Kontnik, Renee; Clardy, Jon

    2010-01-12

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus participate in a trilateral symbiosis in which they enable their nematode hosts to parasitize insect larvae. The bacteria switch from persisting peacefully in a nematode's digestive tract to a lifestyle in which pathways to produce insecticidal toxins, degrading enzymes to digest the insect for consumption, and antibiotics to ward off bacterial and fungal competitors are activated. This study addresses three questions: (1) What molecular signal triggers antibiotic production in the bacteria? (2) What small molecules are regulated by the signal? And (3), how do the bacteria recognize the signal? Differential metabolomic profiling in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and Xenorhabdus nematophila revealed that L-proline in the insect's hemolymph initiates a metabolic shift. Small molecules known to be crucial for virulence and antibiosis in addition to previously unknown metabolites are dramatically upregulated by L-proline, linking the recognition of host environment to bacterial metabolic regulation. To identify the L-proline-induced signaling pathway, we deleted the proline transporters putP and proU in P. luminescens TT01. Studies of these strains support a model in which acquisition of L-proline both regulates the metabolic shift and maintains the bacterial proton motive force that ultimately regulates the downstream bacterial pathways affecting virulence and antibiotic production. PMID:20022247

  19. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Anđić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on α-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.

  20. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's own…

  1. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  2. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  3. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  4. Physiology in Medicine: update on lifestyle determinants of postprandial triacylglycerolemia with emphasis on the Mediterranean lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Maria I; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-09-01

    This review updates the effect of lifestyle on plasma triacylglycerols (TAG) in the postprandial state, commonly reported as postprandial lipemia (PPL), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Numerous studies have shown that Mediterranean diet may reduce PPL. However, most of these studies were focused on the type of fat (i.e., monounsaturated fat from olive oil), and the other components of the Mediterranean lifestyle were neglected. Physical activity, an integral part of this lifestyle, is widely investigated on its own and shown to reduce PPL. In addition, preliminary results of studies examining other Mediterranean "ingredients", such as legumes, fish, and herbs, showed additional benefits; however, data on the long-term effects are limited. More studies are needed to confirm short-term results and investigate the effects of the whole Mediterranean lifestyle on PPL and whether these effects mediate its protective role on CVD. Moreover, investigation of the effects in nonhealthy populations and the underlying mechanisms would be clinically helpful in individualizing the appropriate intervention. PMID:26152767

  5. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  6. Adolescent Report of Lifestyle Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Alyssa I.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Perrin, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Physician counseling on lifestyle factors has been recommended as one way to help combat the obesity epidemic in the United States. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of lifestyle counseling among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and determine the contributions of adolescent weight and physical activity. Methods: Self-reported surveys on dietary and physical activity counseling, along with measured height, weight, and physical activity data by accelerometry were collected on 76 adolescents ages 11–14 years. General linear models tested for associations of reported lifestyle counseling by weight category, adjusting for physical activity, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education. Results: Half (47%) of the subjects were overweight or obese. Frequency of lifestyle counseling varied by weight category, with obese adolescents reporting greater amounts of lifestyle counseling across all topics than their peers. Obese adolescents received more dietary (β=0.88; standard error [SE]=0.25; p=0.001) and physical activity (β=0.80; SE=0.28; p=0.006) counseling than healthy weight youth, as well as being told to increase their physical activity more often (β=0.96; SE=0.29; p=0.001). There were no differences in lifestyle counseling between overweight and healthy weight subjects. Adolescents with greater daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reported less physical activity counseling (β=–0.02; SE=0.008; p=0.05). Conclusions: Despite universal recommendations to counsel adolescents on lifestyle, only obese adolescents consistently report receiving such counseling. Given known difficulties in reversing obesity after onset, efforts should ensure that all adolescents receive lifestyle counseling. PMID:24617855

  7. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  8. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  9. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  10. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  11. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  12. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  13. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  14. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  15. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  16. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-05-30

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.

  17. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  18. Patient preference compared with random allocation in short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy with indicated addition of pharmacotherapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Van, Henricus L; Dekker, Jack; Koelen, Jurrijn; Kool, Simone; van Aalst, Gerda; Hendriksen, Marielle; Peen, Jaap; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Depressed patients randomized to psychotherapy were compared with those who had been chosen for psychotherapy in a treatment algorithm, including addition of an antidepressant in case of early nonresponse. There were no differences between randomized and by-preference patients at baseline in adherence and outcome. About half of the early nonresponders refused the additional medication. However, no clear effect of medication addition on ultimate outcome could be demonstrated. In total, 37% of the patients achieved remission. The study suggested that randomization of patients does not induce a great influence on outcome. It might be warranted to continue an initially ineffective psychotherapy for depression, because a considerable number of patients do have a pattern of delayed response.

  19. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry. PMID:25154133

  20. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Molecular and Merrifield supported chiral diamines for enantioselective addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to ketones.

    PubMed

    Calvillo-Barahona, Mercedes; Cordovilla, Carlos; Genov, Miroslav N; Martínez-Ilarduya, Jesús M; Espinet, Pablo

    2013-10-28

    Chiral 1,2-ethylenediamines have been previously reported as active catalysts in the enantioselective addition reactions of ZnR2 to either methyl- or trifluoromethyl-ketones. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of different catalysts are described herein and lead to a dramatic effect in their catalytic activity. From these findings, we demonstrate the selective reactivity of the ligands used in the addition of ZnR2 (R = Me, Et) to methyl- and trifluoromethyl-ketones offering an enantioselective access either to chiral non-fluorinated alcohols or to chiral fluorinated tertiary alcohols. Considering the importance of the chiral trifluoromethyl carbinol fragment in several biologically active compounds, we have extended the scope of the addition reaction of ZnEt2 to several trifluoromethylketones catalyzed by (R,R)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives. This work explores a homogeneous approach that provides excellent yields and very high ee and the use of a heterogenized tail-tied ligand affording moderate ee, high yields and allowing an easier handling and recycling.

  2. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  3. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  4. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  5. Relationships between lifestyle factors and neutrophil functions in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Machida, Kazuhiko; Saiki, Chinatsu; Murayama, Rumiko; Sugita, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between neutrophil functions and lifestyle factors in the elderly. The subjects (84 males, 73.9+/-5.8 years old; and 63 females, 70.0+/-4.6 years old) belonged to a recreational seniors club in Japan. Investigations of the subjects' stress, exercise habits, smoking habits, and alcohol-drinking habits were performed. The phagocytosis and superoxide productivity of the neutrophils were measured with a nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test. In addition, leukocyte counts and serum total protein (TP) levels were determined. The results revealed that aging, high serum levels, and stress-coping factors (e.g., having hobbies, keeping pets, and close links with friends or family) significantly correlated with preferable neutrophil functions. In addition, significant effects of lifestyle factors on the balance between phagocytosis and subsequent superoxide production were observed. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that there are correlations between neutrophil functions and lifestyle factors in the elderly. PMID:12357457

  6. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  7. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  8. Identifying Molecular Targets of Lifestyle Modifications in Colon Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Molly M.; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; approximately 20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that could influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals. PMID:23675573

  9. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... is possible. By committing to and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, some people are able to reverse their pre- ... can avoid many diabetes complications by adopting a healthy lifestyle. How much can be avoided usually depends on ...

  10. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  11. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    PubMed

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (<1year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  12. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  13. The role of lifestyle modification in dysmetabolic syndrome management.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle modification should be the primary therapeutic intervention in individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome, given the fact that obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are primary underlying risk factors for its development. Most individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome need to lose weight through dietary changes and increases in physical activity. Modest weight losses may significantly improve all aspects of the syndrome. Because individuals differ in their lifestyles, tailoring interventions to meet the specific needs of each person will maximize the chances of success. Assessment of the individual with the dysmetabolic syndrome involves quantification of obesity, diets and dietary patterns, physical activity, emotional problems, and motivation. To help individuals make lifestyle changes, a number of behavior modification strategies have shown good efficacy. These strategies include a tailored problem-solving intervention, involving goal-setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, relapse prevention, social support, and contracting. The frequency of self-monitoring is an especially important strategy for continued success. Research studies have clearly demonstrated the power of lifestyle modification for long-term behavioral change. Lifestyle modification appears effective in delaying or preventing the development of the dysmetabolic syndrome.

  14. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. PMID:27401481

  15. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  16. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  17. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  18. Cognitive reserve and lifestyle: moving towards preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Wirth, Miranka; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    The large majority of neuroimaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients have supported the idea that lifestyle factors may protect against the clinical manifestations of AD rather than influence AD neuropathological processes (the cognitive reserve hypothesis). This evidence argues in favor of the hypothesis that lifestyle factors act as moderators between AD pathology and cognition, i.e., through indirect compensatory mechanisms. In this review, we identify emerging evidence in cognitively normal older adults that relate lifestyle factors to established AD neuroimaging biomarkers. While some of these investigations are in agreement with the compensatory view of cognitive reserve, other studies have revealed new clues on the neural mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of lifestyle factors on the brain. Specifically, they provide novel evidence suggesting direct effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes. We propose a tentative theoretical model where lifestyle factors may act via direct neuroprotective and/or indirect compensatory mechanisms. Importantly, we suggest that neuroprotective mechanisms may have a major role during early stages and compensatory mechanisms in later stages of the disease. In the absence of an effective treatment for AD and considering the potential of lifestyle factors in AD prevention, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying lifestyle effects on the brain seems crucial. We hope to provide an integrative view that may help to better understand the complex effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes, starting from the preclinical stage. PMID:26321944

  19. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  20. Microbial Lifestyle and Genome Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Chitra; Paul, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Microbes are known for their unique ability to adapt to varying lifestyle and environment, even to the extreme or adverse ones. The genomic architecture of a microbe may bear the signatures not only of its phylogenetic position, but also of the kind of lifestyle to which it is adapted. The present review aims to provide an account of the specific genome signatures observed in microbes acclimatized to distinct lifestyles or ecological niches. Niche-specific signatures identified at different levels of microbial genome organization like base composition, GC-skew, purine-pyrimidine ratio, dinucleotide abundance, codon bias, oligonucleotide composition etc. have been discussed. Among the specific cases highlighted in the review are the phenomena of genome shrinkage in obligatory host-restricted microbes, genome expansion in strictly intra-amoebal pathogens, strand-specific codon usage in intracellular species, acquisition of genome islands in pathogenic or symbiotic organisms, discriminatory genomic traits of marine microbes with distinct trophic strategies, and conspicuous sequence features of certain extremophiles like those adapted to high temperature or high salinity. PMID:23024607

  1. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  2. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bidirectional relationship between lifestyle-related diseases and bone metabolism].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Takeda, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension were previously considered to be unrelated to osteoporosis. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that lifestyle-related diseases have a significant effect on the regulation of bone metabolism. In addition, it has been also revealed that osteocalcin or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) , which is produced by osteoblasts, has an important role in glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, or calcium homeostasis. These findings suggest that bone is not only a target organ of hormones but also involved in regulating other organs as an endocrine organ. This review introduces such a bidirectional relationship between several lifestyle-related diseases and bone metabolism. PMID:25355142

  3. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bidirectional relationship between lifestyle-related diseases and bone metabolism].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Takeda, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension were previously considered to be unrelated to osteoporosis. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that lifestyle-related diseases have a significant effect on the regulation of bone metabolism. In addition, it has been also revealed that osteocalcin or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) , which is produced by osteoblasts, has an important role in glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, or calcium homeostasis. These findings suggest that bone is not only a target organ of hormones but also involved in regulating other organs as an endocrine organ. This review introduces such a bidirectional relationship between several lifestyle-related diseases and bone metabolism.

  4. Associations of scores on the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory and the Kern Lifestyle Scale.

    PubMed

    White, J; Campbell, L; Stewart, A

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the relations among psychological birth order, actual birth order, and lifestyle. The study also further examined the convergent validity of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory. This inventory and Kern's Lifestyle Scale were administered to 126 individuals in a southeastern urban university. The several analyses of variance and canonical correlation analysis (1) supported a stronger relationship between psychological birth order and lifestyle than between actual birth order and lifestyle, (2) identified differential relationships between particular birth-order positions and lifestyle scales that were predicted and in accord with Adlerian theory, and (3) further supported the validity of the inventory. The results reaffirmed the lifestyle pattern and birth-order characterizations of Adlerian theory.

  5. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  6. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Azza; Kilani, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB). Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time) was self-reported using the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR) total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population. PMID:26052460

  7. Anorexia Nervosa: A Lifestyle Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves

    1983-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a real lifestyle disorder. The apparent increase in frequency has been linked to the change of position of women in society. If families have an important role to play in the maintenance of the drama, they also hold the key to its resolution. The family physician in early contact with the anorectic patient is in an important position to involve the family in therapy and maximize the chances of recovery. The steps required are reframing, preparing the family involved for family therapy, exploring the benefits of change, and follow up. Imagesp555-a PMID:21283351

  8. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  9. [Insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Naohisa

    2012-07-01

    As both insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with a variety of underlying factors, they have been considered to occur as a complication of each other. Moreover, evidence has been presented in recent studies that they are closely related to each other as risks of development and exacerbation. As unhealthy lifestyle-habits have long been recognized to increase the risks of lifestyle-related diseases and their worsening, it is natural that sleep, which takes up one third of a person's life, is markedly associated with disorders such as hypertension and diabetes. It is important to provide interventions for insomnia and other sleep disorders based on the same viewpoint as for lifestyle-related diseases, and understand that lifestyle advice, including sleep hygiene, and drug treatment with sleeping pills are also effective for the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases themselves. PMID:22844789

  10. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  11. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J; Focht, Brian C; Taylor, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA) is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality). Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1) what is OA?, 2) effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principles for OA patients, 3) goal-setting and barriers, and 4) translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora of assessments and cognitive therapy topics that could be utilized in the care strategy that we are promoting, but the present topics were selected for their low clinician and patient burden and promising results in trials with OA patients. Clinicians who are comfortable and knowledgeable about a

  12. Gender differences in health-promoting lifestyles of African Americans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rolanda L

    2005-01-01

    Despite progress in meeting Healthy People 2010 goals, African American (AA) men and women have higher mortality and morbidity rates as compared with Caucasian Americans. These may be attributed to lifestyle behaviors; however, this is a complex, multifactorial problem. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences among AA lifestyle behaviors. A descriptive comparative design was used. The sample consisted of 223 AAs residing in southeastern United States. The health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) was used to measure health-promoting behaviors. Independent t-test analysis revealed no statistically significant gender differences for total HPLP scores, t(220) = -1.49, p = 0.14. When controlling for income, education, and marital status, no significant interactions were seen with gender on HPLP. Independent t-test analyses revealed statistically significant differences for interpersonal relationship support, t(221) = -1.97, p = 0.05, health responsibility, t(214) = -2.46, p = 0.02, and nutrition t(219) = -3.27, p < 0.01, with women scoring higher than men. Although gender differences in AAs are evident for specific health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, these differences become less dominant when education and marital status were used as covariates.

  13. Automated lifestyle coaching for cerebro-cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Spassova, Lübomira; Vittore, Debora; Droste, Dirk; Rösch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    As soon as telemedicine aims at supporting the prevention of ischemic events (e.g., stroke and myocardial infarction), the mere monitoring of vital parameters is not sufficient. Instead, the patients should be supported in their efforts to actively reduce their individual risk factors and to achieve and maintain a healthier lifestyle. The Luxembourg-based CAPSYS project (Computer-Aided Prevention System) aims at combining the advantages of telephone coaching with those of home telemonitoring and with methods of computer-aided decision support in direct contact with the patients. The suitability and user acceptance of the system is currently being evaluated in a first pilot study.

  14. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Jürgen; Schorr, Heike; Bodis, Marion; Isber, Sonia; Hübner, Ulrich; Knapp, Jean-Pierre; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 than omnivores do. Vitamin B12 deficiency (holotranscobalamin II <35 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid >271 nmol/L) was found in 58% of 71 vegetarians studied. Higher homocysteine levels (>12 micromol/L) found in 45% indicate disturbed remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. The methylation of DNA is strongly linked to homocysteine metabolism. Since DNA methylation is an important epigenetic factor in the regulation of gene expression, alteration of the methylation pattern has been associated with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Three observations indicate that DNA methylation could be diminished by a vegetarian lifestyle. The vegetarian diet has a low content of methionine, remethylation of homocysteine is reduced by vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels can induce the generation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. In our study we observed a significant correlation between SAH and whole-genome methylation (r=-0.36, p<0.01). This observation underlines the role of SAH as a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. The methylation status was not correlated with homocysteine or S-adenosylemethionine (SAM). These results indicate that the degree of methylation does not depend on the supply of methyl groups and that the reverse generation of SAH has no influence. In addition to whole-genome methylation, the specific promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene was studied. However, the latter did not correlate with SAH, SAM or homocysteine. Obviously, the promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene is controlled in a specific way, without following the general regulating influence of SAH. In conclusion, an inhibitory effect of SAH on whole-genome methylation was found, but from our data no interaction between vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation could be determined.

  15. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. PMID:26859253

  16. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging. PMID:26971802

  17. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging.

  18. Model development of healthy-lifestyle behaviors for rural Muslim Indonesians with hypertension: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Mayumi; Tashiro, Junko; Maftuhah; Sugiarto, Heri; Yulaikhah, Lily; Carbun, Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a significant health issue in Indonesia. Health professionals in a rural district of West Java identified hypertension as a priority health issue. In this study, we describe healthy-lifestyle behaviors as perceived by the district's middle-aged Muslims with hypertension. A qualitative case-study design was used. Twelve married couples, directly or indirectly impacted by hypertension, and who visited community health centers, were purposively recruited. Semistructured interviews provided data that were systematically analyzed for categories and subcategories. Categories of healthy-lifestyle behaviors currently practiced were eating behavior, physical activity, resting, not smoking, managing stress, seeking health information, seeking health care, caring other people, and fulfilling an obligation to God. Categories of reasons for practicing healthy-lifestyle behaviors were behavioral beliefs, competence, religious support, prior experience, social support, and health system support. Categories for not practicing healthy-lifestyle behaviors were personal, social, and environmental barriers. To achieve healthy-lifestyle behavior changes, it is essential for rural middle-aged Muslim individuals to be supported by reinforcing their positive reasons and to address their negative reasons to practice healthy-lifestyle behaviors. PMID:26248167

  19. Qatari women living with cardiovascular diseases-challenges and opportunities to engage in healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al Enazi, Noora Rashid; Idris, Zeinab; Albulushi, Asma Mohammad; Yassin, Khadra; Rehman, Asma Mohammad; Hassan, Asma Hassan Abu

    2012-01-01

    In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented and controlled by modifying lifestyle risk behaviors. In this qualitative study, we investigate ways to increase participation in physical activity, and to promote a healthy diet, and nonsmoking behavior in Qatari women. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 50 Arabic women. Participation in physical activity, observing a healthy diet, and abstinence from smoking are desirable lifestyle practices among Qatari women. Social support networks, cultural values, religion, changing sociodemographic and economic conditions, heart disease, and a harsh climate affect the ability of these women to pursue a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23153347

  20. Therapeutic Interventions with the Lifestyle Criminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; White, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines assessment, intervention, and follow-up phases of treatment process with lifestyle criminals. Recognizes that every therapeutic relationship is unique and should take into account individual characteristics of therapist, criminal, and environment. Subdivides assessment and intervention phases to reflect importance of lifestyle analysis,…

  1. Social Influence and Adolescent Lifestyle Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harton, Helen C.; Latane, Bibb

    1997-01-01

    Examined fourth through eighth graders' lifestyle attitudes and sociometric status in a two-year panel study. Found that approval of healthy and deviant mature lifestyle attitudes increased linearly with grade. Boys approved of activities more than girls did, but by eighth grade, gender differences had almost disappeared. More mature attitudes…

  2. Effects of additional iron-chelators on Fe(2+)-initiated lipid peroxidation: evidence to support the Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex as the initiator.

    PubMed

    Tang, L X; Yang, J L; Shen, X

    1997-12-01

    The addition of chelated Fe2+ ions in a liposomal system often results in a short lag period before peroxidation starts. The addition of a second chelator at the end of the lag period results in an inhibition of the lipid peroxidation. The degree of inhibition depends on the stability constants of the chelator in ligating Fe2+ and/or Fe3+. A more striking inhibitory effect was observed for the chelators with higher stability constant for either or both Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-complex, but much less inhibition was found for those with lower stability constants for both complexes. Assuming that the "initiator" for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation is formed through the redox process of iron ion and finally emerged at the end of the latent period, the inhibitory effect of the second chelator may be explained as the abstraction of either Fe2+ or Fe3+ from the initiator by an additional free chelator, which results in the decomposition of the initiator. This study supports the hypothesis that a Fe2+ ... Fe3+ complex is responsible for iron-initiated lipid peroxidation. PMID:9397574

  3. A lifestyle intervention supported by mobile health technologies to improve the cardiometabolic risk profile of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: study rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that greatly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise improves the risk profile, but most people do not successfully change their exercise habits to beneficially reduce risk. Tailored exercise prescribed by a family physician has shown promise as a means to increase fitness and reduce cardiometabolic risk, but optimal implementation practices remain unknown. Mobile health technologies have proved to be a beneficial tool to achieve blood pressure and blood glucose control in patients with diabetes. These technologies may address the limited access to health interventions in rural and remote regions. However, the potential as a tool to support exercise-based prevention activities is not well understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a tailored exercise prescription alone or supported by mobile health technologies to improve metabolic syndrome and related cardiometabolic risk factors in rural community-dwelling adults at risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods/Design Adults (n = 149) with at least two metabolic syndrome risk factors were recruited from rural communities and randomized to either: 1) an intervention group receiving an exercise prescription and devices for monitoring of risk factors with a smartphone data portal equipped with a mobile health application; or 2) an active control group receiving only an exercise prescription. All participants reported to the research centre at baseline, and at 12-, 24- and 52-week follow-up visits for measurement of anthropometrics and blood pressure and for a blood draw to test blood-borne markers of cardiometabolic health. Vascular and autonomic function were examined. Fitness was assessed and exercise prescribed according to the Step Test and Exercise Prescription protocol. Discussion This study tested the effects of a prescriptive exercise

  4. Feasibility, Preliminary Efficacy, and Lessons Learned From a Garden-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Spees, Colleen K.; Hill, Emily B.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Buell, Jackie L.; White, Susan E.; Kleinhenz, Matthew D.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors remain at increased risk for secondary malignancies, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and physical activity, are strongly linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease and improved health outcomes, yet a paucity of research has been conducted in this vulnerable population. Methods Adult cancer survivors were recruited to participate in Growing Hope, an experimental single-group study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven and evidence-based intervention. For 4 months, 22 participants received group and individual education and had access to harvesting fresh produce at an urban garden. Data on program satisfaction, compliance, diet, and physical activity were collected via surveys; anthropometrics, blood values, and skin carotenoids were objectively measured. Results The intervention resulted in significant improvements in consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .003), decreased consumption of red and processed meats (P = .030) and sugar-sweetened beverages (P = .020). Levels of skin carotenoids, fasting blood glucose, and non–high density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly improved (P = .011, P = .043, and P = .05, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study support the feasibility and efficacy of a multifaceted, garden-based intervention for cancer survivors. In addition, these preliminary results demonstrate a positive impact aligning with the current lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivorship. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to define impact on sustained health outcomes. PMID:27556671

  5. Management of pediatric obesity: a lifestyle modification approach.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shamita; Burton, Amy; Oden, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Over the last decades, pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic with worldwide estimates as high as 43 million children and adolescents affected, and this number is rising at an exponential rate. With pediatric obesity comes a host of co-morbidities including impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired liver function. Treatment of this population has proven to be challenging for many reasons. For patients, a new baseline exists consisting of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as a lack of availability of affordable healthy alternatives. In addition, there is an overwhelming presence of energy-dense foods. For physicians, there are many issues including lack of time, training, and reimbursement. The most efficacious and reliable way to treat this population and its co-morbidities is with a healthy, balanced lifestyle consisting of a realistic diet plan and exercise regimen. The is the cornerstone of therapy in the Center for Obesity And its Complications in Health (COACH) clinic which is Children's Medical Center's (Dallas, TX) strategy to combat and treat pediatric overweight and obesity. Lifestyle changes of diet and exercise plans are tailored to each individual's interests and metabolic needs in COACH which is a multi-disciplinary clinic. Additionally, co-morbidities are screened for and treated aggressively to help prevent long-term complications of overweight and obesity. If others do similar interventions in their communities, this global epidemic has the possibility of more positive outcomes than those currently projected.

  6. Management of pediatric obesity: a lifestyle modification approach.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shamita; Burton, Amy; Oden, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Over the last decades, pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic with worldwide estimates as high as 43 million children and adolescents affected, and this number is rising at an exponential rate. With pediatric obesity comes a host of co-morbidities including impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired liver function. Treatment of this population has proven to be challenging for many reasons. For patients, a new baseline exists consisting of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as a lack of availability of affordable healthy alternatives. In addition, there is an overwhelming presence of energy-dense foods. For physicians, there are many issues including lack of time, training, and reimbursement. The most efficacious and reliable way to treat this population and its co-morbidities is with a healthy, balanced lifestyle consisting of a realistic diet plan and exercise regimen. The is the cornerstone of therapy in the Center for Obesity And its Complications in Health (COACH) clinic which is Children's Medical Center's (Dallas, TX) strategy to combat and treat pediatric overweight and obesity. Lifestyle changes of diet and exercise plans are tailored to each individual's interests and metabolic needs in COACH which is a multi-disciplinary clinic. Additionally, co-morbidities are screened for and treated aggressively to help prevent long-term complications of overweight and obesity. If others do similar interventions in their communities, this global epidemic has the possibility of more positive outcomes than those currently projected. PMID:23893368

  7. Clients' experiences of a community based lifestyle modification program: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ruth S M; Lok, Kris Y W; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is little information about how clients attending lifestyle modification programs view the outcomes. This qualitative study examined the clients' experience of a community based lifestyle modification program in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 clients attending the program. Clients perceived the program had positive impacts on their health and nutrition knowledge. They experienced frustration, negative emotion, lack of motivation, and pressure from others during the program. Working environment and lack of healthy food choices in restaurants were the major perceived environmental barriers for lifestyle modification. Clients valued nutritionists' capability of providing professional information and psychological support in the program. Our results suggest that nutritionist's capability of providing quality consultations and patient-centered care are important for empowering clients achieve lifestyle modification. PMID:20054457

  8. Self-determination and mental retardation: is there an association with living arrangement and lifestyle satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Duvdevany, I; Ben-Zur, H; Ambar, A

    2002-10-01

    Self-determination and lifestyle satisfaction of 80 adults with mild or medium mental retardation living in group homes or their parents' homes were examined. They were assessed in regard to self-determination, as indicated by choices made in the domestic, financial, health, social, and work domains. Lifestyle satisfaction with residence, the community, associated services, and employment was also assessed. Results show that those from group homes were lower on self-determination but higher on lifestyle satisfaction, providing support for the commitment to normalization and community inclusion to enhance lifestyle satisfaction. However, questions about the extent to which people with mental retardation are afforded decision-making opportunities and self-determined behavior remain. We suggest that service providers and caregivers should encourage and create such opportunities.

  9. Self-determination and mental retardation: is there an association with living arrangement and lifestyle satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Duvdevany, I; Ben-Zur, H; Ambar, A

    2002-10-01

    Self-determination and lifestyle satisfaction of 80 adults with mild or medium mental retardation living in group homes or their parents' homes were examined. They were assessed in regard to self-determination, as indicated by choices made in the domestic, financial, health, social, and work domains. Lifestyle satisfaction with residence, the community, associated services, and employment was also assessed. Results show that those from group homes were lower on self-determination but higher on lifestyle satisfaction, providing support for the commitment to normalization and community inclusion to enhance lifestyle satisfaction. However, questions about the extent to which people with mental retardation are afforded decision-making opportunities and self-determined behavior remain. We suggest that service providers and caregivers should encourage and create such opportunities. PMID:12215073

  10. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing kids to lots of allergens, ... rest of the population -- much lower rates of asthma. "We found Amish children had extremely low levels ...

  11. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  12. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  13. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  14. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  15. Rationing organs using psychosocial and lifestyle criteria.

    PubMed

    Corley, M C; Westerberg, N; Elswick, R K; Connell, D; Neil, J; Sneed, G; Witcher, V

    1998-08-01

    The role of patient psychosocial and lifestyle characteristics in decisions about the allocation of scarce health care resources has not been examined. In this national survey using the Criteria for Selection of Transplant Recipient (CSTR) Scale, organ transplant coordinators (N = 559) identified the psychosocial and lifestyle criteria they believe should be considered in patient selection/rejection for organ transplant. Using factor analysis to reduce the data, six factors were identified: current lifestyle/psychiatric problems, family/socioeconomic issues, habits, controlled lifestyle/psychiatric issues, cost, and stigmatized conditions. Patients who were in prison for a serious crime, used cocaine, had AIDS, or were HIV positive (criteria making up the Stigma factor), were more likely to be labeled for exclusion from transplant than those with other psychosocial/lifestyle characteristics. When transplant coordinators perceived that patients' psychosocial and lifestyle problems were under control or corrected, they were more likely to consider them for a transplant. For all but the cost factor, criteria were most stringent for heart transplants. Although over 90% of the coordinators assessed patients and participated in patient selection for transplant, master's prepared nurses were more likely than nurses with other educational preparation to be involved in organ recipient selection. These findings can serve as a prototype for how decisions are made for allocating other scarce health care resources. PMID:9679809

  16. Effects of Educational Intervention on Health-Promoting Lifestyle and Health-Related Life quality of Methamphetamine Users and Their Families: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Bastaminia, Amir; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Dastoorpoor, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Family-centered empowerment of drug and stimulant users is an effective program for a better response to treatment, prevention of treatment adverse effects, and promotion quality of life (QoL) and lifestyle in the process of discontinuing drug abuse. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention, based on family-centered empowerment and Pender's health promotion models, on health-promoting lifestyle and health-related QoL among methamphetamine users and their families. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, methamphetamine users, who were admitted to Tehran University of Medical Sciences Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, were randomly allocated to three groups: a group for training of methamphetamine users who were in recovery phase (intervention group 1;95 subjects);a group for training of a family member of methamphetamine users who were in recovery phase (intervention group 2; 95 subjects); and a control group (95 subjects). A demographic checklist and a standard questionnaire covering health-promoting lifestyle, health-related QoL, self-efficacy, perceived affect, perceived social support, and perceived barriers dimensions were used to gather required data. Independent-samples t test, paired-samples t-test, and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that after adjusting for effects of pretest scores, the difference between mean post-test scores of health-promoting lifestyle scale, health-related QoL scale, and all constructs of Pender's health promotion model (self-efficacy, perceived affect, perceived social support, and perceived barriers) in the intervention group 1 and control group were significant (P< 0.0001). In addition, changes in mean scores of lifestyle scale (42.4 ± 13.6), QoL scale (29.1 ± 14.2), self-efficacy (16.1 ± 2.6), perceived affect (16.1 ± 8), social support (35.4 ± 12.4), and barriers (17.2 ± 15.8) before and after intervention were

  17. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity. PMID:24996220

  18. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. PMID:22092460

  19. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  20. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change.

  1. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  2. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  3. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants’ perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  4. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China. PMID:27303103

  5. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices. PMID:23873221

  6. Health Promoting Lifestyle and its Determinants Among University Students in Sabzevar, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284

  7. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  8. Effects of body size and lifestyle on evolution of mammal life histories

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that life-history evolution is subject to a fundamental size-dependent constraint. This constraint limits the rate at which biomass can be produced so that production per unit of body mass is inevitably slower in larger organisms than in smaller ones. Here we derive predictions for how changes in body size and production rates evolve in different lifestyles subject to this constraint. Predictions are tested by using data on the mass of neonate tissue produced per adult per year in 637 placental mammal species and are generally supported. Compared with terrestrial insectivores with generalized primitive traits, mammals that have evolved more specialized lifestyles have divergent mass-specific production rates: (i) increased in groups that specialize on abundant and reliable foods: grazing and browsing herbivores (artiodactyls, lagomorphs, perissodactyls, and folivorous rodents) and flesh-eating marine mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans); and (ii) decreased in groups that have lifestyles with reduced death rates: bats, primates, arboreal, fossorial, and desert rodents, bears, elephants, and rhinos. Convergent evolution of groups with similar lifestyles is common, so patterns of productivity across mammalian taxa reflect both ecology and phylogeny. The overall result is that groups with different lifestyles have parallel but offset relationships between production rate and body size. These results shed light on the evolution of the fast–slow life-history continuum, suggesting that variation occurs along two axes corresponding to body size and lifestyle. PMID:17940028

  9. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  10. How feasible are lifestyle modification programs for disease prevention in general practice?

    PubMed

    Schütze, Heike; Rix, Elizabeth F; Laws, Rachel A; Passey, Megan; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Harris, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease is a leading cause of death and disability. While it is preventable, little is known about the feasibility or acceptability of implementing interventions to prevent vascular disease in Australian primary health care. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial assessing prevention of vascular disease in patients aged 40-65 by providing a lifestyle modification program in general practice. Interviews with 13 general practices in the intervention arm of this trial examined their views on implementing the lifestyle modification program in general practice settings. Qualitative study, involving thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 11 general practitioners, four practice nurses and five allied health providers between October 2009 and April 2010. Providing brief lifestyle intervention fitted well with routine health-check consultations; however, acceptance and referral to the program was dependent on the level of facilitation provided by program coordinators. Respondents reported that patients engaged with the advice and strategies provided in the program, which helped them make lifestyle changes. Practice nurse involvement was important to sustaining implementation in general practice, while the lack of referral services for people at risk of developing vascular disease threatens maintenance of lifestyle changes as few respondents thought patients would continue lifestyle changes without long-term follow up. Lifestyle modification programs to prevent vascular disease are feasible in general practice but must be provided in a flexible format, such as being offered out of hours to facilitate uptake, with ongoing support and follow up to assist maintenance. The newly formed Medicare Locals may have an important role in facilitating lifestyle modification programs for this target group. PMID:22551835

  11. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it-a gap filled by the present study. The study's web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  12. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  13. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  14. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area.

  15. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Jayesh; Chaudhari, S; Sarkar, Prasanta K

    2011-10-01

    Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed. PMID:22661838

  16. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.

  17. Hypertension improvement through healthy lifestyle modifications.

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Brenda D

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. This disease has a disproportionate effect on African Americans when compared to other races. The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle modifications on blood pressure control among hypertensive African American adults. Thirty-six individuals participated in the 12-week project, with a 67% retention rate. Weekly sessions included interactive educational and walking components. Initial and final BMI measurements were recorded. Participants completed health risk assessments; pre and post questionnaires; and, daily logs ofblood pressure measurement, dietary consumption, and physical activity levels. Data were collected from the logs, BMI measurements, and questionnaires. Overall, the results revealed that participants experienced an increase in healthy lifestyle modification adoption resulting in blood pressure control improvement. Implementation of healthy lifestyle modifications is crucial in providing quality patient care to hypertensive individuals.

  18. Lifestyle intervention: nutrition therapy and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Evert, Alison B; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes now affects more than 29 million Americans, and more than 9 million of these people do not know they have diabetes. In adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and is the focus of this article. Lifestyle intervention is part of the initial treatment as well as the ongoing management of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention encompasses a healthful eating plan, physical activity, and often medication to assist in achievement of glucose, lipid, and blood pressure goals. Patient education and self-care practices are also important aspects of disease management.

  19. Effect of CeO₂ addition to Al₂O₃ supports for Pt catalysts on the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Church, Tamara L; Minett, Andrew I; Harris, Andrew T

    2013-06-01

    A series of Pt catalysts supported on Al₂O₃ that was doped with different amounts of CeO₂ was developed, characterized, and tested in the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol to H₂. Catalyst 3Pt/3CeAl, which bore 3 wt% Pt on a support that contained 3 wt % CeO₂, showed the highest carbon conversion to gas (85%) and the highest H₂ yield (80%) for a feedstock of 1 wt% glycerol in water at 240 °C and 40 bar. A CeO₂/Al₂O₃ support with only 1 wt% Pt also showed high H₂ selectivity and carbon conversion to gas, as well as a much lower CH₄ yield than the benchmark 3Pt/Al catalyst, clearly demonstrating that doping the support with 3 wt% CeO2 improved the APR of glycerol. H₂ chemisorption results showed that the highest metal dispersion (58%) and active surface area (4.3 m(2)g(-1)) were achieved for the support that contained 3 wt% CeO₂, and this effect appeared to be primarily responsible for the high H₂ yield and carbon conversion to gas. No CO was observed in the product gas; therefore, this gas could potentially be used directly in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Thus, including CeO₂ in the Al₂O₃ catalyst support enhanced both the activity and selectivity towards H₂ of a Pt catalyst for the APR of glycerol.

  20. Managing a Bone Healthy Lifestyle After Attending Multifaceted Group Education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie Lunde; Lomborg, Kirsten; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Wind, Gitte

    2016-09-01

    We examined patients with osteoporosis implementation of recommendations regarding a bone healthy lifestyle after the patients attended multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE). Our findings suggest that GE can support and influence patients' transfer of preventive actions. Still patients are challenged by concerns related to social roles and physical ability. We investigated if and how patients implemented knowledge from attending multifaceted osteoporosis GE in their daily lives. An interpretive description design using ethnographic field work was applied. In all 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE at a Danish hospital participated. Data consisted of field work and individual interviews in the participants' everyday environment after completion of GE. After attending multifaceted GE, participants experienced increased attention to and reflected more on how to implement osteoporosis preventive actions or activities. Participants who felt confident on how to act and experienced a clear need and motivation, or who could make the preventive activity into a social event, demonstrated an increased implementation of the preventive activity. On the contrary, attending GE was in some cases not sufficient to overcome social and physical concerns, or to eliminate uncertainty about recommendations or to make participants identify with the osteoporosis diagnosis, which thus impeded implementation of a bone healthy lifestyle. Attending multifaceted GE can support and influence participants' transfer of preventive actions into daily life. Being aware of how concerns about valued social roles and physical ability interfere with the implementation of medical recommendations obviously needs attention during GE. PMID:27146664

  1. Institutionalization of a Multidisciplinary Healthy Lifestyles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…

  2. Lifestyle Interventions: Reasons for Therapeutic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Angelina M.; Hiebert, Bryan; Malec, Carol A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews studies that indicate lifestyle education and exercise programs improve quality of life, health, and wellness. States that mixed results seem to indicate that something other than physical fitness is significantly contributing to improved psychosocial functioning. Postulates that cognitive factors such as improved self-confidence and…

  3. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  4. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  5. Career and Lifestyle Determinants of Gifted Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenstein, Judith M.; Glickauf-Hughes, Cheryl

    A longitudinal study examined the career and lifestyle determinants of 201 gifted women who became homemakers, career-focused, or both homemakers and career-focused. A ten-year follow-up questionnaire collected data for (1) determining existing differences in parental influence, impact of education, career determinants, self-perceptions and…

  6. Using Genograms Creatively to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…

  7. [Promotion of healthy lifestyles among shift workers].

    PubMed

    Morreale, R; Ghiglioni, G; Bregoli, B; Corli, M

    2006-01-01

    A group of 50 shift workers were subjected to a programme of physical activity and balanced diet. The aim of this study was to promote a healthy lifestyle thus helping to prevent cardiovascular diseases, stress and to reduce alcohol and smoking habits.

  8. Lifestyle Drugs: Concept and Impact on Society

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S. Z.; Gupta, V.; Sukhlecha, Anupama; Khunte, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle has changed from being an indicator of the overall well being of an individual to a cause of disease and now “lifestyle” has itself become an object of medical attention. Alcohol has been used enormously as one of the oldest ‘lifestyle’ drugs, and currently sildenafil citrate (Viagra), the drug of choice for erectile dysfunction, exemplifies a turning point in the era of modern lifestyle drugs. This drug has transformed the lifestyles of millions and greatly increased the revenue of many pharmaceutical companies. With the Indian economy growing rapidly at an annual rate of 8-9%, a new era of drug discovery and development coupled with an enormous increase in the marketing of new drugs is being seen. This has certainly made the Indian public vulnerable to issues related to lifestyle drugs. There is a need to study this concept deeply and the impact of these drugs on Indian society, particularly since this topic has already been the centre of many discussions in other developed nations. PMID:21218048

  9. [Healthy lifestyles of the university population].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ojeda, María Angustias; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira

    2015-05-01

    The lifestyle is defined as the set of behavioral patterns and daily habits of a person, which maintained over time may become dimensions of risk or safety depending on their nature. The aim of this study was to know the lifestyles of university students in the following dimensions: diet, exercise, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, sex and road safety. We made a literature review in electronic databases: PubMed, SCIELO and CUIDEN, between 2002-2014; using as keywords habits, lifestyle, health behaviors, young adult and university students. From articles found, stand out as most relevant data that university students have a high presence of favorable beliefs about healthy lifestyles and nevertheless not put into practice. We could conclude that according to different authors, university students in general have not a good eating habits, eating unbalanced diets high in calories. Besides the physical exercise is null, knowing that a good diet and doing exercise have beneficial effects on health. To this must be added the high consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among university students.

  10. The Impact of Autism or Severe Challenging Behaviour on Lifestyle Outcome in Community Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders and severe challenging behaviours are reasonably common among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate whether they had an impact on lifestyle among such adults living in staff-supported community housing. Methods: Data were collected on the…

  11. Answers to Clinical Questions in the Primary Care Management of People with Obesity: Lifestyle Management.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Neil S; Horn, Deborah Bade

    2016-07-01

    Lifestyle modification is not a short-term endeavor, and maintaining a healthy weight requires sustained changes in dietary and physical activity. Intensive behavioral intervention can help modify deep-rooted behaviors and provide the support required to both initiate and maintain the behavioral changes that are needed to achieve weight loss goals. PMID:27565105

  12. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, J.; Moylan, S.; Camfield, D. A.; Pase, M. P.; Mischoulon, D.; Berk, M.; Jacka, F. N.; Schweitzer, I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22969831

  13. Deprivation, Poverty and Marginalization in Rural Lifestyles in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloke, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Rural problems are obscured by constructions of "idyll-ized" rural life as the spatial expression of self-supporting, happy, problem-free existence in a market economy. (British) Rural Lifestyles study findings suggest that rural problems are associated with a wide range of experiences of marginalization (economic, political, cultural) that cannot…

  14. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  15. Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes. Relevance for clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stewart B.; Petrella, Robert J.; Leadbetter, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review evidence from literature on type 2 diabetes pertinent to physical activity and diet and lifestyle modification, and to determine the relevance of this evidence to clinical practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Direct (level I) evidence supports interventions for physical activity and diet modification for primary prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Few studies examine the effectiveness of primary health care providers' making such interventions. MAIN MESSAGE: Family physicians have an important role in identifying people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and managing those diagnosed with the disease, yet they struggle to deliver practice-based interventions that promote sustainable behaviour change among their patients. CONCLUSION: It is evident that supporting patients to make changes in their physical activity and dietary habits can prevent onset of type 2 diabetes. Translating this finding into effective recommendations for clinical practice requires further effort and evaluation. PMID:14708927

  16. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  17. Using the internet to translate an evidence-based lifestyle intervention into practice.

    PubMed

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Conroy, Molly B; Hess, Rachel; Bryce, Cindy L; Fiorillo, Anthony B; Fischer, Gary S; Milas, N Carole; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R

    2009-11-01

    Despite evidence-based recommendations for addressing obesity in the clinical setting, lifestyle interventions are lacking in practice. The objective of this study was to translate an evidence-based lifestyle program into the clinical setting by adapting it for delivery via the Internet. We adapted the Diabetes Prevention Program's lifestyle curriculum to an online format, comprising 16 weekly and 8 monthly lessons, and conducted a before-and-after pilot study of program implementation and feasibility. The program incorporates behavioral tools such as e-mail prompts for online self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, and weight, and automated weekly progress reports. Electronic counseling provides further support. Physician referral, automated progress reports, and as-needed communication with lifestyle coaches integrate the intervention with clinical care. We enrolled 50 patients from a large academic general internal practice into a pilot program between November 16, 2006 and February 11, 2007. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) =25 kg/m2, at least one weight-related cardiovascular risk factor, and Internet access were eligible if referring physicians felt the lifestyle goals were safe and medically appropriate. Participants were primarily female (76%), with an average age of 51.94 (standard deviation [SD] 10.82), and BMI of 36.43 (SD 6.78). At 12 months of enrollment, 50% of participants had logged in within 30 days. On average, completers (n = 45) lost 4.79 (SD 8.55) kg. Systolic blood pressure dropped 7.33 (SD 11.36) mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure changed minimally (+0.44 mm Hg; SD 9.27). An Internet-based lifestyle intervention may overcome significant barriers to preventive counseling and facilitate the incorporation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into primary care.

  18. [Practical strategies for lifestyle modification in people with hyperuricemia and gout treatment through diet, physical activity, and reduced alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ikuo; Kamiya, Hiroki; Tsukuda, Akiko

    2008-04-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in Japan, suggesting the recent lifestyle change may be a key factor leading to this pathophysiological condition. In addition, people with hyperuricemia are often associated with various morbid conditions constituting the metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, healthy lifestyle interventions would be a basic therapeutic approach not only to hyperuricemia but to metabolic syndrome, though it is not easy to promote behaviour changes. This review focuses on strategies for lifestyle intervention for clinical practice, including how we advise patients on appropriate diets, physical activity and alcoholic beverage consumption.

  19. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate

  20. Health Promotion in the Workplace: Assessing Stress and Lifestyle With an Intranet Tool

    PubMed Central

    Solaro, Nadia; Lesma, Alessandro; Gillet, Veronique Bernadette; Pagani, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic noncommunicable conditions, particularly cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, are the major causes of death and morbidity in both industrialized and low- to middle-income countries. Recent epidemiological investigations suggest that management of lifestyle factors, such as stress and lack of physical activity, could have an important value in cardiometabolic conditions, while information technology tools could play a significant facilitatory role. Objectives The objective of our study was to verify the feasibility of using a private website, directed to the workers of a major Italian company, to describe their health profile and lifestyle and work habits using an ad hoc self-administered questionnaire. Methods We administered anonymous multiple choice Web-based questionnaires to 945 participants (683 completed the task) as part of an ongoing health promotion program in a multinational company. Qualitative and quantitative data were synthesized with nonlinear principal component analysis to construct indicators (ie, variables) for stress, control, and lifestyle domains. Considering in addition absenteeism, the Calinski-Harabasz statistic and cluster analysis jointly differentiated seven clusters, which displayed different distributions of standardized classification variables. The final step consisted in assessing the relationship of the resulting seven subject typologies with personal data, illnesses, and metabolic syndrome status, carried out for the most part with descriptive methods. Results Statistical analyses singled out two not-overlapping domains of stress and control, as well as three not-overlapping domains of physical activity, smoking, and alcohol habits. The centroids of the seven clusters generated by the procedure were significantly (P < .001) different considering all possible 21 comparisons between couples of groups. Percentage distributions of variables describing personal information (gender, age group, work category, illness

  1. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different

  2. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants from the region of the Levant.

    PubMed

    Aqtash, Salah; Van Servellen, Gwen

    2013-10-01

    Arab immigrants in the United States are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. We explored health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants to the United States from the Middle Eastern region of the Levant. In 218 male and female Arab adults surveyed with the revised Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), the mean for the HPLP-II was 2.73 (range 1-4), with spiritual growth and interpersonal relations the most frequently reported practices and physical activity the least frequently practiced dimension of health-promoting behaviors. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted four determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors: health insurance, acculturation, self-efficacy, and social support. Health promotion programs serving Arab immigrants should take these determinants into consideration. PMID:24037811

  3. The application of data mining to explore association rules between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Chao

    2013-01-01

    This study used an efficient data mining algorithm, called DCIP (the data cutting and inner product method), to explore association rules between the lifestyles of factory workers in Taiwan and the metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,216 workers in four companies completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire survey were integrated into the workers' health examination reports to form an attribute database of the metabolic syndrome. Among the association rules derived by DCIP, 80% of those on the list of the top 15 highest support counts are corroborated by medical literature or by healthcare professionals. These findings prove that data mining is a valid and effective research method, and that larger sample sizes will likely produce more accurate associations connecting the metabolic syndrome to specific lifestyles. The rules already verified can serve as a reference guide for the health management of factory workers. The remaining 20%, while still lacking hard evidence, provide fertile ground for future research. PMID:24067239

  4. Determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants from the region of the Levant.

    PubMed

    Aqtash, Salah; Van Servellen, Gwen

    2013-10-01

    Arab immigrants in the United States are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. We explored health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants to the United States from the Middle Eastern region of the Levant. In 218 male and female Arab adults surveyed with the revised Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), the mean for the HPLP-II was 2.73 (range 1-4), with spiritual growth and interpersonal relations the most frequently reported practices and physical activity the least frequently practiced dimension of health-promoting behaviors. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted four determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors: health insurance, acculturation, self-efficacy, and social support. Health promotion programs serving Arab immigrants should take these determinants into consideration.

  5. The application of data mining to explore association rules between metabolic syndrome and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Chao

    2013-01-01

    This study used an efficient data mining algorithm, called DCIP (the data cutting and inner product method), to explore association rules between the lifestyles of factory workers in Taiwan and the metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,216 workers in four companies completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire survey were integrated into the workers' health examination reports to form an attribute database of the metabolic syndrome. Among the association rules derived by DCIP, 80% of those on the list of the top 15 highest support counts are corroborated by medical literature or by healthcare professionals. These findings prove that data mining is a valid and effective research method, and that larger sample sizes will likely produce more accurate associations connecting the metabolic syndrome to specific lifestyles. The rules already verified can serve as a reference guide for the health management of factory workers. The remaining 20%, while still lacking hard evidence, provide fertile ground for future research.

  6. Patients' experiences with lifestyle counselling in general practice: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Walseth, Liv Tveit; Abildsnes, Eirik; Schei, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. (1) To elucidate the relevance of Habermas's theory as a practical deliberation procedure in lifestyle counselling in general practice, using a patient perspective. (2) To search for topics which patients consider of significance in such consultations. DESIGN. Qualitative observation and interview study. SETTING. General practice. Subjects. A total of 12 patients were interviewed after lifestyle consultations with their GPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. How the patients perceived the counselling, how it affected them, and what they wanted from their GP in follow-up consultations. RESULTS. The GP should be a source of medical knowledge and a caretaker, but also actively discuss contextual reasons for lifestyle choices, and be a reflective partner exploring values and norms. The patients wanted their GP to acknowledge emotions and to direct the dialogue towards common ground where advice was adjusted to the concrete life situation. A good, personal doctor-patient relationship created motivation and obligation to change, and allowed counselling to be interpreted as care. CONCLUSION. The findings underscore the necessity of a patient-centred approach in lifestyle counselling and support the relevance of Habermas's theory as practical guidance for deliberation. IMPLICATIONS. The findings suggest that GPs should trust the long-term effects of investing in a good relationship and personalized care in lifestyle consultations. The study should incite the GP to act as an encouraging informer, an explorer of everyday life and reasons for behaviour, a reflective partner, and a caretaker, adjusting medical advice to patients' identity, context, and values.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial Lifestyle Interventions for Asian Americans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326

  8. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  9. Ageing, lifestyle modifications, and cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Galioto, A; Ferlisi, A; Pineo, A; Putignano, E; Belvedere, M; Costanza, G; Barbagallo, M

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD. As a paradox, increased longevity due to improved social and economical conditions associated with lifestyle changes in the direction of a rich diet and sedentary habits in the last century, is one of the main contributors to the incremental trend in CVD. The variable increase rate of CVD in different nations may reflect different stages of "epidemiological transition" and it is probable that the relatively slow changes seen in developing populations through the epidemiological transition may occur at an accelerated pace in individuals migrating from nations in need to affluent societies (i.e. Hispanics to the USA, Africans to Europe). Because of restrained economic conditions in the developing world, the greatest gains in controlling the CVD epidemic lies in its prevention. Healthy foods should be widely available and affordable, and healthy dietary practices such as increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of saturated fat, salt, and simple sugars, may be promoted in all populations. Specific strategies for smoking and overweight control may be regulation of marketed tobacco and unhealthy fast food and promotion of an active lifestyle. Greater longevity and economic progress are accompanied by an increasing burden of CVD and other chronic diseases with an important decrease in quality of life, which should question the benefit of these additional years without

  10. Association between five lifestyle habits and cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort.

    PubMed

    Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Although some modifiable lifestyle characteristics have been associated with decreased cancer risk, little is known about their combined effect or about the proportion of cancer cases that could be prevented by improving lifestyle behaviors. We aimed to quantify the association between lifestyle habits and all-site and site-specific cancer risk in middle-aged women. The study included 64,732 women from the French E3N prospective cohort, ages 43 to 68 years at baseline. During a 15-year follow-up period, 6,938 cases of invasive cancer were diagnosed. We defined an index that aggregated five lifestyle characteristics: smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity. Proportional hazard Cox regressions were performed to evaluate the association between lifestyle and cancer risk and to estimate multivariate HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). In addition, population-attributable fractions were used to estimate the proportion of cancer cases that could be prevented by healthier behaviors. A significant decrease in all-site cancer risk was observed and was associated with a healthy lifestyle (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.89 when comparing the highest with the lowest health index category; Ptrend across categories < 0.01). Combining all five characteristics would have prevented 6.3% (2.2%-10.3%) of any-site, 6.3% (0.5%-12.1%) of postmenopausal breast, and 47.5% (26.8%-64.1%) of lung cancers. In conclusion, compliance with only five modifiable lifestyle behaviors could prevent a significant number of cancers, notably postmenopausal breast and lung cancers.

  11. Lifestyle-related determinants of inflammation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wärnberg, Julia; Nova, Esther; Romeo, Javier; Moreno, Luís A; Sjöström, Michael; Marcos, Ascensión

    2007-10-01

    Inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the most common chronic non-communicable diseases and may also play an important initiating role in their development. Only recently have inflammatory markers been included in epidemiological studies focusing on nutritional status, body composition and physical activity. We are just starting to understand how different lifestyles can determine basal levels of inflammatory biomarkers in early ages. This review aims to summarise what is known about the relationships between lifestyle-related determinants (focusing on overweight, physical activity and dietary habits) and inflammatory markers in apparently healthy young populations. Obesity is the most widely studied determinant. Several large-scale studies have now demonstrated that healthy young subjects with more body fat or higher BMI have moderately higher concentrations of inflammatory markers than their leaner peers, supporting the idea that obesity should be considered as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Less data is available to allow us to elucidate how physical activity/fitness or dietary patterns may have a direct effect on inflammation in apparently healthy, disease-free young populations.

  12. Noncoding sequences from the slowly evolving chloroplast inverted repeat in addition to rbcL data do not support gnetalean affinities of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, V; Bobrova, V; Pahnke, J; Troitsky, A; Antonov, A; Martin, W

    1996-02-01

    We developed PCR primers against highly conserved regions of the rRNA operon located within the inverted repeat of the chloroplast genome and used these to amplify the region spanning from the 3' terminus of the 23S rRNA gene to the 5' terminus of the 5S rRNA gene. The sequence of this roughly 500-bp region, which includes the 4.5S rRNA gene and two chloroplast intergenic transcribed spacer regions (cpITS2 and cpITS3), was determined from 20 angiosperms, 7 gymnosperms, and 16 ferns (21,700 bp). Sequences for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) from the same or confamilial genera were analyzed in both separate and combined data sets. Due to the low substitution rate in the inverted repeat region, noncoding sequences in the cpITS region are not saturated with substitutions, in contrast to synonymous sites in rbcL, which are shown to evolve roughly six times faster than noncoding cpITS sequences. Several length polymorphisms with very clear phylogenetic distributions were detected in the data set. Results of phylogenetic analyses provide very strong bootstrap support for monophyly of both spermatophytes and angiosperms. No support for a sister group relationship between Gnetales and angiosperms in either cpITS or rbcL data was found. Rather, weak bootstrap support for monophyly of gymnosperms studied and for a basal position for the aquatic angiosperm Nymphaea among angiosperms studied was observed. Noncoding sequences from the inverted repeat region of chloroplast DNA appear suitable for study of land plant evolution.

  13. [Addition of an arterio-venous shunt during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in a patient with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Vinko; Espinoza, Mauricio; Torres, Javier; Abarca, Juan; Montes, José Miguel; Luppi, Mario; Concha, Andrés; Reynolds, Enrique; Laporte, Alberto; Canals, Claudio; Vial, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    A subgroup of patients infected with the Hantavirus develops a pulmonary syndrome (HPS) characterized by severe acute respiratory failure and myocardial depression, that has a high mortality rate. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could be a valuable therapeutic tool in such patients. We report a 24 years old male with HPS that was successfully managed when an arterio-venous shunt was added to a conventional veno-arterial ECLS technique. Precise criteria have been developed to predict which patients should be considered for this treatment.

  14. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  15. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed. PMID:21347940

  16. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option. PMID:27142061

  17. [Who will take care of the caretaker? Lifestyle recommendations for physicians].

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Berry, Elliot M; Shemer, Ofer; Constantini, Naama W

    2011-07-01

    A healthy lifestyle is the mainstay of preventive medicine. HeaLthcare personnel might disregard keeping a healthy diet and exercise habits, perhaps due to feeling protected by their own knowledge. Physicians might under-diagnose their own overweight status, and have been shown in some studies to display lower rates of healthy behaviors compared with the general population. This review presents the availabLe data on physicians' own lifestyle habits, and discusses the importance of these for both their own health, and for the benefit of their patients. We supply several healthy lifestyle recommendations based on national and international guidelines, and adapt them to the clinic and hospital settings. Eating a healthy diet, and performing at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise a week, with additional resistance exercises 2-3 times a week, will benefit all caretakers--both personally and professionally.

  18. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  19. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stansław

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  20. C-reactive protein response to a vegan lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sutliffe, Jay T; Wilson, Lori D; de Heer, Hendrik D; Foster, Ray L; Carnot, Mary Jo

    2015-02-01

    This brief lifestyle intervention, including a vegan diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and various legumes, nuts and seeds, significantly improved health risk factors and reduced systemic inflammation as measured by circulating CRP. The degree of improvement was associated with baseline CRP such that higher levels predicted greater decreases. The interaction between gender and baseline CRP was significant and showed that males with higher baseline CRP levels appeared to have a more robust decrease in CRP due to the intervention than did their female counterparts. It is likely that the vegetable and high fiber content of a vegan diet reduces CRP in the presences of obesity. Neither the quantity of exercise nor the length of stay was significant predictors of CRP reduction. Additionally, those participants who had a vegan diet prior to the intervention had the lowest CRP risk coming into the program. Direct measure of body fat composition, estrogen and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha would enhance current understanding of the specific mechanisms of CRP reduction related to lifestyle interventions.

  1. Effects of Lifestyle Modification Programs on Cardiac Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S.; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K.; Stason, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  2. C-reactive protein response to a vegan lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sutliffe, Jay T; Wilson, Lori D; de Heer, Hendrik D; Foster, Ray L; Carnot, Mary Jo

    2015-02-01

    This brief lifestyle intervention, including a vegan diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and various legumes, nuts and seeds, significantly improved health risk factors and reduced systemic inflammation as measured by circulating CRP. The degree of improvement was associated with baseline CRP such that higher levels predicted greater decreases. The interaction between gender and baseline CRP was significant and showed that males with higher baseline CRP levels appeared to have a more robust decrease in CRP due to the intervention than did their female counterparts. It is likely that the vegetable and high fiber content of a vegan diet reduces CRP in the presences of obesity. Neither the quantity of exercise nor the length of stay was significant predictors of CRP reduction. Additionally, those participants who had a vegan diet prior to the intervention had the lowest CRP risk coming into the program. Direct measure of body fat composition, estrogen and other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha would enhance current understanding of the specific mechanisms of CRP reduction related to lifestyle interventions. PMID:25637150

  3. How Well Can We Control Dyslipidemias Through Lifestyle Modifications?

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Gabriele; Vaccaro, Olga; Costabile, Giuseppina; Rivellese, Angela A

    2016-07-01

    The role for lifestyle modifications to correct dyslipidemia(s) is reviewed. Dietary composition is crucial. Replacing saturated fat with MUFA or n-6 PUFA lowers plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol and ameliorates the LDL/HDL ratio. Replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates has diverging effects due to the heterogeneity of carbohydrate foods. Diets rich in refined carbohydrates increase fasting and postprandial triglycerides, whereas the consumption of fiber-rich, low GI foods lowers LDL cholesterol with no detrimental effects on triglycerides. The role of polyphenols is debated: available evidence suggests a lowering effect of polyphenol-rich foods on postprandial triglycerides. As for functional foods, health claims on a cholesterol lowering effect of psyllium, beta-glucans and phytosterols are accepted by regulatory agencies. The importance of alcohol intake, weight reduction, and physical activity is discussed. In conclusion, there is evidence that lifestyle affects plasma lipid. A multifactorial approach including multiple changes with additive effects is the best option. This may also ensure feasibility and durability. The traditional Mediterranean way of life can represent a useful model.

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  6. Does and should breast cancer genetic counselling include lifestyle advice?

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Vernooij, Madelèn; van Osch, Liesbeth; Pijpe, Anouk; van Dulmen, Sandra; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    2014-03-01

    To optimally inform counselees about their and their relatives' risks, information about lifestyle risk factors, e.g. physical activity and alcohol consumption, might be discussed in breast cancer genetic counselling. This study explored whether lifestyle was discussed, on whose initiative, whether information and/or advice was given, and whether discussion of lifestyle was related to counselees' characteristics and their causal attributions. First and follow-up consultations with 192 consecutive counselees for breast cancer genetic counselling were videotaped and coded for discussion of lifestyle topics. Counselees completed web-based questionnaires before the initial and after the final consultation. With 52 (27%) counselees lifestyle was discussed, either in the first, or the final consultation, or both. Counselees mostly raised the topic (60%). Counsellors provided information about lifestyle risk factors to 19% and lifestyle advice to 6% of the counselees. Discussion of lifestyle was not associated with counselees' characteristics or causal attributions. Post-counselling, more affected counselees considered lifestyle as a cause of their breast cancer (29%) compared to pre-counselling (15%; p = 0.003). Information and advice about lifestyle risk factors was infrequently provided, both with breast cancer unaffected and affected counselees and with those who did and did not consider their lifestyle as a cause of their breast cancer. Modifiable lifestyle factors could be discussed more frequently to optimally inform counselees about possible ways to reduce their risk. Counsellors should be educated about effects of lifestyle and research should be conducted on how to best integrate lifestyle information in breast cancer genetic counselling.

  7. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’ , ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status

  8. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Max; Stubert, Johannes; Reimer, Toralf; Erickson, Nicole; Berling, Anika

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast Cancer (BC) is a life-changing event. Compared to other malignancies in women, BC has received considerably more public attention. Despite improved neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatment strategies for each characteristic molecular BC subtype, recommendations for evidence-based preventive strategies for BC treatment are not given equivalent attention. This may be partly due to the fact that high-quality long-term prevention studies are still difficult to carry out and are thus underrepresented in international studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the most relevant lifestyle factors associated with BC and to identify and discuss the evidence supporting practical prevention strategies that can be used in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25759623

  9. Lifestyle management for enhancing outcomes after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa; Turk, Melanie; Elliott, Jennifer; Gourash, William

    2014-10-01

    Bariatric surgery has been safe and effective for treatment of severe obesity and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Nonetheless, weight loss and health outcomes vary considerably across individuals. Although the factors associated with outcomes are not fully understood, postoperative weight loss following any type of bariatric surgery is largely dependent on the extent to which patients can make and sustain changes in eating and activity. Therefore, lifestyle management including diet, exercise, and behavior modification is critical to helping patients achieve long-term weight loss. Pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role after bariatric surgery. In this article, we highlight recent research findings in all of these areas to provide suggestions for how to enhance outcomes following bariatric surgery. Research on the mechanisms for weight loss and improvements in T2D following the different surgical procedures is needed to support the development of more personalized approaches to the multidisciplinary management of severe obesity. PMID:25142721

  10. Physician Gender and Lifestyle Counselling to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Katharina; Gansefort, Dirk; Herr, Raphael M.; Görig, Tatiana; Bock, Christina; Mayer, Manfred; Schneider, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, it is not clear whether lifestyle counselling behaviour differs between female and male PCPs. Nonetheless, this information might be helpful to develop need-based advanced training for female and male PCPs. Therefore, our aim was to identify potential gender differences in the implementation of health promotion and the prevention of CVD in primary care. Design and Methods In a Germany-wide survey called the ÄSP-kardio Study, we collected data from 4074 PCPs (40% female; from October 2011 to March 2012). We compared the provision of prevention measures, the attitude towards counselling, and the potential barriers in counselling among female and male German PCPs. We used chi2 tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis. Results We found differences in all of the above-mentioned aspects. Female PCPs were less likely to perceive barriers than male and more likely to ask patients about lifestyle, for example, nutrition (OR=1.62, P≤0.001). Additionally, female PCPs were more likely to feel well prepared (84.2% vs. 76.0%, P≤0.001) and successful (75.6% vs. 68.0%, P≤0.001). Male PCPs were more likely to mention barriers in daily practice that hinder lifestyle counselling. Conclusions Overall, both female and male PCPs had a positive attitude towards lifestyle counselling. Nevertheless, in view of the barriers that they indicated, incentives such as better reimbursement may help output-oriented PCPs to translate their positive attitude into action. Moreover, awareness of gender differences may help PCPs to acquire the specific advanced training that they need for effective lifestyle counselling in CVD. Significance for public health Lifestyle counselling is an important instrument to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Here, primary care physicians (PCPs) play an important role as health advisors. Our study was able to

  11. Association between maternal feeling about pregnancy and child's lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoko; Goto, Aya; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Sato, Yoshiaki; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The number of children with undesirable lifestyles has recently increased. We tested the hypothesis that maternal feelings about pregnancy might be associated with their attitude towards promoting healthy lifestyles in their children. We used a city database collected from guardians of 204 randomly selected children aged 1 to 3 years in Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima. Maternal feeling about pregnancy was measured using a 10-point scale, and a child lifestyle score was calculated as the sum of desirable lifestyle habits (sleeping, eating, watching TV/videos, and tooth brushing). Associations between maternal feeling and her child's lifestyles were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. For all lifestyle items, proportion of children with undesirable lifestyle habits was higher in the "unhappy group" (those who scored 1 to 9) than in the "happy group" (those who scored 10). In particular, a child's short sleeping hours (odds ratio [OR]=3.01) and lifestyle score of less than 3 ([OR] =3.60) were significantly associated with unhappy feelings. This was apparent among mothers aged 29 (median age) or younger. Our results indicate an association between a mother's unhappy feelings about pregnancy and her child's undesirable lifestyle, especially among relatively younger mothers. These findings provide public health implications important for early familial intervention to improve children's lifestyles.

  12. The long-term effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in severely obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564

  13. Preventing cancer: dietary lifestyle or clinical intervention?

    PubMed

    Young, Graeme P; Le Leu, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    In Australia, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers are the most frequently occurring cancers in our society, a pattern that is quite different from that of underdeveloped countries. While diet is largely responsible for these differences, technological advances mean that the solutions can be viewed as systematic, financial, lifestyle or technological. They range from those that require self-discipline and care for personal well-being through to those that are seemingly a quick technological fix that will work in spite of an unhealthy lifestyle. There are three main approaches available for prevention of these cancers: dietary lifestyle, chemoprevention and screening. It has been estimated that the potential for prevention by a healthy dietary lifestyle is excellent and might reduce the burden of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer by 33-55%, 10-20% and 66-75%, respectively. This should be safe and inexpensive and have collateral benefit such as reduced cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. But, population compliance with more plant-based, less calorie dense foods is uncertain, the most healthy are likely to be the most compliant and evidence for effectiveness when interventional programs are undertaken is disappointing. It is not clear how dependable the dietary approach would be where inherited genetic factors determine risk for one of these cancers. Chemoprevention, the administration of natural or synthetic agents that delay, slow down or inhibit the process of tumorigenesis, are still under development and study. Hormone receptor modulators for breast and derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colorectal cancers seem to have most promise and may reduce tumour incidence or death by as much as 50%. These agents are simpler to comply with than changing dietary lifestyle and they are more potent, hence they may be of particular value in high-risk settings. But they are likely to be more costly and run the risk of adverse effects with few

  14. Vegetarian diet, lifestyle and blood pressure in two religious populations.

    PubMed

    Rouse, I L; Armstrong, B K; Beilin, L J

    1982-01-01

    1. The association between vegetarianism and blood pressure was studied in relation to obesity, sex and aspects of lifestyle in 180 Seventh-day Adventists and 113 Mormons aged 25-44 y. 2. Volunteers completed a questionnaire, a 1-day diet record and submitted to standardized measurements of blood pressure, heart rate and body size. 3. Ninety-eight Adventist "vegetarians' were comparable to the 113 Mormon omnivores for strength of religious affiliation, consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee and use of tobacco, but were significantly less obese. 4. Obesity correlated positively with blood pressures in males and females of both diet classes. Age showed a positive correlation with blood pressure in females only. 5. Adjustment of blood pressures for age and Quetelet Index indicated that there is an additional blood pressure reducing effect associated with a vegetarian diet.

  15. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  16. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  17. Managing lifestyle factors in adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah

    2015-07-15

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of disability in older people in the UK. The symptoms of joint pain and stiffness can lead to reduced joint function and deformity. Addressing lifestyle factors, namely exercise and maintaining an optimum weight, can reduce pain and improve joint function. This article focuses on how, by using the concept of goal setting, nurses can work with patients to develop a plan for becoming more active and for losing weight - if the patient is overweight - to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. PMID:26174284

  18. [Immunometabolism of exercise and sedentary lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle leads to the accumulation of visceral fat. This is accompanied by the infiltration of immune cells with pro-inflammatory characteristics in adipose tissue, causing an increased release of cytokines and generating a low-grade inflammatory state. It has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and development of tumors. Exercise can be used as a treatment to improve symptoms of many of these conditions because it promotes an anti-inflammatory effect. In this review we analyze the pro-inflammatory factors present in obesity and the induction of antiinflammatory factors that occur with exercise.

  19. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  20. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Strycker, Lisa A; Barrera, Manuel; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Weidner, Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eating, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation, and social support. Outcomes included lifestyle behaviors (i.e., dietary intake, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation), psychosocial variables (e.g., social support, problem solving, self-efficacy, depression, quality of life), and cost analyses at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Results MLP participants showed significant 12- and 24-month improvements in all targeted lifestyle behaviors with one exception (there were too few smokers to analyze tobacco use effects), and in psychosocial measures of use of supportive resources, problem solving, self-efficacy, and quality of life. Conclusion The MLP was more effective than usual care over 24 months in producing improvements on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes. Directions for future research include replication with other populations. PMID:17229325

  1. Lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 1 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Catherine; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Gingras, Véronique; Desjardins, Katherine; Strychar, Irene; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a major upward shift in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors (central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in patients with type 1 diabetes, which could have either an additive or a synergistic effect on risk for cardiovascular disease. These metabolic changes are occurring in parallel to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the widespread use of intensive insulin therapy. Poor lifestyle habits (poor diet quality, sedentary behaviours and smoking) are known to be driving factors for increased CMR factors in the general population. The objective of this review is to explore the lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes and its potential association with CMR factors. Evidence suggests that adherence to dietary guidelines is low in subjects with type 1 diabetes with a high prevalence of patients consuming an atherogenic diet. Sedentary habits are also more prevalent than in the general population, possibly because of the additional contribution of exercise-induced hypoglycemic fear. Moreover, the prevalence of smokers is still significant in the population with type 1 diabetes. All of these behaviours could trigger a cascade of metabolic anomalies that may contribute to increased CMR factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. The intensification of insulin treatment leading to new daily challenges (e.g. carbohydrates counting, increase of hypoglycemia) could contribute to the adoption of poor lifestyle habits. Preventive measures, such as identification of patients at high risk and promotion of lifestyle changes, should be encouraged. The most appropriate therapeutic measures remain to be established.

  2. The impact of lifestyles on the periodontal health of adults in Udupi district: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nishu; Acharya, Shashidhar; Prabhakar, Ramprasad Vasthare; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Singhal, Deepak; Singla, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the impact of different lifestyle factors on periodontal health of adults. (2) To assess the impact of overall/combined lifestyle variable (calculated by health practice index [HPI]) on periodontal health of adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a structured questionnaire on HPI, oral health-related behavior, and personal habits as well as sociodemographic variables was conducted on 800 subjects aged 20–50 years attending dental outreach set-ups of Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Clinical examination for periodontal status was done by recording loss of attachment scores using community periodontal index (FDI/WHO-1982). Statistical analysis was done by bivariate analysis using Chi-square followed by multivariate analysis to obtain adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: After adjusting for all the confounding variables in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the variables that showed an independent association with periodontitis were age, location, marital status, smoking, hours of sleep per night, physical activity, and overall poor lifestyles. Conclusion: Our results support studying a combined approach using various lifestyle behaviors for controlling chronic periodontitis. Necessary public health action on conditions which determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviors across population is needed which is possible by patient's involvement in self-care by promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:27563209

  3. Promotoras as facilitators of change: Latinas’ perspectives after participating in a lifestyle behaviour intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Albarran, CR; Heilemann, MV; Koniak-Griffin, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe immigrant Latinas’ perspectives of a lifestyle behavior intervention, focusing on their interactions with and perceptions of the promotoras who delivered the program in the United States. Background Immigrant Latinas in the United States have high obesity rates, which contribute to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Interventions using the promotora model appear to be effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk by improving dietary habits, physical activity, and selected clinical variables among Latinas. However, there has been very limited inquiry into what it is about these interventions and promotoras that facilitates behavior change, from the perspective of participants. Design Grounded theory methodology guided the data collection and analysis. Methods This qualitative study was completed in 2012 in California, after the end of a lifestyle behavior intervention. Four focus groups and seven one-on-one interviews were conducted with a total of 18 immigrant Latina intervention participants. Results Women described promotoras as helping them change by motivating them through three interconnected elements: tools, support, and knowledge. Latinas viewed their ability to make lifestyle changes as connected with their emotional and psychological health, and saw promotoras as counselors who provided emotional and social support. In this respect, the intervention was emotionally therapeutic for this sample of Latinas, although this was not the original intention of the program. Conclusion Promotoras provided the backbone of the intervention and were crucial in motivating Latinas to implement lifestyle changes. Future lifestyle behavior interventions should include a strong component of mental and emotional well-being. PMID:24628424

  4. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  5. Towards a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values: study design of a randomized controlled trial for physically inactive adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This randomised controlled trial demonstrates the effectiveness of a value-based intervention program to encourage a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults aged 30 to 50 years. The conceptual framework of the program is based on an innovative behavioural therapy called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) that aims to increase an individual’s psychological flexibility and support behaviour change towards a higher quality and more meaningful life. Methods Participants will be randomly allocated to a feedback group (FB) or an Acceptance and Commitment based (ACT + FB) group. Both the groups will receive written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity levels and offered an opportunity to attend a body composition analysis. In addition, the Acceptance and Commitment based group will attend six group sessions and be given a pedometer for self-monitoring of their daily physical activity throughout the 9-week intervention. The group sessions aim to clarify individual values and enhance committed actions towards the goal of achieving a more meaningful life. Participants will also be taught new skills to work on subjective barriers related to physical activity. Physical activity will be measured objectively by an accelerometer over seven consecutive days and by self-reported questionnaires at the baseline, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 15 months after the baseline measures. In addition, psychological well-being will be measured through the questionnaires, which assess mindfulness skills, psychological flexibility, psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Discussion This study’s objective is to demonstrate a research protocol for a randomized controlled study motivating a physically more active lifestyle based on one’s own values among physically inactive adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and intervention efficacy on physical activity and psychological well-being, and

  6. Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Meléndez, Agustín

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing

  7. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

    2015-02-27

    Diet, exercise, stress, and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here, we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis' molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuroimmune and immunometabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  8. [SOCIOHYGIENIC FACTORS FOR THE LIFESTYLE IN STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Buduk-ool, L K

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the studies of the social status and lifestyle in students of Tuvan and Russian nationality according to self-assessment by students of the material and domestic living conditions, health status, physical development, nutrition, socio-demographic characteristics. Students of the Tuvan University were shown to differ according to a low level of material provision, predominance ofrural students over urban ones, low educational qualifications of parents of students, due to the general socio-economic characteristics of the republic with a low level of urbanization, economic development, features of indigenous way of life. 43.8% of students believe that they have "good health." Students of 1-2 courses rated their health status as worst. Assessment of health largely depends on gender--young men assess their health higher than young women. In the self-assessment of the lifestyle, health and physical development in the students there are ethnic differences related to the peculiarities of mentality of the indigenous and non-indigenous population.

  9. [SOCIOHYGIENIC FACTORS FOR THE LIFESTYLE IN STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Buduk-ool, L K

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the studies of the social status and lifestyle in students of Tuvan and Russian nationality according to self-assessment by students of the material and domestic living conditions, health status, physical development, nutrition, socio-demographic characteristics. Students of the Tuvan University were shown to differ according to a low level of material provision, predominance ofrural students over urban ones, low educational qualifications of parents of students, due to the general socio-economic characteristics of the republic with a low level of urbanization, economic development, features of indigenous way of life. 43.8% of students believe that they have "good health." Students of 1-2 courses rated their health status as worst. Assessment of health largely depends on gender--young men assess their health higher than young women. In the self-assessment of the lifestyle, health and physical development in the students there are ethnic differences related to the peculiarities of mentality of the indigenous and non-indigenous population. PMID:26625627

  10. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?

    PubMed

    Segasothy, M; Phillips, P A

    1999-09-01

    We review the beneficial and adverse effects of vegetarian diets in various medical conditions. Soybean-protein diet, legumes, nuts and soluble fibre significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrate, and restricted in fat, improve control of blood glucose concentration, lower insulin requirement and aid in weight control in diabetic patients. An inverse association has been reported between nut, fruit, vegetable and fibre consumption, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Patients eating a vegetarian diet, with comprehensive lifestyle changes, have had reduced frequency, duration and severity of angina as well as regression of coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary perfusion. An inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke has been suggested. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially spinach and collard green, was associated with a lower risk of age-related ocular macular degeneration. There is an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colon and breast cancer as well as prevalence of colonic diverticula and gallstones. A decreased breast cancer risk has been associated with high intake of soy bean products. The beneficial effects could be due to the diet (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, fibre, complex carbohydrate, antioxidant vitamins, flavanoids, folic acid and phytoestrogens) as well as the associated healthy lifestyle in vegetarians. There are few adverse effects, mainly increased intestinal gas production and a small risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  11. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-03-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span.

  12. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

    2015-02-27

    Diet, exercise, stress, and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here, we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis' molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuroimmune and immunometabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications.

  13. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  14. Lifestyle as risk factor for cancer: Evidence from human studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-07-28

    It is increasingly appreciated that the chances of developing cancer are significantly affected by the choice of our lifestyle. There are several uncontrollable risk factors which account for the majority of cancers, but we can modify our lifestyle to reduce enhanced threat of cancer. Healthy lifestyle behaviors for cancer risk reduction include a healthy diet, weight management, regular exercise, reduction in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. In this article, we present evidences on the association between certain lifestyle characteristics and their contribution for developing breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers, using information derived from human studies.

  15. Turkana Children's Sociocultural Practices of Pastoralist Lifestyles and Science Curriculum and Instruction in Kenyan Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng'asike, John Teria

    This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that draws from Western education ideology to unfairly criticize Turkana traditional nomadic cultural practices as resistant to modern education. Yet Turkana people have to rely on the cultural knowledge of their environment for survival. In addition, the community lives in abject poverty caused by the harsh desert environment which has contributed to parents' struggle to support their children's education. Cultural knowledge of Turkana people has received support in research demonstrating the role cultural lifestyles such as nomadic pastoralism play as important survival strategy that enable people to adapt to the harsh desert environment to ensure the survival of their livestock critical for their food security. The study documented ways in which the Kenya national education curriculum, reflecting Western assumptions about education, often alienates and marginalises nomadic children, in its failure to capture their cultural Indigenous knowledge epistemologies. The research investigated the relationships between Turkana children's sociocultural practices of pastoralist lifestyles and the national science curriculum taught in local preschools and first grade science classrooms in Kenya and the extent to which Turkana children's everyday life cultural practices inform science instruction in early childhood grades. Multiple ethnographic methods such as participant and naturalistic observation, focus group interviews, analysis of documents, archival materials, and cultural artifacts were used to explore classrooms instruction and Indigenous sociocultural practices of the Turkana nomads. The findings from the elders' narratives

  16. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition, exercise.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have provided a vast amount of literature related to the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Large international variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and the prominent increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in groups that migrated from low- to high-incidence areas provided important evidence that lifestyle factors influence the development of this malignancy. Moreover, there is convincing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary intake is an important etiological factor in colorectal neoplasia. Although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified, several lifestyle factors are likely to have a major impact on colorectal cancer development. Physical inactivity and to a lesser extent, excess body weight, are consistent risk factors for colon cancer. Exposure to tobacco products early in life is associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Diet and nutritional factors are also clearly important. Diets high in red and processed meat increase risk. Excess alcohol consumption, probably in combination with a diet low in some micronutrients such as folate and methionine, appear to increase risk. There is also recent evidence supporting a protective effect of calcium and vitamin D in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia. The relationship between intake of dietary fiber and risk of colon cancer has been studied for three decades but the results are still inconclusive. However, some micronutrients or phytochemicals in fiber-rich foods may be important; folic acid is one such micronutrient that has been shown to protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia and is currently being studied in intervention trials of adenoma recurrence. The overwhelming evidence indicates that primary prevention of colon cancer is feasible. Continued focus on primary prevention of colorectal cancer, in combination with efforts aimed at screening and surveillance, will be vital in

  17. Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Capurso, Cristiano; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna Maria; Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Fiore, Pietro; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia have a deep impact on the health and quality of life of older subjects and their caregivers. Since the therapeutic options currently available have demonstrated limited efficacy, the search for preventive strategies for cognitive decline and dementia are mandatory. A possible role of lifestyle-related factors was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, predementia syndromes and the cognitive decline of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease [AD]) or vascular origin. At present, cumulative evidence suggests that vascular risk factors may be important in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and AD. Moderate alcohol drinking has been proposed as a protective factor against MCI and dementia in several longitudinal studies, but contrasting findings also exist. The Mediterranean diet could therefore be an interesting model with which to further study the association between dietary patterns and cognitive functioning, given the suggested role of many components of this diet (monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cereals and red wine) in contrasting cognitive impairment and dementia. The association between low education and predementia and dementia syndromes is supported by the majority of studies, but very few studies have investigated whether this association may be attributed with lifestyle factors that covary with education. Studies in the literature seem to identify in physical exercise one promising strategy in decreasing cognitive decline, but some of the limitations of these studies do not allow us to draw definite conclusions. At present, in older subjects, healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, the prevention of nutritional deficiencies, and moderate physical activity could be considered the first line of defense against the development and progression of predementia and dementia syndromes. However, in most cases, these were only observational studies, and results are

  18. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women’s health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  19. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women's health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  20. Promoting Patient Phronesis: Communication Patterns in an Online Lifestyle Program Coordinated with Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Rief, John J.; Mitchell, Gordon R.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Bhargava, Tina D.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Fischer, Gary S.; Hess, Rachel; Kolb, N. Randall; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R.; McTigue, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Phronesis, or practical wisdom developed through experience, is an Aristotelian concept that can shed light on the capacities of patients to make health-related decisions and engage in healthy behaviors. In this article, the authors develop a conceptual framework for understanding the role of phronesis in lifestyle change as well as its relationship to patient activation, which is considered to be a critical component of the Chronic Care Model and patient education in general. The authors develop the concept of phronesis by analyzing qualitatively the comments made by 35 participants working to manage chronic health issues in a weight-loss study. The authors iteratively coded transcribed passages of exit interviews for phronesis and patient activation. These passages provide experientially grounded content for evaluating the use of phronesis and its development among individuals engaging in lifestyle change. Phronesis is expressed in 31% of participant responses to questions regarding the relationship between the online lifestyle intervention, participant health, and participant readiness to engage in productive clinical encounters with health care practitioners. Of those responses, 73% express some level of patient activation. The authors conclude that phronesis may be an important new tool for understanding successful self-management support, with potential usefulness in the creation of tailored lifestyle interventions, the development of patient activation, and the ability of participants to enact health-related behaviors. PMID:22984212

  1. Secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Notara, Venetia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos E

    2014-09-01

    Although cardiovascular disease mortality rates seem to decline, especially among middle-aged people in developed countries, the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) increases, representing the most common cause of morbidity in both developed and developing countries and generating large economic burden. It is estimated that one fifth of the ACS patients die suddenly and half of them belong to a fast growing popula- tion age-group, i.e., those between 70 and .80 years. A substantial number of these deaths has been attributed to various lifestyles, modifiable factors; therefore, it can be prevented. However, factors such as dietary habits and behaviours, physical activity, life stress and smoking habits, although thoroughly discussed, are not well understood and appreciated in the spectrum of secondary ACS prevention. The latter deserves further attention under the prism of socio-economic status that has changed dramatically in the last years in some populations. The aim of this review was to discuss the role of lifestyle factors on secondary ACS prevention under the prism of individual's socio-economic status. Based on the retrieved information it was revealed that there is vast evidence that secondary prevention of cardiovascular events cannot be accomplished simply through medical treatment, but it requires a multifaceted approach incorporating lifestyle modifications, too. Therefore, public health policy endeavours should be directed towards multifocal strategies, i.e., to motivate and support cardiac patients to consistently follow treatment regimens and to establish more effective and efficient community lifestyle interventions. PMID:25438395

  2. [Prevention of dementia on the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases: a review].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihike

    2014-04-01

    Recent observational longitudinal studies have indicated the association of cognition with lifestyle and lifestyle-related diseases, which can affect timely through the life as protective or risk factors. In particular, inappropriate lifestyle including diet and exercise induces lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking which promote cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia as vascular risk factors. On the other hand, education during early life, occupational exposure during mid-life, and diet with green leafy vegetables and fish oil, and leisure activities including hobbies, social activities, and physical activities during later life could maintain or accelerate the cognitive reserve function. On the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we should prevent cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia to achieve healthy aging society.

  3. Longitudinal changes in central artery stiffness with lifestyle modification, washout, and drug treatment in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Overend, Tom J; Petrella, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    We assessed 17 middle-aged and older individuals (58.0 +/- 7.9 years, 7 females) at risk for cardiovascular disease regarding: (1) Whether carotid artery stiffness (cAS) would be reduced with a 1-year lifestyle modification program, (2) to what degree cAS would return following washout (mean of 26.9 +/- 4.0 months) from the active intervention, and (3) whether a 24-week telmisartan treatment would reduce cAS more than our lifestyle modification program. cAS by Doppler ultrasound, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and exercise capacity were assessed at three points: Following the 1-year lifestyle modification, following the washout period, and following a 24-week telmisartan treatment. Following telmisartan, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly decreased (114.8 +/- 12.3 mmHg) compared to baseline (127.9 +/- 12.7 mmHg) and following the washout period (126.1 +/- 14.9 mmHg). Similarly, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly lower following telmisaratn than following the washout period. Exercise capacity was increased following lifestyle modification but returned to the baseline level following the washout period. Following the lifestyle modification program, cAS was significantly reduced, and this reduction was maintained following the washout period. Conversely, the subsequent telmisartan treatment did not change cAS despite a significant blood pressure reduction. These results suggest that the reduced cAS achieved with lifestyle modification may not necessarily disappear following a cessation of the active program, indicating a possible role that family physicians can play in their clinical practice, and also providing a further rationale to promote lifestyle modification as an initial therapy for this population. In contrast, no additional benefit of telmisartan beyond our lifestyle intervention was observed in this study.

  4. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity. PMID:25608589

  5. The South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: design and methods.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Namratha R; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-11-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6weeks of group classes, followed by 12weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. The German SUCCESS C Study – The First European Lifestyle Study on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rack, Brigitte; Andergassen, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Julia; Salmen, Jessica; Hepp, Philip; Sommer, Harald; Lichtenegger, Werner; Friese, Klaus; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hauner, Dagmar; Hauner, Hans; Janni, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cohort trials have shown evidence that obesity and a low level of physical activity are not only associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but also with an increased risk for recurrence and reduced survival in breast cancer patients. The SUCCESS C study is the first European trial to evaluate the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention program on disease-free survival in women with early breast cancer and to examine the predictive value of selected biomarker candidates. A total of 3,547 women with early-stage, Her2/neu-negative breast cancer will be included. The first randomization will compare disease-free survival in patients treated with either 3 cycles of FEC (epirubicine, fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide), followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel or 6 cycles of docetaxel-cyclophosphamide, and thus assess the role of anthracycline-free chemotherapy. The second randomization compares disease-free survival in patients with a body mass index of 24–40 kg/m2 receiving either a telephone-based individualized lifestyle intervention program aiming at moderate weight loss or general recommendations for a healthy lifestyle alone. In addition, the study will evaluate the predictive role of cancer-associated and obesity-related biomarkers for the prediction of disease recurrence and survival. This SUCCESS C trial will provide valuable information on the effects of a lifestyle intervention program on the prognosis of early breast cancer patients. PMID:21494405

  9. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. PMID:21287926

  10. Lifestyle drugs: pharmacology and the social agenda.

    PubMed

    Flower, Rod

    2004-04-01

    The precise definition of 'lifestyle' drugs is a subject of debate. However, they are generally defined as drugs taken to satisfy a non-medical or non-health-related goal. Although the term has been used only recently, the media debate that surrounds these agents, fuelled by the release of medicines such as Viagra (sildenafil), is intense. The increasing availability of drugs that can be used to alter our appearance, our physical and mental capabilities or even our characters is changing the social fabric of our culture and poses a difficult challenge to our healthcare systems. It is also revolutionizing the traditional doctor-patient relationship and raises important issues about the rights to, and limits of, self-diagnosis and self-medication.

  11. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Obesity.

    PubMed

    van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Snieder, Harold; Lagou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex multifaceted disease resulting from interactions between genetics and lifestyle. The proportion of phenotypic variance ascribed to genetic variance is 0.4 to 0.7 for obesity and recent years have seen considerable success in identifying disease-susceptibility variants. Although with the advent of genome-wide association studies the list of genetic variants predisposing to obesity has significantly increased the identified variants only explain a fraction of disease heritability. Studies of gene-environment interactions can provide more insight into the biological mechanisms involved in obesity despite the challenges associated with such designs. Epigenetic changes that affect gene function without DNA sequence modifications may be a key factor explaining interindividual differences in obesity, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the epigenome. Disentangling the relative contributions of genetic, environmental and epigenetic marks to the establishment of obesity is a major challenge given the complex interplay between these determinants.

  12. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  13. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice.

  14. Education, lifestyle and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1990-01-01

    Lower education is associated with higher blood pressure and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. It is hypothesized that education is most important as a risk factor for high blood pressure to the extent that an individual's style of life is incongruent with his or her education. Style of life is defined here on the basis of the accumulation of consumer goods and exposure to mass media. It was found, in a study of blood pressure in an African-American community, that lifestyle incongruity, or the degree to which style of life exceeded education, was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, adjusting for age, sex, Body Mass Index, income, chronic social stressors, and Type A behavior. It is argued that this incongruity leads to recurring frustrating social interactions, which in turn are related to higher blood pressure.

  15. Infant feeding choices: experience, self-identity and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Naomi; Harvey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In England, 78% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and, in the UK, less than 1% exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations to do so. This study investigated women's infant feeding choices using in-depth interviews with 12 mothers of infants aged 7-18 weeks. Using content analysis, four themes emerged: (1) information, knowledge and decision making, (2) physical capability, (3) family and social influences, (4) lifestyle, independence and self-identity. While women were aware of the 'Breast is Best' message, some expressed distrust in this information if they had not been breastfed themselves. Women felt their own infant feeding choice was influenced by the perceived norm among family and friends. Women described how breastfeeding hindered their ability to retain their self-identities beyond motherhood as it limited their independence. Several second-time mothers felt they lacked support from health professionals when breastfeeding their second baby, even if they had previously encountered breastfeeding difficulties. The study indicates that experience of breastfeeding and belief in the health benefits associated with it are important factors for initiation of breastfeeding, while decreased independence and self-identity may influence duration of breastfeeding. Intervention and support schemes should tackle all mothers, not just first-time mothers.

  16. Cardiovascular disease prevention and lifestyle interventions: effectiveness and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L

    2003-01-01

    Over the past half century scientific data support the strong relationship between the way a person or population lives and their risk for developing or dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). While heredity can be a major factor for some people, their personal health habits and environmental/cultural exposure are more important factors. CVD is a multifactor process that is contributed to by a variety of biological and behavioral characteristics of the person including a number of well-established and emerging risk factors. Not smoking, being physically active, eating a heart healthy diet, staying reasonably lean, and avoiding major stress and depression are the major components of an effective CVD prevention program. For people at high risk of CVD, medications frequently need to be added to a healthy lifestyle to minimize their risk of a heart attack or stroke, particularly in persons with conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia. Maintaining an effective CVD prevention program in technologically advanced societies cannot be achieved by many high-risk persons without effective and sustained support from a well-organized health care system. Nurse-provided or nurse-coordinated care management programs using an integrated or multifactor approach have been highly effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality of high-risk persons.

  17. A simple healthy lifestyle index as a proxy of wellness: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Lucini, Daniela; Zanuso, Silvano; Blair, Steven; Pagani, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    The evidence supporting the importance of a healthy lifestyle (active life, healthy diet, not smoking, and low stress) as a part of programs for primary and secondary prevention of cardiometabolic diseases is strong, compelling, and continuously growing. In this study, we test whether a simple web-based healthy lifestyle index, using self-reports, is related to indices of cardiovascular health and metabolic syndrome and could be employed in large wellness programs intended to promote healthy lifestyle. We studied 411 workers in an Italian multinational factory who were enrolled in a voluntary program consisting of a health checkup and an online questionnaire on lifestyle. These domains were combined into a single simple index. Participants were subdivided into three healthy lifestyle index (HI) groups (red, yellow, and green) ranging from poor to good HI quality (HI from red to green: 41.8 ± 14.6; 75.7 ± 8.5; 93.8 ± 2.2; p < 0.05). The groups differed in indicators of cardiovascular and metabolic health (waist circumference females: 82.1 ± 9.56, 78.9 ± 9.3, 72.7 ± 6.6; males: 95.2 ± 11.7, 90.0 ± 9.5, 85.7 ± 6.1 cm; group difference p < 0.05). Moreover, they differed significantly in the likelihood of having more components of the metabolic syndrome and, conversely, fewer components of the ideal cardiovascular health profile (with red having the worst profile). The red group was also characterized by the highest absenteeism. We report for the first time that a web-based self-reported poor health behavior was significantly associated with clinical and laboratory (partial correlation between HI and high-density cholesterol 0.192; body mass index -0.288; systolic blood pressure -0.130; all p < 0.05) results indicating a negative cardiometabolic profile. PMID:24915785

  18. Tailored eHealth Lifestyle Promotion: Which Behavioral Modules Do Users Prefer?

    PubMed

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; De Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Health risk behaviors are widespread among adults and often co-occur. eHealth computer-tailored technology provides individuals with personalized feedback regarding multiple lifestyle behaviors. First, the authors investigated individuals' preferences for particular lifestyle modules and hypothesised that health preventive behavior modules would be preferred over addictive behavior modules. Second, characteristics associated with these choices were examined. A web-based questionnaire assessed demographics, health status, and five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., physical activity, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, alcohol intake and tobacco use) among adults (N = 1,828). Responses were translated into a health risk appraisal outlining whether respondents adhered to the national guidelines for these behaviors. Next, respondents could select one of the lifestyle modules providing personalized advice. More than 60% of the participants failed to meet the guidelines for more than one lifestyle behavior. The physical activity module was the most popular, followed by the smoking and fruit modules. Young adults tended to prefer the physical activity and fruit modules, whereas the vegetable module was more popular among older adults. No consistent pattern was identified for the alcohol and smoking modules. The results support the authors' hypothesis that health preventive behaviors-in particular, physical activity-would be preferred. Although this could imply that physical activity could serve as a gateway behavior when aiming at multiple behavior changes, it is also conceivable that other mechanisms, such as the actual success of behavior change, or the fact that people can choose, may increase chances of multiple behavior change. Hence, mechanisms leading to multiple behavior change need to be further explored.

  19. A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.

    PubMed

    Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

    2000-05-01

    Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality.

  20. Education in Healthy Lifestyles: Curriculum Implications. Fastback 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    The nature of a healthy lifestyle and its significance to quality of life is examined. Following a discussion on what is involved in a healthy lifestyle, major health problems are described: (1) smoking; (2) alcohol and drug abuse; (3) sexually transmitted diseases; (4) diet and obesity; (5) stress; and (6) inadequate sleep. Recommendations are…

  1. Women, Meaning Making and Lifestyle Change after a Cardiac Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Many US women have had or will experience a cardiac event and little is known about their learning experiences associated with subsequent lifestyle change. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the experiential learning of 22 women who made lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. Meaning making experiences were examined for influence…

  2. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  3. Lifestyle Preferences as Determinants of Women's Differentiated Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A 1999 British survey of 1,960 females and 1,691 males incorporated preference theory. Results showed that women's lifestyle preferences are a major determinant of fertility, employment patterns, and job choice. However, lifestyle preferences no longer determine occupational choice. (Contains 71 references.) (Author/JOW)

  4. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  5. The Controllable Lifestyle Factor and Students' Attitudes about Specialty Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students were asked to state their selected specialty and to rank the importance that each of 25 influences listed on a questionnaire had in making their specialty choice. Selected specialties were classified into three groups: noncontrollable lifestyle, controllable lifestyle, and surgery. (MLW)

  6. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  7. Lifestyle Behaviors as Predictors of Malignant Neoplasm Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, L. S.; And Others

    The relationship between lifestyle behaviors and the onset of neoplasm development has been researched extensively. This study took a multivariate approach in attempting to identify lifestyle variables which could predict group membership among subjects diagnosed as having cancer and those subjects who have not been diagnosed as having cancer.…

  8. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  9. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: a randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M; Avery, Elizabeth F; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-11-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 28 group sessions over 12 months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress toward behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12 months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18 months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12 months than participants in the control group.

  10. Effect of healthy lifestyle behaviors on the association between leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcium.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Vanessa A; Mainous, Arch G; Everett, Charles J; Schoepf, U Joseph; Codd, Veryan; Samani, Nilesh J; Samanii, Nilesh J

    2010-09-01

    The telomere length is an indicator of biologic aging, and shorter telomeres have been associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a validated indicator of coronary atherosclerosis. It is unclear, however, whether healthy lifestyle behaviors affect the relation between telomere length and CAC. In a sample of subjects aged 40 to 64 years with no previous diagnosis of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, or cancer (n = 318), healthy lifestyle behaviors of greater fruit and vegetable consumption, lower meat consumption, exercise, being at a healthy weight, and the presence of social support were examined to determine whether they attenuated the association between a shorter telomere length and the presence of CAC. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and Framingham risk score revealed that the relation between having shorter telomeres and the presence of CAC was attenuated in the presence of high social support, low meat consumption, and high fruit and vegetable consumption. Those with shorter telomeres and these characteristics were not significantly different from those with longer telomeres. Conversely, the subjects with shorter telomeres and less healthy lifestyles had a significantly increased risk of the presence of CAC: low fruit and vegetable consumption (odds ratio 3.30, 95% confidence interval 1.61 to 6.75), high meat consumption (odds ratio 3.33, 95% confidence interval 1.54 to 7.20), and low social support (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 5.37). Stratification by gender yielded similar results for men; however, among women, only fruit and vegetable consumption attenuated the shorter telomere length and CAC relation. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that being involved in healthy lifestyle behaviors might attenuate the association between shorter telomere length and coronary atherosclerosis, as identified using CAC.

  11. Predicting health-promoting lifestyles in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Pender, N J; Walker, S N; Sechrist, K R; Frank-Stromborg, M

    1990-01-01

    A multivariate model proposed as explanatory and predictive of health-promoting lifestyles was evaluated in a sample of 589 employees enrolled in six employer-sponsored health-promotion programs. Perceived personal competence, definition of health, perceived health status, and perceived control of health accounted for 31% of the variance in health-promoting lifestyle patterns. Employees who reported more health-promoting lifestyles perceived themselves as competent in handling life situations, defined health as high-level wellness rather than merely the absence of illness, evaluated their health positively, and perceived their health as affected by significant others but not by chance or luck. Those who were female, older, and in the maintenance phase of the company fitness program also had healthier lifestyle patterns. These variables and the perception of health as internally controlled were predictive of health-promoting lifestyles three months later.

  12. Randomized study designs for lifestyle interventions: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Younge, John O; Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, Tessa A; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Hunink, Mg Myriam

    2015-12-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are considered modifiable risk factors for many diseases. Lifestyle interventions that target these behaviours need rigorous evaluation to assess their effectiveness. The randomized controlled trial is the study design of choice when it comes to the evaluation of interventions. However, lifestyle interventions are often complex and subject to several important issues, such as patient preference and non-adherence, that may threaten the internal and external validity of studies. There is a strong demand for high-quality randomized controlled trials of interventions that promote healthy lifestyle behaviours. With this tutorial we aim to provide guidance in the choice of an optimal randomized controlled trial design in future trials of lifestyle interventions.

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  14. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  15. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  16. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  17. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    PubMed

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  18. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  19. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    PubMed

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-09

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women.

  20. Osteoporosis risk factors and early life-style modifications to decrease disease burden in women.

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Margaret J; Nazem, Taraneh G; Nachtigall, Richard H; Goldstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis should begin in childhood and continue throughout adulthood. Although genetic determinants of muscle and bone mass may offer other therapeutic options in the future, currently, counseling should primarily focus on lifestyle modification including healthy dietary practices and regular exercise. Vitamin supplementation, particularly vitamin D, should be considered to enhance diet based on patient's need. Attention to estrogen status is also important. In addition, patients should be counseled regularly about cigarette cessation and avoiding moderate alcohol intake.

  1. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Lifestyle Changes and Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Adults With Spinal Cord Injury in the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ghaisas, Samruddhi; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a major burden to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting their psychological, physical, and social well-being. Lifestyle choices are thought to contribute to the risk of developing PrUs. This article focuses on the interaction between lifestyle choices and the development of PrUs in community settings among participants in the University of Southern California–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS II), a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for adults with SCI. We conducted a secondary cross-case analysis of treatment notes of 47 PUPS II participants and identified four patterns relating PrU development to lifestyle changes: positive PrU changes (e.g., healing PrUs) with positive lifestyle changes, negative or no PrU changes with positive lifestyle changes, positive PrU changes with minor lifestyle changes, and negative or no PrU changes with no lifestyle changes. We present case studies exemplifying each pattern. PMID:25553751

  3. Biomechanical and lifestyle risk factors for medial tibia stress syndrome in army recruits: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Golby, Jim; Greeves, Julie; Spears, Iain R

    2011-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in active populations and has been suggested to be a result of both biomechanical and lifestyle factors. The main aim of this study was to determine prospectively whether gait biomechanics and lifestyle factors can be used as a predictor of MTSS development. British infantry male recruits (n=468) were selected for the study. Plantar pressure variables, lifestyle factors comprising smoking habit and aerobic fitness as measured by a 1.5 mile timed-run were collected on the first day of training. Injury data were collected during the 26 week training period and incidence rate was 7.9% (n=37). A logistic regression model for membership of the MTSS and non-MTSS groups was developed. An imbalance in foot pressure with greater pressure on the medial side than on the lateral side was the primary risk factor. Low aerobic fitness, as deduced from a 1.5 mile timed-run and smoking habit were also important, but were additive risk factors for MTSS. In conclusion, "poor" biomechanics were the strongest predictors of MTSS development but lifestyle factors were also important. The logistic regression model combining all three risk factors was capable of predicting 96.9% of the non-injured group and 67.5% of the MTSS group with an overall accuracy of 87.7%. While the model has yet to be validated against an external sample and limitations exist with regards to the quality of the data collected, it is nonetheless suggested that the combined analysis of biomechanical and lifestyle factors has the potential to improve the prediction of MTSS. PMID:21247766

  4. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  5. A qualitative synthesis of factors influencing maintenance of lifestyle behaviour change in individuals with high cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Management of cardiovascular risk factors includes commitment from patients to adhere to prescribed medications and adopt healthy lifestyles. Unfortunately many fail to take up and maintain the four key healthy behaviours (not smoking, having a balanced diet, limiting alcohol consumption and being more active). Five factors (beliefs, knowledge, transport and other costs, emotions, and friends and family support) are known to predict uptake of lifestyle behaviour change. The key factors influencing maintenance of healthy lifestyles are not known but would be helpful to support the development of relapse prevention programmes for this population. Our review aimed to clarify the main patient perceived factors thought to influence maintenance of changed healthy lifestyles. Methods We performed a systematic review of qualitative observational studies and applied the principles of content synthesis and thematic analysis to extract reported factors (barriers and facilitators) considered by individuals to be influential in maintaining changed healthy lifestyle behaviours. Factors were then organised into an existing framework of higher order categories which was followed by an analysis of the interrelationships between factors to identify key themes. Results Twenty two studies met our inclusion criteria. Participants reported barriers and facilitators within 13 categories, the majority of which were facilitators. The most commonly reported influences were those relating to social support (whether provided formally or informally), beliefs (about the self or the causes and management of poor health, and the value of maintaining lifestyle behaviours), and other psychological factors (including attitude, thinking and coping styles, and problem solving skills). Physical activity was the most commonly investigated behaviour in four categories, but overall, the main barriers and facilitators were related to a range of behaviours. Through analysis of the

  6. Who will deliver comprehensive healthy lifestyle interventions to combat non-communicable disease? Introducing the healthy lifestyle practitioner discipline.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine. PMID:26524498

  7. Who will deliver comprehensive healthy lifestyle interventions to combat non-communicable disease? Introducing the healthy lifestyle practitioner discipline.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine.

  8. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  9. Religious Attendance, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms Among Koreans in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Pearce, Michelle; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-08-01

    Migrants, who comprise 80 % of the population in the United Arab Emirates, are at risk of developing mental health disorders. To test associations among religious attendance, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (HPLB), and depressive symptoms, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Dubai. Measures included frequency of religious attendance, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships among religious attendance, HPLB, and depressive symptoms. Religious attendance was significantly associated with self-actualization, stress management, and depressive symptoms. Self-actualization and stress management mediated the relationships between religious attendance and depressive symptoms for both males and females, and interpersonal support mediated the relationship for females, controlling for age and education. The facilitation of positive internal and external resources generated by participating in religious activities may have increased the likelihood that the Korean migrants would engage in psychosocial healthy lifestyle behaviors, and may have decreased depressive symptoms.

  10. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women.

  11. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women. PMID:26155795

  12. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  14. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Biedenharn, Kelly R; Fedor, Jennifer M; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-07-16

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility.

  15. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility. PMID:23870423

  16. Lifestyle and genetics in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temelkova-Kurktschiev, T; Stefanov, T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are multifactorial health threats caused by a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and the environment with dramatically increasing worldwide prevalence. The role of heritability in their etiology is well recognized, however, the numerous attempts made in order certain genetic variants determining individual susceptibility to be identified have had limited success, until recently. At present the advancements in human genetics and the utilization of the genome-wide association approach have led to the identification of over 20 genetic loci associated with, respectively obesity and type 2 diabetes. Most of the genes identified to date, however, have modest effect on disease risk suggesting that both diseases are unlikely to develop without the individual being exposed to obesity- and/or type 2 diabetes-promoting environment. Indeed, unhealthy lifestyle, characterized by physical inactivity and food overconsumption is an unequivocally established risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, on the other hand, have demonstrated that lifestyle modification is effective in obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention. Furthermore, gene-lifestyle interaction studies suggest that genetic susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes may be partially or totally kept under control by healthy lifestyle or lifestyle modification and that lifestyle determines whether an individual is likely to develop the disease. Inherited factors, however, seem to influence individual response to a lifestyle intervention program and even the motivation for lifestyle change. Personalized interventions according to genotype may be, therefore, considered in the future. By then lifestyle modification targeting dietary change and increased physical activity may be recommended for successful obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention irrespectively of genetic susceptibility.

  17. Lifestyle management in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are two of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent complication of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Overweight, obesity, or weight gain has been shown to be an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and an important component of the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is another important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Data from prospective studies have shown that at least 30 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity can prevent type 2 diabetes. Moderate or high levels of physical fitness are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes. Results from clinical trials have indicated that lifestyle changes, including dietary modification and increase in physical activity, can prevent type 2 diabetes. Analyses from prospective studies have confirmed that healthy diets are effective and safe ways to prevent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Public health messages, health care professionals, and the health care system should aggressively promote physical activity and responsible nutritional habits during occupation, leisure time, and daily life and prevent overweight and obesity.

  18. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should not pay.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Lifestyle treatments can be defined as those which may have in impact on quality of life but do not affect health outcomes. Particular treatment options may be preferred by patients because they are for example, easier to use, take up less time or taste better. The impact on adherence needs to be considered. Treatment options that promote greater adherence to therapy are likely to be more efficacious and so are not, by definition, lifestyle treatments. The NHS is facing unprecedented financial pressure and resources are limited. When lifestyle treatments are more expensive than standard therapy, they should not be funded by the NHS.

  19. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should not pay.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Lifestyle treatments can be defined as those which may have in impact on quality of life but do not affect health outcomes. Particular treatment options may be preferred by patients because they are for example, easier to use, take up less time or taste better. The impact on adherence needs to be considered. Treatment options that promote greater adherence to therapy are likely to be more efficacious and so are not, by definition, lifestyle treatments. The NHS is facing unprecedented financial pressure and resources are limited. When lifestyle treatments are more expensive than standard therapy, they should not be funded by the NHS. PMID:27349724

  20. Promotion to change lifestyle: securing participation and success.

    PubMed

    George, Morris; Tanner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Corporate wellness programs designed to promote employee health are becoming increasingly popular due to their improved productivity, lower health care costs, and reduced absenteeism. The success of the lifestyle intervention measures they promote depends on employees' participation, which is a key challenge. The study uses partial least squares (PLS) path modeling and logistic regression to (a) identify, based on the health belief model, the factors likely to influence employee participation in personal coaching and health challenges, and (b) study their impact on lifestyle and overall health among participants. Results show that participation is influenced by initial lifestyle, attendance in educational events, peer influence, and communication through different channels.

  1. [Attitude of students to health and healthy life-style].

    PubMed

    Belova, N I; Burtsev, S P; Vorobtsova, E A; Martynenko, A V

    2006-01-01

    Results of sociological survey of attitude of academic first-year students to health and healthy life-style are presented. Concurrence of respondents' opinions with used in scientific literature notions "health and healthy life-style" is established. Respondents emphasized significance of dependence of health from such most vital medical social factors as bad habits, nutrition characteristics and passing leisure. Respondents expressed their opinions about means of health promotion, need of preventive check-ups, importance of being informed on issues of health maintenance. Need to include courses on healthy life-style into academic curriculum is emphasized.

  2. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all). Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05). Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05) and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05) was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05). Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05). NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05). Conclusion Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  3. Lifestyle and Self-Management by Those Who Live It: Patients Engaging Patients in a Chronic Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Michelle T; Rubinstein, Elizabeth; Eshelman, Anne; Wee, Corinne; Tankasala, Mrunalini; Li, Jia; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients pursuing organ transplantation have complex medical needs, undergo comprehensive evaluation for possible listing, and require extensive education. However, transplant patients and their supports frequently report the need for more lifestyle and self-management strategies for living with organ transplantation. Objectives: First, to explore feasibility of a successful, patient-run transplant lifestyle educational group (Transplant Living Community), designed to complement medical care and integrated into the clinical setting; and second, to report the major themes of patients’ and supports’ qualitative and quantitative feedback regarding the group. Methods: Informal programmatic review and patient satisfaction surveys. Results: A total of 1862 patient satisfaction surveys were disseminated and 823 were returned (response rate, 44.2%). Patients and their supports reported positive feedback regarding the group, including appreciation that the volunteer was a transplant recipient and gratitude for the lifestyle information. Five areas were associated with the success of Transplant Living Community: 1) a “champion” dedicated to the program and its successful integration into a multidisciplinary team; 2) a health care environment receptive to integration of a patient-led group with ongoing community development; 3) a high level of visibility to physicians and staff, patients, and supports; 4) a clearly presented and manageable lifestyle plan (“Play Your ACES”a [Attitude, Compliance, Exercise, and Support]), and 5) a strong volunteer structure with thoughtful training with the ultimate objective of volunteers taking ownership of the program. Conclusion: It is feasible to integrate a sustainable patient-led lifestyle and self-management educational group into a busy tertiary care clinic for patients with complex chronic illnesses. PMID:27455056

  4. Lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 1 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Catherine; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Gingras, Véronique; Desjardins, Katherine; Strychar, Irene; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a major upward shift in the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors (central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in patients with type 1 diabetes, which could have either an additive or a synergistic effect on risk for cardiovascular disease. These metabolic changes are occurring in parallel to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the widespread use of intensive insulin therapy. Poor lifestyle habits (poor diet quality, sedentary behaviours and smoking) are known to be driving factors for increased CMR factors in the general population. The objective of this review is to explore the lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes and its potential association with CMR factors. Evidence suggests that adherence to dietary guidelines is low in subjects with type 1 diabetes with a high prevalence of patients consuming an atherogenic diet. Sedentary habits are also more prevalent than in the general population, possibly because of the additional contribution of exercise-induced hypoglycemic fear. Moreover, the prevalence of smokers is still significant in the population with type 1 diabetes. All of these behaviours could trigger a cascade of metabolic anomalies that may contribute to increased CMR factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. The intensification of insulin treatment leading to new daily challenges (e.g. carbohydrates counting, increase of hypoglycemia) could contribute to the adoption of poor lifestyle habits. Preventive measures, such as identification of patients at high risk and promotion of lifestyle changes, should be encouraged. The most appropriate therapeutic measures remain to be established. PMID:24485215

  5. Health life-styles of lesbian and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Buenting, J A

    1992-01-01

    In this exploratory descriptive study, lesbian and heterosexual women's health life-style activities and health histories were investigated. Distribution of 200 written questionnaires by nonprobability snowball sampling obtained a sample of 79 heterosexual and lesbian women. The sample was predominantly white, middle class, and college educated. Responses to questions about participation in mental health counseling, birth control use, and pregnancy history showed significant differences between the groups. Likert scale questions were used to identify degree of participation in various health life-style activities. Alternative diet, use of meditation/relaxation techniques, and recreational drug use had significantly higher means in the lesbian group. Fulfilling family obligations, regular Pap testing, and use of prescription drugs were significantly higher among the heterosexual group. This study represents the author's initial exploration of lesbian health life-styles and describes similarities and differences in the health life-styles of lesbian and heterosexual women.

  6. Seeking Solutions to Solid Waste Management: The Role of Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stum, Marlene S.

    1992-01-01

    Offers consumer education curriculum ideas to increase understanding of households as ecosystems, analyze eco-consciousness and decision making, and examine lifestyle flexibility and the role of values. (SK)

  7. Modern Lifestyle Primary Culprit for Obesity Epidemic: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159711.html Modern Lifestyle Primary Culprit for Obesity Epidemic: Study Even people ... modern conveniences have caused people to become more sedentary, said Anthony Comuzzie, a genetic scientist with the ...

  8. Lifestyle modification in the management of obesity: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan

    2013-12-01

    Lifestyle modification therapy for overweight and obese patients combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive procedures and strategies. In completers it produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 % in about 30 weeks of treatment. However, two main issues still to be resolved are how to improve dissemination of this approach, and how to help patients maintain the healthy behavioral changes and avoid weight gain in the long term. In recent years, several strategies for promoting and maintaining lifestyle modification have been evaluated, and promising results have been achieved by individualising the treatment, delivering the intervention by phone and internet or in a community setting, and combining lifestyle modification programs with residential treatment and bariatric surgery. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for the effective management of obesity through lifestyle modification.

  9. Lifestyle Alternatives: Development and Evaluation of an Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the construction and testing of an instrument to assess attitudes toward voluntary simplicity of lifestyle. The scale consists of 120 Likert items concerning such behaviors as recycling, home production of goods, conservation of resources, and sharing of skills. (SK)

  10. 3 Lifestyle Changes to Help Prevent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161308.html 3 Lifestyle Changes To Help Prevent Breast Cancer Healthy weight, regular exercise and less alcohol could ... 2016 TUESDAY, Oct. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer ...

  11. Lifestyle, stress, and blood pressure in a southern black community.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lifestyle incongruity on blood pressure were examined in research in an African-American community in the southern United States. Lifestyle incongruity is defined as the extent to which a high status style of life (based on possession of material goods and exposure to mass media) exceeds an individual's occupational class. In a sample of 186 25- to 55-year-olds, higher arterial blood pressure was related to higher lifestyle incongruity, especially among persons aged 40-55. These effects were independent of perceived chronic social role stressors, a self-report diagnosis of hypertension, age, sex, body mass, and skin color. Future research should examine more closely those social and psychological factors that might moderate the risk associated with lifestyle incongruity.

  12. A 1.1Mb deletion in distal 13q deletion syndrome region with congenital heart defect and postaxial polydactyly: additional support for a CHD locus at distal 13q34 region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng; Ai, Qi; Huang, Can; Chen, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jian; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Jin-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, especially for group 3 deletion (13q33-q34 deletion). Previously we described a patient with congenital heart defect and mental retardation and proposed that a distal 6Mb region might contain the causative gene of congenital heart defect. Here we present a new patient with congenital heart defects (CHD), hand and foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. We identified a 1.1Mb deletion at chromosome 13q34 with high resolution SNP-array BeadChips (HumanOmni1-Quad, Illumina, USA). This chromosome region contains ten annotated genes, including GRK1, TFDP1, RASA3 and GAS6. To our knowledge, this represents the smallest 13q34 deletion identified to date. Our study provides additional support that distal 13q34 deletion region might contain key gene(s) responsible for cardiac development.

  13. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial. PMID:24480160

  14. Lifestyle and diet as risk factors for overanticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Penning-van Beest, Fernie J A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; van Meegen, Erik; Vermeer, Cees; Rosendaal, Frits R; Stricker, Bruno H C

    2002-04-01

    The risk of hemorrhage when using coumarin anticoagulants sharply increases when the International Normalized Ratio (INR) is > or =6.0. We performed a case-control study among outpatients of an anticoagulation clinic to identify sociodemographic-, lifestyle-, and dietary factors related to overanticoagulation. Three hundred cases with an INR > or =6.0 were compared with 302 randomly selected matched controls with an INR within the target zone. Age, sex, and level of education were not associated with overanticoagulation. Body mass index was negatively related to overanticoagulation, a beneath-average level of physical activity was positively related to overanticoagulation and never-smokers were more likely to have an INR > or =6.0 compared with smokers. Habitual alcohol consumption, even heavy drinking, was not related to overanticoagulation. However, a recent decrease of alcohol intake increased the risk of an INR > or =6.0. In addition, weight loss and a vacation were risk factors for overanticoagulation. Dietary factors were not associated with overanticoaguation. If risk factors can not be avoided, increased monitoring of INR values could prevent overanticoagulation and potential bleeding complications.

  15. Prison tattoos as a reflection of the criminal lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Alicia T Rozycki; Morgan, Robert D; Murray, Danielle D; Varghese, Femina

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prison tattoos and the criminal lifestyle and recidivism. Participants consisted of 81 male inmates with prison tattoos (i.e., prison-themed or prison-made tattoos), 75 inmates with nonprison tattoos (e.g., animal tattoos, tattoos of ethnic origin), 52 male inmates with no tattoos, and 66 college students with tattoos. Results indicated that inmates with prison tattoos differed from inmates with nonprison tattoos, inmates without tattoos, and college students with tattoos with regard to criminal thinking styles, were at increased risk of recidivism, and presented more institutional behavioral problems, resulting in more disciplinary infractions. There were no significant differences between inmate groups with regard to number of convictions; however, additional group comparisons indicated that inmates with visible tattoos and antisocial-themed tattoos were at greater risk for recidivism and received more disciplinary infractions than inmates without visible or antisocial-themed tattoos. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Tracing lifestyle adaptation in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle adaptation of microbes due to changes in their ecological niches or acquisition of new environments is a major driving force for genetic changes in their respective genomes. Moving into more specialized niches often results in the acquisition of new gene sets via horizontal gene transfer to utilize previously unavailable metabolites, while genetic ballast is shed by gene loss and/or gene inactivation. In some cases, larger genome rearrangements can be observed, such as the incorporation of whole genetic islands, providing a range of new phenotypic capabilities. Until recently these changes could not be comprehensively followed and identified due to the lack of complete microbial genome sequences. The advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing has dramatically changed the scientific landscape and today microbial genomes have become increasingly abundant. Currently, more than 2,900 genomes are published and more than 11,000 genome projects are listed in the Genomes Online Database. Although this wealth of information provides many new opportunities to assess microbial functionality, it also creates a new array of challenges when a comparison between multiple microbial genomes is required. Here, functional genome distribution (FGD) is introduced, analyzing the diversity between microbes based on their predicted ORFeome. FGD is therefore a comparative genomics approach, emphasizing the assessments of gene complements. To further facilitate the comparison between two or more genomes, degrees of amino-acid similarities between ORFeomes can be visualized in the Artemis comparison tool, graphically depicting small and large scale genome rearrangements, insertion and deletion events, and levels of similarity between individual open reading frames. FGD provides a new tool for comparative microbial genomics and the interpretation of differences in the genetic makeup of bacteria. PMID:22363326

  17. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses. PMID:26535569

  18. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses. PMID:26535569

  19. Lifestyle and Ice: The Relationship between Ecological Specialization and Response to Pleistocene Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Eva; Van de Putte, Anton P; Marshall, Craig; Janko, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Major climatic changes in the Pleistocene had significant effects on marine organisms and the environments in which they lived. The presence of divergent patterns of demographic history even among phylogenetically closely-related species sharing climatic changes raises questions as to the respective influence of species-specific traits on population structure. In this work we tested whether the lifestyle of Antarctic notothenioid benthic and pelagic fish species from the Southern Ocean influenced the concerted population response to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. This was done by a comparative analysis of sequence variation at the cyt b and S7 loci in nine newly sequenced and four re-analysed species. We found that all species underwent more or less intensive changes in population size but we also found consistent differences between demographic histories of pelagic and benthic species. Contemporary pelagic populations are significantly more genetically diverse and bear traces of older demographic expansions than less diverse benthic species that show evidence of more recent population expansions. Our findings suggest that the lifestyles of different species have strong influences on their responses to the same environmental events. Our data, in conjunction with previous studies showing a constant diversification tempo of these species during the Pleistocene, support the hypothesis that Pleistocene glaciations had a smaller effect on pelagic species than on benthic species whose survival may have relied upon ephemeral refugia in shallow shelf waters. These findings suggest that the interaction between lifestyle and environmental changes should be considered in genetic analyses.

  20. Healthy lifestyle by nutrition in adolescence (HELENA). A new EU funded project.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Libersa, Christian; Mesana, Maria I; Béghin, Laurent; Iliescu, Catalina; Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Dallongeville, Jean; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    The key to health promotion and disease prevention in the 21st century is to establish an environment that supports positive health behaviour and healthy lifestyle from childhood. The HELENA project includes cross-sectional, crossover and pilot community intervention multi-centre studies, as an integrated approach to the above-mentioned problem. Dietary intake, nutrition knowledge and eating attitudes, food choices and preferences, body composition, biochemical, physical activity and fitness and genotype (to analyse gene-nutrient and gene-environment interactions) assessment will provide the full information about the nutritional and lifestyle status of the European adolescents. The requirements for health promoting foods will be also identified, and three sensory acceptable products for adolescents will be developed. Harmonization and standardisation of the assessments for both scientific and technological objectives should result in reliable and comparable data of a representative sample of European adolescents. This will contribute to understand why health-related messages are not being as effective as expected in the adolescent population. A realistic intervention strategy will be proposed in order to achieve the goals of understanding and effectively enhancing nutritional and lifestyle habits of adolescents in Europe.

  1. How body mass and lifestyle affect juvenile biomass production in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Grady, John M; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H

    2014-02-22

    In mammals, the mass-specific rate of biomass production during gestation and lactation, here called maternal productivity, has been shown to vary with body size and lifestyle. Metabolic theory predicts that post-weaning growth of offspring, here termed juvenile productivity, should be higher than maternal productivity, and juveniles of smaller species should be more productive than those of larger species. Furthermore because juveniles generally have similar lifestyles to their mothers, across species juvenile and maternal productivities should be correlated. We evaluated these predictions with data from 270 species of placental mammals in 14 taxonomic/lifestyle groups. All three predictions were supported. Lagomorphs, perissodactyls and artiodactyls were very productive both as juveniles and as mothers as expected from the abundance and reliability of their foods. Primates and bats were unproductive as juveniles and as mothers, as expected as an indirect consequence of their low predation risk and consequent low mortality. Our results point the way to a mechanistic explanation for the suite of correlated life-history traits that has been called the slow-fast continuum.

  2. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  3. The Adolescent Lifestyle Profile: development and psychometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Constance; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Pender, Nola

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents establish patterns of behavior and make lifestyle choices that affect their future health during their transition from childhood to adulthood. They struggle with behaviors, such as physical activity and nutrition, which will affect their risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. A comprehensive, easy to administer instrument is needed that is both research worthy and clinically useful in order to assess adolescent lifestyle behaviors and to plan interventions appropriately. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and testing of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile (ALP), a Likert-type instrument to measure seven domains of a health-promoting lifestyle in adolescents. The ALP was modeled after the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) and tested in a sample of early adolescents. Internal consistency reliability, including Cronbach's alpha, item to total correlations and subscale to total scale correlations and construct validity, including concurrent validity testing and factor analysis, indicated that the ALP is a reliable and valid scale that can be used to assess healthy lifestyle domains in adolescents.

  4. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  5. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311

  6. Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Khera, Shveta; Vempati, R P; Sharma, Ratna; Bijlani, R L

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence exists for the place of mind body medicine in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Excessive anxiety is maladaptive. It is often considered to be the major component of unhealthy lifestyle that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of not only psychiatric but also many other systemic disorders. Among the approaches to reduce the level of anxiety has been the search for healthy lifestyles. The aim of the study was to study the short-term impact of a comprehensive but brief lifestyle intervention, based on yoga, on anxiety levels in normal and diseased subjects. The study was the result of operational research carried out in the Integral Health Clinic (IHC) at the Department of Physiology of All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The subjects had history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, 'stress'), gastrointestinal problems (non ulcer dyspepsia, duodenal ulcers, irritable bowel disease, Crohn's disease, chronic constipation) and thyroid disorders (hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism). The intervention consisted of asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, group support, individualized advice, and lectures and films on philosophy of yoga, the place of yoga in daily life, meditation, stress management, nutrition, and knowledge about the illness. The outcome measures were anxiety scores, taken on the first and last day of the course. Anxiety scores, both state and trait anxiety were significantly reduced. Among the diseased subjects significant improvement was seen in the anxiety levels of patients of hypertension, coronary artery disease, obesity, cervical spondylitis and those with psychiatric disorders. The observations suggest that a short educational programme for lifestyle modification and stress management leads to remarkable reduction in the anxiety scores within a period of 10 days.

  7. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness.

  8. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:27233056

  9. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  10. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  11. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  12. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  13. Effects of cardiovascular lifestyle change on lipoprotein subclass profiles defined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Decewicz, David J; Neatrour, David M; Burke, Amy; Haberkorn, Mary Jane; Patney, Heather L; Vernalis, Marina N; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2009-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering is a primary goal in clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, but traditional cholesterol levels may not accurately reflect the true atherogenicity of plasma lipid profiles. The size and concentration of lipoprotein particles, which transport cholesterol and triglycerides, may provide additional information for accurately assessing cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in patients participating in a prospective, nonrandomized lifestyle modification program designed to reverse or stabilize progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve our understanding of lipoprotein management in cardiac patients. Results The lifestyle intervention was effective in producing significant changes in lipoprotein subclasses that contribute to CAD risk. There was a clear beneficial effect on the total number of LDL particles (-8.3%, p < 0.05 compared to matched controls), small dense LDL particles (-9.5%, p < 0.05), and LDL particle size (+0.8%; p < 0.05). Likewise, participants showed significant improvement in traditional CAD risk factors such as body mass index (-9.9%, p < 0.01 compared to controls), total cholesterol (-5.5%, p < 0.05), physical fitness (+37.2%, p < 0.01), and future risk for CAD (-7.9%, p < 0.01). Men and women responded differently to the program for all clinically-relevant variables, with men deriving greater benefit in terms of lipoprotein atherogenicity. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to the lifestyle change program were not confounded by lipid-lowering medications. Conclusion In at risk patients motivated to participate, an intensive lifestyle change program can effectively alter traditional CAD risk factors and plasma lipoprotein subclasses and may reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Improvements in lipoprotein subclasses are more evident in men compared to

  14. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  15. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  16. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  17. Developing food-based dietary guidelines to promote healthy diets and lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Albert, Janice L; Samuda, Pauline M; Molina, Verónika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the general population in each of these countries. This paper reports on the comprehensive process of developing the guidelines through consensus building among stakeholders, technical assessments and priority setting, and use of qualitative methods to field test messages to ensure public understanding and motivation. Nutritionists in each country received training and support from the Food and Agriculture Organization and the Pan American Health Organization's nutritionists.

  18. Dissecting endophytic lifestyle along the parasitism/mutualism continuum in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fesel, Philipp H; Zuccaro, Alga

    2016-08-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi often occur in the rhizosphere, although examples exist where shoot-endophytes support host growth and increase resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Fungal endophytes which colonize their hosts without any visible disease symptoms have been recognized to be fundamental components of various ecosystems. Initial efforts have been taken to decipher the genetic basis of beneficial plant-fungus interactions and of lifestyle transitions. This review gives a short overview on well established experimental systems amenable to genetic manipulation and of known genome sequence for dissecting plant-fungal endophyte interactions with a special focus on Arabidopsis thaliana associations. PMID:27280851

  19. The development of the Lifestyle and Habits Questionnaire-brief version: relationship to quality of life and stress in college students.

    PubMed

    Dinzeo, Thomas J; Thayasivam, Umashanger; Sledjeski, Eve M

    2014-02-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary evaluation of the Lifestyle and Habits Questionnaire-brief version (LHQ-B). Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate students (ages 18-25) participated. Responses were collected through either a web-based or face-to-face survey. Data reductive procedures were used with a preexisting lifestyle inventory to create an abbreviated measure. The relationship between lifestyle domains and indicators of wellbeing (levels of stress and quality of life (QOL)) were also examined. Eight lifestyle domains, encompassing 42 items, were identified and found to have good psychometric properties. The resulting LHQ-B measure can be self-administered/scored and contains norm-referenced feedback. The domains of psychological health, physical health and exercise, and sense of purpose were the best predictors of QOL while psychological health, social concern, and the accident prevention domains predicted levels of stress. The results support the use of the LHQ-B in lifestyle research or as a self-administered measure promoting self-awareness of lifestyle behaviors/attitudes in young adults (18-25 years).

  20. Public Health Genomics and Genetic Test Evaluation: The Challenge of Conducting Behavioural Research on the Utility of Lifestyle-Genetic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E.

    2008-01-01

    Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of ‘lifestyle-genetic’ tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for selling these tests in advance of scientific support. Others are concerned that the tests may not motivate lifestyle improvements, instead causing distress in people receiving adverse test results and complacency in those receiving reassuring results. There is currently no regulatory oversight of genetic test utility, despite consensus in the Public Health Genomics community that clinical utility (including psychological and behavioural impact) of all emerging genetic tests should be evaluated before being introduced for individual use. Clearly, empirical data in this area is much needed, to inform understanding of the potential utility of these tests, and of whether stricter regulation of commercial exploitation is needed. In this article, we review the current situation regarding lifestyle-genetic tests, and discuss the challenges inherent in conducting this kind of behavioural research in the genomics era. PMID:19776630

  1. Imagine HEALTH: results from a randomized pilot lifestyle intervention for obese Latino adolescents using Interactive Guided ImagerySM

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    of intervention group and other relevant co-variates. Conclusions The improvements in physical activity and stress biomarkers following this pilot intervention support the role of guided imagery in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and reducing metabolic disease risk in obese Latino adolescent populations. Future investigations will be needed to determine the full effects of the Imagine HEALTH intervention on insulin resistance, stress, and stress biomarkers. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Registry #: NCT01895595 PMID:24433565

  2. Understanding experiences of participating in a weight loss lifestyle intervention trial: a qualitative evaluation of South Asians at high risk of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Zoe; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    additional and in some cases unachievable burden. Consideration needs to be given to strengthening and supporting lifestyle interventions with community-based approaches in order to help overcome wider social and environmental factors. PMID:24951108

  3. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed. PMID:25248655

  4. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  5. Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves In contemporary societies, bodily size is an important part of individuals' self-representation. As the number of persons clinically diagnosed as morbidly obese increases, programmes are developed to make people reduce weight by changing their lifestyle, and for some, by bariatric surgery. This article presents findings from interviews with 12 participants undergoing a prerequisite course prior to bariatric surgery that is intended both as a preparation for further (surgical) treatment and as a tool to empower individuals regarding lifestyle changes. In this study, we investigate how power operates by looking at how the participants position themselves throughout the course. Findings reveal how participants construct their ability to act in line with norms of lifestyle change. They do this by positioning themselves as both included group members and as 'morally' acceptable individuals. Despite some resistance, the participants tend to glide into the role of 'good patients' acting in compliance with the aims of the course in their hope and striving for new positions as 'normal-sized'. The intention in the course is to empower individuals towards lifestyle changes. The findings provide a basis to question whether these kinds of courses create new forms of compliance and dependency. PMID:22050620

  6. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and melanoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, A J; Rambhatla, P V; Eide, M J

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of social determinants of disease and awareness of the impact of these factors on outcomes continues to increase. Social determinants include both socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. This review examines the interface between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle and their effects on melanoma incidence and mortality. Lifestyle factors including occupation, occupational exposures, body mass index, marital status, smoking, recreational sun exposure and tanning were explored as they have a known relationship with melanoma. A remarkable association of SES with melanoma incidence and prognosis has been acknowledged worldwide. Melanoma incidence is increased in populations of higher SES, especially among the highly educated, while lower SES populations present with later-stage disease at time of diagnosis and display greater mortality. The aforementioned lifestyle factors are also related to SES, and have been shown internationally to affect melanoma incidence and mortality. This comprehensive systematic review suggests that lifestyle factors including occupation, occupational exposure, obesity, recreational sun exposure and tanning may explain the relationship between SES and melanoma.

  7. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  8. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed.

  9. Sustainability of lifestyle changes following an intensive lifestyle intervention in insulin resistant adults: Follow-up at 2-years.

    PubMed

    Dale, Kelly S; Mann, Jim I; McAuley, Kirsten A; Williams, Sheila M; Farmer, Victoria L

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether overweight insulin resistant individuals who lost weight and improved cardiovascular risk factors during a 4-month lifestyle intervention could sustain these lifestyle changes in the long-term. Seventy-nine insulin resistant adults were randomised to a control group or either a modest or intensive lifestyle intervention group for 4-months. Thereafter the two intervention groups were combined and all participants were followed-up at 8, 12 and 24 months. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin and aerobic fitness were measured and dietary intake was assessed. An interview was conducted to determine factors which participants perceived facilitated or hindered maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits. Seventy-two (91.1%), sixty-nine (87.3%) and sixty-two (78.5%) participants were retained at 8, 12 and 24-month respectively. At 4-months the adjusted difference in weight between the modest and control groups was -3.4 kg (95% CI -5.4, -1.3) p=0.002 and intensive and control groups was -4.7 kg (-6.9, -2.4) p=0.0001 respectively. At 2-years there were no significant differences for weight when the initial 3 groups were compared or when the combined intervention group was compared with the control group. At 2-years, 64% of participants reported that more frequent follow-up would have helped them to maintain healthy lifestyle habits. Even intensive counselling for 4-months with 4-monthly and then yearly monitoring were not enough for maintaining lifestyle changes sufficient to sustain weight loss. More frequent monitoring for an indefinite period was perceived by two-thirds of participants as necessary for them to maintain their initial lifestyle changes.

  10. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  11. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  12. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. Objective: We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45–75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). Results: The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31–0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (−0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (−0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (−0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (−0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P < 0.005). No significant associations were observed for other individual lifestyle components. Conclusions: Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto

  13. Bowel health to better health: a minimal contact lifestyle intervention for people at increased risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Stephen; Anderson, Annie S; Steele, Robert J C

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal cancer screening forms part of Scotland's cancer reduction strategy. Screened participants, who had undergone colonoscopy and had adenoma(s) removed, were invited to participate in the bowel health to better health (BHBH) programme. BHBH tested the hypothesis that a minimal contact lifestyle intervention could prove effective in promoting changes in diet and activity. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires on lifestyle and psycho-social measures were undertaken in adults randomised to BHBH or a comparison group (CG). The 3-month intervention comprised personalised lifestyle advice, goal-setting and social support to promote increases in physical activity, fibre, fruit and vegetables. Response rate to BHBH was 51 %. BHBH participants (n 32) increased their intake of fibre (DINE FFQ scores 30 (sd 11)-41 (sd 13)) significantly (P < 0.001) more than the CG (n 30; 31 (sd 8)-30 (sd 11). No significant differences between the groups were detected for changes in fruits, vegetables and moderate activity. At baseline, only one participant from each study arm, met the target recommendations for fibre, fruit and vegetable intakes and physical activity. At follow up a significant number of BHBH participants, 15 (47 %) compared to 4 (13 %) of the CG were achieving all three lifestyle recommendations (chi2 (1, n 62) = 8.196, P = 0.006). If sustained, the positive behaviour change achieved through this intervention has the potential to impact on the progression of chronic disease risk including CVD.

  14. Difference of lifestyle advice between traditional Chinese medical doctors (TCMDs) and Western-style medical doctors (WSMDs) in People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, W Y; Chen, W W; Chen, L; Wang, G

    1995-07-01

    The role of physicians in providing lifestyle advice is very important in disease prevention and health promotion. This study was designed to examine (a) the difference of lifestyle advice provided for general practice patients between traditional Chinese medical doctors (TCMDs) and Western-style medical doctors (WSMDs), (b) the difference of lifestyle advice provided for cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients between the TCMDs and WSMDs, (c) the difference of lifestyle advice provided for general practice and CVD patients by the TCMDs, and (d) the difference of lifestyle advice provided for general practice and CVD patients by the WSMDs. One thousand four-hundred and thirty general practice patient records and 640 CVD patient records from a Western-style medical hospital, and 1620 general practice records and 830 CVD patient records from a traditional Chinese medical hospital were selected for comparison. Results indicated that TCMDs were more likely to provide nutrition, exercise, and stress management for their patients than WSMDs. On the other hand, WSMDs were more likely to provide smoking and alcohol consumption for their patients than the TCMDs. In addition, both TCMDs and WSMDs were more likely to provide all categories of lifestyle advice for their CVD patients than their general practice patients.

  15. Extensive internet involvement--addiction or emerging lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-12-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing "addiction-like" behavioral disorders such as "Internet addiction" to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use--PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of "behavioral addictions", based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to "time" and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills.

  16. Extensive Internet Involvement—Addiction or Emerging Lifestyle?

    PubMed Central

    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson; Bergmark, Anders; Findahl, Olle

    2011-01-01

    In the discussions for the future DSM-5, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group has been addressing “addiction-like” behavioral disorders such as “Internet addiction” to possibly be considered as potential additions for the diagnostic system. Most research aiming to specify and define the concept of Internet addiction (or: Excessive/Compulsive/Problematic Internet Use—PIU), takes its point of departure in conventional terminology for addiction, based in established DSM indicators. Still, it is obvious that the divide between characteristics of addiction and dimensions of new lifestyles built on technological progress is problematic and far from unambiguous. Some of these research areas are developing from the neurobiological doctrine of addiction as not being tied to specific substances. The concept of “behavioral addictions”, based on biological mechanisms such as the reward systems of the brain, has been launched. The problems connected to this development are in this study discussed and reflected with data from a Swedish survey on Internet use (n = 1,147). Most Swedes (85%) do use the Internet to some degree. The prevalence of excessive use parallels other similar countries. Respondents in our study spend (mean value) 9.8 hours per week online at home, only 5 percent spend more than 30 hours per week. There are both positive and negative social effects at hand. Many respondents have more social contacts due to the use of Internet, but there is a decline in face-to-face contacts. About 40% of the respondents indicate some experience of at least one problem related to Internet use, but only 1.8% marked the presence of all problems addressed. Most significant predictors for problem indicators, except for age, relate to “time” and time consuming activities such as gaming, other activities online or computer skills. PMID:22408585

  17. In our country tortilla doesn't make us fat: cultural factors influencing lifestyle goal-setting for overweight and obese Urban, Latina patients.

    PubMed

    Jay, Melanie; Gutnick, Damara; Squires, Allison; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Gerchow, Lauren; Savarimuthu, Stella; Chintapalli, Sumana; Shedlin, Michele G; Kalet, Adina

    2014-11-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latina adults, and goal-setting is a technique often used to promote lifestyle behavior change and weight loss. To explore the meanings and dimensions of goal-setting in immigrant Latinas, we conducted four focus groups arranged by language ability and country of origin in an urban, public, primary care clinic. We used a narrative analytic approach to identify the following themes: the immigrant experience, family dynamics, and health care. Support was a common sub-theme that threaded throughout, with participants relying on the immigrant community, family, and the health care system to support their goals. Participants derived satisfaction from setting and achieving goals and emphasized personal willpower as crucial for success. These findings should inform future research on how goal-setting can be used to foster lifestyle behavior change and illustrate the importance of exploring the needs of Latino sub-groups in order to improve lifestyle behaviors in diverse Latino populations.

  18. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  19. Health lifestyles: audience segmentation analysis for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Flora, J A

    1991-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application of market segmentation techniques in order to improve the planning and implementation of public health education programs. Seven distinctive patterns of health attitudes, social influences, and behaviors are identified using cluster analytic techniques in a sample drawn from four central California cities, and are subjected to construct and predictive validation: The lifestyle clusters predict behaviors including seatbelt use, vitamin C use, and attention to health information. The clusters also predict self-reported improvements in health behavior as measured in a two-year follow-up survey, e.g., eating less salt and losing weight, and self-reported new moderate and new vigorous exercise. Implications of these lifestyle clusters for public health education and intervention planning, and the larger potential of lifestyle clustering techniques in public health efforts, are discussed.

  20. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  1. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures.

  2. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people.

  3. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  4. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  5. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  6. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  7. Lifestyle Assessment: Part 4. The Halton Health Promotion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R.; Albert, W.; Wilson, D. M. C.; Ciliska, D.; Evans, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    In the Region of Halton, a health promotion data base was developed to assist with planning for local services and programs. Three data sources were used: preventable mortality, preventable morbidity, and the prevalence of modifiable risk among community members. Existing information was used for the first two sources, and the community was surveyed for the last. A survey version of the FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 households. FANTASTIC showed itself to be a reliable lifestyle construct with two major factors: a group of psychosocial behaviors, and a set of “bad habits”.

  8. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2006-09-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.

  9. Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41–60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. PMID:22254039

  10. Beliefs and attitudes toward vegetarian lifestyle across generations.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41-60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle.

  11. Osteoporosis prevention and management: nonpharmacologic and lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Mindy S; Shen, Wen

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate current evidence regarding the use of dietary and exercise interventions to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The key lifestyle modifications that can decrease risk of fracture in postmenopausal women include regular weight-bearing exercise and a balanced diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Other modifiable lifestyle factors critical to bone health and to decrease fracture risk include the avoidance of smoking, an excessively low body weight, excessive alcohol intake, and fall risks at home. Emerging modifiable factors may include B-vitamin, omega-3 fatty acid, soy isoflavone, and dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation.

  12. Starting young: promoting a healthy lifestyle with children.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Laura L

    2010-01-01

    Data accumulated over the past 4 decades provide convincing evidence that confirms the associations between established risk factors, adverse health behaviors, and accelerated atherosclerotic and hypertensive processes in childhood and adolescence. Patterns of major lifestyle behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease are established early in childhood and influence risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood and adolescence as well as in adulthood. Within a life course ecological framework, this article summarizes the evidence for "starting young," identifies behaviors and contexts as targets for health-promoting lifestyle interventions, and addresses implications for individual and population-based practice, future research, and multilevel policies.

  13. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression.

  14. The Impact of a Web-Based App (eBalance) in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Zecharia; R Shahar, Danit

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Web-based apps to promote a healthy lifestyle is increasing, although most of these programs were not assessed using suitable epidemiological methods. We evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed Web-based app in promoting a healthy lifestyle and educating adults on such lifestyles. We also analyzed predictors for success in acquiring and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Objective Our aim was to compare people receiving a new Web-based app with people who got an introductory lecture alone on healthy lifestyle, weight change, nutritional knowledge, and physical activity, and to identify predictors of success for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Methods Subjects were recruited from the community and were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention subjects received access to the app without any face-to-face support; the control subjects continued their standard lifestyle. Measurements were taken by the researcher at baseline and after 14 weeks and included weight and waist circumference. Nutritional knowledge, diet quality, and physical activity duration were obtained using online questionnaires. The new Web-based app was developed based on current US Department of Agriculture and Israel Ministry of Health recommendations for healthy lifestyle. The app provides tools for monitoring diet and physical activity while instructing and encouraging healthy diet and physical activity. Results Out of 99 subjects who were randomized into app and control groups, 85 participants (86%) completed the study, 56 in the intervention and 29 in the control group. The mean age was 47.9 (SD 12.3) years, and mean Body Mass Index was 26.2 (SD 3.9). Among the intervention group only, frequency of app use was 2.7 (SD 1.9) days/week. The mean change in physical activity was 63 (SD 20.8) minutes in the app group and -30 (SD 27.5) minutes in the control group (P=.02). The mean weight change was -1.44 (SD 0.4) kg in the app group and -0.128 (SD

  15. Urge-specific and lifestyle coping strategies of cocaine abusers: relationships to treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Martin, Rosemarie A; Monti, Peter M

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated specific coping techniques for effectiveness in reducing cocaine use after treatment. The urge-specific strategies questionnaire-cocaine (USS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 strategies for coping with urges. The general change strategies questionnaire-cocaine (GCS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 lifestyle change strategies designed to maintain abstinence. Cocaine-dependent patients were assessed at follow-up after residential treatment for USS-C (n=59 at 3 months, 84 at 6 months), GCS-C (n=89 at 3 months, 120 at 6 months) and substance use. Less cocaine use was associated with urge coping by thinking about negative or positive consequences, alternative behaviors, distraction, relaxation/meditation, escape, offer refusal, spiritual methods, behavior chains, mastery messages, problem-solving, meeting or sponsor, or seeking social support. The lifestyle change strategies of thinking about consequences, working toward goals, thinking of oneself as sober, clean recreation, regular relaxation, avoiding temptations, not carrying much money, living with clean people, seeking social support, spiritual involvement, keeping busy, and health activities were also associated with less cocaine use. Results suggest focusing coping skills training on these potentially effective strategies.

  16. Healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: an assessment of their persuasive potential.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and analyse the content of previously produced and aired adult-targeted public health advertisements (ads) addressing weight, nutrition or physical activity internationally. Ads were identified via keyword searches of Google, YouTube and websites of relevant government agencies and health organizations, and were eligible for inclusion if they were: in English; produced between 2007 and 2012; targeted at adults; ≤60 s; not promoting a particular commercial brand of food, fitness or weight loss product. Of the 99 ads coded, 59% featured supportive/encouraging messages, 36% presented information about health consequences and 17% focussed on social norms/acceptability issues. Supportive/encouraging messages were more frequently used in physical activity ads, while there were a higher proportion of messages about health consequences in weight ads. Execution style differed across lifestyle topics, with simulation/animation more common in nutrition ads and graphic images and negative personal testimonials in weight ads. Ads addressing weight were more likely to evoke high negative emotion and include potentially stigmatizing content. Understanding how weight and lifestyle issues have been addressed in recent public health advertising will help guide future efforts to test the effectiveness of different message types in facilitating positive behaviour changes. PMID:26152146

  17. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p < .001), education (β = .239, p < .001), and gender (β = .238, p < .001) were significant determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in multivariate analysis. Ethnicity and religious attendance were not significant determinants. Education level had a moderating effect; for those with a lower educational level, psychological distress had a stronger negative effect on health behavior. Findings suggest considering cultural aspects, such as different values placed on physical fitness and social/interpersonal relationships, in developing and implementing health education and/or promotion programs. Assessment of psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) should also be included in health promotion programs and related health policies for Korean migrants and Arab nationals in the UAE.

  18. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p < .001), education (β = .239, p < .001), and gender (β = .238, p < .001) were significant determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in multivariate analysis. Ethnicity and religious attendance were not significant determinants. Education level had a moderating effect; for those with a lower educational level, psychological distress had a stronger negative effect on health behavior. Findings suggest considering cultural aspects, such as different values placed on physical fitness and social/interpersonal relationships, in developing and implementing health education and/or promotion programs. Assessment of psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) should also be included in health promotion programs and related health policies for Korean migrants and Arab nationals in the UAE. PMID:25620727

  19. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  20. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  1. Service as Learning, Life-Style, and Faculty Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duley, John

    1977-01-01

    Examples of service-learning at Stanford and Michigan State illustrate one dimension of the service function and point to two other dimensions as life-style possibilities for students and career goals for faculty. Specific programs and their rationale are described. (Editor/LBH)

  2. Job-Sharing Couples in Academia: Career and Family Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikitka, Kathleen F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates careers and family life-styles of 20 job-sharing couples in faculty positions at 12 colleges. Information was gathered about the couples' reasons for becoming involved in job sharing, conditions of their employment, their division of professional and household labor, their satisfaction with the job-sharing arrangement, and their…

  3. Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

  4. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  5. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  6. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:25929408

  7. Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Khan, Zulfia; Ansari, M Athar; Khalique, Najam; Anees, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results: Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention. PMID:22279255

  8. The role of lifestyle in preventing low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Chomitz, V R; Cheung, L W; Lieberman, E

    1995-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors such as cigarette smoking, weight gain during pregnancy, and use of other drugs play an important role in determining fetal growth. The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and low birth weight is complex and is affected by psychosocial, economic, and biological factors. Cigarette smoking is the largest known risk factor for low birth weight. Approximately 20% of all low birth weight could be avoided if women did not smoke during pregnancy. Reducing heavy use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy could also reduce the rate of low birth weight births. Pregnancy and the prospect of pregnancy provide an important window of opportunity to improve women's health and the health of children. The adoption before or during pregnancy of more healthful lifestyle behaviors, such as ceasing to smoke, eating an adequate diet and gaining enough weight during pregnancy, and ceasing heavy drug use, can positively affect the long-term health of women and the health of their infants. Detrimental lifestyles can be modified, but successful modification will require large-scale societal changes. In the United States, these societal changes should include a focus on preventive health, family-centered workplace policies, and changes in social norms.

  9. New lifestyle drugs and somatoform disorders in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Seikowski, K; Hermes, B; Gieler, U

    2008-02-01

    An increasing number of healthy individuals make use of 'lifestyle' drugs, such as nootropics, psychopharmaca, hormones and eco-drugs. In this respect, the fact that many people try to improve their outer appearance, solve their 'cosmetic problems', influence their rate of hair growth and altogether delay, halt or even reverse the natural ageing process has become a relevant matter for the practising dermatologist. Lifestyle drugs in dermatology are taken in an attempt to increase personal life quality by means of attaining a certain, psychosocially defined beauty ideal. They are not taken to manage a medically identifiable, well-defined disease. Often, patients suffering from somatoform disorders, such as hypochondriac disorders, body dysmorphic disorders, somatization disorders or persistent somatoform pain disorders, may spontaneously ask physicians, in particular dermatologists and plastic surgeons, to prescribe them lifestyle drugs. Typically, patients repeatedly present with alleged 'physical symptoms' that turn out to be subjective complaints without any underlying identifiable medical disease. The use of lifestyle drugs without any proper medical indication may lead to a chronification of the emotional disorders that had ultimately been the cause of the patients' request for such drugs. Such disorders may need to be treated promptly with psychotherapy and/or appropriate psychopharmacotherapy, and the choice of the treatment requires an accurate differential diagnostic approach.

  10. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  11. Freshman Orientation Sessions Can Teach Incoming Students about Healthful Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Waldrop, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This GEM describes the "Freshman 15 Jeopardy" workshop, a 30-minute nutrition education session aimed to expose incoming college freshmen to the college food environment, to increase their awareness of factors that cause weight gain, and to instruct them on lifestyle choices they could employ to prevent weight gain. This short workshop has not…

  12. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  13. The Education and Lifestyle of the Chinese Literati. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    This teaching package describes the education and lifestyle of the Chinese literati, popular from the Ming to the Qing dynasties (1368-1911). It consists of four lesson plans and a teacher's guide to a slide set. The latter illustrates painting formats popular during the late Ming period (1573-1644), hanging scrolls, handscrolls, the album leaf,…

  14. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the "normal-weight metabolically obese" phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority.

  15. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development. PMID:26923982

  16. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  17. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The hypothesis that…

  18. Lifestyle determinants for social activity levels among the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Aoki, R; Ohno, Y; Tamakoshi, A; Kawakami, N; Nagai, M; Hashimoto, S; Ikari, A; Shimizu, H; Sakata, K; Kawamura, T; Wakai, K; Senda, M

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey to a total of 5239 elderly persons in four areas in Japan in 1993, which inquired about past lifestyles and present social activities. Based on the survey data, we first developed social activity measures, and then examined associations of the present total social activity measure with past lifestyles and physical conditions. The lifestyles significantly associated with high social activity after 65 years of age were 'high educational attainment'; having been 'healthy', 'plump', 'physically active' and 'having had hobbies' at about 50 years of age; and having 'frequent intake of many kinds of foods' during 30-50 years of age. Intake during 30-50 years of age of Japanese-style foods (rice, soybean paste soup, bean curd, pickles), noodles, beans, plant roots and potatoes was not significantly linked with the social activity levels at old age in either males or females. The same was true for smoking and drinking habits at about 50 years of age. Our findings essentially suggest the importance of a positive attitude at middle age to maintain and promote health status and improve lifestyles in order to attain high social activity at old age.

  19. Advertising a "Healthy Lifestyle:" A Cypriot Health Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a health education program entitled "Young Consumer" project, financed by the European Union and implemented by the Cyprus Consumer Association between March and June 2004. The aim of the project was to promote a healthy lifestyle among a group of Cypriot primary school pupils (11-12 years old). Participants were asked to…

  20. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  1. Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary, Physically Active Lifestyle Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Marybeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fit for life program at a university and to use the findings from an extensive literature review, consultations with formative and summative committees, and data collection to develop an interdisciplinary, physically active lifestyle (IPAL) course model. To address the 5 research questions examined in…

  2. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development.

  3. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases.

  4. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  5. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  6. Obesity and headache/migraine: the importance of weight reduction through lifestyle modifications.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Di Fonzo, Alessia; Penta, Laura; Agostinelli, Sergio; Parisi, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a possible relationship between prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine and obesity. All pertinent data from the literature have been critically examined and reviewed in order to assess the possible relationship between obesity and migraine, in particular migraine frequency and disability in children, as well as in adult population studies. Prevalence, frequency, and severity of migraine appear to increase in relation to the body mass index, although this evidence is not supported by all the studies examined. Data from literature suggest that obesity can be linked with migraine prevalence, frequency, and disability both in pediatric and adult subjects. These data have important clinical implications and suggest that clinicians should have a special interest for weight reduction of obese children suffering from migraine, prescribing and supporting intensive lifestyle modifications (dietary, physical activities, and behavioral) for the patient and the entire family.

  7. Differential Gene Expression in Colon Tissue Associated With Diet, Lifestyle, and Related Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Pellatt, Daniel F; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Several diet and lifestyle factors may impact health by influencing oxidative stress levels. We hypothesize that level of cigarette smoking, alcohol, anti-inflammatory drugs, and diet alter gene expression. We analyzed RNA-seq data from 144 colon cancer patients who had information on recent cigarette smoking, recent alcohol consumption, diet, and recent aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use. Using a false discovery rate of 0.1, we evaluated gene differential expression between high and low levels of exposure using DESeq2. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to determine networks associated with de-regulated genes in our data. We identified 46 deregulated genes associated with recent cigarette use; these genes enriched causal networks regulated by TEK and MAP2K3. Different differentially expressed genes were associated with type of alcohol intake; five genes were associated with total alcohol, six were associated with beer intake, six were associated with wine intake, and four were associated with liquor consumption. Recent use of aspirin and/or ibuprofen was associated with differential expression of TMC06, ST8SIA4, and STEAP3 while a summary oxidative balance score (OBS) was associated with SYCP3, HDX, and NRG4 (all up-regulated with greater oxidative balance). Of the dietary antioxidants and carotenoids evaluated only intake of beta carotene (1 gene), Lutein/Zeaxanthine (5 genes), and Vitamin E (4 genes) were associated with differential gene expression. There were similarities in biological function of de-regulated genes associated with various dietary and lifestyle factors. Our data support the hypothesis that diet and lifestyle factors associated with oxidative stress can alter gene expression. However genes altered were unique to type of alcohol and type of antioxidant. Because of potential differences in associations observed between platforms these findings need replication in other populations. PMID:26230583

  8. The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and stress are among the most common lifestyle-related health problems. Most of the current disease prevention and management models are not satisfactorily cost-effective and hardly reach those who need them the most. Therefore, novel evidence-based controlled interventions are necessary to evaluate models for prevention and treatment based on self-management. This randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress. The offered interventions are based on cognitive behavioral approaches, and are designed for enhancing general well-being and supporting personalized lifestyle changes. Methods/Design 339 obese individuals reporting stress symptoms were recruited and randomized to either (1) a minimal contact web-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) intervention including an approach of health assessment and coaching methods, (2) a mobile-guided intervention comprising of mindfulness, acceptance and value-based exercises, (3) a face-to-face group intervention using mindfulness, acceptance and value-based approach, or (4) a control group. The participants were measured three times during the study (pre = week 0, post = week 10, and follow-up = week 36). Psychological well-being, lifestyles and habits, eating behaviors, and user experiences were measured using online surveys. Laboratory measurements for physical well-being and general health were performed including e.g. liver function, thyroid glands, kidney function, blood lipids and glucose levels and body composition analysis. In addition, a 3-day ambulatory heart rate and 7-day movement data were collected for analyzing stress, recovery, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Food intake data were collected with a 48 -hour diet recall interview via telephone. Differences in the effects of the interventions would be

  9. Participants' perceptions of a lifestyle approach to promoting physical activity: targeting deprived communities in Kingston-Upon-Hull

    PubMed Central

    Wormald, Helen; Waters, Heidi; Sleap, Mike; Ingle, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background The health benefits of an active lifestyle have been extensively documented and generally accepted. In the UK, declining physical activity levels are a major contributing factor to a number of public health concerns such as obesity and coronary heart disease. Clearly, there is an urgent need to support people in developing sustainable active lifestyles. In 2003, a new lifestyle-based physical activity service called Active Lifestyles (AL) was set up in Kingston-upon-Hull to help local residents to become more active and develop healthier lifestyles. The service targeted the most deprived communities in the city. The aim of the study was to explore participants' perceptions of the operation and effectiveness of the AL service. Methods Five focus groups were conducted in community centres and offices in the health promotion service in Kingston-upon-Hull. Sixteen white adult males (n = 5) and females (n = 11) participated in the study. Ages ranged from 15–73 years (mean age = 53 years). Data were analysed using a content analysis technique based on the 'framework' approach. Results Three broad themes emerged from the focus groups; the referral process; operational aspects of the AL service; and perceived benefits of the service. Overall, participants were extremely positive about the AL service. Many reported increased activity levels, modified eating habits, and enhanced awareness and education regarding healthier living. Most participants reported that local awareness of the AL service was low and greater promotion was required so more people could benefit. The success of the service was highly dependent upon the qualities and approach of the AL advisor. Conclusion The service appears to have filled a gap in service provision since it offered support to the most sedentary, older, unfit and overweight individuals, many of whom live in the most deprived parts of Kingston-upon-Hull. Traditional exercise referral schemes that focus solely on facility

  10. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Grzymski, Joseph J.; Marsh, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text–identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function. PMID:24828817

  11. Evaluation of the psychoeducation given to the elderly at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tambağ, Hatice; Öz, Fatma

    2013-12-01

    The research was carried out as a pre-test, post-test patterned intervention with one group in order to evaluate the psychoeducation given to older people at nursing homes for a healthy lifestyle and developing life satisfaction. The research was done with 21 female and 21 male older people staying at the state-owned Seyran Bağlari Nursing Home/Elderly Caring Rehabilitation Center and the Ümitköy Nursing Home. In the psychoeducation program, each session was conducted for a duration of 60-90 min in the nursing homes' education classrooms. After the psychoeducation program, the life satisfaction index, the health promotion lifestyle profile total, and the subscale (nutrition, health responsibility, self realization, stress management, interpersonal support, and exercise) mean scores, significantly increased statistically. It is suggested that the nursing homes' health workers, and especially nurses who work full-time, should promote such psychoeducation. PMID:23400690

  12. The Interplay between Media Use and Interpersonal Communication in the Context of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Reinforcing or Substituting?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how media use for health information and interpersonal health communication interact in the context of healthy lifestyle behaviors. This study hypothesizes that media use for health information and interpersonal health communication will serve as substitutes for one another. To test this hypothesis, this study uses a nationally representative survey of 2,107 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults in the United States. The results show that the associations between television use and Internet use and healthy lifestyle behaviors are enhanced among those who talk about health issues with their family and friends less frequently, which supports the substitution model. The implications that these findings have for future research are discussed. PMID:25598709

  13. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.

  14. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  15. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  16. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  17. The lifestyle questionnaire for school-aged children: a tool for primary care.

    PubMed

    VanAntwerp, C A

    1995-01-01

    The Lifestyle Questionnaire for School-Aged Children can be used by nurse practitioners in the primary care setting to enhance assessment and focus health teaching. A survey of 75 school-aged children seen for well child examinations is highlighted, illustrating how nurse practitioners can use the Lifestyle Questionnaire to assess lifestyle patterns and promote healthy behaviors and habits.

  18. Relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle in the development of maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Harris, H. E.; Ellison, G. T.; Clement, S.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle in the development of "maternal obesity" after pregnancy. SETTING: South east London, in the homes of mothers who had delivered their babies at either Guy's, Lewisham or St Thomas's hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy four mothers of low antenatal risk who had been enrolled in the Antenatal Care (ANC) Project (a previous trial of antenatal care) during the first trimester of pregnancy, and who had subsequently been followed up 2.5 years after delivery. DESIGN: Information on parental obesity, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors as well as lifestyle, was gathered during a semi-structured interview at each mother's home. Additional anthropometric and psychosocial data were taken from the existing ANC Project database. These data were used to assess the relative importance of heritable characteristics and lifestyle on changes in maternal body weight from the beginning of pregnancy to the follow up interview. MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for the effects of potential confounders and known risk factors for maternal obesity, women who selected larger silhouettes to represent their biological mothers were significantly more likely to have higher long term weight gains than those who selected thinner maternal silhouettes (r = 0.083, p = 0.004). Women who were less satisfied with their bodies postpartum had significantly greater long term weight gains than those women who displayed no increase in dissatisfaction with their bodies after pregnancy (r = 0.067, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: A heritable predisposition to gain weight together with changing attitudes to body size, both had an independent role in the development of maternal body weight after pregnancy. Differences in each woman's heritable predisposition to gain weight and any changes in body image that occur after pregnancy might explain why some women gain weight in association with pregnancy.   PMID:10396466

  19. Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  20. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  1. Unlabelled advertorials in Slovenian life-style press: a study of the promotion of health products.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Melita Poler; Erjavec, Karmen; Stular, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses unlabelled advertorials about health products in four life-style magazines and three daily newspapers' life-style supplements in Slovenia. Based on 250 hours of observing the production practice, 20 in-depth interviews with the main participants and a textual analysis of 247 advertorials, supported by three detailed case studies, the process of unlabelled advertorial production was unveiled, reasons for their production explained and their discursive elements of promotion uncovered. Despite their typical news-like appearance, advertorials focus on a product's positive characteristics only and represent an oversimplified viewpoint on health, primarily oriented towards the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. In advertorials, readers are instructed in healthy living and caring about their health through buying the promoted product. No particular differences were found between the magazines and quality dailies' supplements, indicating that the advertorial practice has become a common part of the Slovenian press media scene. The outburst of advertorials in Slovenia is outstanding due to the lack of historical democracy, problems with the supervision of legal transgressions, the small media and advertising market, economic downturns and the financial weakness of the media. PMID:23264980

  2. A lifestyle intervention for primary care patients with depression and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Adrienne; Deane, Frank P; Williams, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a diet and exercise lifestyle intervention on mental health outcomes for patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety in primary care. Patients (n=119) referred by general practitioners to the 12-week randomised controlled trial were assigned to either an intervention of six visits to a dual qualified dietitian/exercise physiologist (DEP) where motivational interviewing and activity scheduling were used to engage patients in individually-tailored lifestyle change (focussed on diet and physical activity), or an attention control with scheduled telephone contact. Assessments conducted at baseline (n=94) and 12 weeks (n=60) were analysed with an intent-to-treat approach using linear mixed modelling. Significant improvement was found for both groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores, measures of nutrient intake and total Australian modified Healthy Eating Index (Aust-HEI) scores. Significant differences between groups over time were found only for iron intake and body mass index. Patients participating in individual consultations with a dietitian were more likely to maintain or improve diet quality than those participating in an attention control. This study provides initial evidence to support the role of dietitians in the management of patients with depression and/or anxiety.

  3. Survey of Australian practitioners' provision of healthy lifestyle advice to clients who are obese.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Samantha; James, Carole; Plotnikoff, Ronald; Collins, Clare; Guest, Maya; Kable, Ashley; Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is a global issue, with healthcare practitioners increasingly involved in clinical interactions with people who are overweight or obese. These interactions are opportunities to provide evidence-based healthy lifestyle advice, and impact on public health. This study used a cross-sectional survey of Australian healthcare practitioners to investigate what influenced the provision of healthy lifestyle advice to obese and overweight clients. A modified theory of planned behavior was used to explore knowledge translation processes. Knowledge translation was linked to three factors: (i) a healthcare practitioner's education and confidence in the currency of their knowledge; (ii) personal characteristics - whether they accepted that providing this advice was within their domain of practice; and (iii) the existence of organizational support structures, such as access to education, and best practice guidelines. To fulfill the potential role healthcare practitioners can play in the provision of evidence-based health promotion advice requires organizations to provide access to practice guidelines and to instill a belief in their workforce that this is a shared professional domain. PMID:22435756

  4. The Role of Physical Education Lessons and Recesses in School Lifestyle of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Frömel, Karel; Svozil, Zbyněk; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigates school lifestyle among adolescents in terms of physical activity (PA) structure: (1) adolescents participating in a physical education lesson (PEL) versus (2) aggregate recess time exceeding 60 minutes. METHODS The research was conducted in 24 secondary schools in the Czech Republic (boys N = 208, girls N = 433). For the whole day (1-3 days) participants wore the ActiTrainer accelerometer, which monitored PA, and heart rate. A total of 1122 school days were recorded. RESULTS Both boys and girls participating in a PEL reported significantly better results compared with nonparticipating individuals regarding all indicators of volume and intensity of school PA (SPA). In most SPA indicators, longer aggregate recess time (>60 minutes) had a statistically significant effect, particularly on the volume of SPA. The recommended 500 steps/hours for SPA was achieved by 83% of boys participating in PEL and 69% of girls. In contrast just 32% of nonparticipating boys and 31% of girls reached this level. With longer recess time the recommendation was met by 43% of boys (42% of girls) compared with 26% of boys (23% of girls) with shorter recess time. CONCLUSIONS An increase in SPA and an improved lifestyle in adolescents on school days are significantly supported more by PELs than by longer recess time. PMID:26762826

  5. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack. PMID:26037118

  6. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all four symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.

  7. Lifestyle Evolution in Cyanobacterial Symbionts of Sponges

    DOE PAGES

    Burgsdorf, Ilia; Slaby, Beate M.; Handley, Kim M.; Haber, Markus; Blom, Jochen; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hentschel, Ute; Steindler, Laura

    2015-06-02

    The “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum” group includes different clades of cyanobacteria with high 16S rRNA sequence identity (~99%) and is the most abundant and widespread cyanobacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The first draft genome of a “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group member was recently published, providing evidence of genome reduction by loss of genes involved in several nonessential functions. However, “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” includes a variety of clades that may differ widely in genomic repertoire and consequently in physiology and symbiotic function. Here, we present three additional draft genomes of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum,” each from a different clade. By comparing all fourmore » symbiont genomes to those of free-living cyanobacteria, we revealed general adaptations to life inside sponges and specific adaptations of each phylotype. Symbiont genomes shared about half of their total number of coding genes. Common traits of “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” members were a high abundance of DNA modification and recombination genes and a reduction in genes involved in inorganic ion transport and metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, these symbionts were characterized by a reduced number of antioxidant enzymes and low-weight peptides of photosystem II compared to their free-living relatives. Variability within the “Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum” group was mostly related to immune system features, potential for siderophore-mediated iron transport, and dependency on methionine from external sources. The common absence of genes involved in synthesis of residues, typical of the O antigen of free-living Synechococcus species, suggests a novel mechanism utilized by these symbionts to avoid sponge predation and phage attack.« less

  8. Life events, social network, life-style, and health: an analysis of the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, N H; Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The relationships among social structure, stress, social support, life-style health behavior, and health status are explored in this multivariate analysis of data from the National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Path analyses showed social structural factors to influence life-style practices both directly and indirectly through social network and negative life events. For women, social network and life events had direct relationships to health related life-style practices, while age and income acted both directly and indirectly through social network and, for income, through life events. Education was also directly related to life-style. For men, social network and education had the only direct effects on health practices, and age and income had indirect effects through network. We then examined the relative contributions of the social network index elements, life events, and demographic variables to each of the life-style practices. These analyses confirmed the importance of gender, education, age, and income to predicting life-style behaviors. Negative life events were associated with smoking for both men and women, sleep for women only, and physical activity and alcohol use for men, which suggests sex-specific norms for coping with stress. For both sexes, church attendance and marriage were associated with favorable smoking and alcoholic use, implicating cognitive social support or social control as a mediator of health promotion. Finally, analyses for each gender using health status as the outcome variable indicated that age, income, education, and life events affected health directly, while the effects of church attendance and marriage were likely mediated through smoking and alcohol behaviors.

  9. Assessing the incremental benefit of an extended duration lifestyle intervention for the components of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Patrick; Jiang, Qingmei; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Oral, Elif A; Weintraub, Martha S; Rubenfire, Melvyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions targeting the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) have been demonstrated to be a cost-effective and suitable treatment strategy for reducing one’s risk of developing coronary artery disease and diabetes. The optimal duration has not yet been defined. We sought to evaluate the incremental benefit of extending a lifestyle intervention from 3 months to 6 months. Methods We evaluated 114 participants with at least three criteria for the MetSyn in a physician-referred 6-month lifestyle intervention between August 2008 and December 2012. Baseline and follow-up physiological, biochemical, and anthropometric data were analyzed for mean change and incremental change at each time point. Results The mean age at enrollment was 53.0±10.2 years, and 42% of participants were males. The mean body mass index at enrollment was 38.2±0.86 kg/m2 for males and 38.6±0.93 kg/m2 for females. Anthropometric measures associated with weight management (body mass index, weight, and body fat percentage) improved significantly with the additional 3-month intervention (P<0.001). Systolic blood pressure (P=0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.00006) and triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic participants (P=0.006, P=0.004, P=0.01, respectively) improved rapidly in the initial 3-month intervention without incremental benefit of the additional 3 months. Improvements in fasting insulin (P=0.01) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.02) for nondiabetic participants required the full 6-month intervention before significant reductions were achieved. Conclusion A 6-month lifestyle intervention yielded significantly better results for variables related to weight management. Standard physiological measures for the MetSyn respond rapidly in a 3-month lifestyle intervention. The long-term impact of an increased duration lifestyle intervention remains to be seen. PMID

  10. Improvement in quality-of-life questionnaire measures in obese adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with lifestyle changes and oral contraceptives, with or without metformin.

    PubMed

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2010-02-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality-of-life parameters measured by the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) questionnaire in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS. The quality-of-life indicators were measured at baseline and conclusion for five domains on the PCOS questionnaire, with equal improvement in scores in both placebo and metformin groups, suggesting that the addition of metformin does not add improvement to quality-of-life measures above those observed with lifestyle modification and OC treatment.

  11. [Healthy lifestyle formation and lower dependence on atmosphere oxygen in working].

    PubMed

    Usti'yantsev, S L

    2016-01-01

    Studies covered 38 males in laboratory and 81 males in industrial conditions of 13 metallurgic enterprises and revealed some reliable phenomena caused by dry voluntary apnea of 10-60 seconds. At muscular rest and during physical exertion, evidences are that voluntary apnea forms transitory hypercapnic portion of blood in pulmonary arterial flow. First finding is that this portion in other blood behaves as an anabolic wave carrying increased concentration of low-molecular CO2 material and releasing additional (wave, according to authors) O2 from its depot in the body. This oxygen, in conditions of increased blood pressure due to apnea, is used for synthesis of additional ATP. These phenomena characterize formation and development a new beneficial physiologic system in workers--a functional system of motivation to healthy lifestyle.

  12. [Healthy lifestyle formation and lower dependence on atmosphere oxygen in working].

    PubMed

    Usti'yantsev, S L

    2016-01-01

    Studies covered 38 males in laboratory and 81 males in industrial conditions of 13 metallurgic enterprises and revealed some reliable phenomena caused by dry voluntary apnea of 10-60 seconds. At muscular rest and during physical exertion, evidences are that voluntary apnea forms transitory hypercapnic portion of blood in pulmonary arterial flow. First finding is that this portion in other blood behaves as an anabolic wave carrying increased concentration of low-molecular CO2 material and releasing additional (wave, according to authors) O2 from its depot in the body. This oxygen, in conditions of increased blood pressure due to apnea, is used for synthesis of additional ATP. These phenomena characterize formation and development a new beneficial physiologic system in workers--a functional system of motivation to healthy lifestyle. PMID:27048140

  13. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  14. Barriers to Lifestyle Behavioral Change in Migrant South Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians’ belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  15. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should pay.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Robert Ian

    2016-08-01

    With the NHS under increasing financial pressure and healthcare costs soaring year on year, it is perhaps not surprising that assessment agencies focus on cost-effectiveness analysis when assessing new therapies. Such an approach does not however, always take sufficient account of treatment burden, lifestyle and patient choice and therefore new equally effective but perhaps "easier to take" formulations and faster delivery systems for current therapies do not always take precedence in current treatment guidelines. In arguing that the NHS should pay for so-called lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis the counterintuitive nature of some of the current decision making is discussed and a more holistic approach to improve NHS efficiency is presented.

  16. Cardiovascular prevention: lifestyle and statins--competitors or companions?

    PubMed

    Opie, L H; Dalby, A J

    2014-03-01

    Favourable lifestyles promote cardiovascular protection. Exercise can induce beneficial changes in the genome that decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increase anti-inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, fortified by nuts, while not reducing weight, reduces mortality. Lifestyle changes combined with statin therapy provide potent protection against coronary heart disease, especially when used for secondary prevention after cardiovascular events. Decisions regarding the initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention are more difficult, requiring consideration of both the LDL-C level and the degree of cardiovascular risk for dyslipidaemic patients. Combining intensive exercise and statin therapy substantially reduces the mortality risk, and thus is potentially the ideal risk-reducing combination.

  17. Determinants of college students' health-promoting lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Larouche, R

    1998-01-01

    This descriptive study of 151 university students in Boston, Massachusetts, was undertaken to determine the relationships of their perceived health status, sex, grade point average, and health and nonhealth majors to their health-promoting lifestyles, using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) II, based on Pender's model. Students' perceived health status was significantly predictive of total HPLP II, exercise, stress management, and spiritual growth. College women practiced significantly better nutrition, interpersonal relationships, health responsibility, and total HPLP II than men. The whole sample scored lower in stress management than any previous group studied. Male students, those reporting poor health, and all students are targeted for intervention and research in their deficient areas. Guidelines for nursing practice are derived from the HPLP II questionnaire. These clinically significant findings may guide nurse practitioners to intervene in the health awareness and practices of college students. PMID:12675075

  18. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  19. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  20. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  1. Leading a healthy lifestyle: the challenges for China.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Sian M

    2010-07-01

    Increasing affluence and changing lifestyles are resulting in a greater burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in China. The challenge of how to counter the rising rates of obesity associated with increasingly sedentary lifestyles and diets higher in fats and sugars as well as countering the persistent threat from high rates of tobacco smoking among men, including male doctors, need to be public health priorities within the rapidly developing economy of China. While promoting a healthier environment is one important element, the increasing rates of diabetes and hypertension throw into sharp relief the need not only for primary prevention but also for screening programs to detect and provide early treatment for these common diseases. There is an increasing need for an integrated response that emphasizes the key role the health system can play in preventing mortality and morbidity from NCDs. As such, this needs to be a priority within the health care reform agenda.

  2. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  3. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Bader, Zahra; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; D'Souza, Reshma

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females), aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Results Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8%) compared to males (37.2%), (P<0.01). About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females) and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female). About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males). About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01) and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. Conclusion It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs. PMID:21912533

  4. [Lifestyle and reproductive situations of adolescent girls in large cities].

    PubMed

    Gulevskaia, R M

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of a sociological interview survey of teenage girls residing and attending educational establishments in one of the Moscow regions. Teenage girls' views on some issues of future family life have been identified. It has been found that there is a wide prevalence of harmful habits among these populations, the majority of girls have a sexual experience along with low culture of sexual behavior and healthy lifestyle habits.

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Neurodegeneration, and Personalized Lifestyle Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bland, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The takeaway message of this advancing science surrounding the causes and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is to recognize MCI symptoms early and intervene with a comprehensive, multifaceted, personalized lifestyle medicine program that is designed to improve neurological function and built on the components described above. The present evidence suggests this approach represents the best medicine available today for beating back the rising tide of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:27330484

  6. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  7. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials

    PubMed Central

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  8. Time-Series Data Analysis of Long-Term Home Blood Pressure Measurements in Relation to Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Kodama, Naoki; Takahashi, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a long-term time-series analysis of an individual's home blood pressure measurements, stored on a personal healthcare system in cloud, relative to the individual's life-style. In addition to daily scattering, apparent seasonal variations were observed in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements. We examined the effect of seasonal variations on the outcome of a healthcare data mining process that extracts rules between blood pressure measurements and life-style components such as exercise and diet, and found that the daily blood pressure data approached a normal distribution when adjusted for the seasonal variations. This implies that an adjustment is desirable in order to produce appropriate rules in the healthcare data mining process.

  9. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  10. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  11. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  12. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  13. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  14. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  15. Lifestyles and social class: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Coulter, A

    1987-12-01

    Data from the Oxford healthy life survey were used to explore social class variations in beliefs about the determinants of health, willingness to contemplate behaviour change and experience of lifestyle advice in primary care.While the association between lifestyle factors and health was well-recognized by all social groups, those in social classes 1 and 2 were more likely than others to stress the importance of smoking, diet and exercise, while those in social classes 4 and 5 were more likely than middle class people to emphasize the effect of socioeconomic influences on health such as unemployment, income, pollution and housing. Members of all social classes attributed considerable importance to psychosocial influences on health. In all social classes a substantial proportion of overweight people expressed a desire to reduce their weight, smokers to modify their smoking habits and sedentary people to increase the amount of exercise they took. However, there was less interest in dietary change or reduction of alcohol consumption. One third of the smokers and of those who were overweight had received advice from health professionals about behaviour modification, but less than 10% of those in the other risk groups reported receiving advice. There was a high demand for advice on health; 44% of all respondents said they would be interested in receiving advice on a healthier lifestyle.

  16. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Martina, Camille A; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21-39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p=0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p=0.0215), MiBP (p=0.0020) and MEP (p=0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles. PMID:22739065

  17. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  18. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60–83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind–body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre–post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population. PMID:24723885

  19. A systematic review of lifestyle interventions for chronic diseases in rural communities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Manuscripts focused on dietary intake and physical activity and published through March 15, 2016, were identified by use of PubMed and CINAHL databases and MeSH terms and keyword searches. Results A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six involved randomized controlled trials; 7 used quasi-experimental designs; 4 had a pre-/post-design; and 1 was an observational study. Eight studies were multi-site (or multi-county), and 3 focused on churches. Primary emphasis by racial/ethnic group included: African Americans (6); Whites (2); Hispanics (3); and two or more groups (7). Most studies (17) sampled adults; one included children. Two studies targeted families. Conclusions Additional lifestyle intervention research is needed to identify effective approaches promoting healthy diet and exercise and chronic disease prevention in rural communities. Studies that include rigorous designs, adequate sample sizes, and generalizable results are needed to overcome the limitations of published studies. PMID:27376159

  20. The Effects of a Healthy Lifestyle and of Anxiety Levels on IVF Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Onat, Güliz; Aba, Yilda Arzu

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated effects of a healthy lifestyle and anxiety levels on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. This follow-up study on 102 infertile women and 66 infertile men (total: 168) was carried out at a infertility clinic in university hospital in Instanbul, Turkey. Health-Promoting-Lifestyle-Profile-II (HPLP II) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments were used. Female participants were called following their IVF treatment to determine whether they were pregnant or not. The mean age for female respondents was 31.38 ± 4.66; for men it was 34.22 ± 4.34 (t:-3.96; p:0.00). Their subjects' infertility types were unexplained 23.8%, male factor 41.1% and female factor 24.4%. Their total HPLP-II scores were 129.21 ± 22.33 (a range of 63-204). Their rate of pregnancy following IVF was 19%. The HPLP-II scores were upper-intermediate. Despite the State anxiety levels being moderate, the Trait anxiety levels were high. Comparison of the scales by gender was not significant. In addition, on HPLP-II and STAI scores, there were no differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women following IVF. PMID:27337858