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Sample records for additional lingual infiltration

  1. Coincidence of congenital infiltrative facial lipoma and lingual myxoma in a newborn Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, R; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Nazarizadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    A one-day-old male Holstein calf was presented with a palpable subcutaneous mass, extending from the parotid to the orbital region, involving the entire right side of the face and a large flabby mass without any evidence of inflammation or edema on the tongue. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the lingual mass appeared slightly lobulated, pink, with a mucoid appearance and gelatinous consistency. Histopathological examination confirmed the infiltrative subcutaneous lipoma and lingual myxoma evidenced by low cellularity and abundant basophilic, mucinous stroma. In this report, clinical and detailed histhopathological findings of congenital infiltrative myxoma and its coincidence with infiltrative facial lipoma is reported in a newborn calf.

  2. Coincidence of congenital infiltrative facial lipoma and lingual myxoma in a newborn Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, R; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Nazarizadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    A one-day-old male Holstein calf was presented with a palpable subcutaneous mass, extending from the parotid to the orbital region, involving the entire right side of the face and a large flabby mass without any evidence of inflammation or edema on the tongue. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the lingual mass appeared slightly lobulated, pink, with a mucoid appearance and gelatinous consistency. Histopathological examination confirmed the infiltrative subcutaneous lipoma and lingual myxoma evidenced by low cellularity and abundant basophilic, mucinous stroma. In this report, clinical and detailed histhopathological findings of congenital infiltrative myxoma and its coincidence with infiltrative facial lipoma is reported in a newborn calf. PMID:27175195

  3. Changes of pore systems and infiltration analysis in two degraded soils after rock fragment addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Basile, Angelo; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Many soils in arid and semi-arid environments contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. The amount, dimension and shape of rock fragment strongly influence soil structure development and therefore many soil processes (e.g. infiltration, water storage, solute transport, etc.). The aim of this work was to test the effects on both infiltration process and soil pore formation following an addition of rock fragments. The test was performed on two different soils: a clayey soil (Alfisol) and a clay loamy soil (Entisol) showing both a natural compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. Three concentrations of 4-8mm rock fragments (15%, 25% and 35%) were added to air-dried soils and the repacked samples have been subject to nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. The process of infiltration was monitored at -12 cm of pressure heads imposed at the soil surface and kept constant for a certain time by a tension infiltrometer. Moreover, k(h) was determined imposing -9, -6,-3 and -1 cm at soil surface and applying a steady-state solution. After the hydrological measurements the soil samples were resin-impregnated and images of vertical sections of the samples, acquired at 20µm resolution, were analyzed in order to quantify the pore size distribution. This latter was calculated using the "successive opening" approach. The Entisol samples showed similar infiltration curves I(t) among the 4 treatments, with higher percentage of stones (i.e. 25 and 35%) showing a faster rising in the early-time (< 2 min) infiltration; the Alfisol samples are spread, showing a higher variability: limiting the analysis to the first three, despite they show a similar shape, the higher the stones content the lower the cumulated infiltration. The behavior of the 35% sample diverges from the others: it shows a fast rising step at the very early time (< 2 min) followed by a

  4. [Effects of biochar addition into soils in semiarid land on water infiltration under the condition of the same bulk density].

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yong-Hao; Wen, Man; Zheng, Ji-Yong

    2014-08-01

    Making clear the effects of biochar addition on soil water infiltration process can provide the scientific basis for the evaluation of the influence of biochar application on soil hydrology in semi-arid region. In this paper, through the soil column simulation method in laboratory, the effects of biochar of three sizes (1-2 mm, 0.25-1 mm and ≤ 0.25 mm) at 4 doses (10, 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1)) on the cumulative infiltration, the permeability and the stable infiltration rate of two different soils (anthrosol and aeolian sandy soil) were studied. The results showed that the infiltration capacity of the anthrosol was obviously increased compared to the control, however, the one in the aeolian sandy soil was decreased due to the biochar addition. At 100 minutes after infiltration starting, the averaged cumulative infiltration was increased by 25.1% in the anthrosol with comparison to the control. Contrarily, the averaged cumulative infiltration was decreased by 11.1% in the aeolian sandy soil at 15 minutes after infiltration starting. When the dose was the same, biochar with different particle sizes improved the infiltration for the anthrosol, but for the different dose treatments, the particle size of biochar which showed the greatest improvement was different. As for the aeolian sandy soil, the infiltration increased at the dose of 10 g x kg(-1) after the addition of biochar with different particle sizes, while decreased at the higher dose of 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1). The cumulative infiltration of the aeolian sandy soil was decreased with the increase in addition amount of biochar with the same particle size, while it was not so for the anthrosol. The determination coefficient fitted by the Philip infiltration model ranged from 0.965 to 0.999, suggesting this model was suitable for the simulation of soil water infiltration process after biochar application. Statistical analysis of main effects showed that the biochar particle size, the biochar addition amount

  5. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  6. Lingual straight wire method.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kyoto; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, L U C A; Takemoto, Y U I

    2009-12-01

    The mushroom arch-wire is mainly used in lingual orthodontic treatment but the complicated wire bending it requires affects both the treatment results and the time spent at the chair. The author proposes a new lingual straight wire method (LSW) in order to facilitate arch coordination and simplify the mechanics. The attention paid to the set-up model and bracket positioning and bonding plus the use of the new LSW method will also improve patient comfort.

  7. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  8. Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Yonchak, T.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Clark, K.; Meyers, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a labial infiltration of either 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Another objective was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 subjects randomly received a labial infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of either 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments. An additional 40 subjects received a lingual infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained. For the 3 infiltrations, success rates for the lateral incisor ranged from 43 to 50%. Adjacent teeth had success rates of 27 to 63%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in success between the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine or the lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when compared with the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily for all solutions over the 60 minutes. In conclusion, the success rate of 43-50% and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over an hour indicates that a labial infiltration of 1.8 mL of either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1: 50,000 epinephrine or a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine over the

  9. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them.

    PubMed

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-28

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  10. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M S; Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  11. Ectopic Lingual Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Khaled; Jaafoura, Habib; Masmoudi, Fahmi; Lahiani, Rim; Bougacha, Lobna; Ben Salah, Mamia

    2015-01-01

    Ectopy of the thyroid gland is an abnormal embryological development. Its occurrence in children is rare. In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old girl that presented with dysphagia and nocturnal dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a lingual thyroid. Thyroid scintigraphy showed intense and elective uptake of radiotracer at the base of the tongue. Hormonal tests revealed hypothyroidism. Treatment consisted of opotherapy based on levothyroxine. Evolution has been favourable and the patient showed significant improvement with reduction of the dyspnea and the dysphagia and normalization of thyroid hormone tests. PMID:25893126

  12. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  13. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  14. Neonatal lingual choristoma with thyroid hemiagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Joy, Jasmi; Pai, Kanthilatha

    2015-05-06

    A 45-day-old infant presented with choking spells and cyanosis. Examination revealed a lingual cyst. Contrast-enhanced CT confirmed the diagnosis of lingual cyst with incidental thyroid hemiagenesis. The child underwent excision of the lesion, which was reported as lingual choristoma.

  15. Lingual osteoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Grau-Roma, L; Roura, X; Majó, N

    2012-08-01

    An 11-year-old male Belgian shepherd dog was evaluated for a one-week history of progressive lethargy, decreased appetite and excessive panting. On physical examination, a pedunculated mass protruding from the right side of the tongue base was observed. The mass was solid, irregular and multi-lobulated, and it measured approximately 4 × 2 cm. The mass was surgically excised. The histological examination was consistent with a lingual osteoma and the margins were free of neoplastic cells. The dog was euthanased eight months after the diagnosis because of an unrelated problem and no evidence of recurrence at the surgical site was appreciated at that time. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of a lingual osteoma in a dog, and, therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of masses on the tongue, especially pedunculated masses located at the base of the tongue.

  16. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  17. Spontaneous lingual abscess in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Kettaneh, Nick; Williamson, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Acute lingual abscess is a rare yet life-threatening clinical entity. Lingual abscess must be appropriately diagnosed and treated in the emergency department to avoid acute airway compromise. A 68-year-old woman on immunomodulatory medication for rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department with left facial pain and swelling. An anterior lingual abscess was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The most common cause of lingual abscess is direct trauma, although immunocompromised state is a predisposing risk factor. Intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment modality, with consideration given to adjunctive surgical drainage. We present this case to increase awareness surrounding this diagnosis among emergency physicians. Spontaneous lingual abscess should be considered in immunocompromised patients who present to the emergency department with tongue pain and edema even in the absence of lingual trauma. PMID:24332904

  18. Fully-customized lingual appliances: how lingual orthodontics became a viable treatment option.

    PubMed

    George, Richard D; Hirani, Sunil

    2013-09-01

    Despite being available for over 30 years, it is perhaps only over the past decade or so that lingual therapy has entered into the mainstream and become a viable treatment option. This paper outlines the problems encountered with traditional lingual techniques and describes how fully-customized lingual appliances have been designed to overcome many of the issues that had risked confining lingual orthodontics to the margins of clinical practice.

  19. Lingual Kinematics and Coordination in Speech-Disordered Children Exhibiting Differentiated versus Undifferentiated Lingual Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine; Murdoch, Bruce; Ozanne, Anne; Cheng, Yan; Hill, Anne; Gibbon, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Background: Electropalatographic investigations have revealed that a proportion of children with articulation/phonological disorders exhibit undifferentiated lingual gestures, whereby the whole of the tongue contacts the palate simultaneously during lingual consonant production. These undifferentiated lingual gestures have been interpreted to…

  20. A frequent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Huseni, Shehlanoor; Lo, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) based on complaints, symptoms and signs. Systematic polysomnographic evaluation followed the clinical examination. A retrospective analysis of 150 successively seen children suspected of having SDB was performed, in addition to a comparison of the findings between children with and without short lingual frenula. Among the children, two groups of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) were found: 1) absence of adenotonsils enlargement and short frenula (n=63); and 2) normal frenula and enlarged adenotonsils (n=87). Children in the first group had significantly more abnormal oral anatomy findings, and a positive family of short frenulum and SDB was documented in at least one direct family member in 60 cases. A short lingual frenulum left untreated at birth is associated with OSAS at later age, and a systematic screening for the syndrome should be conducted when this anatomical abnormality is recognised. PMID:27730205

  1. An unusual case of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Hope, Nicholas; Patricia Smith, Caroline; Moran, Michael; Primrose, William

    2016-05-01

    Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is an unusual presentation of voice change. If managed incorrectly this group of patients has the potential to deteriorate significantly causing airway obstruction and potentially death.

  2. Stabilising Springs for Fixed Lingual Retainer

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M.K.; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R.; Rajvikram, N.; Kuppuchamy

    2013-01-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove. PMID:24392431

  3. Lingual deficits in neurotrophin double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Irina V; Agerman, Karin; Marinescu, Andrea; Ernfors, Patrik; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2004-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) are members of the neurotrophin family and are expressed in the developing and adult tongue papillae. BDNF null-mutated mice exhibit specific impairments related to innervation and development of the gustatory system while NT-3 null mice have deficits in their lingual somatosensory innervation. To further evaluate the functional specificity of these neurotrophins in the peripheral gustatory system, we generated double BDNF/NT-3 knockout mice and compared the phenotype to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Taste papillae morphology was severely distorted in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. The deficits were found throughout the tongue and all gustatory papillae. There was a significant loss of fungiform papillae and the papillae were smaller in size compared to BDNF(-/-) and wild-type mice. Circumvallate papillae in the double knockouts were smaller and did not contain any intraepithelial nerve fibers. BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice exhibited additive losses in both somatosensory and gustatory innervation indicating that BDNF and NT-3 exert specific roles in the innervation of the tongue. However, the additional loss of fungiform papillae and taste buds in BDNF(-/-) xNT-3(-/-) mice compared to single BDNF knockout mice indicate a synergistic functional role for both BDNF-dependent gustatory and NT-3-dependent somatosensory innervations in taste bud and taste papillae innervation and development. PMID:16217617

  4. Isolated lingual involvement in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Neera; Joshi, Laxmikant; Duggal, Ashish; Puri, Vinod; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Lingual involvement can occur in a variety of neurological disorders including pyramidal, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron disorders. It can be seen in the form of tremor, bradykinesia, dystonia, atrophy and weakness of tongue movements and can clinically present as difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria which can be a source of great discomfort to the patient. We describe a patient who presented with isolated lingual involvement and was diagnosed to have Wilsons's disease. This case emphasizes the clinical variability in presentation of Wilson's disease and importance of early clinical diagnosis.

  5. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  6. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  7. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  8. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT. PMID:27752250

  9. Precursor solution additives improve desiccated La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.; Nicholas, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the addition of the surfactant Triton X-100 or the chelating agent citric acid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x (LSCF) precursor nitrate solutions is shown via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to reduce average infiltrate nano-particle size and improve infiltrate phase purity. In addition, the desiccation of LSCF precursor solutions containing the aforementioned organic solution additives further reduces the average LSCF infiltrate nano-particle size and improves the low-temperature infiltrate phase purity. In particular, CaCl2-desiccation reduces the average size of Triton X-100 derived (TXD) LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 48 to 22 nm, and reduces the average size of citric acid derived LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 50 to 41 nm. Modeling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that particle size reductions alone are responsible for desiccation-induced cathode performance improvements such as CaCl2-desiccated TXD La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSCF-GDC) cathodes reaching a polarization resistance of 0.17 Ωcm2 at 540 °C, compared to 600 °C for undesiccated TXD LSCF-GDC cathodes. This excellent low-temperature performance, combined with a low open-circuit 540 °C degradation rate, suggests that the desiccation of organic-additive-containing infiltrate precursor solutions may be useful for the development of durable, high-power, low-temperature SOFCs.

  10. Conservative management for lingual thyroid ectopic.

    PubMed

    Sigua-Rodriguez, Eder Alberto; Rangel Goulart, Douglas; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes Manzano, Afonso Celso

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare clinical entity. The presence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may be presented with symptoms like dysphagia, dysphonia, and upper airway obstruction. We are introducing a case of an 8-year-old girl who had lingual thyroid that presented dysphagia and foreign body sensation in the throat. The diagnostic was reached with clinical examination, thyroid scintigraphy with Tc(99m) and ultrasound. A laryngoscopy was performed which confirmed a spherical mass at base of tongue. Investigation should include thyroid function tests. In this case we observed subclinical hypothyroidism. There are different types of surgical approaches for the treatment of this condition; however, the treatment with Levothyroxine Sodium allowed the stabilization of TSH levels and clinical improvement of symptoms in a follow-up of 2 years.

  11. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  12. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubova, Jana; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Nemcova, Renata; Tesar, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomas; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    Since 2003, a study of spatial and temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties has been in progress at the experimental site Liz (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia). For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been observed. Moreover, the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow, as demonstrated by the results of a dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005. The present study is focused primarily on the temporal variability of the soil hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, the influence of the initial soil moisture conditions on the soil infiltrability is examined. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. As expected, the observed quasi-steady-state infiltration rates varied much among the infiltration points (the coefficient of variation of values measured in one set of experiments was typically between 0,5 and 1). Regarding the temporal development, independent variations at separate measuring points were overridden by a huge overall increase of the observed infiltration rates (the average detected steady-state infiltration rate changed from 600 cm/day in 2003 to 2300 cm/day in 2009). With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the observed infiltration rates for the repeated infiltration was detected.

  15. Inferior alveolar and lingual nerve imaging.

    PubMed

    Miloro, Michael; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2011-03-01

    At present, there are no objective testing modalities available for evaluation of iatrogenic injury to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve, making such clinical diagnosis and management complicated for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Several imaging modalities can assist in the preoperative risk assessment of the trigeminal nerve as related to commonly performed procedures in the vicinity of the nerve, mostly third molar surgery. This article provides a review of all available imaging modalities and their clinical application relative to preoperative injury risk assessment of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve, and postinjury and postsurgical repair recovery status.

  16. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  17. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  18. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Patagonian cavy.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2011-11-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis patagonum) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the Patagonian cavy is about 8 cm long and the lingual body had lingual prominence on the posterior third. There were no fungiform papillae in the lingual dorsal surface. The fungiform papillae were observed in both lateral sides of the lingual apex. The filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a large conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla showed many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was flower-bud shaped. Two vallate papillae were located on between lingual body and root, and insert in two grooves. The connective tissue core of the vallate papilla was covered with numerous small spines. Many foliate papillae were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. After removing epithelium from the foliate papillae many vertical depressions became apparent. These findings suggest that in the structure of the lingual papillae of the Patagonian cavy there is similar to that of the capybara. PMID:22519071

  19. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  20. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  1. [Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness].

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Bartolucci, M A; Broglio, D; Boner, A

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss still remain an important medical and social problem for the delayed language development. Object of this study is to provide an updated and close estimate of the economic burden involved in pre-lingual hearing loss. Data were provided by the Ministry of Health data bank, the Ministry of Education national data bank, the National Institute of Social Insurance national data bank and the Italian Central Statistics Institute. The information was collected by means of a specially provided Societal Cost Questionnaire (SCQ). Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect welfare costs involved in deafness were included in the cost estimate. Was enrolled in the study a sample of subjects with pre-lingual deafness, with a mean bilateral neuro-sensorial hearing impairment equal to 60 dB or more for 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz frequency tones in the better ear detected in neonatal age, had prevented speech from developing. The statistical assessment was performed according to an actuarial approach, considering the estimated life expectancy at birth, based on updated population data from census 2001. Based on life expectancy, the lifetime mean cost assessed for a subject affected by profound pre-lingual deafness turned out to be equal to Euro 737,994.76 for a male and Euro 755,404.02 for a female. Unlike other disabling affections, deafness weighs significantly more on the social system than on the health system. As a matter of fact, the direct medical costs, such as audiological diagnosis, hearing aids, etc., only account for 3.8% of the societal cost, whereas education, rehabilitation and welfare costs reach 96.2% of the total. Finally, our results suggest that societal costs can only be reduced by zeroing in on promotion and broadening of effective prevention strategies. The appropriate public health measures (such as the universal newborn hearing screening) set up and implemented in several European and non-European countries proved

  2. [Societal cost of pre-lingual deafness].

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Bartolucci, M A; Broglio, D; Boner, A

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss still remain an important medical and social problem for the delayed language development. Object of this study is to provide an updated and close estimate of the economic burden involved in pre-lingual hearing loss. Data were provided by the Ministry of Health data bank, the Ministry of Education national data bank, the National Institute of Social Insurance national data bank and the Italian Central Statistics Institute. The information was collected by means of a specially provided Societal Cost Questionnaire (SCQ). Direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs and indirect welfare costs involved in deafness were included in the cost estimate. Was enrolled in the study a sample of subjects with pre-lingual deafness, with a mean bilateral neuro-sensorial hearing impairment equal to 60 dB or more for 500, 1,000 and 2,000 Hz frequency tones in the better ear detected in neonatal age, had prevented speech from developing. The statistical assessment was performed according to an actuarial approach, considering the estimated life expectancy at birth, based on updated population data from census 2001. Based on life expectancy, the lifetime mean cost assessed for a subject affected by profound pre-lingual deafness turned out to be equal to Euro 737,994.76 for a male and Euro 755,404.02 for a female. Unlike other disabling affections, deafness weighs significantly more on the social system than on the health system. As a matter of fact, the direct medical costs, such as audiological diagnosis, hearing aids, etc., only account for 3.8% of the societal cost, whereas education, rehabilitation and welfare costs reach 96.2% of the total. Finally, our results suggest that societal costs can only be reduced by zeroing in on promotion and broadening of effective prevention strategies. The appropriate public health measures (such as the universal newborn hearing screening) set up and implemented in several European and non-European countries proved

  3. Lingual Nerve Entrapment in Muscular and Osseous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Georgios, Androutsos; Panagiotis, Skandalakis

    2010-01-01

    Running through the infratemporal fossa is the lingual nerve (i.e. the third branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve). Due to its location, there are various anatomic structures that might entrap and potentially compress the lingual nerve. These anatomical sites of entrapment are: (a) the partially or completely ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligaments; (b) the large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process; and (c) the medial fibers of the anterior region of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Due to the connection between these nerve and anatomic structures, a contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle, for example, might cause a compression of the lingual nerve. Any variations in the course of the lingual nerve can be of clinical significance to surgeons and neurologists because of the significant complications that might occur. To name a few of such complications, lingual nerve entrapment can lead to: (a) numbness, hypoesthesia or even anesthesia of the tongue's mucous glands; (b) anesthesia and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; (c) anesthesia of the lingual gums; and (d) pain related to speech articulation disorder. Dentists should, therefore, be alert to possible signs of neurovascular compression in regions where the lingual nerve is distributed. PMID:21404967

  4. Histological and histochemical studies on the chicken lingual glands.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, A M; Lorvik, S; Ceccarelli, P; Pedini, V

    1991-09-01

    1. Morphological and histochemical observations were done on the chicken anterior and posterior lingual glands. Histology, ultrastructure and glycoconjugate histochemistry were investigated by means of light and electron microscopy using staining specific for complex carbohydrates. 2. In the anterior lingual glands there are lateral and medial zones showing different morphological and tinctorial features. The secretory cells are typical mucous cells. 3. Histochemical reactions revealed the presence of acidic glycoconjugates with terminal sialic acid residues, and glycoconjugates vicinal diol and sulphate groupings in the secretory granules. 4. It is suggested that the main functions of lingual glands are the lubrication of boli and protection from micro-organisms.

  5. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  6. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the giraffe.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of slender and thick conical papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was flower-bud-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual body consisted of large conical papillae and the fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was rose-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual prominence consisted of more large conical papillae than that of the lingual body. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was trianglar in shape. The large lenticular papillae were limited on the lingual prominence. The connective tissue core of the lenticular papilla consisted of small spines. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a semicircular trench. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines. PMID:23614981

  7. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  8. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  9. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callıoglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented. PMID:26064746

  10. The legal implications of lingual nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, David

    2002-10-01

    Hopefully this analysis is useful. In summary let us make three simple points: Be conscious of your position in the "personal injury" market, but do not be afraid to use your judgment. If you are an expert, do not set a standard of perfection when working out what is reasonable care. Your communication skills are the most important skill you have in order to avoid claims. And on a final note, a draft "consent form" that will provide complete protection is often requested. There is no such thing. The issue is communication with your patient so that they will accept what has happened to them if their lingual nerve is damaged. Ideally this involves a clear explanation, provision of a written outline and a written acknowledgement from the patient that they have received this explanation. The latter requirement is because we are all human--and humans forget things when they are in pain, or distress. The author is currently working with the Australian Dental Association Victorian Branch Inc. and other professional associations in relation to written material to be distributed to make warnings more effective. No doubt, you will receive more information about this initiative in due course.

  11. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  12. Debonding forces of three different customized bases of a lingual bracket system

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jang-Won; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether extension of the custom base is necessary for enhancement of bond strength, by comparing the debonding forces and residual adhesives of 3 different lingual bracket systems. Methods A total of 42 extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 each for bonding with brackets having (1) a conventional limited resin custom base; (2) an extended gold alloy custom base: Incognito™; and (3) an extended resin custom base: KommonBase™. The bonding area was measured by scanning the bracket bases with a 3-dimensional digital scanner. The debonding force was measured with an Instron universal testing machine, which applied an occlusogingival shear force. Results The mean debonding forces were 60.83 N (standard deviation [SD] 10.12), 69.29 N (SD 9.59), and 104.35 N (SD17.84) for the limited resin custom base, extended gold alloy custom base, and extended resin custom base, respectively. The debonding force observed with the extended resin custom base was significantly different from that observed with the other bases. In addition, the adhesive remnant index was significantly higher with the extended gold alloy custom base. Conclusions All 3 custom-base lingual brackets can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces. We conclude that effective bonding of lingual brackets can be obtained without extension of the custom base. PMID:24228238

  13. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  14. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  15. Control of closure/constriction duration in lingual consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2003-10-01

    This study examines tongue movements in the production of lingual consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. Earlier work has shown that the tongue continues to move during the closure/constriction. The magnitude of the movement path during the closure/constriction is influenced by the vowel environment. Since the tongue has to stay in contact with the hard palate to maintain the closure/constriction, one might expect that the movement during the closure will be about the same for short and long consonants. To maintain the contact, a speaker would thus have to make a slower movement for the long consonants. Tongue and jaw movements were recorded in native Japanese speakers using a magnetometer system. Preliminary results for three speakers show that the closure/constriction duration for the long consonants was usually more than twice as long as that for the short consonants. The results also show a slightly longer movement path during the closure/constriction for the long consonants. As expected, the average speed of the tongue movement during the closure/constriction was systematically slower for the long consonants. In addition there was a positive correlation between closure/constriction duration and the path during the closure/constriction. [Work supported by NIH.

  16. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the jaguar.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was mountain-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was mushroom-like in shape. The filiform papilla on the anterior part of the lingual body was large and cylinder-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a big conical papilla and many rod-like papillae. The filiform papilla on the central part of the lingual body was a big conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a rod process and bowl-like structure. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines. PMID:23614980

  17. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the jaguar.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was mountain-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was mushroom-like in shape. The filiform papilla on the anterior part of the lingual body was large and cylinder-like in shape. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a big conical papilla and many rod-like papillae. The filiform papilla on the central part of the lingual body was a big conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla consisted of a rod process and bowl-like structure. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines.

  18. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  19. Displacement pattern of the anterior segment using antero-posterior lingual retractor combined with a palatal plate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Kyung A; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two appliances on the en masse retraction of the anterior teeth anchored by temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). Methods The sample comprised 46 nongrowing hyperdivergent adult patients who planned to undergo upper first premolar extraction using lingual retractors. They were divided into three groups, based on the lingual appliance used: the C-lingual retractor (CLR) group (group 1, n = 16) and two antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR) groups (n = 30, groups 2 and 3). The APLR group was divided by the posterior tube angulation; posterior tube parallel to the occlusal plane (group 2, n = 15) and distally tipped tube (group 3, n = 15). A retrospective clinical investigation of the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships was performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained pretreatment and post en masse retraction of the anterior teeth. Results All groups achieved significant incisor and canine retraction. The upper posterior teeth did not drift significantly during the retraction period. The APLR group had less angulation change in the anterior dentition, compared to the CLR group. By changing the tube angulation in the APLR, the intrusive force significantly increased in the distally tipped tube of group 3 patients and remarkably reduced the occlusal plane angle. Conclusions Compared to the CLR, the APLR provides better anterior torque control and canine tipping while achieving bodily translation. Furthermore, changing the tube angulation will affect the amount of incisor intrusion, even in patients with similar palatal vault depth, without the need for additional TSADs. PMID:26629475

  20. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyomatous lingual hamartoma. Differential diagnosis, especially for midline tongue mass and other paediatric tongue lesions are discussed. We also discuss the epidemiology, histopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of lingual hamartoma based on the literature review. PMID:27790477

  1. Ectopic lingual goiter treated by transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pellini, R; Mercante, G; Ruscito, P; Cristalli, G; Spriano, G

    2013-10-01

    Multinodular goiter in lingual thyroid is quite rare. Surgical removal is indicated in symptomatic patients and when cancer is suspected. An external approach is most often used, but is associated with morbidity and sequelae. In this study, we present for the first time the technique of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for removal of a massive lingual goiter. Prospective patient data were collected, including demographics, medical history, symptoms, comorbidities and drugs prescribed. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for a transoral approach to the oropharynx. The technique was validated in a 31-year-old woman with signs and symptoms of multinodular goiter presenting since childhood. The procedure required 115 min, with intervals as follows: tracheotomy, 25 min; robot setting time, 20 min; and console time, 70 min. TOR S is feasible in cases of multinodular goiter in a lingual thyroid. The procedure appears to be safe, with quick recovery of swallowing and speech. PMID:24227901

  2. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma linguale type strain (1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Lail, Kathleen; Sikorski, Johannes; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Detter, J. Chris; Schutze, Andrea; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Spirosoma linguale Migula 1894 is the type species of the genus. S. linguale is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, known for its peculiar ringlike and horseshoe-shaped cell morphology. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete ge-nome sequence and annotation. This is only the third completed genome sequence of a member of the family Cytophagaceae. The 8,491,258 bp long genome with its eight plas-mids, 7,069 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacte-ria and Archaea project.

  4. Variation in Lingual Nerve Course: A Human Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amery, Samah M.; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Naidu, Murali

    2016-01-01

    The lingual nerve is a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve. It is varied in its course and in its relationship to the mandibular alveolar crest, submandibular duct and also the related muscles in the floor of the mouth. This study aims to understand the course of the lingual nerve from the molar area until its insertion into the tongue muscle. This cadaveric research involved the study of 14 hemi-mandibles and consisted of two parts: (i) obtaining morphometrical measurements of the lingual nerve to three landmarks on the alveolar ridge, and (b) understanding non-metrical or morphological appearance of its terminal branches inserting in the ventral surface of the tongue. The mean distance between the fourteen lingual nerves and the alveolar ridge was 12.36 mm, and they were located 12.03 mm from the lower border of the mandible. These distances were varied when near the first molar (M1), second molar (M2) and third molar (M3). The lingual nerve coursed on the floor of the mouth for approximately 25.43 mm before it deviated toward the tongue anywhere between the mesial of M1 and distal of M2. Thirteen lingual nerves were found to loop around the submandibular duct for an average distance of 6.92 mm (95% CI: 5.24 to 8.60 mm). Their looping occurred anywhere between the M2 and M3. In 76.9% of the cases the loop started around the M3 region and the majority (69.2%) of these looping ended at between the first and second molars and at the lingual developmental groove of the second molar. It gave out as many as 4 branches at its terminal end at the ventral surface of the tongue, with the presence of 2 branches being the most common pattern. An awareness of the variations of the lingual nerve is important to prevent any untoward complications or nerve injury and it is hoped that these findings will be useful for planning of surgical procedures related to the alveolar crest, submandibular gland/ duct and surrounding areas. PMID:27662622

  5. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips. PMID:21105901

  6. Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).

    PubMed

    Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

    2010-03-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier.

  7. Lingual Propulsive Pressures across Consistencies Generated by the Anteromedian and Posteromedian Tongue by Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Laura L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Hageman, Carlin F.; LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated lingual propulsive pressures generated in the normal swallow by the anterior and posterior lingual segments for various consistencies and maximum isometric tasks. Method: Lingual pressures for saliva, thin, and honey-thick liquid boluses were measured via the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument…

  8. Anesthetic efficacy of an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth following an inferior alveolar nerve block.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kenneth; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Meyers, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to measure the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block followed by an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 patients randomly received 3 injection combinations at 3 separate appointments: an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a mock labial infiltration, an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a labial infiltration, and an IAN block followed by a mock labial infiltration and a lingual infiltration. Each IAN block used 3.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and each infiltration used 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine administered over the lateral incisor apex. Mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes following the IAN-infiltration injections. No response from the patient to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes and the 80 reading was sustained for 60 minutes. Anesthesia was considered a failure if 2 consecutive 80 readings were not obtained during the 60 minutes. The results of this study showed that 100% of the patients had lip numbness with all IAN blocks. For the lateral incisor, the success rate of the IAN block alone was 40% and the failure rate was 30%. For the IAN block plus labial infiltration, the success rate was 62% and the failure rate was 12% for the lateral incisor. There was a significant difference (P < .05) between the IAN block alone and the IAN block plus labial infiltration. In conclusion, a labial infiltration, over the lateral incisor apex, of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine following an IAN block significantly improved pulpal anesthesia for the lateral incisor compared with the IAN block alone. PMID:15384292

  9. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  10. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  11. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  12. A subjective comparison of two lingual bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Ehmer, Ulrike

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective, longitudinal study was to compare the influence of two lingual bracket systems on subjective oral comfort, speech, mastication and oral hygiene. Forty-two native speakers of standard German (32 females, 10 males; mean age 27.1 years, standard deviation 12.2) were enrolled and completed a standardized questionnaire directly before insertion of lingual brackets (T0), within 24 hours of bond-up (T1) and 3 months (+/- 1 week) later (T2). Eighteen of the patients were treated with prefabricated brackets (Ormco, seventh generation) (PB group) and 24 with customized brackets (Incognito) (CB group). While no significant intergroup differences were recorded at any of the times with respect to tongue position, conversation pattern, swallowing or oral hygiene, the CB group experienced significantly fewer tongue space restrictions, speech disturbances and impairments in chewing and biting than the PB group at T1 and T2. At T2, pressure sores, reddening or lesions to the tongue were recorded significantly less often in the CB group than in the PB group. This enhanced patient comfort in the CB group was attributed to the smaller dimensions of the customized brackets. This aspect could play a role in attracting more patients to lingual orthodontics in the future. Information given to the patient on the duration and extent of the restrictions associated with lingual orthodontics must be differentiated according to the bracket system used. PMID:16043479

  13. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

  14. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  15. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  16. Lingual nerve injury following use of a supraglottic airway device.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Andrew; Crosher, Richard; Mohammed-Ali, Ricardo; Parsons, Kirsty

    2014-03-01

    We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who lost sensation on the left side of her tongue after an orthopaedic procedure under general anaesthetic. It provides evidence that anaesthetic airway devices can injure the lingual nerve. PMID:24332877

  17. Class II correction with the Incognito lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito fully customized lingual appliance provides excellent torque control. This offers the potential for class II correction using inter-maxillary traction without the usual iatrogenic effects associated with their use. A case is presented showing the potential of these appliances in controlling torque and achieving full class II correction on a non-extraction basis.

  18. Comparative analysis of slot dimension in lingual bracket systems

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances requires - among others - the correct clinical expression of torque, which depends on the precise fitting of archwire and slot. Especially in the lingual technique torque problems become clinically more evident than in labial appliances also with respect to the vertical alignment of teeth due to different distances from the center of resistance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the preciseness of slot dimensions of different lingual bracket systems. Methods Three lingual bracket systems were included in the study (7th Generation and STb, Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA; Incognito, TOP-Service/3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Non destructive analysis of vertical slot dimensions was performed using precision pin gauges (Azurea, Belprahon, Switzerland) that were tapered in increments of 0.002 mm (0.00008 inch). The sizes of 240 incisor and canine brackets were measured per system (total: 720). Data were compared using one-way ANOVA. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Average slot dimensions were 0.467 mm ± 0.007 mm (0.0184 inch ± 0.0003 inch) for the 7th Generation bracket system, 0.466 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0183 inch ± 0.0001) inch for the STb bracket system and 0.459 mm ± 0.004 mm (0.0181 inch ± 0.0001) inch for the Incognito bracket system. Differences between systems were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions The analyzed bracket systems for lingual treatment exhibited significant differences in slot dimension that will clinically result in torque play. These aspects must be considered in lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:20003510

  19. A Case of Lingual Thyroid Presenting with Severe Hematemesis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sudke, Amol; Dey, Amit Kumar; Dhamanskar, Suchin; Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare anomaly with symptoms such as upper airway obstruction, dysphagia, or hypothyroidism. However, bleeding is a very rare manifestation. This report describes a case of lingual thyroid in women with 28 weeks of amenorrhea and hematemesis, and its course of diagnosis and treatment. The pathogenesis of lingual thyroid is unknown. Although ectopic lingual thyroid is usually not managed surgically, excision of ectopic lingual thyroid can be lifesaving when it is causing bleeding or airway obstruction. However, during pregnancy, surgery is the preferred mode of treatment. PMID:27134565

  20. Bcl11b/Ctip2 is required for development of lingual papillae in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Makoto; Koki, Jun; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kominami, Ryo; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hirota, Junji

    2016-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development and morphogenesis of oral epithelia, comprising the gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, remain unclear. Here, we show that Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, plays an important role in the development of lingual papillae, especially filiform papillae. In both gustatory and nongustatory epithelium, Bcl11b was expressed in keratin 14-positive epithelial basal cells, which differentiate into keratinocytes and/or taste cells. Loss of Bcl11b function resulted in abnormal morphology of the gustatory papillae: flattened fungiform papillae, shorter trench wall in the foliate and circumvallate papillae, and ectopic invagination in more than half of circumvallate papillae. However, Bcl11b loss caused no effect on differentiation of taste receptor cells. In nongustatory epithelium, the impact of Bcl11b deficiency was much more striking, resulting in a smooth surface on the tongue tip and hypoplastic filiform papillae in the dorsal lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that a keratinocyte differentiation marker, Tchh expression was severely decreased in the Bcl11b(-/-) filiform papillae. In addition, expression of Pax9, required for morphogenesis of filiform papillae and its downstream target genes, hard keratins, almost disappeared in the tongue tip and was decreased in the dorsal tongue of Bcl11b(-/-) mice. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a delayed onset of expression of epithelial differentiation complex genes, which disturbed barrier formation in the mutant tongue. These results indicate that Bcl11b regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes in the tongue and identify Bcl11b as an essential factor for the lingual papilla morphogenesis. PMID:27287879

  1. [Infiltrate of a gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Dolimov, K S; Il'khamov, F A; Abdumazhidov, A sh; Tukhtamuradov, Z Z

    2014-03-01

    Infiltrate of a gallbladder, as a complication of an acute cholecystitis constitute a separate form of the disease. In this case a destructive changes in gallbladder are restricted from surrounding tissues. While presence of infiltrate of a small size and favorable course under the influence of conservative therapy it is necessary to follow an expectant tactics up to complete dissolving of the infiltrate with a consequent obligate operative treatment in a "cold" period of the disease. Not rarely the infiltrate is transformed into a gallbladder oedema, what demands performance of a deferred operation. In a deep destructive process a gallbladder empyema may occur or paravesical abscess formated, what demands performance of urgent operative intervention.

  2. The dorsal lingual epithelium of Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima incisa (Chelonia, Cryptodira).

    PubMed

    Josef Beisser, Christian; Lemell, Patrick; Weisgram, Josef

    2004-03-01

    This study employed light microscopic (LM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods to provide detailed morphological information on the histological and ultrastructural features of the dorsal tongue epithelium of Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima incisa. SEM revealed columnar papillae laterally, as well as papillae, which tend to have a ridge-like appearance in the center of the tongue. LM and TEM showed three different zones of lingual epithelium: a stratified apical area with serous cells at the top of the papillae, a stratified lateral area with both serous and mucus cells, and an unstratified glandular area consisting of distinct glandular ducts with mucus cells. Comparison with morphological data from other turtles shows that the lingual epithelial structure in R. p. incisa is in accordance with that observed for other generalized omnivores which prefer a terrestrial lifestyle, thus matching the ecological information about this species.

  3. Stafne’s bone cavity: An unusual case with involvement of the buccal and lingual mandibular plates

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-01-01

    Lingual mandibular bone defects, also known as Stafne bone cavity (SC), are unilateral asymptomatic radiolucencies, generally seen in the mandibular angle, below the inferior alveolar canal. Although panoramic radiographies normally offer enough information to make a correct diagnosis, additional studies are often required, especially in atypical cases. The present report describes an atypical presentation of a Stafne’s bone cavity in a 78 years-old male patient. In this particular case, an asymptomatic and radiolucid lesion was observed during a routine dental examination. The computed tomography (CT) showed an involvement of both lingual and buccal mandibular plates producing a tunnel-like lesion. No history of mandibular trauma or surgery was refered. An additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was made to discard submandibular gland pathology and to confirm the diagnosis. Since SC is asymptomatic and nonprogressive, a conservative approach based in clinical and radiological follow-ups was considered to be the most suitable treatment option. Key words:Stafne bone cavity, lingual mandibular bone defect, case report. PMID:24596643

  4. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  5. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  6. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Japanese marten.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2007-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. A large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. A large filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of processes of various size. The fungiform papillae are round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla had a top with several round depressions. The four vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body and each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. A zigzag surface structure appeared on the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue and some ridges and grooves were exposed reciprocally. A zigzag surface structures appeared on the connective tissue cores of the ridges of the foliate papillae.

  7. A concept to transfer a therapeutic splint position into permanent occlusion with a customized lingual appliance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The role of occlusion concerning temporomandibular disorder is still unclear but seems to be the only component of the stomathognathic system dentists are able to change morphologically. The aim of the paper is to describe the orthodontist’s approach for transferring and maintaining a therapeutic splint position into permanent occlusion using a fully customized lingual appliance. Methods Fixed acrylic bite planes on lower molars were used to maintain a symptom-free condyle position prior to orthodontic treatment. Silicone impressions of the arches including the fixed bite planes were used for the Incognito laboratory procedure. Two digital setups were made. One setup represents the target occlusion. A second setup including the bite planes was used to fabricate an additional set of lower molar brackets. In the leveling stage all teeth except the lower molars were settled to maintain the therapeutic condyle position. Finally, the fixed bite planes were stepwise removed and molar brackets were replaced to establish the permanent occlusion planned with the first setup. Results and discussion The advantage of an individual lingual appliance consists in the high level of congruence between the fabricated setups and the final clinical result. Both the individual scope for design and the precision of the appliance were vitally important in the treatment of a patient with a functional disorder of the masticatory system. PMID:22613064

  8. [Topographic features of lingual nerve and its relationship with other anatomical structures in maxillolingual groove].

    PubMed

    Dyidyikin, S S; Syomkin, V A; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2016-01-01

    By surgical interventions in maxillolingual groove area one should consider anatomical variations and topography of vessels, glands ducts and lingual nerve to prevent their injury. At the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov we carried out anatomical study on cadavers (men and women, n=30).The study revealed topographical features of the lingual nerve and its relationship to other anatomical structures in the maxillolingual groove. It was found out that at the level of the second molar (96%) lingual nerve "crosses" duct of submandibular salivary gland, at the level of the third molar lingual nerve is located under the duct and lateral to it, closer to the inner surface of the body of the mandible. At the level of the first molar lingual nerve is located above and medial to Wharton duct and passes along sublingual-lingual muscles (m.hyoglossus).

  9. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  10. Lingual cyst lined by respiratory epithelium: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Manish; Boaz, Karen; Srikant, N; Nandita, K P; Vidya, M

    2011-01-01

    The present report describes a case of a lingual cyst lined by a respiratory epithelium occurring in a 1-year-old girl. The article also reviews the cases published in the literature under the heading of lingual cysts and segregates all the cases having predominant respiratory epithelium as the cystic lining. Reclassification, with more descriptive histologic terminology to name the lingual cysts, has been proposed.

  11. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    R. McCurley

    2003-10-27

    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper-bound climate analogs only for the glacial transition climate regime, within the

  12. Infiltrating spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Yen, Han-Lin; Tsai, Shih-Chung; Liu, Shian-Min

    2008-10-01

    Infiltrating angiolipomas are rarely encountered in the spine. We present a case involving a 71-year-old man with a dorsal epidural angiolipoma at the T5-T7 level. The tumor involved the T5-T6 vertebral bodies and left pedicle. The patient presented with acute paraparesis and MRI showed a homogeneously hyphointense lesion on T1-weighted images. The epidural component of the tumor was removed via laminectomy to achieve adequate cord decompression. The patient was symptom-free at a 2-year follow-up. This report emphasizes the unusual clinical presentation and MRI features of an infiltrating spinal angiolipoma and discusses therapeutic management options.

  13. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  14. The heterogeneity of meningioma revealed by multiparameter analysis: infiltrative and non-infiltrative clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gay, Emmanuel; Lages, Elodie; Ramus, Claire; Guttin, Audrey; El Atifi, Michèle; Dupré, Isabelle; Bouamrani, Ali; Salon, Caroline; Ratel, David; Wion, Didier; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul

    2011-05-01

    Tumor invasion or infiltration of adjacent tissues is the source of clinical challenges in diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment. Among brain tumors, infiltration of the adjacent tissues with diverse pleiotropic mechanisms is frequently encountered in benign meningiomas. We assessed whether a multiparametric analysis of meningiomas based on data from both clinical observations and molecular analyses could provide a consistent and accurate appraisal of invasive and infiltrative phenotypes and help determine the diagnosis of these tumors. Tissue analyses of 37 meningiomas combined enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) assays of two different protein biomarkers (thrombospondin 1 and a phosphorylated form of vimentin) as well as gene expression analyses with oligonucleotide micro-arrays. Up to four different clinical and molecular parameters were then examined for tumor classification. From this study, we were able to cluster 36 out of the 37 tumors into two different subsets corresponding to infiltrative/invasive and non-infiltrative tumors. In addition, meningiomas that invade brain and those that infiltrate the neighboring skull bone exhibited no distinguishable molecular features. Our multi-parameter analysis that combines clinical data, transcriptomic and molecular assays clearly reveals the heterogeneity of meningiomas and distinguishes the intrinsically infiltrative/invasive tumors from the non-infiltrative meningiomas. PMID:21318223

  15. Lingual thyroid in a young female: role of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Mahajan, Shivani; Rana, Prakash Jagdishchandra; Patel, Narottam Ambavibhai

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with dysphagia and a feeling of fullness in the throat. On examination a midline smooth, rubbery and reddish mass was seen at the base of the tongue, which moved with deglutination and protrusion of the tongue. A thyroid function test was within normal limits. On ultrasonography, absences of thyroid gland in its normal position with a smooth-contoured, round-shaped nodular mass at the tongue base with internal vascularity within. The mass was hyperdense and homogeneously enhancing on postcontrast. A clinical diagnosis of ectopic lingual was made based on the ultrasonography and CT scan features. PMID:25336556

  16. [Surgical treatment of short lingual frenulum in children].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum resulting in varying degrees of difficulty of tongue mobility. It may be asymptomatic or it may present with breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dentition disorders, and social problems related to the functional limitation of the tongue. While it is a common and known pathology, controversies and diversity of opinions persist regarding the indication, timing and method of surgical correction. We describe our experience with 35 children presenting this condition; they underwent successful surgical treatment.

  17. [Surgical treatment of short lingual frenulum in children].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Demarchi, Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum resulting in varying degrees of difficulty of tongue mobility. It may be asymptomatic or it may present with breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dentition disorders, and social problems related to the functional limitation of the tongue. While it is a common and known pathology, controversies and diversity of opinions persist regarding the indication, timing and method of surgical correction. We describe our experience with 35 children presenting this condition; they underwent successful surgical treatment. PMID:25362917

  18. Diagnostic evaluation of a case of lingual thyroid ectopia.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Claroni, Giulia; Scarano, Angela Lia; Schillaci, Orazio; Floris, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid ectopia can occur when the process of thyroid embryogenesis fails. Here, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with thyroid ectopia that was discovered during magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine for referred neck pain. Imaging revealed the presence of an encapsulated mass at the base of her tongue. The patient was not symptomatic for any compression of the airways. Diagnosis of ectopic lingual thyroid was confirmed by (99m)TC scintigraphy. Incidental diagnosis of thyroid ectopia in asymptomatic adult patients is rare, and it should be considered on diagnostic imaging in case of an anterior midline cervical mass. PMID:27594942

  19. Infiltration through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, W.; Redner, S.

    2001-02-01

    We study the kinetics of infiltration in which contaminant particles, which are suspended in a flowing carrier fluid, penetrate a porous medium. The progress of the ``invader'' particles is impeded by their trapping on active ``defender'' sites which are on the surfaces of the medium. As the defenders are used up, the invader penetrates further and ultimately breaks through. We study this process in the regime where the particles are much smaller than the pores so that the permeability change due to trapping is negligible. We develop a family of microscopic models of increasing realism to determine the propagation velocity of the invasion front, as well as the shapes of the invader and defender profiles. The predictions of our model agree qualitatively with experimental results on breakthrough times and the time dependence of the invader concentration at the output. Our results also provide practical guidelines for improving the design of deep bed filters in which infiltration is the primary separation mechanism.

  20. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-06-15

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort. PMID:24694384

  1. The Mutual Symbiosis between Inclusive Bi-Lingual Education and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority…

  2. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  3. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.6 ± 13.7 min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50 ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.6 ± 0.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3 months occurred in one patient (4 %) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.6 ± 4.9 to 7.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.7 ± 21.7 to 12.8 ± 8.2 events/hour (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80 %. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty.

  4. Dorsal Lingual Surface and Halitosis: a Morphological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Giuseppe, Marzo; Adelaide, Continenza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective The interest in the study of the tongue papillary niches and the related biofilm has increased in recent years because they form a suitable source of periodontal microorganisms and are associated with development of halitosis. Tongue dorsum structure represents a factor favoring a particular and complex bacterial biofilm where periodontal pathogens are frequently found. The aim of this preliminary study was to associate the tongue papillary structure with the biofilm causing halitosis by means of a new clinical protocol. Material and Methods In this study, one subject affected by oral malodor was selected and included. A photograph of lingual dorsum was taken to spot the areas with visible lingual coating. A tongue dorsum impression was obtained, divided and cut with a blade in six parts, according to Winkel Tongue Coated Index by means of the 2-step double-mix impression technique. The contours of the six parts were observed by the stereomicroscope LEICA LED2000 and analyzed by ImageJ software. Results The results showed that the depth of papillae was associated with visible presence of the tongue biofilm and indirectly correlated with halitosis in patients.. Conclusions The morphological papillary structure of the tongue dorsal surface influences the presence of the tongue biofilm. The presented protocol can be further considered in clinical application for a correct diagnosis and a personalized treatment of halitosis. PMID:27789913

  5. Quantitative immunohistochemical investigation of the intrinsic vasodilator innervation of the guinea pig lingual artery.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Michael; Haberberger, Rainer V; Hempelmann, Gunter; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2003-01-31

    The vasculature of the guinea pig tongue is supplied by parasympathetic vasodilator nerve fibres of intrinsic origin. Here, we investigated first to what extent neuropeptides and the synthesizing enzymes of NO, CO and acetylcholine are contained and colocalized within periarterial lingual vasodilator axons of intrinsic origin. Then it was determined whether perivascular innervation by these fibre types changes with vascular diameter, in particular in comparison with the sensory substance P (SP)-positive and sympathetic noradrenergic vascular innervation. To this end, single, double and triple labelling histochemical techniques were performed on control tongues and tongues kept in short-term organotypic culture to induce degeneration of extrinsically originating nerve fibres. Cell bodies of intrinsic microganglia and their periarterial axons contained, simultaneously, NO synthase, vasoactive intestinal peptide and the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Additionally, neuropeptide Y (NPY) was observed in a small percentage (12%) of neurons that increased to 39% after 36 h of organotypic culture. The CO synthesizing enzyme heme oxygenase-2 was detected only in perikarya but not in periarterial axons. Intrinsic vasodilator fibres were invariably present at arteries down to a luminal diameter of 150 microm, and reached 65% of section profiles of smallest arterioles, while noradrenergic and substance P-positive axons reached 80% of arteriolar profiles. These findings show that the intrinsic lingual vasodilator innervation of the guinea pig is far extending although slightly less developed than that by sensory and sympathetic axons, and differs both in this aspect and in patterns of colocalization from that reported for other organs, e.g. lung and pelvic organs. PMID:12531400

  6. Facial infiltrating lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Padwa, B L; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    Facial infiltrating lipomatosis is a rare congenital disorder in which mature lipocytes invade adjacent tissue. The phenotypic features include soft-tissue and skeletal hypertrophy, premature dental eruption, and regional macrodontia. There is a high risk for regrowth after resection that is, perforce, subtotal. The etiology, natural history, optimal management, and relationship to other disorders of fatty overgrowth are unclear. In this study, the clinical features, radiographic findings, histopathology, and postoperative results were analyzed in 13 patients with facial infiltrating lipomatosis. The condition was diagnosed in infancy (eight male subjects, five female subjects) and characterized by enlargement of the cheek (n = 12) or chin (n = 1). Other findings included cutaneous capillary blush (n = 9), ipsilateral macroglossia (n = 8), and mucosal neuromas (n = 6). Most patients had early eruption of ipsilateral deciduous and permanent teeth (n = 12). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an infiltrated soft-tissue mass of fatty density (n = 13) and skeletal overgrowth (n = 9). Multiple resection was performed on six patients (mean number of operations per patient, 2.5; range, one to six operations); regrowth and/or worsening of the capillary stain occurred in all six patients. Because surgical removal of the mass is usually unsuccessful, specific management of this condition will require insight into its etiopathogenesis. Given the presence of mucosal neuromas and lipomatosis, this study included testing for the known mutations in three entities that are associated with these soft-tissue findings (Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcava syndrome, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B). Results of DNA analyses for these germline mutations were negative. It is more likely that this disorder is caused by a somatic mutation involving a local increase in growth factor(s).

  7. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  8. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  9. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  10. Regimes of oscillation and reed vibrations in lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Eric; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    We compare the sound generation in six lingual organ pipes including two trompette pipes, two oboes pipes, a krummhorn, and a rankett, the latter two of which were described in a previous paper [Cox and Rossing, paper 2aMU8, 142nd ASA meeting]. With the resonator attached, each pipe sounds in distinct regimes of oscillation, separated by discontinuities. The nominal frequencies of the pipes are generally slightly lower than the resonance frequency of the resonator but slightly higher than the natural frequency of the reed. The air mass loading of both the resonator and shallot lowers the reed frequency. Changing the blowing pressure has little effect on the sounding frequency but a modest effect on sound level.

  11. [Univariate analysis of influential parameters for lingual temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xie, Haiwei; Zhu, Kai

    2010-12-01

    The parameters which can influence heat transfer of tongue were analyzed in order to reveal the reason why the tongue temperature fields of people with different diseases are distinct. Firstly, the research parameters were determined by experiment results, including the reference humidity of tongue surface, metabolic heat of tongue tissue, the entrance position of root vessel, the diameter of root vessel, the blood flow rate, and the bifurcation exponent of vascular tree. Then the effect of each parameter on the value and the distributing rule of tongue temperature field was analyzed by using a mathematic model of lingual temperature field. Results show that all these parameters have effects on the temperature value of tongue. The reference humidity of tongue surface, the metabolic heat of tongue tissue and the entrance position of root vessel are distinct influences on the distributing rule of tongue temperature. PMID:21374967

  12. Evaluation of location and dimensions of mandibular lingual canals: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-M; Ju, Y-R; Pan, W-L; Chan, C-P

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the presence, location, and diameter of the mandibular lingual canals in a Taiwanese population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), to help improve the safety of mandibular surgical procedures. A total of 101 patients (46 men and 55 women), with a mean age of 55 years, were enrolled. Cross-sectional CBCT images of the mandible were used to define the orifice and diameter of each lingual canal detected. The relevance of all data for both sexes was assessed and analyzed statistically using non-paired t-tests. The canals were categorized as median (MLC) and lateral lingual canals (LLC) based on the position of the mandible. The midline of the symphysis showed the highest frequency of lingual canals (97.0%), and all patients exhibited at least one lingual perforating bone canal in the mandible. The lingual canal diameter ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 mm (mean 0.61 mm) in the midline region and from 0.25 to 1.60mm (mean 0.58 mm) in the lateral region. Significant differences in diameter were observed between the sexes in the MLC and LLC groups (men>women). The results suggest that mandibular lingual vascular canals are common and detected regularly using CBCT. PMID:25890920

  13. The inflammatory infiltrate of melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytic nevi are frequently accompanied by inflammatory cells of different types, in varied amounts and distributed in different patterns. In the current report, we review the knowledge on inflammation seen in different types of melanocytic nevi. As an additional contribution, we studied the lymphocytic inflammatory component of Duperrat nevus, as well as the cytotoxic component of Sutton nevus, two contributions that we have not found in the literature. We conclude that: (a) Duperrat nevus has a mixed inflammatory reaction that includes histiocytes, foreign-body multinucleated giant cells, polymorphonuclears, lymphocytes (predominantly CD4+) and plasma cells (commonly abundant); (b) common melanocytic nevi with reactive inflammatory infiltrate usually show a CD4+ predominant population; (c) Meyerson nevus commonly shows an inflammatory infiltrate mainly made up of CD4+ T-cells; (d) Sutton nevus with halo phenomenon is accompanied by a dense inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes in a CD4:CD8 ratio varying from 1:1 to 1:3 and in which most of the CD8+ T-cells do not express cytotoxic markers; (e) Wiesner nevus commonly shows a spare lymphocytic infiltrate but the nature of the infiltrate has not yet been investigated.

  14. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction.

  15. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    implemented to calculate infiltration along with a kinematic wave model for overland flow that accounts for short-circuiting of flow. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis on the parameters implemented in the model has been performed. Finally, the field experiments results have been used to quantify the validity of the coupled model.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LR

  17. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  18. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  19. A Posterior Lingual Sulcoplasty in Implant Therapy: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This case history report describes the deepening of a patient's posterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth. PMID:26929959

  20. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox. PMID:25274405

  1. Lingual nerve injury after third molar removal: Unilateral atrophy of fungiform papillae

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Alba; Bescós-Atín, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and sensory changes due to lingual nerve injury are one of the most common alterations that follow surgical removal of third molar. They are usually transient but other less common complications, such as the atrophy of fungiform papillae, have an uncertain prognosis. Case Description: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented a unilateral lingual atrophy of fungiform papillae after third molar extraction accompanied by severe dysesthesia that altered her daily life significantly during the following months and how this complication evolved over time. We conducted a literature review on the different factors that can lead to a lingual nerve injury. Clinical Implications: The clinical evolution of temporary and permanent somatosensitve injuries is an important fact to take into consideration during the postoperative management because it will indicate the lesion prognosis. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar removal, somatosensitive alteration, papillae atrophy, permanent injury, temporary injury. PMID:24790723

  2. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox.

  3. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum.

  4. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  5. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  6. Morphological changes in the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA) stimulated rat experimental model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinhua; Xie, Liping; Teng, He; Liu, Shilong; Yoshimura, Ken; Kageyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Kan

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze morphological changes of the epithelial surface and underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the lingual mucosa in the rat using a DMBA induced pre-cancerous experimental model. Lightmicroscopically, initially DMBA treated sections exhibited infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. At 16 weeks, aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) positive elastic fibers decreased and were scanty in the juxtaepithelium. On the other hand, rather densely packed thick bundles of AF positive fibers were observable in the deep layers of lamina propria. Carcinomas were not found at any stage, however, epithelial dysplasia was observed at 24 weeks post-treatment with DMBA. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an irregular arrangement of filiform papillae 4-12 weeks following DMBA stimulation. Patchy degenerated areas were observed especially at 16-24 weeks post-treatment and filiform papillae were totally attenuated on the central part of the degenerated areas. After removal of the epithelium, attenuated CTCs were observed from 4-8 weeks. Morphology of CTCs seemed to be gradually remodeled and severely altered in the later stage. The CTCs were however attenuated and exhibited a patchy distribution. The animal experimental model in this study revealed degenerative morphological changes of CTCs of the lingual papillae in the precancerous stage induced by DMBA.

  7. A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal forces and moments generated in the sagittal plane. Incognito™ lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb™ lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded on three identical maxillary acrylic resin models, with a palatally displaced right lateral incisor. The transfer trays for the indirect bonding of the lingual brackets were constructed in certified laboratories. Each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system and ten 0.013 inch CuNiTi wires were used for each bracket type. The wire was ligated with elastomerics and each measurement was repeated once after re-ligation. The labiopalatal forces and the moments in the sagittal plane were recorded on the right lateral incisor. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe pairwise comparisons were used to assess the effect on bracket type on the generated forces and moments. The magnitude of forces ranged from 1.62, 1.27, and 1.81 N for the STb, conventional, and Incognito brackets, respectively; the corresponding moments were 2.01, 1.45, and 2.19 N mm, respectively. Bracket type was a significant predictor of the generated forces (P < 0.001) and moments (P < 0.001). The produced forces were different among all three bracket types, whereas the generated moments differed between conventional and lingual brackets but not between lingual brackets.

  8. New classification of lingual arch form in normal occlusion using three dimensional virtual models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were 1) to classify lingual dental arch form types based on the lingual bracket points and 2) to provide a new lingual arch form template based on this classification for clinical application through the analysis of three-dimensional virtual models of normal occlusion sample. Methods Maxillary and mandibular casts of 115 young adults with normal occlusion were scanned in their occluded positions and lingual bracket points were digitized on the virtual models by using Rapidform 2006 software. Sixty-eight cases (dataset 1) were used in K-means cluster analysis to classify arch forms with intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths and width/depth ratios as determinants. The best-fit curves of the mean arch forms were generated. The remaining cases (dataset 2) were mapped into the obtained clusters and a multivariate test was performed to assess the differences between the clusters. Results Four-cluster classification demonstrated maximum intercluster distance. Wide, narrow, tapering, and ovoid types were described according to the intercanine and intermolar widths and their best-fit curves were depicted. No significant differences in arch depths existed among the clusters. Strong to moderate correlations were found between maxillary and mandibular arch widths. Conclusions Lingual arch forms have been classified into 4 types based on their anterior and posterior dimensions. A template of the 4 arch forms has been depicted. Three-dimensional analysis of the lingual bracket points provides more accurate identification of arch form and, consequently, archwire selection. PMID:25798413

  9. Infiltrating angiolipoma with phlebolith formation.

    PubMed

    De Orchis, D; Ozonoff, M B

    1986-01-01

    Angiolipomas are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with both fatty and vascular components; they may be encapsulated or locally invasive. Three cases are reported in which phleboliths were present within infiltrating angiolipomas. The demonstration of phleboliths in a lipoma suggests the diagnosis of infiltrating angiolipoma rather than the usual encapsulated lipoma. PMID:3764475

  10. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  11. Positional targets for lingual consonants defined using electromagnetic articulography.

    PubMed

    Yunusova, Yana; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S; Rudy, Krista; Baljko, Melanie; Daskalogiannakis, John

    2012-08-01

    The study examined the positional targets for lingual consonants defined using a point-parameterized approach with Wave (NDI, Waterloo, ON, Canada). The overall goal was to determine which consonants had unique tongue positions with respect to other consonants. Nineteen talkers repeated vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) syllables that included consonants /t, d, s, z, , k, g/ in symmetrical vowel contexts /i, u, a/, embedded in a carrier phrase. Target regions for each consonant, characterized in terms of x,y,z tongue positions at the point of maximum tongue elevation, were extracted. Distances and overlaps were computed between all consonant pairs and compared to the distances and overlaps of their contextual targets. Cognates and postalveolar homorganics were found to share the location of their target regions. On average, alveolar stops showed distinctively different target regions than alveolar fricatives, which in turn showed different target region locations than the postalveolar consonants. Across talker variability in target locations was partially explained by differences in habitual speaking rate and hard palate characteristics.

  12. Reed vibration in lingual organ pipes without the resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, András; Angster, Judit; Pitsch, Stephan; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-02-01

    Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamic effects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.

  13. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-01

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  14. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  15. A telefluoroscopic study of lingual contacts made by persons with palatal defects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C W; Philips, B J

    1975-01-01

    Telefluoroscopic tapes were viewed to obtain evaluations of lingual contacts during the production of six consonant sounds by 69 subjects who had a history of cleft palate or velopharyngeal inadequacy. Using phonetic textbook descriptions of normal lingual contacts as standards, these observed contacts were judged to be either normal or deviant in placement, and direction of deviation was noted. Clinical records of subjects afforded medical and surgical histories as well as evaluations of the subjects' intelligibility, nasal resonance and nasal emission at the time of the taping. Evaluations of velopharyngeal adequacy made from these tapes were also available. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that some but not all speakers who have a history of palatal problems use deviant lingual contacts to produce consonant sounds. The use of deviant lingual contacts does not appear to be related to the type of palatal problem, but is significantly related to the adequacy of the velopharyngeal mechanism for speech. Those with adequate mechanisms show the least use of deviant lingual contacts, subjects with borderline adequacy show a greater use, and those with inadequate closure show the greatest use of deviant contacts. There is a significant relationship between the use of deviant lingual contacts and the presence of abnormal intelligibility and abnormal nasal resonance. The tendency toward the use of deviant lingual contacts by those with velopharyngeal insufficiency suggests that these are compensations for the inadequate valving. These compensations may increase both the intelligibility and nasal resonance problems caused by the inadequate valving. Subjects who achieved adequacy of velopharyngeal mechanism for speech before the age of mastery of consonant sounds showed significantly less tendency to use deviant contacts than those who never attained adequacy. This was reflected in intelligible speech and less tendency toward abnormal nasal resonance. It

  16. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  17. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue.

  18. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue. PMID:19548302

  19. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae. PMID:25431362

  20. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  1. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. This period has been devoted in part to the exploration of material systems suitable for MACVI processing. A number of potential processing schemes are possible using combinations of absorbing and transparent material as composite components. This includes the use of an absorbing preform (nicalon fiber) combined with a transparent matrix (silicon nitride). Composites 5 cm in diameter by 1 cm. thick have been fabricated to densities of 65% theoretical. Processing times for these materials are under 20 hours. Higher densities will require additional microwave power now possible with the new reactor. The most effective MACVI scheme will involve the use of a transparent fiber with an absorbing matrix. The hot spot will be initiated by appropriate treatment of the central region of the preform. To this end alumna fibers with pretreatments to control thermal gradients has been explored. Nextel 610 fibers have been effectively pretreated carbon coating resulting in preferential heating in the interior of the preform. Possible matrix materials include siliconized silicon carbide, doped silicon carbide, alumna and zirconia. A patent for MACVI has been issued 10/19/93.

  2. Evidence-based outcomes following inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury and repair: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kushnerev, E; Yates, J M

    2015-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual (LN) are susceptible to iatrogenic surgical damage. Systematically review recent clinical evidence regarding IAN/LN repair methods and to develop updated guidelines for managing injury. Recent publications on IAN/LN microsurgical repair from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were screened by title/abstract. Main texts were appraised for exclusion criteria: no treatment performed or results provided, poor/lacking procedural description, cohort <3 patients. Of 366 retrieved papers, 27 were suitable for final analysis. Treatment type for injured IANs/LNs depended on injury type, injury timing, neurosensory disturbances and intra-operative findings. Best functional nerve recovery occurred after direct apposition and suturing if nerve ending gaps were <10 mm; larger gaps required nerve grafting (sural/greater auricular nerve). Timing of microneurosurgical repair after injury remains debated. Most authors recommend surgery when neurosensory deficit shows no improvement 90 days post-diagnosis. Nerve transection diagnosed intra-operatively should be repaired in situ; minor nerve injury repair can be delayed. No consensus exists regarding optimal methods and timing for IAN/LN repair. We suggest a schematic guideline for treating IAN/LN injury, based on the most current evidence. We acknowledge that additional RCTs are required to provide definitive confirmation of optimal treatment approaches. PMID:26059454

  3. Remediation to improve infiltration into compact soils.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nicholas C; Gulliver, John S; Nieber, John L; Kayhanian, Masoud

    2013-03-15

    Urban development usually involves soil compaction through converting large pervious land into developed land. This change typically increases runoff during runoff events and consequently may add to flooding and additional volume of runoff. The wash off of pollutants may also create numerous water quality and environmental problems for receiving waters. To alleviate this problem many municipalities are considering low impact development. One technique to reduce runoff in an urban area is to improve the soil infiltration. This study is specifically undertaken to investigate tilling and compost addition to improve infiltration rate, and to investigate measurement tools to assess the effectiveness of remediated soil. Soil remediation was performed at three sites in an urban area metropolitan area. Each site was divided into three plots: tilled, tilled with compost addition, and a control plot with no treatment. The infiltration effectiveness within each plot was assessed by measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) using the modified Philip Dunne (MPD) infiltrometer during pre- and post-treatment. In addition, the use of soil bulk density and soil strength as surrogate parameters for K(sat) was investigated. Results showed that deep tillage was effective at reducing the level of soil strength. Soil strength was approximately half that of the control plot in the first six inches of soil. At two of the sites, tilling was also ineffective at improving the infiltration capacity of the soil. The geometric mean of K(sat) was 0.5-2.3 times that of the control plot, indicating little overall improvement. Compost addition was more effective than tilling by reducing the soil strength and compaction and increasing soil infiltration. The geometric mean of K(sat) on the compost plots was 2.7-5.7 times that of the control plot. No strong correlations were observed before remediation between either soil bulk density or soil strength and K(sat). Simulation results showed

  4. Lingual BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression patterns and their relation to innervation in the human tongue: similarities and differences compared with rodents.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, I V; Lindskog, S; Seiger, A; Nosrat, C A

    2000-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) mRNAs are expressed in developing and adult rodent tongue and are important for the proper development of lingual gustatory and somatosensory innervation in rodents. Here, we wished to determine whether the findings in rodents apply to humans. By using in situ hybridization histochemistry, distinct, specific, and in some instances overlapping patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression were found in the developing and adult human tongue, gustatory papillae, and taste buds. BDNF mRNA was expressed in the superior surface epithelium of the developing fungiform papillae (i.e., developing taste buds), in the epithelium covering the circumvallate papillae, and in the subepithelial mesenchyme. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA was expressed in the lingual epithelium before nerve fibers reached the epithelium, indicating a prespecialization of the gustatory epithelium before the arrival of nerves. In the adult fungiform papillae, BDNF mRNA labeling was found in taste buds and in restricted areas in the non-gustatory lingual epithelium. NT-3 mRNA was found in the developing lingual epithelium and gustatory papillae. NT-3 mRNA labeling was observed in the adult fungiform taste buds, overlapping with BDNF mRNA labeling, in contrast to what was seen in rodents. NT-3 mRNA was additionally found in restricted areas in filiform papillae. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) antibodies were used to investigate a possible correlation between lingual innervation and sites of neurotrophin gene activity. Adult human tongue innervation differed from that of rodents, possibly in part due to a different neurotrophin expression pattern in the human tongue. Based on these findings, we suggest that BDNF and NT-3 are important for the initiation and maintenance of the gustatory and somatosensory innervation also in humans. The broader and somewhat overlapping expression patterns of BDNF and NT-3 mRNAs, compared with rodents, suggest

  5. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  6. A comparative evaluation of 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine in mandibular buccal infiltration anesthesia: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Maruthingal, Sunith; Mohan, Dennis; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Alahmari, Ali; Alqahtani, Ahmed; Alsadoon, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare 4% articaine and 2% lidocaine local anesthetics in achieving pulpal anesthesia of the lower first permanent molar teeth objectively, and to assess and compare lip and lingual mucosa numbness subjectively. Materials and Methods: All subjects received 1.7 ml of any one anesthetic in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to mandibular first molar teeth; the same individuals received the second infiltration at least 1 week after the first. Later, comparisons for pulpal anesthesia, lip and lingual mucosa numbness between these two anesthetics solutions were made. Results: Articaine showed significant results with P = 0.006 in achieving pulpal anesthesia objectively, when compared with lidocaine. Articaine also showed very high significant results subjectively with P = 0.0006 in achieving lip numbness, when compared with lidocaine. But the results in achieving lingual mucosa numbness with articaine subjectively was not significant with P = 0.01, when compared with lidocaine. Conclusion: Endodontic and operative treatments are one of the most common oral non-surgical procedures done under local anesthesia. The diversity of anesthetic substances currently available on the market requires dental professionals to assess the drug both by its pharmacokinetic and also by its clinical characteristics during dental treatments. Our study used 4% articaine, which is available in the market, for comparison with 2% lidocaine. Further studies are required to use an equal concentration of solutions to achieve more accurate results. PMID:26759799

  7. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions. Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Guy; Weisbrod, Noam; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) or soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of treated wastewater. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions, air is being entrapped and compressed until it reaches a pressure which will enable the air to escape (unstable air flow). They also found that entrapped air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate, under ponding conditions, the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development (stable air flow); (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape through 20 ports installed along the column perimeter. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular surface (high and low surface zones). Additionally, Helle-show experiments were conducted in order to obtain a visual observation of preferential air flow path development. The measurements were carried out using a tension meter, air pressure transducers, TDR and video cameras. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the

  8. Lingual and fusiform gyri in visual processing: a clinico-pathologic study of superior altitudinal hemianopia.

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    A macular-sparing superior altitudinal hemianopia with no visuo-psychic disturbance, except impaired visual learning, was associated with bilateral ischaemic necrosis of the lingual gyrus and only partial involvement of the fusiform gyrus on the left side. It is suggested that bilateral destruction of the lingual gyrus alone is not sufficient to affect complex visual processing. The fusiform gyrus probably has a critical role in colour integration, visuo-spatial processing, facial recognition and corresponding visual imagery. Involvement of the occipitotemporal projection system deep to the lingual gyri probably explained visual memory dysfunction, by a visuo-limbic disconnection. Impaired verbal memory may have been due to posterior involvement of the parahippocampal gyrus and underlying white matter, which may have disconnected the intact speech areas from the left medial temporal structures. Images PMID:3585386

  9. Microleakage in facial and lingual Class 5 composite restorations: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; McDonald, N J; Thompson, V P; Blank, L W; Shires, P J

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine if there is a difference in microleakage between facial and lingual enamel and cementum using two different evaluation techniques. Class 5 preparations were made in 50 teeth on the facial and lingual tooth surfaces and restored using dentin bonding and composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, silver nitrate stained, and longitudinally sectioned into mesial and distal halves through each restoration. The mesial half was scored using a rank order system. A Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was performed. The distal half was scored by measurement, and a two-sample t-test was performed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > or = 0.05) in microleakage between facial and lingual tooth enamel or cementum surfaces using either measurement technique. PMID:9028232

  10. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  11. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  12. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  13. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  14. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  15. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  16. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. PMID:26572928

  17. Evaluation of Infiltration Basin Performance in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, E.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration basins are commonly utilized to reduce or eliminate urban runoff in Florida. For permitting purposes, basins are required to recover their design volume, runoff from a one inch rainfall event, within 72 hours to satisfy the design criteria and are not required to account for groundwater mounding if volume recovery can be accomplished by filling of soil porosity by vertical infiltration below the basin surface. Forty infiltration basins were included in a field study to determine whether basin hydraulic performance was significantly different from their designed performance. Basins ranged in age from less than one year to over twenty years and land uses were equally divided between Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and residential developments. Six test sites within each basin were typically selected to measure infiltration rates using a double ring infiltrometer (DRI), a common method for infiltration basin sizing. Measured rates were statistically compared to designed infiltration rates, taking into account factors of safety. In addition, a surface soil boring was collected from each of the test sites for a series of analyses, including soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content. Eleven of the 40 evaluated basins were monitored between March 2008 and January 2012 to evaluate whether basins recovered their volumes from one inch events within 72 hours and to evaluate the effectiveness of using DRI rates to evaluate basin performance. Based on DRI rates, 16 (40%) basins had rates less than their designed rates, 10 (25%) had rates equal to their designed rates, and 14 (35%) basins had rates greater than their designed rates. Additionally, basins with coarser soils were also more likely to have DRI rates greater than designs and FDOT basins were more likely than residential basins to have infiltration rates at or above their designed rates. Five of the eleven monitored basins were expected to function as designed by recovering their

  18. Effect of lingual plates on generating intra-oral pressure during swallowing: an experimental study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although palatal augmentation prostheses (PAPs) can improve dysphagia, their application is compromised in the absence of maxillary abutment teeth. Experimental lingual plates (ELPs) used for raising the tongue may be employed as alternative to PAPs. Methods Influence of different ELP designs, plateau (P–type) and drop-shaped (D–type), on the intra–oral pressure during swallowing were tested. Eleven healthy dentate volunteers, with a mean age of 35.5±10.5 years, participated in this study. Tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using an ultra-thin sensor sheet with five measuring points, whilst performing dry, 5–ml and 15–ml water swallows, with and without the ELPs in situ. Additional pressure sensors were installed in the lingual aspects of the ELPs, and on the vestibular aspect of the lower molars for measuring sublingual and oral vestibule pressures, respectively. Each measurement was recorded thrice. A repeated measures ANOVA was employed to verify differences in duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value for the different experimental situations. Tukey’s post hoc test was performed for comparison testing. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results The sequence of tongue–palate contact on the median line of the hard palate without ELPs was maintained, except for the 15 ml P–type swallow. Tongue pressure started earlier with the D–type but reached its peak nearly at the same time as without ELPs. The peak magnitude and cumulative tongue pressure against the hard palate decreased by wearing ELPs (p<0.05), but was inconsistent between the two types of ELPs and for the different swallowing volumes. Both, maximum and cumulative vestibular pressures were mostly similar or larger with P–type than that with D–type. Conclusion D-type and P-type ELPs seem to have the inverse effect of PAPs on the palatal tongue pressure during swallowing. These first counterintuitive findings do not yet justify rejecting the

  19. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  20. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  1. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective. PMID:27656604

  2. Cognitive Learning Styles in "Traditional" Audio-Lingual and Suggestopedic Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Milla

    The need for cognitive style mapping and student grouping in order to enhance learning and retention in foreign language instruction is examined. The four components of classical audio-lingual language instruction, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are discussed. Different learning modalities are considered, including visual, auditory,…

  3. Lingual and facial arteries arising from the external carotid artery in a common trunk.

    PubMed

    Troupis, Theodore G; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Paraschos, Alexandros; Michalinos, Adamantios; Protogerou, Vassilis; Vlasis, Konstantinos; Troupis, George; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2011-02-01

    The present study describes analytically a rare case in which lingual and facial arteries arise together from an external carotid artery in a common trunk. Thirty anatomic dissections were performed on 15 cadavers in the macroscopic laboratory in the Department of Anatomy of the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. One common trunk from which originated lingual and facial arteries was found. The frequency of this morphology is measured at 6 per cent. The length of the common trunk is measured at 7.3 mm between its origin and its diversion at the facial artery and lingual artery, its diameter at 2.8 mm, its distance from carotid bifurcation at 7.9 mm, and from the superior thyroid artery at 3.3 mm. At the left side of the neck region, facial and lingual arteries arose separately. The anatomic variations of the branching pattern of the external carotid artery and the micrometric values of the vessels are especially important as a result of the numerous operations performed in the neck region that implicate various specialties such as general surgery, head and neck surgery, plastic surgery, and maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  5. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  6. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  7. Severe Class II anterior deep bite malocclusion treated with a C-lingual retractor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hun; Park, Young-Guk; Chung, Kyurhim

    2004-04-01

    A C-lingual retractor was placed on the lingual aspects of the six maxillary anterior teeth in a 24-year-old female patient with a Class II anterior deep-bite malocclusion. The treatment plan consisted of extracting both the upper first premolars and intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth. Transpalatal arches were soldered to the upper first and second molar bands and used as an intra-arch anchor unit for upper space closure. Double NiTi closed coil springs were used palatally between the hooks of the C-lingual retractor and the transplantar arches. A high-pull headgear was used for anchorage reinforcement during en masse retraction. It took 14 months to treat this patient. The correct overbite and overjet was obtained by simultaneously intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth into their proper positions by C-lingual retractor mechanics, which contributed to an improvement in facial balance. The treatment result was stable 6 months after debonding. The application of this new appliance, consideration in case selection, and sequence of treatment are presented.

  8. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective.

  9. Kinematic Investigation of Lingual Movement in Words of Increasing Length in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Meyer, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to use electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to investigate the effect of increasing word length on lingual kinematics in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement was recorded for five speakers with AOS and a concomitant aphasia (mean age = 53.6 years; SD = 12.60) during target consonant…

  10. Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo

    PubMed Central

    SFONDRINI, Maria Francesca; DEBIAGGI, Maurizia; ZARA, Francesca; BRERRA, Roberto; COMELLI, Mario; BIANCHI, Marco; POLLONE, Sara Ramella; SCRIBANTE, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. Material and Methods A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. Results No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters. PMID:22858704

  11. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  12. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis: A case with accompanying short lingual frenulum

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ehsan; Rabbani, Masoud; Jafarpishe, Mohammad Saleh; Nazem, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of nasal obstruction. We presented a case of CNPAS with accompanying short lingual frenulum. Surgical dilatation without osteotomy was used, and the infant had normal growth and development. In these cases, the less invasive surgical methods can be effective. PMID:27656604

  13. Initial experience with lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anand; Dutta, A.; Jain, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background To present the feasibility of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in anterior urethral strictures and appraisal of donor site morbidity. Methods From November 2007 to December 2010, 14 patients underwent dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures. Lingual mucosal graft was harvested from the lateral and undersurface of the tongue. Check micturating cystourethrograms were done 2 weeks after catheter removal and uroflowmetry after 3 months. Success was defined as normal uroflowmetry rates at 3 months in the absence of any postoperative instrumentation. Tongue was assessed for any residual pain, taste disturbances or restricted movement at 3 months. Results Four patients had submucosal fibrosis of the oral cavity and their buccal mucosa was unfit for grafting. Mean (range) stricture length was 5 (3–16) cm and the operation time 170 (140–210) min. Graft width averaged 1.6 cm. Average length of harvested graft was 6.5 cm. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.8 months. Two patients developed stricture at the proximal anastomotic site. There were no donor site complications. Conclusions Lingual mucosal graft harvesting is simple, gives graft lengths comparable to buccal mucosa and is associated with negligible donor site morbidity. PMID:24532928

  14. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children

  15. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  16. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  18. Removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible via endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Q; Huang, Z X; Wang, Y Y; Hu, W J; Fan, S; Zhang, D M; Chen, W L

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reliability of the use of endoscopy for removal of the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space of the mandible. Seven patients with residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth remaining in the lingual space were treated via endoscopy, and the results of their treatments were reviewed retrospectively. The study found that the residual roots of the mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space were removed successfully via endoscopy. The average duration of surgery for each case was 5 min, and no complications were observed in any case. There is little risk involved with removing the residual roots of mandibular wisdom teeth in the lingual space via endoscopy and the procedure is safe and fast. We conclude that it is worth promoting this clinical procedure for current and future use.

  19. Infiltration of Macrophages Correlates with Severity of Allograft Rejection and Outcome in Human Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bourier, Felix; Kühne, Louisa; Banas, Miriam C.; Rümmele, Petra; Wurm, Simone; Banas, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite substantial progress in recent years, graft survival beyond the first year still requires improvement. Since modern immunosuppression addresses mainly T-cell activation and proliferation, we studied macrophage infiltration into the allografts of 103 kidney transplant recipients during acute antibody and T-cell mediated rejection. Macrophage infiltration was correlated with both graft function and graft survival until month 36 after transplantation. Results Macrophage infiltration was significantly elevated in antibody-mediated and T-cell mediated rejection, but not in kidneys with established IFTA. Treatment of rejection with steroids was less successful in patients with more prominent macrophage infiltration into the allografts. Macrophage infiltration was accompanied by increased cell proliferation as well as antigen presentation. With regard to the compartmental distribution severity of T-cell-mediated rejection was correlated to the amount of CD68+ cells especially in the peritubular and perivascular compartment, whereas biopsies with ABMR showed mainly peritubular CD68 infiltration. Furthermore, severity of macrophage infiltration was a valid predictor of resulting creatinine values two weeks as well as two and three years after renal transplantation as illustrated by multivariate analysis. Additionally performed ROC curve analysis showed that magnitude of macrophage infiltration (below vs. above the median) was a valid predictor for the necessity to restart dialysis. Having additionally stratified biopsies in accordance to the magnitude of macrophage infiltration, differential CD68+ cell infiltration was reflected by striking differences in overall graft survival. Conclusion The differences in acute allograft rejection have not only been reflected by different magnitudes of macrophage infiltration, but also by compartment-specific infiltration pattern and subsequent impact on resulting allograft function as well as need for dialysis

  20. Treatment of recurrent lingual nerve end-neuroma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Justin L; Steinbacher, Derek M; Debrux, J Cart; Magarakis, Michael; Rosson, Gedge D

    2013-10-01

    A neuroma is a collection of disorganized nerve sprouts emanating from an interruption of axonal continuity, forming within a collagen scar as the nerve attempts to regenerate. Lingual neuroma formation secondary to iatrogenic trauma to the tongue is likely not uncommon; however, we could not find a report in the literature of treatment of a distal tongue end-neuroma treated by resection and implantation into muscle. Here we describe a patient who experienced debilitating chronic tongue pain after excision of a benign mass. After failing conservative management, the patient was taken to the operating room where an end-neuroma of the lingual nerve was identified and successfully treated by excision and burying of the free proximal stump in the mylohyoid muscle. At 17 months postoperatively, she remains pain free without dysesthesias.

  1. Infected lingual osseous choristoma. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Andressakis, Dionysios D; Pavlakis, Athanasios G; Chrysomali, Evanthia; Rapidis, Alexander D

    2008-10-01

    Osseous choristoma is a rare, benign lesion of the oral cavity occurring usually in the tongue. It appears as a tumorous mass of normal bony structure with mature cells in an ectopic position. The case of a 72 years Caucasian male is presented and analyzed along with 52 similar cases reported in the English literature between 1967 and 2007. Lingual choristoma shows a female predilection, whereas the commonest anatomic location is the posterior third of the tongue, occurring at or close to the foramen caecum and the circumvallate papillae. Histologically the lesions show signs of a well-circumscribed mass of vital bone located under the surface oral epithelium. Some lesions represent developmental malformations, whereas others may be reactive lesions after trauma or chronic irritation. Treatment of lingual osseous choristoma consists of simple excision.

  2. Differential effects of word length and visual contrast in the fusiform and lingual gyri during reading.

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, A; Humphreys, G W; Mayall, K; Olson, A; Price, C J

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown differential responses in the fusiform and lingual gyri during reading and suggested that the former is engaged in processing local features of visual stimuli and the latter is engaged in global shape processing. We used positron emission tomography in order to investigate how these regions are modulated by two common variables in reading: word length (three, six and nine letters) and perceptive similarity to the background (high and low contrast). Increasing both word length and visual contrast had a positive monotonic effect on activation in the bilateral fusiform. However, in the lingual gyrus, activation increased with increasing word length but decreased with increasing contrast. On the basis of previous studies, we suggest that (i) increasing word length increases the demands on both local feature and global shape processing, but (ii) increasing visual contrast increases the demands on local feature processing while decreasing the demands on global shape processing. PMID:11052544

  3. Effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in post-lingually deafened adults.

    PubMed

    Langereis, M C; Dejonckere, P H; van Olphen, A F; Smoorenburg, G F

    1997-01-01

    The present study addresses the effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in 21 post-lingually deafened Dutch subjects. All subjects received the Nucleus 22 implant (MSP version). Speech recordings were made pre-implantation and 3 and 12 months post-implantation with the implant switched on and off. Nasality measurements were performed on a standard text and on two sentences without nasal phonemes. The results show that post-lingual deafness in individuals can result in a deviant degree of nasality in speech production. However, the nasalance value of 86% of the subjects of our study fell within the normative range defined as the mean +/- 2 standard deviations of the normal population. After implantation we found no statistically significant effect of implant use. However, individual nasality values outside the normative range may improve. Furthermore, 12 months post-implantation we found a significant decrease in the variability of the nasalance values obtained for two sentences without nasal phonemes. PMID:9415736

  4. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-12-31

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ``inside out`` deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgical Median Glossotomy for Resection of Lingual Dermoid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Corvers, Kristien; Hens, Greet; Meulemans, Jeroen; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue. PMID:27504448

  6. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn after lingual frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins; Piva, Marta Rabello; Khalil Karam, Frederick

    2012-11-01

    Mucoceles are the most common lesions of the minor salivary glands and typically appear as a fluctuant, bluish, nontender, submucosal swelling with a normal overlying mucosa. Mucoceles of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn (in the anterior portion of the ventral surface of the tongue) have been considered to be uncommon. This article reports an unusual case of a large extravasation mucocele involving the ventral surface of the tongue, which appeared after a lingual frenectomy.

  7. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  8. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  9. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  10. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  11. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Jackowiak, H; Frackowiak, H; Yoshimura, K; Kumakura, M; Kobayashi, K

    2005-01-01

    A common characteristic of horses, Rocky Mountain goats, and cattle is that they all have a well developed lingual prominence on the dorsal surface of the posterior area of the tongue. Foliate papillae were found in the horse studied but not in the goat or in cattle. The horse filiform papillae had a long and slender external form with a thin and slender CTC, while in the goat and cattle the external form consisted of a large thick main process and the CTC consisted of a bundle of numerous rod-shaped protrusions. The special papilla found on the lingual prominence resembled larger filiform-like papillae in the horses; however, in the goat and cattle it was a very thick and large tongue like papillae. The horses had two large vallate papillae, while the goat and cattle had 15 or more vallate papillae at the posterior area of the lingual prominence. This suggests that the fine structure of horse tongues may display a more primitive pattern than that present in goats and cattle.

  12. Scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae of the Japanese insectivora.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Arai, S; Tomo, S; Shimoda, T; Shimamura, A; Yamada, H

    1989-03-01

    The tongue and lingual papillae of the Japanese Insectivora, the Shinto shrew (Sorex caecuiens saevus), the long-clawed shrew (S. unguiculatus), the dsinezumi shrew (Crocidura dsinezumi dsinezumi) and the Japanese water shrew (Chimarrogale himalyica platycephala), were observed by scanning electron microscope. The tongue of these animals had two vallate papillae. In two species of the Sorex a papilla in the vallate papilla was surrounded by two separated trenches, but in the other species it was surrounded by only a continuous trench and a clear vallum. The fungiform papillae in the Sorex were less developed than those of the other species. In the Sorex and Crocidura, there was no filiform papilla on the lingual apex. These genera, however, have papillary projections in the margin of the lingual apex. The results of this investigation suggest that the Sorex and Crocidura indicate an ancient form of the mammalian tongue. These characters, furthermore, were compared among seven species in six genera added three species observed by Kobayashi et al. (1983) to this study.

  13. Neural responses of thermal-sensitive lingual fibers to brief menthol stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lundy, R F; Contreras, R J

    1994-04-01

    The addition of the coolant menthol to several oral and facial products is to increase their attractiveness and commercial value. Little is, however, known about the physiological basis of menthol's sensory effects. We studied the electrophysiological responses of 45 thermal-sensitive lingual fibers to anterior tongue stimulation (10 s) with menthol in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Menthol responses were unlike the responses to cold water. Cold water (6 degrees C, 15 degrees C) elicited an immediate sustained increase in impulse frequencies of thermal-sensitive fibers adapted to room temperature water (22-24 degrees C). Inhibitory off-responses followed cold water stimulation. Depending on the concentration and time of measurement, menthol stimulation either excited, inhibited, or had no effect on impulse frequencies of thermal-sensitive fibers. Strong menthol (0.64 mM, 1.28 mM) unequivocally excited thermal-sensitive fibers with a response latency of 4-6 s. In most cases after menthol stimulation, the impulse frequencies returned to baseline; there were no off-responses. Weak menthol (0.0128 mM, 0.064 mM, 0.128 mM) inhibited impulse frequencies of 14 thermal-sensitive fibers and excited impulse frequencies of 6 fibers primarily during the first 2 s of stimulation. Menthol responses were also unlike responses to stimulation with taste solutions. Most taste solutions (30 and 100 mM NaCl, 0.3 and 1 mM quinine-HCl, 0.3 mM citric acid) significantly inhibited impulse frequencies but only during the first 2-5 s of stimulation. The effect of NaCl was biphasic with the initial inhibitory phase followed by an excitatory phase during the second 5 s of stimulation. An excitatory off-response followed quinine stimulation. While considered principally a coolant, menthol elicits a unique pattern of responses from trigeminal and taste nerve endings quite unlike those of conventional thermal and taste stimuli. PMID:8012823

  14. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    PubMed

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  15. Sectorial corneal infiltrates and pannus in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Mondino, B J; Farley, M K; Aizuss, D H

    1986-01-01

    We report four patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus who developed a dense pannus limited to a sector of the superior cornea that advanced to the central region of the cornea. The pannus appeared to develop in response to peripheral infiltrates in a subepithelial or anterior stromal location and not in association with disciform corneal edema, interstitial keratitis, or scleritis. The corneal pannus developed insidiously as a late complication without associated ulceration and with little or no anterior uveitis or conjunctival reaction. Additionally, all four patients developed anterior and mid-stromal infiltrates in a punctate or incomplete ring configuration at the leading border of the pannus that threatened the visual axis. In the three patients that were treated with topical corticosteroids, the infiltrates resolved with preservation of visual acuity. The other patient developed central scarring with a permanent reduction in vision. Patients with infiltrates and pannus in a sector of the cornea should be followed carefully and treated with topical corticosteroids when infiltrates appear to prevent progression to the central cornea.

  16. APPLYING AUDIO-LINGUAL (ORAL) TECHNOLOGY TO BEGINNING READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KING, EVA; KING, PAUL

    THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IS DISCUSSED. IT IS KNOWN THAT COMMUNICATION SKILLS DEVELOP IN SEQUENCE, THAT THERE IS A GAP BETWEEN A 6-YEAR- OLD'S LISTENING AND READING SKILLS, AND THAT READING IS A MULTISENSORY SKILLS. IN ADDITION, THERE ARE STRIKING SIMILARITIES IN MASTERING ORAL…

  17. Evaluation of infiltration models in contaminated landscape.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Montas, Hubert J; Felton, Gary

    2007-06-01

    The infiltration models of Kostiakov, Green-Ampt, and Philip (two and three terms equations) were used, calibrated, and evaluated to simulate in-situ infiltration in nine different soil types. The Osborne-Moré modified version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the double ring infiltrometers and the infiltration equations, to estimate the model parameters. Comparison of the model outputs with the experimental data indicates that the models can successfully describe cumulative infiltration in different soil types. However, since Kostiakov's equation fails to accurately simulate the infiltration rate as time approaches infinity, Philip's two-term equation, in some cases, produces negative values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils, and the Green-Ampt model uses piston flow assumptions, we suggest using Philip's three-term equation to simulate infiltration and to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils. PMID:17558778

  18. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Lockington, D. A.; Barry, D. A.; Parlange, M. B.; Haverkamp, R.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2013-05-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  19. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  20. The effect of masking noise on acoustic-phonetic contrasts in post-lingually deafened cochlear implant users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Jennell C.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Zandipour, Majid; Lane, Harlan; Tiede, Mark

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the effect on the vowel contrast distance (average inter-vowel distance in the F1-F2 plane) of gradually decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the auditory feedback of a post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) user at 1-month and 1-year following CI processor activation. Masking noise, mixed with normal levels of speech feedback, was presented through the headpiece of a research sound processor to the CI user. As a control, an analogous procedure was used for a normal-hearing speaker where the masking noise and speech feedback were delivered over headphones. The SNR was gradually decreased over seven steps as the speakers produced ten repetitions of two vowel contrasts (æ\\/[g\\/] and i\\/u). Speech SPL and vowel contrast distance were measured at all seven masking noise levels. Data from both subjects showed that SPL gradually increased with decreased SNR, while contrast distance decreased. The effect was greater after 1 year of experience with a CI than at 1 month. The effect in the NH speaker was similar to that noted in the CI user after 1 year of experience. Data from additional subjects will be analyzed and reported. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. R01 DC03007.

  1. The effectiveness of articaine in mandibular facial infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Dennis F

    2016-01-01

    Four percent articaine local anesthetic has been successfully used to attain local anesthesia for dental procedures. Mandibular block anesthesia may consume longer time to attain and have a higher failure of local anesthesia compared to infiltration. Mandibular facial infiltration has been reported to successfully attain effective local anesthesia for dental procedures. This study involved only several tooth sites and found that 1.8 cc of 4% articaine facial infiltration in the mandible may be effective when the facial mandibular cortex is <2.0–3.0 mm. A waiting time of 5–10 minutes may be required for effective anesthesia. An additional 1.8 cc of dose may be required to attain anesthesia if an initial 1.8 cc of dose fails. The need for additional anesthetic may be predicted by a measurement of the facial cortex using cone beam computerized tomography. A study of mandibular sites is needed to delineate the anatomical dimensions, density of cortical bone, and apical neural location for ensuring successful local anesthetic infiltration. PMID:26730209

  2. An experiment of rainfall infiltration under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shuang; Tong, Fuguo; Xue, Song

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration is a two-phase flow of water and gas, which should be simulated through solving the nonlinear governing equations of gas and water flow. In order to avoid the three main problems, such as convergence, numerical stability and computational efficiency in the solution of the nonlinear governing equations, Richard equation was usually used to simulate rainfall infiltration when the effect of gas phase could be ignored. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of boundary condition on rainfall infiltration, and to know in which cases Richard equation is available for the simulation of rainfall infiltration. The sample of soil has a height of 1200 mm. It is tightly enclosed in a toughened glass sleeve. The gas pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure on the top surface of the model. The gas tight of its bottom can be controlled by a tap to simulate two different gas boundary conditions, permeable boundary and impermeable boundary. When the bottom of the model is not gas tight, the water infiltration rate is entirely bigger than gas tight. There is a big difference over the long time of rainfall that infiltration rate tends to be stable to 0.05cm/min when permeable but it is only 0.002cm/min when impermeable. The dramatic contrast reflects that gas paly a hindered part during rainfall infiltration. In addition, the gas pressure is obviously lower when the model is not gas tight. Although the pore gas pressure rise a little bit when water block gas, it is still same with atmospheric pressure all time. The situation is different when gas tight, the pore gas pressure increases sharply in the early stage and stable to a higher value, such as 10cm gas pressure on 67cm depth. Therefore, people basically negate the correlation between gas pressure and rainfall infiltration rate, but the evidence points out that the effect of gas pressure is in a significant position and Richard equations are not accurate under gas impermeable condition.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be constructed or treated to limit air infiltration. Penetrations of the pressure envelope made by... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be constructed or treated to limit air infiltration. Penetrations of the pressure envelope made by... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air...

  5. Infiltration Model for Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... infiltration to the living area of the home. Any design, material, method or combination thereof which... limits of reasonable economics. (1) Envelope penetrations. Plumbing, mechanical and...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... infiltration to the living area of the home. Any design, material, method or combination thereof which... limits of reasonable economics. (1) Envelope penetrations. Plumbing, mechanical and...

  8. SEM study on the dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys.

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Tamada, A; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Jamali, M; Taguchi, H; Shoumura, S

    1999-09-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform (FI), fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and vallate papillae (VA) were observed. The FI were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the region of the VA, the FI appeared as giant cones. The FU were present as rounded bodies scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue. They were relatively scarce and appear to be concentrated around the edges of the tongue. The FO were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. The flying squirrel showed the triangular arrangement of the three VA, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. PMID:10560016

  9. Evidence regarding lingual fixed orthodontic appliances' therapeutic and adverse effects is insufficient.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015 without limitations. Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN registry as well as reference lists of the trials included and relevant reviews were manually searched.Study selectionRandomised (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised clinical trials (non-RCTs) on human patients that compared therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial appliances were considered. One reviewer initially screened titles and subsequently two reviewers independently screened the selected abstracts and full texts.Data extraction and synthesisThe data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Missing or unclear information, ongoing trials and raw data from split-mouth trials were requested from the authors of the trials. The quality of the included trials and potential bias across studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. For parallel trials, mean difference (MD) and the relative risk (RR) were used for continuous (objective speech performance, subjective speech performance, intercanine width, intermolar width and sagittal anchorage loss) and binary outcomes (eating difficulty), respectively. The standardised mean difference (SMD) was chosen to pool, after conversion, the outcome (oral discomfort) that assessed both binary and continuous. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsThirteen papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials (three parallel RCTs, one split-mouth RCT and seven parallel prospective non-RCTs) were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. All trials had at least one bias domain at high risk of bias. Compared with labial appliances

  10. Net-Infiltration Map of the Navajo Sandstone Outcrop Area in Western Washington County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying ground-water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area. Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map. Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm

  11. Accessory mental foramina, incisive nerve plexus and lingual canals with unusual emergence paths: Report of two rare cases.

    PubMed

    Haghanifar, Sina; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Being knowledgeable of neurovascularization of anterior mandible is crucial for successful local anesthesia and for safe minor and major oral surgeries of this part. The first case was 62 years old and was found to have two accessory mental foramina with buccal emergence on the left side and two accessory mental foramina with buccal and lingual emergence paths on the right side (overall five mental foramina). Incisive nerve plexus with multiple cephalic branching was obvious on both sides. The second case was 60 years of age and had two lingual foramina on the lingual side with two accessory foramina on the buccal side of the symphysis. Considering our findings, a pre-operation limited cone beam computed tomography is suggested to avoid inadvertent damage, especially when planning a surgery in the mandibular inter-mental region. PMID:25767360

  12. Development of lingual brachet technique. (Esthetic and hygienic approach to orthodontic treatment) (Part 1) Background and design.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K

    1978-04-01

    The present study relates to a development of the new technique and the new appliances, for the treatment of malocclusion and minor tooth movement. The primary purpose of the present study consists in to reduce mental burden of the patients receiving orthodontic treatment and to improve effect of the treatment further by making the appliance invisible when mouth is opened. The second purpose of the study is in orthodontic treatment carried out from lingual side, to control all teeth movement in oral cavity in three dimensions so that the normal occlusion may be operated. The third purpose of the present study is to make the exchange of wire readily when the wire with bigger elasticity is exchanged by turns during the process of the treatment. The background and the design of appliances for the lingual-bracker technique(lingual-bracket mushroom arch wire technique) is found out in this report.

  13. Lingual nerve injury subsequent to wisdom teeth removal--a 5-year retrospective audit from a high street dental practice.

    PubMed

    Malden, N J; Maidment, Y G

    2002-08-24

    Lingual nerve damage subsequent to lower wisdom tooth removal affects a small number of patients, sometimes producing permanent sensory loss or impairment. A number of surgical techniques have been described which are associated with low incidences of this distressing post-operative complication. When a technique is adopted by an individual clinician then a personal audit may be prudent to establish how effective it is in relation to established nerve injury rates. This audit looks at a technique involving the minimal interference of lingual soft tissues during lower wisdom tooth removal in a high street practice situation for patients having mild to moderate impacted wisdom teeth removed under local anaesthetic. It was concluded that the technique employed was associated with a low incidence of lingual nerve trauma, comparable with that reported elsewhere. PMID:12222906

  14. Groundwater Infiltration Path of Road Deicing Agent and its Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroizumi, T.; Hada, J.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    A deicing agent has been sprinkled on an expressway to prevent it from freezing in the hilly and mountainous area along the expressway having been used for more than 30 years. We investigated the infiltration, the river runoff, and the scattering of the de-icing agent quantitatively, observed the variation of water quality in river, and discussed the infiltration route and balance of the deicing agent in order to clarify the influence of the de-icing agent on the groundwater salinization. As a result, it turned out that 65% of the de-icing agent sprinkled on the road surface flowed into the waterway, the 25% infiltrated into underground through the crack of a road surface, and the remaining 10% dispersed out of an expressway. Next, for the rate of the de-icing agent outflowing to the river during a frozen snow term, it was estimated that the 39% of the sprinkled de-icing agent outflowed with surface water, and the 17% did with groundwater. Moreover, it was shown clearly that the 44% was probably stored in underground from the balance between the sprinkled de-icing agent and the outflowing one. In addition, the Cl- concentration of groundwater by the infiltrated deicing agent was simulated to clarify its extent and to predict its change in future when stopped sprinkling the deicing agent.

  15. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  16. Mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands: from extravasation to an alarming mass with a benign course.

    PubMed

    Andiran, N; Sarikayalar, F; Unal OF; Baydar, D E; Ozaydin, E

    2001-11-01

    Mucoceles are common cystic lesions in the oral cavity. However, mucoceles located on the ventral surface of the tongue originating from anterior lingual salivary glands are rare. Only 24 cases were reported in the medical literature, of which most were relatively small lesions measuring less than 20 mm in diameter. This report describes a large-sized mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands in an 8-year-old boy who was treated by surgical excision of the lesion. The authors emphasize the importance of preoperative awareness and en bloc excision of the lesion even in asymptomatic patients to avoid further enlargement and complications.

  17. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  18. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23973562

  19. Morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae in the lesser mouse deer, Tragulus javanicus.

    PubMed Central

    Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J; Kitamura, N; Nisa, C; Sigit, K; Yamamoto, Y

    1995-01-01

    The dorsal lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer were studied morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy. Four types of papillae, filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate, were observed. Filiform papillae consisted of larger main papillae with smaller secondary papillae on their anterolateral aspects. Secondary papillae were well distributed over the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, but were very rare or absent in the posterior third. Fungiform papillae were distributed among the filiform papillae, being larger and more abundant on the tip of the tongue. Vallate papillae were round-flat or long-flat, surrounded by a prominent circular groove and a thin annular pad. An important finding was the presence of distinct and prominent foliate papillae on the posterolateral sides of the tongue. Keratinisation of the covering stratified squamous epithelium was relatively weak. Taste buds were observed in the epithelium of the fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae. The lingual papillae of the lesser mouse deer showed some characteristics that differed from those reported for domestic ruminants. These may be related to the feeding habits and the type of food eaten by this species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586562

  20. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  1. A Feature-Reinforcement-Based Approach for Supporting Poly-Lingual Category Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chao-Chi; Cheng, Tsang-Hsiang; Yang, Christopher C.

    Document-category integration (or category integration for short) is fundamental to many e-commerce applications, including information integration along supply chains and information aggregation by intermediaries. Because of the trend of globalization, the requirement for category integration has been extended from monolingual to poly-lingual settings. Poly-lingual category integration (PLCI) aims to integrate two document catalogs, each of which consists of documents written in a mix of languages. Several category integration techniques have been proposed in the literature, but these techniques focus only on monolingual category integration rather than PLCI. In this study, we propose a feature-reinforcement-based PLCI (namely, FR-PLCI) technique that takes into account the master documents of all languages when integrating source documents (in the source catalog) written in a specific language into the master catalog. Using the monolingual category integration (MnCI) technique as a performance benchmark, our empirical evaluation results show that our proposed FR-PLCI technique achieves better integration accuracy than MnCI does in both English and Chinese category integration tasks.

  2. Synapsin I-like immunoreactivity in nerve fibers associated with lingual taste buds of the rat.

    PubMed

    Finger, T E; Womble, M; Kinnamon, J C; Ueda, T

    1990-02-01

    Immunoreactivity to synapsin I, a neuronal phosphoprotein, was localized in free-floating tissue sections prepared from lingual tissue of rats. Many nerve fibers within the tissue exhibited clear immunoreactivity including motor endplates on striated muscle, autonomic fibers innervating blood vessels or glands, and sensory fibers innervating muscles or the lingual epithelium including taste buds. Numerous immunoreactive fibers occurred within each taste bud, with fewer, fine fibers being dispersed in the epithelium between taste buds. The majority of the intragemmal immunoreactive fibers extended throughout the taste buds most of the distance outward from the basal lamina toward the surface of the epithelium. Fine, perigemmal fibers reached nearly to the epithelial surface. Ultrastructural analysis of the immunoreactive sensory fibers revealed that synapsin I-immunoreactivity occurred diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, and heavily in association with microvesicles. The synaptic vesicles at the taste receptor cell-to-afferent fiber synapse were, however, not immunoreactive for synapsin I, although these vesicles fall into the size class shown to be immunoreactive in other systems. This absence of synapsin I may be a common property of vesicles in axonless short receptor cells. PMID:2108194

  3. Do G protein-coupled receptors expressed in human lingual epithelium interact with HPV11?

    PubMed

    Durzyński, Lukasz; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Breuils, Laure; Szydłowski, Jaroslaw; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna; Haertlé, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses infect epithelia but little is known about the nature of cell surface receptors interacting with the viral particles. It has been proposed that glycosaminoglycans and integrins may be involved in the attachment process. In the present study, the putative interactions of virus-like particles of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11), which present a tropism for nasopharyngeal epithelia, with olfactory and taste receptors expressed in the human lingual epithelium were studied. The L1 protein of HPV11 was produced in insect cells. The presence of L1 virus-like particles was analyzed by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies specific for full-size particles and by electron microscopy. Using immunofluorescence, it was observed that virus-like particles interacted with taste buds from murine tongue, with the tagged human olfactory receptor hJCG5 expressed in HEK-293 but not with the tagged taste receptor hT2R4. This therefore suggests that hJCG5 may be involved in the adsorption process of HPV11 to lingual epithelium serving as a so-called "adsorption-adhesive molecule." PMID:17705193

  4. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  5. [Lingual abscess].

    PubMed

    Benito, J I; Martín, G; Morais, D; del Monte, J M

    2000-01-01

    The unilateral abscess of the anterior portion of the tongue is an extremely rare occurrence. We report a case in which we have used the ultrasonography in the diagnosis, and discuss, as etiologic hypothesis the participation of Blandin-Nühn glands in the genesis of these abscess.

  6. [Lingual hamartoma].

    PubMed

    Cánovas, E; Encina, L; Pedra, J; Sicilia, E; Torrent, J; Abdalla, I; Castro, E; Soler, T; Sancho, J

    1990-01-01

    The hamartoma is a benign tumor resulting of a mixture of normal and mature tissues and cells, sitting on an organ or tissue showing identical cell components. From the perusal done of the bibliography they appear as rare malformations basically compound of fibrous tissue, fat, acini of salivary glands and smooth muscle.

  7. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  8. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  9. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  10. Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Rockhold

    2007-04-19

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

  11. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  12. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  13. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  14. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  15. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  16. Infiltration rates for a new swine building

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Barber, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    There is a lack of data on air leakage for livestock buildings and a need to normalize and standardize the air-tightness of these types of buildings for design engineers. In this paper, the infiltration rates of five different rooms in a large, newly built swine building are reported. The measurement was conducted at pressure differences from 0 to 50 Pa. Infiltration rates were measured and normalized for each individual component (e.g., structures and doors). Infiltration rates from this building were compared with existing air leakage data for other types of buildings. Although the newly built livestock building was much tighter than old buildings and even tighter than office buildings, infiltration rates still ranged from 1 to 1.4 air changes per hour (ACH) at a pressure difference of 20 Pa. This infiltration rate represented approximately 50% of the minimum ventilation requirement during a heating season. Air leakage reduces ventilation effectiveness. Special attention should be paid to minimize infiltration sources when designing a ventilation system for a livestock building.

  17. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Indira; Naithani, Udita; Dadheech, Vinod Kumar; Pradeep, D. S.; Meena, Khemraj; Verma, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The role of nitro-glycerine (NTG) lingual spray for attenuation of the hemodynamic response associated with intubation is not much investigated. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of NTG lingual pump or pen spray in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic responses and to elucidate the optimum dose. Material and Methods: In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 90 adult patients of ASA I, II, 18-60 year posted for elective general surgery under general anesthesia with intubation were randomly allocated to three groups as Group C (control) - receiving no NTG spray, Group N1 – receiving 1 NTG spray and Group N2 – receiving 2 NTG spray one minute before intubation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate were recorded at baseline, just before intubation (i.e., 60 s just after induction and NTG spray), immediately after intubation, at 1, 2, 5 and 10 min after intubation. Results: Incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in Group C (60%, n = 18) as compared to Group N1 and N2 (10%, n = 3 each), P < 0.01. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP showed a significant rise as compared to baseline, following intubation in control group (15.31% in SBP, 12.12% in DBP, 17.77% in MAP) that persisted till 5 min, while no significant rise was observed in Group N1 and N2. There was a trend toward fall in blood pressure in Group N2 (4.95% fall in SBP, 4.72% fall in MAP) 1-min following spray, which was clinically insignificant. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP was significantly higher in Group C than in Group N1, which was in turn greater than Group N2 (Group C > N1> N2), P < 0.05. However, incidence of tachycardia was comparable in three groups (70% in group C, 63.33% in Group N1 and 67.77% in Group N2, P > 0.05). Conclusions: We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray) or 0.8 mg (2 sprays) was effective in attenuation of intubation induced

  18. A Cross-Lingual Similarity Measure for Detecting Biomedical Term Translations

    PubMed Central

    Bollegala, Danushka; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries for technical terms such as biomedical terms are an important resource for machine translation systems as well as for humans who would like to understand a concept described in a foreign language. Often a biomedical term is first proposed in English and later it is manually translated to other languages. Despite the fact that there are large monolingual lexicons of biomedical terms, only a fraction of those term lexicons are translated to other languages. Manually compiling large-scale bilingual dictionaries for technical domains is a challenging task because it is difficult to find a sufficiently large number of bilingual experts. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting most similar translation candidates for a biomedical term specified in one language (source) from another language (target). Specifically, a biomedical term in a language is represented using two types of features: (a) intrinsic features that consist of character n-grams extracted from the term under consideration, and (b) extrinsic features that consist of unigrams and bigrams extracted from the contextual windows surrounding the term under consideration. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure using each of those feature types. First, to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in each language, we propose prototype vector projection (PVP)—a non-negative lower-dimensional vector projection method. Second, we propose a method to learn a mapping between the feature spaces in the source and target language using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The proposed method requires only a small number of training instances to learn a cross-lingual similarity measure. The proposed PVP method outperforms popular dimensionality reduction methods such as the singular value decomposition (SVD) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) in a nearest neighbor prediction task. Moreover, our experimental results covering several language pairs such as

  19. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%) - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed. PMID:25715725

  20. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  1. Analysis of Speech Disorders in Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy: a Longitudinal Study of a Patient with Lingual Paralysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy-Malherbe, V.; Chevrie-Muller, C.; Rigoard, M. T.; Arabia, C.

    1998-01-01

    This case report describes the case of a 52-year-old man with bilateral central lingual paralysis following a myocardial infarction. Analysis of speech recordings 15 days and 18 months after the attack were acoustically analyzed. The case demonstrates the usefulness of acoustic analysis to detect slight acoustic differences. (DB)

  2. Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The term "ethno-lingual relativity" is a perspective that is not limited by one's own cultural and linguistic experiences, but rather is open to the contrasting cultural and linguistic patterns of other peoples. This article explores the hypothesis that having such a perspective might facilitate second language acquisition. (19 references)…

  3. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  4. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  5. The Role of Music in Speech Intelligibility of Learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment in Selected Units in Lusaka District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katongo, Emily Mwamba; Ndhlovu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to establish the role of music in speech intelligibility of learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment (PLHI) and strategies teachers used to enhance speech intelligibility in learners with PLHI in selected special units for the deaf in Lusaka district. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative and quantitative…

  6. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  7. A polarized light and scanning electron microscopic study of human fissure and lingual enamel of unerupted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, K; Holmen, L; Qvortrup, K

    1999-01-01

    Using histological and ultrastructural techniques the aims of this study were to investigate whether the mineralization pattern and surface microanatomy of the caries-susceptible fissure enamel were different from those on the caries-inactive lingual surface. The material consisted of 31 unerupted third mandibular molars. The specimens were initially grouped into four categories: (1) without, (2) with initial, (3) with almost completed and (4) with completed root formation. One ground section with fissure-like morphology was selected from each tooth. Using water as a medium the observed birefringence was negative along the lingual and fissure transverses in specimens with almost completed and with completed root formation, while the observed birefringence was positive at different distances in the enamel in sections representing less maturation stages. Qualitative imbibition studies revealed hypomineralized enamel in the lower part of the fissures in specimens representing almost and completed root formation. Imbibed in quinoline, parts of the hypomineralized enamel behaved like a molecular sieve due to the presence of micropores, indicating that the structural arrangement is different from that in the enamel adjacent to this areas. After division of the sections into a lingual and a buccal part, SEM features were described from lower and upper parts of the buccal fissure wall and on lingual enamel in the area corresponding to the bottom part of the fissure. The surface microanatomy varied greatly. Negative developmental irregularities such as fissures and holes were associated with the immature enamel, while matured enamel - particularly fissures - housed many positive developmental irregularities such as enamel caps and protrusions. The crystal size in the mature specimens appeared smaller and more uniform than the crystals from the immature specimens. Apart from the occurrence of hypomineralized enamel in fissures and numerous positive developmental

  8. Japanese/English Blog Distillation and Cross-Lingual Blog Analysis with Multilingual Wikipedia Entries as Fundamental Knowledge Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasaki, Hiroyuki; Kawaba, Mariko; Yokomoto, Daisuke; Utsuro, Takehito; Fukuhara, Tomohiro

    The overall goal of this paper is to cross-lingually analyze multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. The framework of collecting multilingual blogs with a topic keyword is designed as the blog feed retrieval procedure. In this paper, we take an approach of collecting blog feeds rather than blog posts, mainly because we regard the former as a larger information unit in the blogosphere and prefer it as the information source for cross-lingual blog analysis. In the blog feed retrieval procedure, we also regard Wikipedia as a large scale ontological knowledge base for conceptually indexing the blogosphere. The underlying motivation of employing Wikipedia is in linking a knowledge base of well known facts and relatively neutral opinions with rather raw, user generated media like blogs, which include less well known facts and much more radical opinions. In our framework, first, in order to collect candidates of blog feeds for a given query, we use existing Web search engine APIs, which return a ranked list of blog posts, given a topic keyword. Next, we re-rank the list of blog feeds according to the number of hits of the topic keyword as well as closely related terms extracted from the Wikipedia entry in each blog feed. We compare the proposed blog feed retrieval method to existing Web search engine APIs and achieve significant improvement. We then apply the proposed blog distillation framework to the task of cross-lingually analyzing multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. Here, we cross-lingually and cross-culturally compare less well known facts and opinions that are closely related to a given topic. Results of cross-lingual blog analysis support the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  9. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  10. Short lingual osteotomy without fixation: a new strategy for mandibular osteotomy known as "physiological positioning".

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshida, Masashi; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Minamizato, Tokutarou; Koga, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Yuya; Wanatabe, Etsuko; Nakao, Noriko; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    We describe the strategy of physiological positioning, which we regard as a new alternative treatment to conventional orthognathic operations, and treated 18 patients with skeletal mandibular prognathism using it. The positions of SNB, FMA, and Me were measured postoperatively to assess skeletal stability, changes in the angle and perpendicular length of the upper and lower central incisors were measured to assess dental stability, and we confirmed that both skeletal and dental stability were excellent. The width to which the jaw could be opened recovered early, and we saw only one case of disorder of the temporomandibular joint. Short lingual osteotomy with physiological positioning is an effective new approach to the treatment of deformities of the mandible. PMID:24380666

  11. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images.

  12. Short lingual osteotomy without fixation: a new strategy for mandibular osteotomy known as "physiological positioning".

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Yoshida, Masashi; Kohara, Haruka; Kawasaki, Takako; Minamizato, Tokutarou; Koga, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Yuya; Wanatabe, Etsuko; Nakao, Noriko; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    We describe the strategy of physiological positioning, which we regard as a new alternative treatment to conventional orthognathic operations, and treated 18 patients with skeletal mandibular prognathism using it. The positions of SNB, FMA, and Me were measured postoperatively to assess skeletal stability, changes in the angle and perpendicular length of the upper and lower central incisors were measured to assess dental stability, and we confirmed that both skeletal and dental stability were excellent. The width to which the jaw could be opened recovered early, and we saw only one case of disorder of the temporomandibular joint. Short lingual osteotomy with physiological positioning is an effective new approach to the treatment of deformities of the mandible.

  13. Mandibular first molars with disto-lingual roots: review and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Abella, F; Patel, S; Durán-Sindreu, F; Mercadé, M; Roig, M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review was (i) to conduct a literature review on the prevalence and morphologic classification of mandibular first molars with disto-lingual (DL) roots, and (ii) to discuss the clinical approach to diagnosis and root canal treatment of these teeth. A search was carried out on electronic (MEDLINE, PubMed and Cochrane) and hand databases, which covered all publications from 1970 to December 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies and recorded type of study, origin and sample sizes, number of teeth with three roots and type of root canal configuration. Forty-five studies were identified with a total of 19,056 mandibular first molar teeth. The frequency of DL roots was 14.4% and was associated with certain ethnic populations. The most common canal configuration of mesial and distal roots was Vertucci types IV and I, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of DL roots according to gender. Variable results related to side were observed as well as a trend in bilateral occurrence. The root length of the DL roots was in general shorter than that of the disto-buccal roots (DB). Most DL roots had a greater angle of curvature and a smaller radius of curvature in a bucco-lingual orientation. The best methods to identify DL roots are a 25° mesial parallax periapical radiograph or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A trapezoidal shape access cavity is desirable to locate the orifice of the DL canal. Clinicians should be aware of the variable furcation levels during coronal pre-flaring or post-space preparation to avoid furcal/strip perforations and a weakening of DL roots.

  14. In vitro assessment of competency for different lingual brackets in sliding mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lalithapriya, S; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the static frictional resistance of different lingual brackets at different second order angulations when coupled with stainless steel (SS) archwire in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Methods: Using a modified jig, frictional resistance was evaluated under different conditions for a total of 270 upper premolar lingual brackets (0.018″ × 0.025″ - conventional - 7th generation and STb, self-ligating – evolution) with no in-built tip or torque together with 0.016″ × 0.022″ straight length SS archwires. For conventional brackets, the archwire was secured with 0.008″ preformed SS short ligature ties. Statistical Analysis: One way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD as post-hoc test was applied for degree wise and bracket wise comparison within dry condition and wet condition. For pair wise comparison Student's t-test was used. Results: Under both conditions the static frictional resistance is significantly higher for self-ligating brackets at 0°, while at 5° and 10° it is higher for 7th generation brackets. Statistically, significant difference does not exist at 0° between conventional brackets and the same was found at 5° and 10° between STb and self-ligating brackets. With an increase in second order angulations, all the evaluated samples exhibited an increased frictional value. Wet condition samples obtained a higher value than their corresponding dry condition. Conclusion: The self-ligating bracket evaluated in this in vitro study is not beneficial in reducing friction during en-mass retraction due to its interactive clip type. PMID:25657988

  15. Comparative morphological study on the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouji; Zheng, Jin Hua; Kobayashi, Kan

    2008-08-01

    The morphological structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTC) in a rabbit were studied using LM and SEM and were compared to that of other animal species. Externally, the filiform papillae distributed on the anterior surface of the dorsal tongue were short and conical with a round base and had a flat area on their anterior upper half. The CTC of the conical filiform papillae had a roughly triangular plate-like structure with a round top. Several small round protrusions were found on both inclined planes of the triangle. Spearhead-like filiform papillae were distributed on the anterior edge of the lingual prominence and branched filiform papillae were on the posteriorly wide area of the prominence. These papillae on the prominence had a slightly ramified CTC that differed from that of the CTC of the conical filiform papillae distributed on the anterior tongue. Dome-like fungiform papillae were distributed among the conical filiform papillae of the anterior tongue and had a CTC with a roundish structure that was almost but, not quite spherical in appearance with 1 to 10 small round concave indentations for taste buds on their upper surface. The foliate papillae had approximately 15 parallel ridges separated by grooves. These ridges contained a parallel thin plate-like CTC exhibited after removal of the epithelium. The vallate papilla was comprised of a spherical central papilla and had a circular wall with a flower-like CTC almost resembling a carnation. The stereostructure of the rabbit's filiform CTC are comparatively described as being morphologically in between those of rodents and those of the guinea pig and Japanese serow. Such evolution has probably occurred due to the species unique masticatory and gustatory needs and functions. PMID:18975613

  16. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  17. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    water plume as occurred in the homogeneous agricultural soils, the location of the infiltrated water seems to be highly influenced by the soil heterogeneity, and the water front is scattered into discontinuous layers and travels in additional directions. The geophysical results during infiltration correlate well with soil compaction data. It follows that the ERI method can be used as a proxy for soil compaction and water content variations in agricultural applications. In a natural environment, ERI successfully maps the tree root zone of mature trees. Applications include continuous water content monitoring in high value cash crops, such as viticulture (precision agriculture).

  18. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  19. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  20. Performance comparison between infiltration and non-infiltration type of structural stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Choi, Jiyeon; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The study was constructed to monitor representative inflow and outflow from infiltration and non-infiltration type best management practice (BMP) sites developed at a university campus, allowing the determination of overall performance efficiency in terms of runoff reduction and pollutant removal. Based on the monitored storm events, the runoff and discharged volume and flow rates exhibited high positive correlations with total rainfall depth (p<0.001). Findings revealed that as the total rainfall increases, the amount of volume reduction and pollutant removal decreases for both types of BMP. Infiltration BMP showed a higher ability in treatment performance especially during small storm events than non-infiltration type; however, the differences were not significant. Pollutant removal rates of infiltration type were in the range of 70-90% while between 35 and 80% for the non-infiltration type for storm events with less than 10 mm rainfall depth. Average volume reductions were 71 ± 33% and 32 ± 32% for the infiltration and non-infiltration type, respectively. The ratio of the discharge volume was significantly greater than the ratio of discharge pollutant load indicating a high potential for water quality improvement. Design recommendations were provided considering sizing and cost for on-site application of similar BMP designs in the future.

  1. Influence of the initial soil water content on Beerkan water infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassabatere, L.; Loizeau, S.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Winiarski, T.; Rossier, Y.; Delolme, C.; Gaudet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding and modeling of water flow in the vadose zone are important with regards water management and infiltration devices design. Water infiltration process clearly depends on initial soil water content, in particular for sandy soils with high organic matter content. This study investigates the influence of initial water content on water infiltration in a hydrophobic sandy soil and on the related derivation of hydraulic parameters using the BEST algorithm (Lassabatere et al., 2006). The studied sandy soil has a high total organic content decreasing from 3.5% (w/w) at the surface to 0.5% (w/w) below 1cm depth. The highest TOC at surface was due to the presence of a dense biofilm and resulted in a high surface hydrophobicity under dry conditions (low initial water contents). The water infiltration experiments consisted in infiltrating known volumes of water through a simple ring at null pressure head (Beerkan method). The infiltrations were performed during three successive days after a dry period with a storm event between the first and the second day (5 mm) and another between the second and the third day (35 mm). These events resulted in an increase in initial water contents, from less than 5% for the first day to around 10% for the last day. Experiments were performed for appropriate conditions for Beerkan experiments: initial water contents below 1/4 of the saturated water content and uniform water profile resulting from water redistribution after each rainfall event. The analysis of the infiltration data clearly highlights the strong effect of hydrophobicity. For the driest initial conditions (first day), infiltration rates increased with time, whereas they decreased with time for wetter conditions. Such a decrease agreed with the principles of water infiltration without hydrophobicity. In addition, total cumulative infiltrations were far higher for the wettest conditions. Regarding hydraulic characterization, only the data obtained during the last

  2. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  3. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  4. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  7. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Intramasseterin-infiltrating angiolipoma: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Andrea; Romano, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Buonaccorsi, Sara; Valentini, Valentino

    2012-07-01

    Angiolipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors infrequently affecting the head and neck region, manifesting themselves as small (<4 cm), slow-growing mass that are painful or tender to palpation. Ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to make a diagnosis. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice in both infiltrating and noninfiltrating forms, even if liposuction can be considered in multiple forms. We describe a case of infiltrating intramasseterin angiolipoma, in which diagnosis was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium; then a transoral surgical excision was performed. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 other case of intramasseterin-infiltrating angiolipoma has been previously described.

  9. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  10. Modeling Engineered Approaches to Enhance Denitrification under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Akhavan, M.; Finsterle, S.; Andres, S.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) use the controlled application of treated wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents before recharging groundwater. Because wastewater from new wastewater treatment plants is often enriched in NO3, denitrification (DNF) is the most important process for nitrogen removal. Two key requirements for DNF in the subsurface are the absence of molecular oxygen and an adequate supply of carbon to serve as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria. These requirements can be met by adjusting the wastewater application to maximize anaerobic conditions beneath the infiltration basin, and by incorporating a carbon source layer, where carbon is supplied to infiltrating wastewater by dissolution from a solid matrix, e.g., woodchips. To examine the interplay between alternative wastewater application approaches and the length and thickness of the carbon source layer on DNF, a series of simulations were conducted in two soil types using TOUGHREACT. Because RIBS are often overdesigned, basins may be only partially flooded such that overland flow within the basin controls the infiltration area. For this reason, TOUGHREACT was modified to include both overland and subsurface flow. Simulations with the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model predict uneven water distribution over the basins, a condition that significantly affects DNF. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time, i.e., shorter but more intense flooding periods, result in greater water saturations, shorter residence times and lower oxygen concentrations in the vadose zone, ultimately resulting in greater DNF. While the addition of a carbon source layer at the bottom of the RIBS is essential for supplying needed carbon, flow bypassing around this carbon layer, which is typically of lower permeability than the surrounding soil, can be problematic. These simulations demonstrate the interplay between the selection of wastewater application approach and carbon source layer design on

  11. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  12. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  13. Primary cardiac lymphoma mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Kim, Won Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare malignancy which has been described as thickened myocardium due to the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes and accompanying intracardiac masses. Here, we report a case of a primary cardiac lymphoma without demonstrable intracardiac masses, mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy. A 40-year-old male presented with exertional dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LV systolic function. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma was confirmed. After appropriate chemotherapy, he recovered his systolic function fully. PMID:23248217

  14. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  15. The lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node on CT lymphography in a patient with cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Saito, M; Nishiyama, H; Oda, Y; Shingaki, S; Hayashi, T

    2012-01-01

    We performed CT lymphography on an 81-year-old female patient with a histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical lymph node involvement. The lateral lingual lymph node was identified as a sentinel node, which is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a primary tumour. CT lymphography also showed draining lymphatics passing through the sublingual space, the medial side of the submandibular gland and near the hyoid bone and connected with the middle internal jugular node. Although metastasis to the lateral lingual lymph node is known as one of the crucial events in determining survival outcome in cancer of the tongue and floor of the mouth, very few reports are available on the imaging of the lateral lingual lymph node metastasis. This is the first report regarding the lateral lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node demonstrated on CT lymphography. PMID:22074865

  16. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  17. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  18. Goodness, gracious, great balls of fire: A case of transient lingual papillitis following consumption of an Atomic Fireball.

    PubMed

    Raji, Kehinde; Ranario, Jennifer; Ogunmakin, Kehinde

    2016-05-15

    Transient lingual papillitis is a benign condition characterized by the inflammation of one or more fungiform papillae on the dorsolateral tongue. Although it is a common condition that affects more than half of the population, few cases have been reported in the dermatological literature. Therefore, it is a condition uncommonly recognized by dermatologists though it has a distinct clinical presentation that may be easily diagnosed by clinicians familiar with the entity. We report an interesting case of transient lingual papillitis in a 27 year-old healthy woman following the consumption of the hard candy, Atomic Fireball. We describe treatment and resolution of the condition, and its recurrence following re-exposure to the identified culprit. This report further reviews the literature to illustrate the clinical manifestations, etiology, differential diagnosis, course, and treatment of this condition.

  19. Goodness, gracious, great balls of fire: A case of transient lingual papillitis following consumption of an Atomic Fireball.

    PubMed

    Raji, Kehinde; Ranario, Jennifer; Ogunmakin, Kehinde

    2016-01-01

    Transient lingual papillitis is a benign condition characterized by the inflammation of one or more fungiform papillae on the dorsolateral tongue. Although it is a common condition that affects more than half of the population, few cases have been reported in the dermatological literature. Therefore, it is a condition uncommonly recognized by dermatologists though it has a distinct clinical presentation that may be easily diagnosed by clinicians familiar with the entity. We report an interesting case of transient lingual papillitis in a 27 year-old healthy woman following the consumption of the hard candy, Atomic Fireball. We describe treatment and resolution of the condition, and its recurrence following re-exposure to the identified culprit. This report further reviews the literature to illustrate the clinical manifestations, etiology, differential diagnosis, course, and treatment of this condition. PMID:27617517

  20. Analysis of the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In lingual orthodontic therapy, effective torque control of the incisors is crucial due to the biomechanical particularities associated with the point of force application and the tight link between third order deviations and vertical tooth position. Aim The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to analyze the torque capacity of a completely customized lingual appliance of the next generation (WIN) in combination with different finishing archwire dimensions. Methods Using a typodont of the upper arch carrying the WIN appliance, slot filling and undersized individualized β-titanium archwires were engaged. Horizontal forces ranging from 0 to 100 cN were applied at the central incisor by means of spring gauges. The resulting angular deviations were recorded and the corresponding torque moments were calculated. Results For fullsize archwires (0.018”×0.018” β-titanium and 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium), an initial torque play of 0-2° had to be overcome prior to the development of an effective torque moment. Thereafter, a linear correlation between torque angle and torque moment developed for both archwire dimensions with steeper slopes calculated for the specimens with the larger dimension. A torque moment of 2 Nmm required for effective torque correction was noted after a minimum of 2-3° of twist for the 0.018”×0.018” β-titanium wires as compared to 2-4° for the 0.018”×0.025” β-titanium study sample. When undersized archwires were analyzed (0.0175”×0.0175” β-titanium), the measured torque play ranged from 5-7°. After 8-12° of torque angle, the threshold of 2 Nmm was reached. A linear relationship between twist angle and torque moment in which the steepness of the slopes was generally flatter than the ones calculated for the slot filling archwires was noted. Conclusions Given the high precision of the bracket slot-archwire-combination provided with the WIN appliance, an effective torque control can be clinically

  1. The active ion transport properties of canine lingual epithelia in vitro. Implications for gustatory transduction.

    PubMed

    Desimone, J A; Heck, G L; Mierson, S; Desimone, S K

    1984-05-01

    The electrophysiological properties of the dorsal and ventral canine lingual epithelium are studied in vitro. The dorsal epithelium contains a special ion transport system activated by mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. Hyperosmotic KCl is significantly less effective as an activator of this system. The lingual frenulum does not contain the transport system. In the dorsal surface it is characterized by a rapid increase in inward current and can be quantitated as a second component in the time course of either the open-circuit potential or short-circuit current when the mucosal solution is hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. The increased inward current (hyperosmotic response) can be eliminated by amiloride (10(-4) M). The specific location of this transport system in the dorsal surface and the fact that it operates over the concentration range characteristic of mammalian salt taste suggests a possible link to gustatory transduction. This possibility is tested by recording neural responses in the rat to NaCl and KCl over a concentration range including the hyperosmotic. We demonstrate that amiloride specifically blocks the response to NaCl over the hyperosmotic range while affecting the KCl response significantly less. The results suggest that gustatory transduction for NaCl is mediated by Na entry into the taste cells via the same amiloride-sensitive pathway responsible for the hyperosmotic response in vitro. Further studies of the in vitro system give evidence for paracellular as well as transcellular current paths. The transmural current-voltage relations are linear under both symmetrical and asymmetrical conditions. After ouabain treatment under symmetrical conditions, the short-circuit current decays to zero. The increase in resistance, though significant, is small, which suggests a sizeable shunt pathway for current. Flux measurements show that sodium is absorbed under symmetrical conditions. Mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in various sugars also induce

  2. Microvasculature of the lingual papillae in primates and insectivores--fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, N; Okada, S

    1994-10-01

    The microvascular architecture of the fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae was investigated under scanning electron microscope in man, common squirrel monkeys, common marmosets, common tree shrews (primates), large Japanese moles and dwarf shrews (insectivores) utilizing microvascular corrosion casts. The fungiform papilla of the lingual apex in man was supplied by an intrapapillary capillary network with a globular pattern. It was composed of 10-15 capillary loops in a circular arrangement and 5-7 thick capillaries in the center. The fungiform papilla of the lingual body was supplied by a dense capillary network on the top and lateral surfaces. That in other primates was supplied by a cylindrical capillary network and loop formation was seen on the top surface. That in insectivores was supplied by a thin cylindrical network with coarse meshes, at the tips of which were observed 2 or 3 capillary rings in the mole and only one in the dwarf shrew. The vallate papilla in primates was supplied by an intrapapillary capillary network with a globular pattern, and showed irregularly tortuous capillary loops on its top surface. The vallum was supplied by a capillary network in man and usually one or two rows of loops arranged in a circle in other primates. The vallate papilla in insectivores was supplied by a doughnut-like capillary network with a recess on the top surface, and an indistinctly low vallum by a low undulating network. The foliate papillae were most developed in man, and each lobule was supplied by capillaries passing longitudinal to it and capillary loops in 5-10 regular rows on the top, but 3-5 rudimentary lobules in the squirrel monkey and marmoset. In the two species, each lobule was supplied by one arteriole, one venule and a coarse capillary network continuing from the interpapillary network. No foliate papilla was observed, but large conical papillae were noted in the tree shrew and insectivores. In conclusion, the intrapapillary vasculature appeared

  3. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  4. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  5. Derivation of a finite-element model of lingual deformation during swallowing from the mechanics of mesoscale myofiber tracts obtained by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Boban; Kojic, Milos; Liang, Alvin; Wedeen, Van J.; Gilbert, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between lingual myoarchitecture and mechanics during swallowing, we performed a finite-element (FE) simulation of lingual deformation employing mesh aligned with the vector coordinates of myofiber tracts obtained by diffusion tensor imaging with tractography in humans. Material properties of individual elements were depicted in terms of Hill's three-component phenomenological model, assuming that the FE mesh was composed of anisotropic muscle and isotropic connective tissue. Moreover, the mechanical model accounted for elastic constraints by passive and active elements from the superior and inferior directions and the effect of out-of-plane muscles and connective tissue. Passive bolus effects were negligible. Myofiber tract activation was simulated over 500 ms in 1-ms steps following lingual tip association with the hard palate and incorporated specifically the accommodative and propulsive phases of the swallow. Examining the displacement field, active and passive muscle stress, elemental stretch, and strain rate relative to changes of global shape, we demonstrate that lingual reconfiguration during these swallow phases is characterized by (in sequence) the following: 1) lingual tip elevation and shortening in the anterior-posterior direction; 2) inferior displacement related to hyoglossus contraction at its inferior-most position; and 3) dominant clockwise rotation related to regional contraction of the genioglossus and contraction of the hyoglossus following anterior displacement. These simulations demonstrate that lingual deformation during the indicated phases of swallowing requires temporally patterned activation of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and delineate a method to ascertain the mechanics of normal and pathological swallowing. PMID:20689096

  6. A comparison of morbidity following the removal of lower third molars by the lingual split and surgical bur methods.

    PubMed

    Absi, E G; Shepherd, J P

    1993-06-01

    Fifty-two consecutive healthy patients with bilateral, similarly impacted mandibular third molars were studied. For each patient, both third molars were removed at the same operation by the same experienced operator. On one side, the lingual split method by chisel was used; on the other, the buccal approach with surgical bur. Standard preoperative and postoperative drug regimens were used. Pain, facial swelling (visual analogue scales), and lingual and labial sensory disturbance were recorded for each side by the patients at home 6, 24, and 48 h and 7 days after surgery. Wound healing was assessed at 4 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between methods in relation to pain, facial swelling, sensory loss, infection, or periodontal pocket depth distal to the second molar, although 2% of third molars removed by chisel had lingual sensory disturbance at 7 days, as compared with 8% where burs had been used. There were no statistically significant differences between duration of procedures; mean operating time with burs was 8.28 min (range 4-15 min) and with chisels 7.57 min (range 4-15 min). This study provided no evidence of difference in either efficiency or outcome between two standard methods of removing lower third molars. PMID:8340625

  7. Gross and microscopic observations on the lingual structure of the Florida Manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Levin, M J; Pfeiffer, C J

    2002-10-01

    The tongue of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was studied macroscopically, light and electron microscopically. The tongue was slender, muscular and firmly fixed in the oral cavity; only the cranial tip was free and mobile. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the dorsal surface of the rostral tongue. Multiple raised, round fungiform-like papillae were distributed over most of the dorsum. Typical fungiform papillae were restricted to the lateral margins of the tongue. Foliate papillae, presenting as multi-fossulate openings, were noted on the caudolateral margins. Open pits were located on the dorsocaudal surface and lateral walls. Microscopic examination showed that most of the lingual dorsum was covered with a thick stratified squamous epithelium. Open pits led to well-developed mucous salivary glands. Glands within the foliate papillae were mostly mucous, although some seromucous glands were present. Taste buds were restricted to the epithelium of the foliate papillae. Throughout the tongue, striated muscle was abundant below the epithelium. Blood vessels, lymph channels and nerve fibres were freely distributed throughout the intermuscular stroma. Nerve fibres reacted positively with neurone specific enolase (NSE) antibody throughout the tongue, including nerve bundles, glands and taste buds. Clear to translucent vacuoles were found juxtaposed to nuclei in the stratum spinosum in the foliate papillae epithelium.

  8. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multi-Lingual Astronomy Art Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Rachael; Jackson, L.; Carlberg, J.; Johnson, K.; Marchand, R.; Sivakoff, G.; Czekala, I.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Martinez, O.; Wong, A.; Zasowski, G.; Skies, Dark; Kids, Bright

    2012-05-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a dynamic education and public outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in rural and underserved communities. DSBK thrives on the efforts of undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral volunteers. Early in the program, our volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with “English as a second language” students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate concepts across the language barrier. Building on this initial success, our simple art project has evolved into a full educational children’s book targeted at 2nd - 5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. Here we present our 'Snapshots of the Universe' for broad distribution to classrooms, school libraries and homes, with emphasis on those serving multi-lingual populations, as a unique tool for introducing astronomy concepts at the elementary school level.

  9. Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome.

    PubMed

    Lazard, D S; Lee, H J; Gaebler, M; Kell, C A; Truy, E; Giraud, A L

    2010-02-15

    Cochlear implants work well, yet the outcome is not fully accounted by the data routinely available to the clinician, and remains unpredictable. A more in-depth understanding of the neural mechanisms that determine the clinical recovery after cochlear implantation is warranted, as they may provide the background for an accurate individual prognosis. In this study in post-lingually deaf adults, we show that while clinical data offer only prognosis trends, fMRI data can prospectively distinguish good from poor implant performers. We show that those deaf cochlear implant (CI) candidates who will become good performers rely on a dorsal phonological route when performing a rhyming task on written regular words. In contrast, those who will become poor performers involve a ventral temporo-frontal route to perform the same task, and abnormally recruit the right supramarginal gyrus, a region that is contralateral to classical phonological regions. These functional patterns reveal that deafness either enhances "normal" phonological processing, or prompts a substitution of phonological processing by lexico-semantic processing. These findings thus suggest that a simple behavioral pre-operative exploration of phonological strategies during reading, to determine which route is predominantly used by CI candidates, might fruitfully inform the outcome. PMID:19931402

  10. Intracellular characteristics and responses of taste bud and lingual cells of the mudpuppy

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Intracellular recordings of membrane potentials of mudpuppy lingual cells were made with micropipette electrodes. Three types of cells were distinguished by their responses to chemical stimulation. Surface epithelial (SE) cells outside of taste buds responded with large membrane potential and resistance changes to a variety of stimuli representing the four taste qualities. Salts and acids evoked particularly large potential changes, and MgCl2, acids, and quinine greatly increased the membrane resistance. One type of taste bud cell (TB-1) was characterized by large depolarizations to K salts, and the other type of taste bud cell (TB-2) characteristically hyperpolarized to MgCl2, acid, and sugar solutions. Membrane resistance changes accompanying TB-1 and TB-2 cell responses were relatively small compared to those of SE cells. Electrotonic coupling was observed between pairs of SE and TB-2 cells but not for pairs of TB-1 cells nor cells of different types. After recording cell responses, dye-marking allowed verification of results in situ and histologically. From the identification of cells in section, it is hypothesized the TB-1 and TB- 2 cells correspond to light and dark cells, respectively. Responses of TB-1 cells imply a taste receptive function; wheras TB 2-cell responses suggest secretory, supportive, and (or) receptive functions. Factors affecting cellular characteristics, non-taste bud cell responsiveness, response mechanisms, and function of electrotonic coupling are discussed in relation to taste reception. PMID:702111

  11. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  12. Estimating Infiltration Parameters from Basic Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Genachte, G.; Mallants, D.; Ramos, J.; Deckers, J. A.; Feyen, J.

    1996-05-01

    Infiltration data were collected on two rectangular grids with 25 sampling points each. Both experimental grids were located in tropical rain forest (Guyana), the first in an Arenosol area and the second in a Ferralsol field. Four different infiltration models were evaluated based on their performance in describing the infiltration data. The model parameters were estimated using non-linear optimization techniques. The infiltration behaviour in the Ferralsol was equally well described by the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt, Kostiakov and Horton. For the Arenosol, the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt and Horton were significantly better than the Kostiakov model. Basic soil properties such as textural composition (percentage sand, silt and clay), organic carbon content, dry bulk density, porosity, initial soil water content and root content were also determined for each sampling point of the two grids. The fitted infiltration parameters were then estimated based on other soil properties using multiple regression. Prior to the regression analysis, all predictor variables were transformed to normality. The regression analysis was performed using two information levels. The first information level contained only three texture fractions for the Ferralsol (sand, silt and clay) and four fractions for the Arenosol (coarse, medium and fine sand, and silt and clay). At the first information level the regression models explained up to 60% of the variability of some of the infiltration parameters for the Ferralsol field plot. At the second information level the complete textural analysis was used (nine fractions for the Ferralsol and six for the Arenosol). At the second information level a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed prior to the regression analysis to overcome the problem of multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Regression analysis was then carried out using the orthogonally transformed soil properties as the independent variables. Results for

  13. Histologic Assessment of Intratumoral Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration Is Useful in Predicting Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Akimasa; Shibahara, Junji; Misumi, Kento; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the clinicopathologic significance of intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in a large cohort of patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, significant infiltration was defined as dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, either multifocal or diffuse, in 2 or more fields under low-power magnification. Of 544 cases, 216 (39.7%) were positive for significant infiltration (HCC-LI group), while 328 (60.3%) were negative (HCC-NLI group). There were no significant between-group differences in patient age, sex, or background etiology. The lower incidence of Child-Pugh stage B (P = 0.001) and lower level of indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (P < 0.001) in the HCC-LI group indicated better liver function in this group. Histologically, tumors were significantly smaller in size in the HCC-LI group than in the HCC-NLI group (P < 0.001). In addition, prominent neutrophilic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and tumor steatosis were significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in the HCC-LI group, while tumor necrosis was significantly less frequent (P = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that overall and recurrence-free survival were significantly better in the HCC-LI group (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was independently prognostic of both overall and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), with absence of infiltration showing high Cox-hazard ratios for poor prognosis. In conclusion, intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, as determined by assessment of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, was significantly associated with the clinical and pathologic features of HCC and has profound prognostic importance. PMID:27195977

  14. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  15. Shock wave compacted, melt infiltrated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Stuivinga, M.; Carton, E. P.

    1998-07-10

    Using shock wave compaction followed by melt infiltration with aluminum, B{sub 4}C-Al and TiB{sub 2}-Al composites have been fabricated. The composites are fully dense and crack-free. They have a high (80-85 vol.%) ceramic content, which gives them good mechanical properties. Due to the infiltration with aluminum, they also have rather good conductive properties. This makes it possible to machine them using spark erosion, in order to obtain complex articles such as nozzles and dies. They are lightweight, an advantage for application in armor and fast turning spindles. In the present article, scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surfaces will be shown and some material properties will be presented.

  16. Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

    2012-04-01

    Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed

  17. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Congenital infiltrative lipomas in a calf.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Marlene; Wasieri, Jasmin; Koehler, Kernt; Doll, Klaus; Reinacher, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    The current report describes a case of congenital subcutaneous and intramuscular tumors of the neck and tail base in a 4-week-old female Angus-Charolais crossbred calf. Results of clinical and ultrasound examination are summarized. Biopsy and necropsy findings indicated an infiltrative lipoma. Congenital lipomas are uncommon tumors in bovids. Clinical and morphologic differentials, as well as classification and the possible pathogenesis of congenital neoplasms, are discussed. PMID:19737773

  19. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Oppelt, Peter; Enzelsberger, Simon H; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  20. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  2. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  3. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  4. On the Processes Occurring During Infiltration of Brine into Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, N.; Niemet, M. R.; Selker, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    Infiltration of saline solutions and pure water into pre-wetted and air-dried sands was investigated using a light transmission system. Four grades of sand and five solutions were tested. Narrow fingers with a sharp, almost saturated, wetting front were observed in the dry sands for all solutions. The water saturations left behind the "fingertip" of saline solutions was higher than for those of pure water, resulting in a greater lateral expansion of the saline fingers over time. In the dry sand, the rate of lateral expansion scaled with the square root of time, most likely due to classic liquid sorption with the possible addition of water vapor diffusion. Early on, the salty fingers moved faster, but were ultimately overtaken by the pure water fingers. In pre-wetted sand, the wetting fronts were diffuse and never exceeded 26 percent saturation. The elevated surface tension of the brines was the major cause for the observed differences in finger width and velocity, yet appeared to be insignificant in air-dry sand. Additionally, water vapor transport in the vicinity of the infiltrating saline solutions was investigated. Drying around infiltrating brines was observed. The same solutions were applied to layered systems, where two horizontal fine layers were embedded within a coarser matrix, mimicking stratified sedimentary deposits. Water vapor stripping was found to enhance the lateral transport of brine in layered sand, where capillary barrier effects play a major role. Our observations suggest that (1) wetting fronts of infiltrating solutions are significantly different in air-dry and pre-wetted sand; (2) surface tension of the infiltrating solution plays an important role in determining the infiltration rate into pre-wetted sand; and (3) vapor pressure gradients, which develop due to differences in vapor pressure as saline solution infiltrates into pure water or vice versa, drive water vapor transport along them and should therefore be taken into account in places

  5. Inflammatory cell infiltration of tumors: Jekyll or Hyde.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, James E; Donkor, Moses; Scholar, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of tumors contributes either positively or negatively to tumor invasion, growth, metastasis, and patient outcomes, creating a Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde conundrum when examining mechanisms of action. This is due to tumor heterogeneity and the diversity of the inflammatory cell phenotypes that infiltrate primary and metastatic lesions. Tumor infiltration by macrophages is generally associated with neoangiogenesis and negative outcomes, whereas dendritic cell (DC) infiltration is typically associated with a positive clinical outcome in association with their ability to present tumor antigens (Ags) and induce Ag-specific T cell responses. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) also infiltrate tumors, inhibiting immune responses and facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. In contrast, T cell infiltration of tumors provides a positive prognostic surrogate, although subset analyses suggest that not all infiltrating T cells predict a positive outcome. In general, infiltration by CD8(+) T cells predicts a positive outcome, while CD4(+) cells predict a negative outcome. Therefore, the analysis of cellular phenotypes and potentially spatial distribution of infiltrating cells are critical for an accurate assessment of outcome. Similarly, cellular infiltration of metastatic foci is also a critical parameter for inducing therapeutic responses, as well as establishing tumor dormancy. Current strategies for cellular, gene, and molecular therapies are focused on the manipulation of infiltrating cellular populations. Within this review, we discuss the role of tumor infiltrating, myeloid-monocytic cells, and T lymphocytes, as well as their potential for tumor control, immunosuppression, and facilitation of metastasis. PMID:17717638

  6. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4–45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4–13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10–58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age. PMID:26228042

  7. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4-45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4-13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10-58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age.

  8. Effects of varying fixed lingual apex positions on tongue pressure during straw drinking.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Ishida, R; Ohkubo, M; Sugiyama, T; Abe, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the impact of tongue-thrusting on lingual pressure during fluid intake with a straw. In this study, 12 healthy young dentate individuals (two women and 10 men; 19-33 years) were instructed to drink 15 mL of water with a regular drinking straw at 37 °C, when indicated by the investigator. Participants drank after adjusting tongue position to one of the following patterns: (i) Holding the tip of the straw between the lips (Normal Position: NP), (ii) Sticking out the tongue to the vermilion zone of the lower lip and inserting the straw 1 cm past the front teeth (Tongue-thrusting Position: TP). Five recordings were conducted for each participant in a randomised order. To measure tongue pressure during swallowing, a specially designed 0.1-mm thick sensor sheet (Nitta, Osaka, Japan) with a tactile system for measurement of pressure distribution (I-SCAN; Nitta) was used. Duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure were analysed based on the wave of tongue pressure recorded while water was swallowed. Magnitude, duration and integrated value of tongue pressure were significantly lower in TP than in NP at the median line (Ch1-3). Magnitude and integrated value of tongue pressure at the lateral part of the tongue (Ch5) were significantly lower in TP than in NP. When duration, maximal magnitude and integrated values were compared by channel, no significant differences were observed in NP, but a significant difference was found between Ch3 and the lateral areas Ch4/Ch 5 in TP. When the tongue was thrust forward, movement dynamics of the entire tongue changed and influenced contact between the tongue and palate during liquid intake with a straw. The impact was noticeably weaker on the median line than in lateral areas.

  9. Single stage circumferential lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in near obliterative bulbar urethra stricture: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Umesh; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Garg, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This is a prospective study of the use and efficacy of a novel technique of circumferential tubularised lingual mucosal graft (LMG) in obliterative and near obliterative bulbar urethral stricture of >2 cm where excisional and augmented anastomotic urethroplasty are not feasible. Materials and Methods: The stenotic urethral segment was opened dorsally in midline and fibrosed urethra was excised taking care to preserve the healthy spongiosum tissue. LMG (av. Length 3 cm) was placed from one end of corporal body towards spongy tissue in a circumferential manner. Another LMG was placed in similar manner to deal with longer stricture. The urethra was tubularised over 14 Fr silicone catheter. Results: A total of 12 men, of mean age 47 years underwent this procedure. The mean follow up period was 11 months starting from July 2014 till manuscript submission. Follow up included voiding cystourethrogram at 3 weeks, cystoscopy at 3 months (one patient didn’t turned up) and subsequent follow up. Mean stricture length was 4.66 cm (range, 3–8.5 cm) and mean operative time was 195 min. (range, 160 to 200 min.). The technique was successful (normal voiding with no need for any post-operative procedure) in 11(91.6%) patients. One patient developed early recurrence at 4 month of surgery and had anastomotic stricture which was successfully managed by direct visual internal urethrotomy. Conclusion: Single stage circumferential tubularised graft urethroplasty is an excellent technique for strictures that include segments of obliterative and near obliterative diseased urethra. It provide a wider neourethra than patch graft urethroplasty. PMID:27141182

  10. Infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces host defense and development-dependent responses in the infiltrated zone.

    PubMed

    Pruss, Gail J; Nester, Eugene W; Vance, Vicki

    2008-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer genes into plant systems, host responses to this plant pathogen are not well understood. The present study shows that disarmed strains of Agrobacterium induce distinct host responses when infiltrated into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The responses are limited to the infiltrated zone and consist of i) induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 expression and resistance to subsequent infection with tobacco mosaic virus, ii) chlorosis and loss of chloroplast rRNAs, and iii) inhibition of leaf expansion. Induction of the latter two sets of responses depends on the age of the leaf and is most apparent in young leaves. Strains with or without binary vectors induce all the responses, showing that DNA transfer is neither required nor inhibitory. A. tumefaciens cured of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is slightly defective for induction of the three responses, showing that Ti plasmid-encoded factors produced by the disarmed strains contribute only slightly. However, T-DNA-encoded factors alter at least one of the host responses, because infiltration with the oncogenic strain C58 induced more pronounced chlorosis than the disarmed control. Auxin is one of the T-DNA products responsible for disease induction by oncogenic A. tumefaciens. We found that C58-infiltrated zones-but not those infiltrated with the disarmed control-have increased levels of miR393, a microRNA that represses auxin signaling and contributes to antibacterial resistance. PMID:18986249

  11. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  12. Macrophage Infiltration into the Glomeruli in Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Satoshi; Maeda, Kunihiko; Joh, Kensuke; Yamakage, Shu; Fukase, Sachiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Akira; Saito, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is characterized by histopathological features showing intra-glomerular lipoprotein thrombi and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), with heterozygote mutation of apolipoprotein (apo) E gene. On the other hand, as another renal lipidosis with type III HLP, apoE2 homozygote-related glomerulopathy (apoE2-GN) showing foamy macrophages has been reported. The case of a 25-year-old man who had LPG by clinical behavior and gene analysis, but demonstrated atypical histopathological features with a substantial amount of foamy macrophage infiltration in the glomeruli, is presented. The combination of alleles for apoE Tokyo/Maebashi and classical apoE2 (Arg158Cys) was inferred to be the leading cause of the unique renal pathology with lipoprotein thrombi and foamy macrophages. In addition, foamy macrophages infiltrated some part of the apoE-positive region within the glomerulus, but did not exist in lipoprotein thrombi despite apoE positivity, suggesting that properties of apoE are crucial in the development of LPG rather than macrophage function. This case provides important information related to the pathogenesis of LPG and apoE2-GN. PMID:26955632

  13. Telltale tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in oral, head & neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Xie, Yuying; Tan, Yee Sun; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Nör, Jacques; Wolf, Gregory T

    2016-10-01

    Evidence gleaned from recent studies on the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) suggests that cancer is not only a genetic disease but also an immunologic disease. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has been a significant model to study cancer cell-immune cell interactions. First, immune cell infiltration is an important feature of these tumors. Second, HNSCC frequently develops resistance to immunogenic cytotoxicity, which provides a window to decipher how tumors engage the immune system to establish immune tolerance. Finally, chemoradiation therapy, as a central modality for HNSCC treatment, has been shown to elicit immune activation. The presence of effector immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with superior clinical response to adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, an activated immune system, in addition to limiting tumor initiation and progression, could also exert selective pressure to promote the growth of less immunogenic tumors, as a pivotal immunoediting process. But it remains unclear how cancer cell signaling regulates tumor immunogenicity and how to mitigate HNSCC-potentiated TIL suppression. In this review, we will revisit the prognostic role of TILs in HNSCC, and collectively discuss how cancer cell machinery impacts upon the plasticity of TILs.

  14. The effect of cochlear implantation and post-operative rehabilitation on acoustic voice analysis in post-lingual hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sabah M; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamad; Bukhari, Manal; Murry, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Post-lingual deaf adults can develop some vocal abnormalities similar to those developed in pre-lingual deaf individuals. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cochlear implantation followed by post-operative rehabilitation on voice acoustics in post-lingual hearing impaired adults with different durations of hearing loss. The study included 35 post-lingual hearing impaired adults who underwent cochlear implantation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the duration of their hearing loss. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to whether they received auditory rehabilitation or not. Using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) parameters, comparisons were made between each subgroup of patients and the normal MDVP Saudi database, and between subgroups of patients. Most of the patients in the two groups reported significant improvement in their MDVP results post-implantation. Further, significantly deviant MDVP parameters were reported in the group of patients with longer duration of hearing loss. Patients who received rehabilitation significantly improved more than those who did not. In conclusion, it appears that cochlear implantation improves the auditory control of voice production in post-lingual deaf adults. Also, it is obvious that cochlear implantation at an early stage of hearing loss gives better results on voice control, especially if augmented with auditory rehabilitation. PMID:21331786

  15. Wireless Application in Intravenous Infiltration Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Matthew S.; Naramore, William J.; Chou, Nee-Yin; Winchester, Leonard W.

    2008-01-01

    The IrDA wireless protocol has been applied to a fiber optics based point-of-care system for the detection of intravenous infiltration. The system is used for monitoring patients under infusion therapy. It is optimized for portability by incorporating a battery source and wireless communication. The IrDA protocol provides secure data communication between the electronic module of the system and the PDAs carried by the nurses. The PDA is used for initiating the actions of the electronic module and for data transfer. Security is provided by specially designed software and hardware. PMID:19162821

  16. Wireless application in intravenous infiltration detection system.

    PubMed

    Alley, Matthew S; Naramore, William J; Chou, Nee-Yin; Winchester, Leonard W

    2008-01-01

    The IrDA wireless protocol has been applied to a fiber optics based point-of-care system for the detection of intravenous infiltration. The system is used for monitoring patients under infusion therapy. It is optimized for portability by incorporating a battery source and wireless communication. The IrDA protocol provides secure data communication between the electronic module of the system and the PDAs carried by the nurses. The PDA is used for initiating the actions of the electronic module and for data transfer. Security is provided by specially designed software and hardware.

  17. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nadi, Mustafa M; Nadi, Arwa M; Zabara, Mohammad Y; Ahmad, Tahani M

    2015-04-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas.

  18. Management of infiltrating spinal epidural angiolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Mustafa M.; Nadi, Arwa M.; Zabara, Mohammad Y.; Ahmad, Tahani M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiolipomas of the spine are rare benign tumors commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. The present report describes a case of spinal angiolipoma with thoracic mediastinal extension in a 50-year-old woman. She presented with a long-standing history of mid-back pain with progressive lower extremities weakness. An MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass located in the posterior epidural space of the thoracic spine with mediastinal extension. Histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with spinal angiolipoma. This report emphasizes the diagnosis and therapeutic management options of infiltrating spinal angiolipomas. PMID:25864069

  19. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  20. Influence of ligation method on friction resistance of lingual brackets with different second-order angulations: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Methods: Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Results: Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p < 0.001). Tukey test indicated that the highest frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. Conclusions: As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:27653262

  1. Interaction of gustatory and lingual somatosensory perceptions at the cortical level in the human: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cerf-Ducastel, B; Van de Moortele, P F; MacLeod, P; Le Bihan, D; Faurion, A

    2001-05-01

    The present study has investigated interaction at the cortical level in the human between two major components of flavor perception, pure chemical gustatory and lingual somatosensory perception. Twelve subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study and tasted six stimuli, applied on the whole tongue, among which four were pure gustatory stimuli (NaCl, aspartame, quinine and HCl, pH 2.4 or 2.2) and two were both taste and lingual somatosensory stimuli, i.e. somato-gustatory stimuli (HCl, pH 1.6 or 1.5, and aluminum potassium sulfate). Functional images were acquired with an echo planar sequence on a 3 T system and were individually processed by correlation with the temporal perception profile. Both sets of stimuli showed activation in the same cortical areas, namely the insula, the rolandic operculum (base of the pre- and post-central gyri), the frontal operculum and the temporal operculum, confirming a wide overlap of taste and lingual somatosensory representations. However, the relative activation across areas and the analysis of co-activated areas across all runs for each set of stimuli allowed discrimination of taste and somatosensory modalities. Factor analysis of correspondences indicated different patterns of activation across the sub-insular and opercular regions, depending on the gustatory or somato-gustatory nature of the stimuli. For gustatory stimuli different activation patterns for the superior and inferior parts of the insula suggested a difference in function between these two insular sub-regions. Furthermore, the left inferior insula was co-activated with the left angular gyrus, a structure involved in semantic processing. In contrast, only somato-gustatory stimuli specifically produced a simultaneous and symmetrical activation of both the left and right rolandic opercula, which include a part of the sensory homunculus dedicated to the tactile representation of oral structures.

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinsong; Luo, Ruiying; Yan, Ying

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. {yields} The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. {yields} The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  4. Uncertainty and variability of infiltration at Yucca Mountain: Part 1. Numerical model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission investigated climate and infiltration at Yucca Mountain to (i) understand important controls and uncertainties influencing percolation through the unsaturated zone on multimillennial time scales and (ii) provide flux boundary conditions for up to 1 million years in performance assessment models of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. This first part of a two-part series describes a procedure for abstracting the results from detailed numerical simulations of local-scale infiltration into a site-scale model considering uncertainty and variability in distributed net infiltration. Part 2 describes site-scale model results and corroboration. A detailed one-dimensional numerical model was used to estimate bare-soil net infiltration at the scales of hours and meters for 442 soil, bedrock, and climate combinations. The set of results are abstracted into three parametric response functions for decadal-average bare-soil infiltration given hydraulic and climatic parameters. The three abstractions describe deep soil, shallow soil over a coarser layer, and shallow soil over a finer layer. The site-scale model considers spatial variability and uncertainty of the input parameters on a 30 m grid, using the abstractions independently in each cell. Two additional abstractions account for overland flow and vegetation. The model uses Monte Carlo simulation, with all input parameters uncertain and spatially variable, to calculate the mean and standard deviation of net infiltration in each grid cell for selected climate states. Using abstractions rather than detailed simulations speeds calculation of infiltration realizations by many orders of magnitude relative to a detailed simulation.

  5. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction. PMID:26358641

  6. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-11

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction.

  7. PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE VIA INFILTRATION OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rain garden is an urban storm water best management practice that is used to infiltrate runoff close to its source, thereby disconnecting impervious area while providing an avenue for groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge may provide additional benefits to aquatic ecosys...

  8. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  9. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality.

  10. Teratogenic effects of the interaction acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol: morphologic and morphometric evaluation of the lingual epithelium in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, S A; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; de Moraes Grisi, M F; Novaes, A B; de Souza, S L S; Taba, M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol on the epithelium of the lingual mucosa in rat fetuses. On the 10th pregnancy day, a single intraperitoneal ethanol dose (2.96 g/kg body weight) (Group I), ASA (200 mg/kg body weight) (Group II) and ASA plus ethanol, in the same doses (Group III), or saline (Group IV - control), were administrated. The epithelial alterations were assessed by means of histological and morphometric methods, on posterior dorsal, anterior dorsal and ventral regions of the tongue. ASA reduced, in rat fetuses, the ethanol deleterious effects on nuclear size in the epithelial prickle cell of the lingual mucosa. On the other hand, ASA did not influence the effects of ethanol in both epithelial layers of the lingual mucosa, when the nuclear shape, cell volume or epithelial layers thickness were evaluated.

  11. Functional T lymphocytes infiltrate implanted polyvinyl alcohol foams during surgical wound closure therapy.

    PubMed

    Gouttefangeas, C; Eberle, M; Ruck, P; Stark, M; Müller, J E; Becker, H D; Rammensee, H G; Pinocy, J

    2001-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure involving the implantation of polyvinyl alcohol foam is a technique recently developed for the treatment of patients suffering from either wound infection or chronic wounds. This method has been shown to improve and accelerate wound healing. However, little is known about the cell populations that infiltrate the foam, and their potential role in resolving the infection and promoting granulation tissue formation. Our study demonstrates that wound-implanted foams are mainly infiltrated with granulocytes, but that mononuclear cells, including macrophages and minor populations of T, B and natural killer lymphocytes, are also present. We show that foam-infiltrating T cells, especially CD4(+) T cells, constitute a phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous population influenced by wound-infecting bacteria. Thus, T lymphocytes could play a role in wound cleansing. In addition, our data indicate that implanted polyvinyl alcohol foams might be suitable microenvironments for manipulating T cell-mediated immune responses in patients.

  12. Diffusion tensor-based tumor infiltration index cannot discriminate vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Manabu; Goto, Tetsu; Okita, Yoshiko; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-02-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now used not only for delineating white matter fiber tracts, but also for assessing the histological characteristics of pathological tissues. Among these uses, predicting the extent or existence of tumor cell invasion into white matter by DTI is under extensive investigation. The previously reported tumor infiltration index (TII) holds great potential for the discrimination of pure vasogenic edema from tumor-infiltrated edema. However, conflicting data are being reported questioning the clinical value of TII. The present investigation reevaluated the utility of TII in patients with meningioma or glioma. We found that TII was unable to discriminate vasogenic from tumor-infiltrated edema. Conversely, detailed voxel-by-voxel comparison of TII and (11)C-methionie PET in the T2-hyperintense area of gliomas showed that TII and (11)C-methionie PET has a positive correlation, suggesting that, although TII is unable to discriminate the cause of edema, the extent of tumor cell invasion into white matter is depicted in gliomas by TII. These data suggest that TII involves both vasogenic and tumor-infiltrated factors, rather than only a single factor. A more intensive investigation is required to reach a complete understanding of TII.

  13. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  15. A comparative study of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in urethral stricture disease: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Depak Kumar; Ghosh, Bastab; Bera, Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: A prospective study to compare the outcomes of lingual versus buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long segment anterior urethral strictures disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients for buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (group I) and 30 patients for lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty (group II) for treatment of long segment (>3 cm) incomplete anterior urethral stricture disease using single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between February 2013 to September 2014. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Results: The results of urethroplasty in between two group were not significant (P > 0.05) in terms of Qmax (P = 0.63), mean postoperative AUA symptom score (P = 0.83), operative time (P = 0.302) intra operative blood loss (P = 0.708), duration of postoperative hospitalization (P = 0.83), but slurring of speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. Long-term complications of salivary disturbance, tightness of the mouth, persistent pain at graft site, perioral numbness, seen only in group I (BMGU). Conclusion: LMG urethroplasty is an excellent alternative to BMG urethroplasty with comparable results of urethroplasty and minimal donor site complications. PMID:27141184

  16. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  17. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  18. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  19. Comparative study of the influence of cavity preparation with high-speed rotation or Er:YAG laser on infiltration of aesthetic restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D. P. T. S.; Beatrice, L. C. S.; Guerra, L. S. C.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Zanin, F. A. A.; Queiroga, A. S.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.; Gerbi, M. E. M. M.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare marginal infiltration in Class V cavities prepared on extracted human premolars with either high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser. Class V cavities were executed on the vestibular and lingual faces of twelve premolars, with high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser (300 mJ, 4 Hz, and 3 W), and cavity surfaces were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid combined with laser treatment (80 mJ, 5 Hz, 3 W) or without laser treatment in the following manner: G1—high-speed rotation + conditioning with phosphoric acid; G2—high-speed rotation + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid; G3—laser + conditioning with phosphoric acid; and G4—laser + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid. Specimens were restored with the composite resin, thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h. Specimens were then cross-cut and analyzed using a stereoscopic magnifying glass. Evaluations were submitted to the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. No significant differences were found between the averages of the groups ( p > 0.05). High-speed rotation and Er:YAG laser for the confection of cavity preparation exhibited a similar performance with regard to marginal infiltration.

  20. Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jeff; Sigua, Gilbert; Watts, Don; Cantrell, Keri; Shumaker, Paul; Szogi, Ariel; Johnson, Mark G; Spokas, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kandiudult). In addition, we also evaluated biochars effect on water quality. Biochars were produced by pyrolysis at 500 °C from pine chips (Pinus taeda), poultry litter (Gallus domesticus) feedstocks, and as blends (50:50 and 80:20) of pine chip:poultry litter. Prior to pyrolysis, the feedstocks were pelletized and sieved to >2-mm pellets. Each biochar was mixed with the subsoil at 20 g/kg (w/w) and the mixture was placed in columns. The columns were leached four times with Milli-Q water over 128 d of incubation. Except for the biochar produced from poultry litter, all other applied biochars resulted in significant water infiltration increases (0.157-0.219 mL min(-1); p<0.05) compared to the control (0.095 mL min(-1)). However, water infiltration in each treatment were influenced by additional water leaching. Leachates were enriched in PO4, SO4, Cl, Na, and K after addition of poultry litter biochar, however, their concentrations declined in pine chip blended biochar treatments and after multiple leaching. Adding biochars (except 100% poultry litter biochar) to a compacted subsoil layer can initially improve water infiltration, but, additional leaching revealed that the effect remained only for the 50:50 pine chip:poultry litter blended biochar while it declined in other biochar treatments. PMID:26138710

  1. Infiltrating angiolipoma of the chest wall: a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Tarazi, Munir; O'Brien, Odharnaith; Hinchion, John

    2016-01-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare variant of lipoma. Infiltrating chest wall angiolipoma usually presents as painful subcutaneous lesions. There are only a handful of cases reported in the literature. Malignancy is suspected in the differential diagnosis, and hence a tissue diagnosis is needed to rule out an underlying malignancy. Symptomatic infiltrating angiolipoma warrants surgical excision. We report a case of an infiltrating angiolipoma of the chest wall, which was successfully treated with surgical excision. PMID:26724328

  2. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  4. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  5. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be

  6. Attachment of Flexible Heparin Chains to Gelatin Scaffolds Improves Endothelial Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, Jonas; Carlsson, Fredrik; Brännström, Johan; Sanchez, Javier; Larsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Bo; Rosenquist, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Long-term survival of implanted cells requires oxygen and nutrients, the need for which is met by vascularization of the implant. The use of scaffolds with surface-attached heparin as anchoring points for angiogenic growth factors has been reported to improve this process. We examined the potential role of surface modification of gelatin scaffolds in promoting endothelial cell infiltration by using a unique macromolecular conjugate of heparin as a coating. Compared to other heparin coatings, this surface modification provides flexible heparin chains, representing a new concept in heparin conjugation. In vitro cell infiltration of scaffolds was assessed using a three-dimensional model in which the novel heparin surface, without growth factors, showed a 2.5-fold increase in the number of infiltrating endothelial cells when compared to control scaffolds. No additional improvement was achieved by adding growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and/or fibroblast growth factor-2) to the scaffold. In vivo experiments confirmed these results and also showed that the addition of angiogenic growth factors did not significantly increase the endothelial cell infiltration but increased the number of inflammatory cells in the implanted scaffolds. The endothelial cell-stimulating ability of the heparin surface alone, combined with its growth factor-binding capacity, renders it an interesting candidate surface treatment to create a prevascularized site prepared for implantation of cells and tissues, in particular those sensitive to inflammation but in need of supportive revascularization, such as pancreatic islets of Langerhans. PMID:23327585

  7. Surface Roughness of Initial Enamel Caries Lesions in Human Teeth After Resin Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Naumova, Ella A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low viscosity resin infiltration of initial caries lesions is a modern microinvasive method to treat initial cries lesions. However, only scarce information is available about the long-term surface alterations of infiltrated lesions. Methods: Twenty-eight premolar teeth exhibiting non-cavitated initial caries lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS code 1&2)) were divided into two groups, one of which was infiltrated with resin, and the other remained untreated. The teeth underwent two thermocycling procedures. The surface roughness was determined quantitatively, and the results were evaluated statistically. In addition, the surfaces of the lesions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface was analyzed visually with respect to surface irregularities. Results: The results showed a reduction in the surface roughness that was significant after 2500 thermocycles compared to the untreated surface. In the control specimens, no change in the surface roughness was found. The qualitative SEM data also showed a smooth surface after thermocycling, which supported the statistical findings. Conclusion: After thermocycling, resin-infiltrated enamel surfaces become smoother and had no additional risk for plaque accumulation. PMID:27733877

  8. Infiltration on sloping surfaces: Laboratory experimental evidence and implications for infiltration modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Cifrodelli, Marco; Corradini, Corrado; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration on sloping surfaces occupies an important role in our understanding of surface and subsurface hydrology. Previous studies have provided conflicting results about the role of slope on infiltration. Here, our main objective is to highlight, by well-controlled experiments, the slope role in the absence of the conflicting contributions generated by other physical processes observed in previous studies under natural or laboratory conditions. The experimental program was designed to resolve some of the confounding factors such as lower impermeable boundary condition, range of rainfall rates relative to soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, surface sealing, and erosion of top soil. The experimental apparatus consists of a box containing a natural bare soil with slope angle γ chosen between 0° and 10°, two sensors of surface and deep flow, one probe for moisture content and an artificial rainfall generator. The primary experimental results suggest that under steady conditions and rainfall rate, r, greater than saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, the deep flow, Qd, decreases with increasing slope angle, γ, up to a value leading to Qd(γ = 1°)/Qd(γ = 10°) equal to ≈4 which is in contrast with the results provided in a few earlier papers. Furthermore, in sloping bare soils surface runoff is produced even for r < Ks. Finally, we discuss the link between Qd(γ) and the shear stress at the soil surface as a guideline in the determination of an effective saturated hydraulic conductivity to be incorporated in the existing horizontal infiltration models.

  9. Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Unger; Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2001-05-31

    This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.

  10. Tyfu i Fyny/Growing up Interactive Bi-Lingual Resources to Support the Delivery of Sex and Relationships Education for Students Aged 5 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of new interactive, bi-lingual Sex and Relationships Education (SRE) resources called Tyfu i Fyny/Growing Up, suitable for students aged between five and 12 years. It also discusses the evidence used to support the development of the resources, the support provided for teachers and…

  11. Inter-Lingual Homograph Letter Detection in Mixed Language Text: Persistent Missing-Letter Effects and the Effect of Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Seth N.; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Heretofore, we learned that bilinguals better detected letters in inter-lingual homographs when the context language ascribed a content role to the homograph as compared to a function role. In previous work the target homographs appeared in passages that were of a single language. The present work investigated whether this letter detection pattern…

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  15. The infiltration, and prognostic importance, of Th1 lymphocytes vary in molecular subgroups of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Agnes; Lundberg, Ida V; Eklöf, Vincy; Wikberg, Maria L; Öberg, Åke; Edin, Sofia; Palmqvist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Giving strong prognostic information, T-cell infiltration is on the verge of becoming an additional component in the routine clinical setting for classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). With a view to further improving the tools for prognostic evaluation, we have studied how Th1 lymphocyte infiltration correlates with prognosis not only by quantity, but also by subsite, within CRCs with different molecular characteristics (microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype status, and BRAF and KRAS mutational status). We evaluated the Th1 marker T-bet by immunohistochemistry in 418 archival tumour tissue samples from patients who underwent surgical resection for CRC. We found that a high number of infiltrating Th1 lymphocytes is strongly associated with an improved prognosis in patients with CRC, irrespective of intratumoural subsite, and that both extent of infiltration and patient outcome differ according to molecular subgroup. In brief, microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype-high and BRAF mutated tumours showed increased infiltration of Th1 lymphocytes, and the most pronounced prognostic effect of Th1 infiltration was found in these tumours. Interestingly, BRAF mutated tumours were found to be more highly infiltrated by Th1 lymphocytes than BRAF wild-type tumours whereas the opposite was seen for KRAS mutated tumours. These differences could be explained at least partly by our finding that BRAF mutated, in contrast to KRAS mutated, CRC cell lines and tumour specimens expressed higher levels of the Th1-attracting chemokine CXCL10, and reduced levels of CCL22 and TGFB1, stimulating Th2/Treg recruitment and polarisation. In conclusion, the strong prognostic importance of Th1 lymphocyte infiltration in CRC was found at all subsites evaluated, and it remained significant in multivariable analyses, indicating that T-bet may be a valuable marker in the clinical setting. Our results also indicate that T-bet is of value when analysed in

  16. Modeling the establishment of preferential flow during infiltration in a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimene, Erij; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarski, Thierry; Gourdon, Remy

    2015-04-01

    Large cities are mostly situated in areas close to water resources in order to meet the water needs of their populations. Alluvial soils harbor large aquifers that are used to supply water, the Rhone-Alpes region being a good illustration. However, the increase of soil sealing has led to the development of best management practices such as infiltration basins which are aimed at infiltrating stormwater in order to reduce the amount of water collected and treated in usual systems. Yet, these infiltration basins are mainly settled over highly permeable geologic formations so as to ensure water infiltration and a proper functioning of these infiltration basins. Most of these formations are strongly heterogeneous, since they are made of different materials with contrasting sedimentological properties (e.g. particle size distribution) and transfer properties. This paper addresses flow modeling during the infiltration phase in the vadose zone underneath infiltration basins settled over a strongly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. In particular, we want to pinpoint numerically the worst conditions with regards to preferential flow, in terms of initial hydric conditions (initial water contents) and imposed flow rates. For this purpose, a numerical study is proposed on the basis of previous studies offering a sedimentological description of the subsoil with the detail of its architecture and a precise description of the different lithofacies and their hydraulic properties. Considering this, we worked on a section (13.5m long and 2.5m high) for which a complete sedimentological and hydraulic description had already been performed. Water infiltration was modeled for different initial and boundary conditions (mostly the values of the flux imposed at surface). At first, different numerical tests and adjustments have been made including mesh optimization with regards to both accuracy and computation time. Following these tests, the "tight" mesh has been validated since it

  17. The effect of vegetation on infiltration in shallow soils underlain by fissured bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S. A.; Or, D.; Groeneveld, D. P.; Jones, S. B.

    1999-05-01

    Mean annual infiltration above the high-level waste repository proposed to be sited at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has a large impact on assessments of repository performance. Ongoing investigations of infiltration processes have identified the relatively horizontal caprock environment above portions of the repository as a potentially large source of infiltrating waters, due to shallow, permeable soils above a moderately welded tuff with large soil-filled fissures. The combination of shallow soils and fissured bedrock allows rapid penetration of wetting pulses to below the rooting zone. Plant uptake can strongly reduce net infiltration in arid environments with high water storage capacity, and, despite the low water storage capacity, there is a relatively high vegetation density in this environment. The apparent discrepancy between high vegetation density and low water storage motivates the study of plant-hydrologic interactions in this semiarid environment. Field observations were coupled with plant- and landscape-scale models to provide insight into plant-hydrologic interactions. Several lines of evidence, including: (i) linear plant growth features observed on aerial photographs; (ii) comparisons of plant cover within the fissured environment and comparable environments lacking fissures; and (iii) direct excavations, all suggest that the widely spaced soil-filled fissures are conducive to plant growth even when fissures are buried at soil depths exceeding 30 cm. Results from a mechanistic simulation model for root growth into fissures suggest that the additional (sheltered) plant-available soil water within fissures provides a competitive advantage for plant establishment. Therefore, plants that germinate above a fissure are more likely to survive, in turn developing linear features above fissures. Having established that plants preferentially root within soil-filled fissures in the caprock environment, a set of simulations were performed to examine the hydrologic

  18. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    due to the short distance to the sidewalls in the column, resulting in an almost only vertical water flow. The water saturation degree is generally higher in the column due to the almost non-existing horizontal water flow, as observed in the lysimeter. Additionally, the consumption of oxygen for the biodegradation of organic matter is overestimated in the column compared with the lysimeter due to the fact that the whole column surface during wetting cycles is ponded. In case of the lysimeter only the infiltration basin is flooded during the wetting cycles whereas the surrounding surface area to the walls is almost dry resulting in a more continuously exchange of oxygen.

  19. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  20. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  1. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  2. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  3. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  4. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  5. Survival of post-treatment canine-to-canine lingual retainers with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farronato, Davide; Briguglio, Roberto; Mangano, Francesco; Azzi, Lorenzo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Briguglio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of the study is to evaluate the long term results of ribbond retainer after orthodontic treatment. One hundred and thirty patients who were orthodontically treated satisfied the inclusion criteria of having received a semipermanent retention were treated with FRC lingual retainers (Ribbond ®). It was performed a follow up evaluation after 2 years average from the retainer application and any complication or failure was recorded. Data from 119 remaining patients that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and no instances of loosening were observed. It may be concluded that orthodontic canine-to-canine FRC retainers provide aneffective means of retaining realigned anterior teeth for at least two years. PMID:25506411

  6. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI.

  7. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  8. Misarticulation caused by abnormal lingual-palatal contact in patients with cleft palate with adequate velopharyngeal function.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Michi, K

    1991-10-01

    Misarticulations produced by three patients with cleft palate (2 isolated cleft palate; 1 unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate) who attained adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault by early surgical repairs were examined using electropalatography (EPG) and sound spectrography (SG). Common characteristics of lingual-palatal contact in which the contact area was broader and/or was more posterior than normal were observed. These misarticulations can be divided into three types based on the direction of the breath emission: palatalized misarticulation (in which air passes along the midline of the palate), lateral misarticulation (in which air flows laterally through the occluded dental arch), and nasopharyngeal misarticulation (in which air flows out the nose). These three are considered to be similar to intractable posterior pattern of articulation in cleft palate patients previously reported. However, these types of misarticulations can be produced by cleft patients who have achieved adequate velopharyngeal function and normal palatal vault.

  9. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  10. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  11. Infiltration kinetics of aluminum in silicon carbide compacts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although metal-matrix composites have been fabricated by various techniques, the most successful are solid state processes such as powder metallurgy and diffusion bonding. Liquid-metal processes such as compucasting, pultrusion, and infiltration, while less successful, are potentially more economical. The advantages of producing silicon carbide-aluminum matrix composites by liquid-metal infiltration techniques can not be fully realized without an improved understanding of the infiltration behavior and the fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms. This paper reports on infiltration models which consider the physical properties of the liquid and preform (either porous compact or capillary/tube bundle). These properties include viscosity, density, surface tension, and wettability (pore shape and size in the case of the porous compact). The models have been assessed in terms of their ability to predict infiltration behavior from known physical properties of the materials.

  12. Evaluation of coblation lingual tonsil removal technique for obstructive sleep apnea in Asians: preliminary results of surgical morbidity and prognosticators.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Tan, Kenglu; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-09-01

    Retroglossal obstruction is one of the etiologies causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can be addressed by removing some tissues of the tongue base. However, because of its deep-seated location, its surgical removal is still challenging. Although coblation technique has been introduced, its efficacy and morbidity need further evaluation, particularly in Asians. This study aimed to assess its safety and effectiveness and to identify outcome prognosticators. Forty-seven OSA patients who underwent coblation lingual tonsil removal were included. Retroglossal obstruction was confirmed by drug-induced sleep videofluoroscopy. Attended full-night polysomnography was performed twice; before and 6 months after surgery in 27 patients. The tongue base was fully exposed with three deep-seated traction sutures, visualized with a 30° or 70° endoscope, and ablated using a coblator. Surgical success was defined with postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <20 and reduction >50 %. Postoperative morbidities were evaluated. Demographic and polysomnographic parameters between success and failure groups were compared. None of the patients had immediate postoperative hemorrhage. Postoperatively, one patient had delayed hemorrhage and one patient severe respiratory difficulty. Taste loss, tongue dysmotility, dental injury or severe oropharyngeal stricture were absent. A mean AHI decreased from 37.7 ± 18.6 to 18.7 ± 14.8/h (P < 0.001). The success rate was 55.6 %. Their mean minimal oxygen saturation was significantly lower (P = 0.004) in the failure group. Coblation lingual tonsil removal technique showed minimal morbidity and favorable outcome in Koreans. The surgical outcome might be associated with the severity of single respiratory events.

  13. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff.

  14. The temperature dependence of ponded infiltration under isothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Murphy, F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple temperature-sensitive modification to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is described; this assumes that the temperature dependence of the hydraulic conductivity is reciprocally equal to the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water, and that both the transmission zone saturation and the wetting front matric potential gradient are independent of temperature. This modified Green and Ampt equation is compared with ponded, isothermal infiltration experiments run on repacked columns of Olympic Sand and Aiken Loam at 5, 25, and 60??C. Experimental results showed increases in infiltration rates of at least 300% between 5 and 60??C for both soil materials, with subsequent increases in cumulative infiltration of even greater magnitudes for the loam. There is good agreement between measured and predicted initial infiltration rates at 25??C for both soil materials, yet at 60??C, the predicted results overestimate initial infiltration rates for the sand and underestimate initial rates for the loam. Measurements of the wetting depth vs. cumulative infiltration indicate that the transmission zone saturation increased with increasing temperature for both soil materials. In spite of this increased saturation with temperature, the final infiltration rates at both 25 and 60??C were predicted accurately using the modified Green and Ampt equation. This suggests that increased saturation occurred primarily in dead-end pore spaces, so that transmission zone hydraulic conductivities were unaffected by these temperature-induced changes in saturation. In conclusion, except for initial infiltration rates at 60??C, the measured influence of temperature on infiltration rates was fully accounted for by the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water. ?? 1991.

  15. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  16. Apoptosis of tumor infiltrating effector TIM-3+CD8+ T cells in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chiao-Wen; Dutta, Avijit; Chang, Li-Yuan; Mahalingam, Jayashri; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Hsu, Chen-Yu; Huang, Ching-Tai; Su, Wan-Ting; Chu, Yu-Yi; Lin, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    TIM-3 functions to enforce CD8+ T cell exhaustion, a dysfunctional state associated with the tolerization of tumor microenvironment. Here we report apoptosis of IFN-γ competent TIM-3+ population of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in colon cancer. In humans suffering from colorectal cancer, TIM-3+ population is higher in cancer tissue-resident relative to peripheral blood CD8+ T cells. Both the TIM-3+ and TIM-3- cancer tissue-resident CD8+ T cells secrete IFN-γ of comparable levels, although apoptotic cells are more in TIM-3+ compared to TIM-3- population. In mouse CT26 colon tumor model, majority of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells express TIM-3 and execute cytolysis function with higher effector cytokine secretion and apoptosis in TIM-3+ compared to TIM-3- population. The tumor cells secrete galectin-9, which increases apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. Galectin-9/TIM-3 signaling blockade with anti-TIM-3 antibody reduces the apoptosis and in addition, inhibits tumor growth in mice. The blockade increases therapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide to treat tumor in mice as well. These results reveal a previously unexplored role of TIM-3 on tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in vivo.

  17. Ways to Enhance Lymphocyte Trafficking into Tumors and Fitness of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bellone, Matteo; Calcinotto, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    The tumor is a hostile microenvironment for T lymphocytes. Indeed, irregular blood flow, and endothelial cell (EC) anergy that characterize most solid tumors hamper leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and infiltration. In addition, hypoxia and reprograming of energy metabolism within cancer cells transform the tumor mass in a harsh environment that limits survival and effector functions of T cells, regardless of being induced in vivo by vaccination or adoptively transferred. In this review, we will summarize on recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor-associated neo-angiogenic vessels as well as of the tumor metabolism that may impact on T cell trafficking and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In particular, we will focus on how advances in knowledge of the characteristics of tumor ECs have enabled identifying strategies to normalize the tumor-vasculature and/or overcome EC anergy, thus increasing leukocyte-vessel wall interactions and lymphocyte infiltration in tumors. We will also focus on drugs acting on cells and their released molecules to transiently render the tumor microenvironment more suitable for tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, thus increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of both active and adoptive immunotherapies. PMID:24062984

  18. Brain tumour and infiltrations dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy combined with 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sâmia F; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a dosimetric investigation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy for brain tumour control. The study was conducted through computational simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and discrete voxel model of a human head, in which a hypothetical brain tumour was incorporated. A boron concentration ratio of 1:5 for healthy-tissue: tumour was considered. Absorbed and biologically weighted dose rates and neutron fluency in the voxel model were evaluated. The absorbed dose rate results were exported to SISCODES software, which generates the isodose surfaces on the brain. Analyses were performed to clarify the relevance of boron concentrations in occult infiltrations far from the target tumour, with boron concentration ratios of 1:1 up to 1:50 for healthy-tissue:infiltrations and healthy-tissue:tumour. The average biologically weighted dose rates at tumour area exceed up to 40 times the surrounding healthy tissue dose rates. In addition, the biologically weighted dose rates from boron have the main contribution at the infiltrations, especially far from primary tumour. In conclusion, BNCT combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy is an alternative technique for brain tumour treatment because it intensifies dose deposition at the tumour and at infiltrations, sparing healthy brain tissue.

  19. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  20. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest

  1. Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: what radiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arich R; Furlan, Alessandro; Fetzer, David T; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Borhani, Amir A; Heller, Matthew T; Tublin, Mitchell E

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The macroscopic growth pattern of HCC is subdivided into three categories: nodular, massive, and infiltrative. Infiltrative HCC accounts for 7%-20% of HCC cases and is confirmed at pathologic analysis on the basis of the spread of minute tumor nodules throughout large regions of the liver. Infiltrative HCC may represent a diagnostic challenge because it is often difficult to distinguish from background changes in cirrhosis at imaging. Infiltrative HCC usually spreads over multiple hepatic segments, occupying an entire hepatic lobe or the entire liver, and it is frequently associated with portal vein tumor thrombosis. The tumor is usually ill defined at ultrasonography and shows minimal and inconsistent arterial enhancement and heterogeneous washout at contrast material-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The tumor may be more visible among the surrounding liver parenchyma at diffusion-, T1-, and T2-weighted MR imaging. Several liver diseases can mimic the infiltrative appearance of this malignancy, including focal confluent fibrosis, hepatic fat deposition, hepatic microabscesses, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and diffuse metastatic disease (pseudocirrhosis). The prognosis for patients with infiltrative HCC is poor because the tumor is often markedly advanced and associated with vascular invasion at presentation. Survival after surgical resection is decreased; thus, infiltrative HCC is a contraindication for resection and transplantation. Knowledge of the key tumor characteristics and imaging findings will help radiologists formulate a correct and timely diagnosis to improve patient management.

  2. Four year Evaluation of Proximal Resin Infiltration in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Hysi, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    Aim Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stopping caries progression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate four-year efficacy of proximal infiltrates in adolescents. Materials and methods In ten adolescents, a total of 21 proximal infiltrates (ICON® (DMG, Germany) were applied to initial proximal lesions of permanent incisors and premolars according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The clinical quality of resin infiltration was assessed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analyzed by radiographs. Results Ten patients were followed up clinically for four years. The majority of the infiltrated lesions were located on permanent incisors. Teeth which were proximally infiltrated did not exhibit dental plaque and gingival bleeding in most cases. At annual recalls, plaque scores remained constant. The gingival status remained steady and no differences in tooth shape and contour were detected. Discoloration was detected in four teeth (19%) in 1st year recall and was constant at annual intervals. The radiographic evaluation of the bitewing radiographs showed no progression in 21 lesions (100%) from baseline to the 4-year recall. Overall oral hygiene of the patients was satisfactory. Conclusion In conclusion, proximal infiltration is an effective prophylactic measure in adolescents.

  3. Four year Evaluation of Proximal Resin Infiltration in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Hysi, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    Aim Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stopping caries progression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate four-year efficacy of proximal infiltrates in adolescents. Materials and methods In ten adolescents, a total of 21 proximal infiltrates (ICON® (DMG, Germany) were applied to initial proximal lesions of permanent incisors and premolars according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The clinical quality of resin infiltration was assessed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analyzed by radiographs. Results Ten patients were followed up clinically for four years. The majority of the infiltrated lesions were located on permanent incisors. Teeth which were proximally infiltrated did not exhibit dental plaque and gingival bleeding in most cases. At annual recalls, plaque scores remained constant. The gingival status remained steady and no differences in tooth shape and contour were detected. Discoloration was detected in four teeth (19%) in 1st year recall and was constant at annual intervals. The radiographic evaluation of the bitewing radiographs showed no progression in 21 lesions (100%) from baseline to the 4-year recall. Overall oral hygiene of the patients was satisfactory. Conclusion In conclusion, proximal infiltration is an effective prophylactic measure in adolescents. PMID:27688414

  4. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Zhdanov, M.S.; Watt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in and climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  6. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  7. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

  8. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  9. Occurrence and severity of enamel decalcification adjacent to bracket bases and sub-bracket lesions during orthodontic treatment with two different lingual appliances

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Elisabeth; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Using lingual enamel surfaces for bracket placement not only has esthetic advantages, but may also be suitable in terms of reducing frequencies of enamel decalcifications. Objective: To test the null-hypothesis that there is no significant difference in enamel decalcification or cavitation incidence adjacent to and beneath bracket bases between two lingual multi-bracket (MB) appliances that are different in terms of design, material composition, and manufacturing technology (group A: WIN, DW-LingualSystems; group B: Incognito, 3M-Unitek), taking into account patient- and treatment-related variables on white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Methods: Standardized, digital, top-view photographs of 630 consecutive subjects (16214 teeth; n Incognito = 237/6076 teeth; n WIN = 393/10138 teeth; mean age: 17.47±7.8; m/f 43.2/56.8%) with completed lingual MB treatment of the upper and lower permanent teeth 1–7 were screened for decalcification or cavitation adjacent to and beneath the bracket bases before and after treatment, scored from 0 to 7. Non-parametric ANOVA was used for main effects ‘appliance type’, ‘gender’, ‘treatment complexity’, ‘grouped age’ (≤16/>16 years), and ‘treatment duration’ as covariable, at an α-level of 5%. Results: About 2.57% [5.94%] of all teeth in group A [B] developed decalcifications. Subject-related incidence was 9.59% [16.17%] for upper incisors in group A [B], and 12.98% [25.74%] for all teeth 16–46. There were significant effects by gender, age, and treatment duration. Conclusion: The null-hypothesis was rejected: sub-bracket lesions were significantly less frequent in group A, while frequencies of WSL adjacent to brackets were not significantly affected by appliance type. In view of the overall low incidences of lingual post-orthodontic white-spot lesions, the use of lingual appliances is advocated as a valid strategy for a reduction of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. PMID

  10. Analysis of storm-water infiltration ponds on the North Carolina Outer Banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chescheir, G.M.; Fipps, G.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    Increasing development along the North Carolina coast has been linked to the deterioration of water quality in adjacent sounds and estuaries. Degradation of water quality in sounds and estuaries threatens the coastal ecology which provides resources for the area's fishing and tourism industries. The state of N.C. adopted the current Stormwater Runoff Disposal Rules in 1988 requiring stormwater management plans for new development in 20 coastal counties. Stormwater infiltration pond systems are approved by the State as an option for retaining stormwater on the developed site; however, the long-term performance of these systems has not been measured or determined. The study was conducted to monitor the hydrology of stormwater infiltration ponds on the North Carolina barrier islands and to develop a model that continuously simulates the performance of these ponds. The hydrology of two operating infiltration ponds systems was evaluated in an 18-month field study. Rainfall, pond stage, and water table elevations at selected locations were monitored continuously. Water table elevations at additional locations were monitored on a biweekly basis. Soil hydraulic conductivities and soil water characteristic relationships were determined at both field sites. The subsurface geology was described at one site and an aquifer pump test was performed to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific yield. Both of the infiltration ponds in the field studies effectively served their primary purpose of retaining on site the stormwater runoff from the first 38 mm (1.5 in) of rainfall. In nearly every case, the pond seepage rate was sufficient to completely draw down the pond within 5 days. The hydrology of the infiltration ponds at the two research sites was very different.

  11. Effects of surface characteristics on infiltration patterns in an arid shrub desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Ping; Li, Xin-Rong; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Berndtsson, Ronny; Pan, Yan-Xia

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation is often the sole source of water replenishment in arid and semi-arid areas and, thus, plays a pertinent role in sustaining desert ecosystems. Revegetation over 40 years using mainly Artemisia ordosica and Caragana korshinskii at Shapotou Desert Experimental Research Station near Lanzhou, China, has established a dwarf-shrub and microbiotic soil crust cover on the stabilized sand dunes. The redistribution of infiltrated moisture through percolation, root extraction, and evapotranspiration pathways was investigated. Three sets of time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes were inserted horizontally at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 cm depths below the ground surface in a soil pit. The three sets of TDR probes were installed in dwarf-shrub sites of A. ordosica and C. korshinskii community with and without a microbiotic soil crust cover, and an additional set was placed in a bare sand dune area that had neither vegetation nor a microbiotic soil crust present. Volumetric soil moisture content was recorded at hourly intervals and used in the assessment of infiltration for the different surface covers. Infiltration varied greatly, from 7.5 cm to more than 45 cm, depending upon rainfall quantity and soil surface conditions. In the shrub community area without microbiotic soil crust cover, infiltration increased due to preferential flow associated with root tunnels. The microbiotic soil crust cover had a significant negative influence on the infiltration for small rainfall events (10 mm), restricting the infiltration depth to less than 20 cm and increasing soil moisture content just beneath the soil profile of 10 cm, whereas it was not as strong or clear for larger rainfall events (60 mm). For small rainfall events, the wetting front depth for the three kinds of surface cover was as follows: shrub community without microbiotic soil crust > bare area > shrub community with microbiotic soil crust. In contrast, for large rainfall events, infiltration was similar in shrub

  12. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  13. Reaction Infiltration Instabilities in Partially Molten Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pec, M.; Holtzman, B. K.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tabular dunites in ophiolites are thought to form high-permeability, melt channels due to a positive feedback between melt flow and melt-solid reaction in the upper mantle. Reaction-infiltration instability (RII) theory predicts whether or not channels emerge from background flow. To test the applicability of RII theory to mantle rocks, we sandwiched a partially molten rock between a melt reservoir and a porous sink. Hot-pressed 50:50 mixtures of olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) with either 4, 10 or 20 vol% alkali basalt formed ~4 mm long cylinders of partially molten rock. Source and sink are disks of alkali basalt and porous alumina. We annealed the melt-rock-sink triplets for up to 5 h at a confining pressure of Pc=300 MPa with effective pressure Pe=0 to 299.9 MPa at T=1200° or 1250°C. The melt fraction in the partially molten rock influences the permeability, which, together with the applied pressure gradient, controls the melt migration velocity. The temperature influences the reaction rate. Melt velocity and reaction rate are fundamental parameters in RII theory. In experiments, two distinct features form due to melt migration, 1) a planar reaction layer (RL) and 2) finger-shaped channels. Both the RL and the channels contain Ol+melt with no Cpx, indicating that the reaction melt1+Cpx→melt2+Ol occurs. The channels develop only if the melt velocity is >5µm/s. Once a channel reaches the porous sink, a large increase in the effective permeability is detected. The morphology and spacing of the channels depends on the initial melt fraction. With 20 vol% melt, multiple, voluminous channels with a spacing of 1.8±0.5 mm develop. At lower melt contents, fewer, thinner channels with a spacing of ~3 mm develop. The channel spacing predicted by theory is about a factor 2-4 smaller than observed. Our results indicate that RII theory provides a solid framework for investigating melt migration in experiments and potentially a basis for extrapolation to mantle

  14. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  15. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  16. Experimental Validation and Applications of a Fluid Infiltration Model

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Cindy S.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal infiltration experiments were performed to validate a plug flow model that minimizes the number of parameters that must be measured. Water and silicone oil at three different viscosities were infiltrated into glass beads, desert alluvium, and silica powder. Experiments were also performed with negative inlet heads on air-dried silica powder, and with water and oil infiltrating into initially water moist silica powder. Comparisons between the data and model were favorable in most cases, with predictions usually within 40% of the measured data. The model is extended to a line source and small areal source at the ground surface to analytically predict the shape of two-dimensional wetting fronts. Furthermore, a plug flow model for constant flux infiltration agrees well with field data and suggests that the proposed model for a constant-head boundary condition can be effectively used to predict wetting front movement at heterogeneous field sites if averaged parameter values are used. PMID:20428480

  17. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  18. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  19. Modeling Water Infiltration in Soil Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Albalasmeh, Ammar; Alghzawi, Ma'in

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration of soils irrigated with treated wastewater (TWW) was modeled using Philip, Horton, Kostiakov, and modified Kostiakov. Treatments were: soil irrigated with TWW for 5 years, 2 years, and a control site. Cumulative (Ft), rate of infiltration (ft), and hydraulic conductivity (HC) were measured in the field and aggregate stability (AS) in the lab. Both HC and ft were decreased with and AS was increased with TWW use and period of application. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) were used to measure the goodness of fit and linearity of the relationship between models and measured data. Philip model was best to fit infiltration compared to other models. High AS values in treated areas compared to control area indicated that infiltration was more affected by pore clogging than soil dispersion and swelling,

  20. 10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: MISCELLANEOUS METAL DETAILS. Sheet A-22, November, 1940. File no. SA 342/31. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  1. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  2. Inverse Simulation of Field Infiltration Experiment Counting Preferential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Nemcova, Renata; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    The field tension and ponded infiltration experiments were conducted to monitor and describe irregularities of moisture propagation and to estimate the soil hydraulic properties (Distric Cambisol, Korkusova Hut, Sumava). On these soils the preferential pathways have been observed in several scales with the use of dye tracers, MRI and CT imaging. Preferential behavior was detected also during laboratory infiltration experiments. The flow irregularities are credited to variable air entrapment at the beginning of infiltrations. The field infiltration experiment was carried out in a shallow pit for a period of one day. The upper boundary condition was controlled by the tension disk infiltrometer, the propagation of a water front was monitored by two tensiometers installed in two depths below the infiltration disk. The propagation of saline solution front during ponded infiltration was visualized with high resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Infiltration experiments were monitored with TDR probes, tensiometers and ERT. Zones of preferential flow were determined through analyses of photographs taken during laboratory dye tracer infiltration experiments performed on undisturbed soil samples. Connectivity, volumetric ratio and spatial development of preferential pathways were evaluated as the necessary information for numerical simulations of flow using dual-permeability approach. 2D axisymetric numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate the results of the experiment. The parameter estimator PEST coupled with the simulation code S2D_DUAL (Vogel et al., 2000) were employed. Two different approaches were used: 1. Single-domain approach based on Richards' equation. 2. Dual-permeability approach based on two interacting water flow domains (matrix and preferential domains), each governed by one Richards' equation. Concerning the existence of preferential flow on investigated soil, the dual-permeability model gives a better picture of the flow regime. The

  3. Intraocular involvement with subretinal pigment epithelium infiltrates by mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, B. C.; Egbert, P. R.; Peat, I. M.; Shorrock, K.; Rosenthal, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular mycosis fungoides in a 48-year-old man. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, white subretinal lesions, and vitritis. Post-mortem histopathology revealed malignant T cell infiltrates consistent with mycosis fungoides in the retina, vitreous, and between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane Focal atrophy of the RPE, along with the sub-RPE infiltrates, correlated with the clinically visible fundus lesions. Images PMID:1751471

  4. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  5. Prominent Vascular and Perivascular Eosinophilic Infiltrates Heralding CNS Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Leppert, Michelle; Ney, Douglas; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2015-10-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement of mycosis fungoides (MF) is very rare. This study reports a patient with known cutaneous MF (under treatment) who presented with a CNS syndrome and multiple brain lesions. Brain biopsy demonstrated massive eosinophilic infiltrates but no MF cells. Despite treatment, new lesions developed and the patient died. At autopsy, there was massive involvement MF cells, suggesting that the eosinophilic infiltrates presaged the severe involvement of the CNS by MF. PMID:26352990

  6. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control.

  7. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  8. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  9. Debris flow probability and extent vary with infiltration rate and intensity-duration of rainfall: Mt. Mayon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, J. C.; Rose, W. I.; Newhall, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoclastic debris flows or lahars triggered by intense rainfall due to bulking are influenced by surface characteristics that reduce the downward infiltration of groundwater after saturation. Variations in surface cover control storm water runoff, thus affecting the timing and volume of water entering a river channel prone to lahars. Rainfall induced debris flows constitute a serious geologic hazard to communities in many parts of the world. The abundant loose erodible material on volcanoes increases the likelihood and severity of large debris flow events; this combined with dense populations make volcanoes an important area for lahar research and mitigation measures. This study was carried out on the slopes of the Republic of the Philippines most active volcano, Mt. Mayon, in hopes of increasing the understanding of debris flow initiation. Two tipping bucket rain gauges equipped with data loggers were deployed to determine an intensity-duration rainfall threshold during quiescent periods on Mayon. The steady-state infiltration capacities of Mayon’s substrates were determined using a double-ring infiltrometer ponding method. Additional infiltrometer experiments were carried out with an overlying simulated ash layer of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mm in order to quantify the effects of tephra cover on ground infiltration, adding supporting data that decreased infiltration and increased likelihood of debris flow initiation occur after an eruptive event. Finally, sieve analyses of the volcanic substrates were conducted to better understand the variations of infiltration and runoff due to grain size distribution. An intensity-duration rainfall threshold for quiescent periods on Mayon was estimated to be (I=46.2D-0.43). Average infiltration measurements ranged from 5.43-230.83 mm/hr depending on the type of substrate, vegetation cover, and grain size distribution. Simulated ash layers were found to increase initial infiltration (first 10 minutes) but decreased long

  10. Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Amir Rad, Fatemeh A.; Succaria, Faysal G.; Morgano, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n = 8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n = 8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n = 8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111 N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs. MC (P = .0001), MO vs. VZ (P = .0001), and VZ vs. MC (P = .012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength. PMID:26082571

  11. Effects of Age, Gender, Bolus Volume, Bolus Viscosity, and Gustation on Swallowing Apnea Onset Relative to Lingual Bolus Propulsion Onset in Normal Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Susan G.; Strauss, Monica; Treole, Kathleen; Stuart, Andrew; Boutilier, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the normal relation of swallowing apnea (SA) onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion along with factors that may alter this relation. Forty adults, composed of 10 men and 10 women in each of 2 age groups (i.e., 20-30 and 63-79 years) participated. SA onset was assessed during 5- and 20-ml bolus volumes…

  12. Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2015-04-01

    In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

  13. Comparison between the collagen intensity and mast cell density in the lingual muscles and myocardium of autopsied chronic chagasic and nonchagasic patients.

    PubMed

    Roldão, José A; Beghini, Marcela; Ramalho, Luciana S; Porto, Carla Souza; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Teixeira, Vicente P A; de Lima Pereira, Sanívia A

    2012-08-01

    In chronic Chagas' disease (CD), an increase in collagen intensity and mast cell density has been described individually in the myocardium and tongue muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of collagen, mast cell tryptase (MCT) density, and mast cell chymase (MCH) density in the lingual muscles and myocardium from autopsied chagasic (CP) and nonchagasic patients (NCP). The selected cases were divided into two groups: (1) CP (n = 10) and (2) NCP (n = 10). Fragments were removed from the tongue and heart. After histological processing, the slices were stained with picrosirius, and immunohistochemistry was performed for MCH and MCT. The CP group showed the highest MCH and MCT densities and the highest percentage of collagen in the lingual muscles and myocardium when compared with the NCP group (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between the collagen intensity and MCH density in the myocardium of the CP group. Although there are no reports in the literature of MCT and MCH in CD, its higher densities as well as higher percentage of collagen were found in the lingual muscles and myocardium in the CP group, suggesting that tryptase and chymase are associated with the pathogenesis of CD in these organs. Furthermore, the positive and significant correlation between the percentage of collagen and MCH density in the myocardium of the CP group suggests that the chymase is associated with fibrosis in CD, as demonstrated in other diseases.

  14. Dementia with Lewy bodies presenting marked tongue protrusion and bite due to lingual dystonia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yuji; Kanaya, Yuhei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takeshima, Shinichi; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-06-22

    We report the patient of a 53-year-old woman who developed subacute-onset marked tonge protrusion and bite. She was diagnosed as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from the clinical features including progressive cognitive decline, visual hallucinations, parkinsonism, and severe insomnia and depression, and the radiological finding of low dopamine transported uptake in basal ganglia by Dat SCAN and low blood circulation in occipital lobe of cerebrum. The patient received 600 mg doses of levodopa for over a year, followed by rotigotine and ropinirole with a rapid increase of dosage. It is believed that these treatments stimulated and sensitized dopamine D1 receptors, thereby inducing lingual dystonia. Furthermore, the patient demonstrated dyspnea and attacks of apnea caused by the closure of bilateral vocal cords due to laryngeal dyskinesia. After initiation of the neuroleptic, olanzapine, for a short duration, the high dose of levodopa overlapped with neuroleptic sensitivity, suggesting DOPA-induced dystonia and dyskinesia. This interaction can sometimes lead to lethal adverse events, and must be considered very important when treating patients with DLB. PMID:27212676

  15. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase. PMID:24001397

  16. Lingual antimicrobial peptide and lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in bovine colostrum are associated with subsequent somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Naoki; Shibata, Ayumi; Kubota, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether potential levels of innate immune factors (lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO)) in colostrum are associated with subsequent milk somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cows. Quarter milk samples were collected daily for 1 week postpartum to measure LAP and LF concentrations and LPO activity. SCC in milk was determined weekly for 2 months postpartum and its correlations to concentrations of LAP and LF and LPO activity were examined. Only small variations of all immune factors were found among four udders in each individual cow, whereas there were great differences in these factors among cows. Negative correlation was detected only between LPO activity and mean and maximum SCC, whereas its relationship was not significant. LAP and LF concentrations were significantly correlated positively to mean, maximum and minimum SCC. These results suggest that the great difference in innate immune factors among animals and high LAP and LF concentrations in colostrum may be associated with subsequent high incidence of SCC increase.

  17. Dynamics of lingual antimicrobial peptide, lactoferrin concentrations and lactoperoxidase activity in the milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Korematsu, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Okita, Miki; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in innate immune factors in the milk of mastitic dairy cows treated with antibiotics. Cows in the antibiotics group (n = 13) were infused into the mammary gland with cefazolin on the sixth day after mastitis was diagnosed (the day of the mastitis diagnosis = day -6). The control group (n = 12) was not treated. Milk samples were collected once every 2 days from days -6 to 12 and somatic cell count (SCC), lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), and lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and lactoperoxidase (LPO) activity were measured. SCC and LF concentrations in the antibiotics group markedly decreased after the antibiotic treatment. When cows in the antibiotics group were divided according to SCC on day 0, LAP concentrations and LPO activity in cows with a lower SCC on day 0 (<5 × 10(6) cell/mL) were significantly higher and lower than those in cows with a higher SCC, respectively. These results suggest that LF concentration decreased with decrease in SCC after treatment and that LAP concentration and LPO activity differed depending on the severity of mastitis. This is the first report to reveal the dynamics of innate immune factor in milk of cows treated for clinical mastitis.

  18. Structural and cytochemical modifications in the lingual glands of the newborn chicken irradiated with He-Ne laser.

    PubMed

    Avila, R E; Samar, M E; de Fabro, S P; Plivelic, T S

    1997-01-01

    Despite the increasing and successful use of laser in Medicine and Odontology, the possible iatrogenic and otherwise deleterious side effects of this radiation remain mostly unknown. In previous studies, it was shown that both the embryonic and the post-hatched chicken constitute reliable experimental models for this type of studies. Hence, the purpose of the present work was to analyze the structural and cytochemical alterations of the lingual glands of the newborn chicken irradiated with low energy He-Ne laser. This laser produced regressive structural changes of the glands towards the embryonic stage as well as hyperplasia of the reserve glandular basal cells. Furthermore, a decrease in the glycoprotein content and a rise in the sulphated glycosaminoglycans were also found. These results corroborate the pathogenic effects of the He-Ne- laser on the experimental model employed and, at the same time, emphasize the importance of considering, regarding clinical applications, possible previous neoplastic alterations as well as adverse reactions which might appear once laser therapy has been installed.

  19. Assessing the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia in novel designs as mandibular anterior fixed lingual retention following orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Matthew

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) in fixed lingual retention as an alternative to stainless steel. Exploratory Y-TZP specimens were milled to establish design parameters. Next, specimens were milled according to ASTM standard C1161-13 and subjected to four-point flexural test to determine materials properties. Finite Element (FE) Analysis was employed to evaluate nine novel cross-sectional designs and compared to stainless steel wire. Each design was analyzed under the loading conditions to determine von Mises and bond stress. The most promising design was fabricated to assess accuracy and precision of current CAD/CAM milling technology. The superior design had a 1.0 x 0.5 mm semi-elliptical cross section and was shown to be fabricated reliably. Overall, the milling indicated a maximum percent standard deviation of 9.3 and maximum percent error of 13.5 with a cost of $30 per specimen. Y-TZP can be reliably milled to dimensions comparable to currently available metallic retainer wires. Further research is necessary to determine the success of bonding protocol and clinical longevity of Y-TZP fixed retainers. Advanced technology is necessary to connect the intraoral scan to an aesthetic and patient-specific Y-TZP fixed retainer.

  20. Prevalence of tooth wear on buccal and lingual surfaces and possible risk factors in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D W; Lussi, A; West, N X; Bouchard, P; Sanz, M; Bourgeois, D

    2013-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of tooth wear on buccal/facial and lingual/palatal tooth surfaces and identify related risk factors in a sample of young European adults, aged 18-35 years. Calibrated and trained examiners measured tooth wear, using the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) on in 3187 patients in seven European countries and assessed the impact of risk factors with a previously validated questionnaire. Each individual was characterized by the highest BEWE score recorded for any scoreable surface. Bivariate analyses examined the proportion of participants who scored 2 or 3 in relation to a range of demographic, dietary and oral care variables. The highest tooth wear BEWE score was 0 for 1368 patients (42.9%), 1 for 883 (27.7%), 2 for 831 (26.1%) and 3 for 105 (3.3%). There were large differences between different countries with the highest levels of tooth wear observed in the UK. Important risk factors for tooth wear included heartburn or acid reflux, repeated vomiting, residence in rural areas, electric tooth brushing and snoring. We found no evidence that waiting after breakfast before tooth brushing has any effect on the degree of tooth wear (p=0.088). Fresh fruit and juice intake was positively associated with tooth wear. In this adult sample 29% had signs of tooth wear making it a common presenting feature in European adults.

  1. [Muscle afferent block in the treatment of oromandibular dystonia. Difference in effect between masticatory and lingual muscles].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K

    2003-06-01

    Oromandibular dystonia is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by tonic or clonic involuntary spasms of the masticatory and lingual muscles. We treated 50 patients with this movement disorder by injection of lidocaine and alcohol into the masticatory or tongue muscles to block muscle afferents from muscle spindle. The patients were divided according to clinical features into four groups: jaw-closing, jaw-opening, jaw-deviation, and tongue dystonias. Objective evaluation of the symptoms before and after therapy was based on a clinical scaling protocol in terms of four parameters (mastication, speech, pain, and discomfort scales). Symptoms improved in all patients without major side effects. The overall objective improvement (60.2+/-29.5%) was significantly (P<0.005, ANOVA) lower in tongue dystonia (14.1%) than in jaw-closing dystonia (67.6%) and jaw-opening dystonia (68.3%). Although the response of the muscle afferent block to tongue dystonia was hardly satisfactory, this treatment is suggested to be effective for oromandibular dystonia.

  2. Species differences in the reflex effects of lingual afferent nerve stimulation on lip blood flow and arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Koeda, S; Yasuda, M; Izumi, H

    2003-11-01

    We evoked changes in lower lip blood flow and systemic arterial blood pressure by electrically stimulating the central cut end of the lingual nerve in artificially ventilated, urethane-anesthetized, cervically vago-sympathectomized cats, rats, rabbits, and guinea pig. The systemic arterial blood pressure changes were species-dependent: increases in rat, consistent decreases in rabbit and guinea pig, and variable among individuals in cat. In cat and rabbit, lip blood flow increases, which occurred only ipsilaterally to the stimulated nerve and showed no statistically significant correlation with the systemic arterial blood pressure changes. In rat, the ipsilateral lip blood flow increase was markedly greater than the contralateral one, and although there was a significant correlation between each of them and the systemic arterial blood pressure changes, the ipsilateral increase presumably included an active vasodilatation. In guinea pig, lip blood flow decreased on both sides in proportion to the systemic arterial blood pressure reductions. Thus, species variability exists in the sympathetic-mediated systemic arterial blood pressure changes and parasympathetic-mediated lip blood flow responses themselves, and in the relationship between them. PMID:12920546

  3. Solute breakthrough during recurrent ponded infiltration into heterogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Packed sample of fine quartz sand was used as a reference. Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  4. Solute Breakthrough During Recurrent Ponded Infiltration Into Heterogeneous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  5. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  6. A quick and inexpensive method to quantify spatially variable infiltration capacity for artificial recharge ponds using photographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Barahona-Palomo, Marco; Bolster, Diogo; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe efficiency of artificial surface ponds (SPs) for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is mostly controlled by the topmost portion of the soil. The most significant soil property controlling recharge is the infiltration capacity (Ic), which is highly variable in space. Assessing its spatial distribution in detail is prohibitive in practice due to high costs, time effort, and limited site accessibility. We present an alternative method for a quick and low-cost quantitative estimation of the spatial distribution of Ic based on satellite images. The fact that hydraulic properties of topsoils and color intensities of digital images depend on some common factors such as moisture content, nature and organization of grains, proportion of iron, and organic and clay content among others, allow us to infer infiltration capacities from color intensities. The relationship between these two variables is site specific and requires calibration. A pilot SP site in Catalonia (Spain) is used as an application example. Two high-resolution digital images of the site are provided at no cost by the local cartographic institute as well as from a popular Internet-based map server. An initial set of local infiltration experiments, randomly located, were found to correlate to color intensities of the digital images. This relationship was then validated against additional independent measurements. The resulting maps of infiltration were then used to estimate the total maximum infiltration of the artificial pond area, the results being consistent with an independent flooding test performed at the site.

  7. A red beet (Beta vulgaris) UDP-glucosyltransferase gene induced by wounding, bacterial infiltration and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Jiménez, Gabriela; Rueda-Benítez, Patricia; Porta, Helena; Rocha-Sosa, Mario

    2005-02-01

    Mechanical wounding, infiltration with P. syringae or A. tumefaciens, and exposure to an H(2)O(2)-generating system (Glc/Glc oxidase) induce betacyanin synthesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris) leaves. These conditions also induced the expression of BvGT, a gene encoding a glucosyltransferase (GT) from Beta vulgaris. BvGT has a high similarity to Dorotheanthus bellidiformis betanidin-5 GT involved in betacyanin synthesis. Furthermore, the transient expression of a BvGT antisense construct resulted in the reduction of BvGT transcript accumulation and betanin synthesis, suggesting a role for this gene product in betacyanin glucosylation. In addition, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), inhibited the accumulation of the BvGT transcript in response to infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hence, this result suggests that ROS produced by a plasma membrane NADPH oxidase may act as a signal to induce BvGT expression, necessary for betanin synthesis after wounding and bacterial infiltration. PMID:15582929

  8. Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Lassabatère, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The Beerkan method along with BEST algorithms is an alternative technique to conventional laboratory or field measurements for rapid and low-cost estimation of soil hydraulic properties. The Beerkan method is simple to conduct but requires an operator to pour known volumes of water through the ring and can be time-consuming. To alleviate this need, a new cheap infiltrometer equipped with a data acquisition system, allowing automation of Beerkan infiltration experiments, was recently designed and is presented in a companion paper. Yet, it has never been tested against a wide range of experimental conditions (soils, initial water saturation, etc.). In this paper, we tested the automated infiltrometer with the aim to validate its applicability to the Beerkan infiltration experiment under several experimental circumstances. In addition, we assessed the accuracy of BEST methods on the data obtained with the infiltrometer for the estimation of saturated soil hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. For this purpose, we used both analytically generated and real experimental data. The analytically generated data simulate infiltration experiments carried out with the infiltrometer on five contrasting soils from UNSODA database and different initial water contents. The total volume of water to be infiltrated and the volume increments are fixed by the infiltrometer characteristics. Then, inverse analysis of the analytically generated data was performed using the three available BEST algorithms to derive saturated soil hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity that were compared to the reference values. The results of the analytical assessment showed that the infiltrometer along with BEST methods could lead to accurate estimates in most cases thus validating the design of the studied infiltrometer and its combination with BEST algorithms. Some soils (mostly loam) and some hydric conditions (high initial water contents) may lead to misestimate soil properties or failure of BEST

  9. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Fall 2010 Tracer Infiltration Test (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Greenwood, William J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Horner, Jacob A.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2011-04-14

    The primary objectives of the tracer infiltration test were to 1) determine whether field-scale hydraulic properties for the compacted roadbed materials and underlying Hanford fm. sediments comprising the zone of water table fluctuation beneath the site are consistent with estimates based laboratory-scale measurements on core samples and 2) characterize wetting front advancement and distribution of soil moisture achieved for the selected application rate. These primary objectives were met. The test successfully demonstrated that 1) the remaining 2 to 3 ft of compacted roadbed material below the infiltration gallery does not limit infiltration rates to levels that would be expected to eliminate near surface application as a viable amendment delivery approach and 2) the combined aqueous and geophysical monitoring approaches employed at this site, with some operational adjustments based on lessons learned, provides an effective means of assessing wetting front advancement and the distribution of soil moisture achieved for a given solution application. Reasonably good agreement between predicted and observed tracer and moisture front advancement rates was observed. During the first tracer infiltration test, which used a solution application rate of 0.7 cm/hr, tracer arrivals were observed at the water table (10 to 12 ft below the bottom of the infiltration gallery) after approximately 5 days, for an advancement rate of approximately 2 ft/day. This advancement rate is generally consistent with pre-test modeling results that predicted tracer arrival at the water table after approximately 5 days (see Figure 8, bottom left panel). This agreement indicates that hydraulic property values specified in the model for the compacted roadbed materials and underlying Hanford formation sediments, which were based on laboratory-scale measurements, are reasonable estimates of actual field-scale conditions. Additional work is needed to develop a working relationship between resistivity

  10. Residential infiltration of fine and ultrafine particles in Edmonton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Jill; Wallace, Lance; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kindzierski, Warren; Wheeler, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Airborne indoor particles arise from both indoor sources and ambient particles that have infiltrated indoors. The intra-urban variability of infiltration factors (Finf) is a source of measurement error in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement, hence information on the within and between-home variability of Finf is useful to better characterize ambient PM exposure. The objective of this paper was to estimate magnitudes and predictors of daily residential infiltration factors (Finf) and ambient/non-ambient components of indoor ultrafine particle (UFP) and fine particle (FP) concentrations. FPs and UFPs were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days in 74 Edmonton homes in winter and summer 2010 (50 homes in each season). Simultaneous measurements of outdoor (near-home) FP and ambient (at a central site) UFP concentrations were also measured. Daily infiltration factors were estimated for each home; considerable variability was seen within and between homes. For FPs, seasonal-averaged Finf (the average of the 7 daily Finf estimates) ranged from 0.10 to 0.92 in winter (median = 0.30, n = 49) and 0.31 to 0.99 in summer (median = 0.68, n = 48). For UFPs, the seasonal-averaged Finf ranged from 0.08 to 0.47 across homes in winter (median = 0.21, n = 33 houses) and from 0.16 to 0.94 in summer (median = 0.57, n = 48). The higher median Finf in summer was attributed to a high frequency of open windows. Daily infiltration factors were also estimated based on the indoor/outdoor PM1 sulfur ratio. These estimates were poorly correlated with DustTrak-based FP infiltration factor estimates; the difference may be due to losses of volatile components on the PM1 filter samples. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify variables significantly associated with Finf and the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. Wind speed was consistently associated with Finf across all seasons for both FPs and UFPs. The use of an

  11. Local anesthetic wound infiltration for pain management after periacetabular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose To our knowledge, there is no evidence to support the use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). We investigated the effect of wound infiltration with a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine) for postoperative analgesia after PAO. Patients and methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815503) in 53 patients undergoing PAO to evaluate the effect of local anesthetic infiltration on postoperative pain and on postoperative opioid consumption. All subjects received intraoperative infiltration followed by 5 postoperative injections in 10-hour intervals through a multi-holed catheter placed at the surgical site. 26 patients received ropivacaine and 27 received saline. The intervention period was 2 days and the observational period was 4 days. All subjects received patient-controlled opioid analgesia without any restrictions on the total daily dose. Pain was assessed at specific postoperative time points and the daily opioid usage was registered. Results Infiltration with 75 mL (150 mg) of ropivacaine did not reduce postoperative pain or opioid requirements during the first 4 days. Interpretation The clinical importance of ropivacaine as single component in postoperative treatment of pain is questionable, and we are planning further studies to explore the potential of LIA in larger volume—and also a multimodal regimen—to treat pain in this category of patients. PMID:24650022

  12. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  14. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T.; Andres, A. Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO3 removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO3 removal.

  15. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal.

  16. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    subsurface area. However, the use of real-time surface and cross-borehole geophysics can be used to track the infiltrating Ca-citrate-PO4 front so some adjustments can be made in the infiltration rate to precipitate apatite in desired zones. In addition, the reactive transport code used in this study with field scale physical parameters for sediments can be used to evaluate infiltration strategies along with preliminary water infiltration tests at field scale.

  17. Electrical Imaging of Infiltration in Agricultural Soils on Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, A.; Kenyon, P. M.; Sanwald, K.; Steiner, N.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution electrical resistivity imaging of vadose zone infiltration experiments was conducted on agricultural soils by the City College and Graduate Center of CUNY, in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program and Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York. Measurements were made in active vineyards with a commercial resistivity imaging system, using a half- meter electrode spacing. Soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silty loam (BgA). The Riverhead and Haven soils are the most common types found on eastern Long Island. The Bridgehampton is considered the most fertile. Soil samples and measurements of soil compaction were collected at the same time as the geophysical measurements. In addition, remote sensing data were obtained for the three sites and processed to produce normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to evaluate potential correlations between vegetation vigor, soil texture and water migration patterns. Applications of this study include continuous water content monitoring in high value cash crops (precision agriculture). Changes in electrical resistivity during infiltration are clearly visible at all three locations. Preliminary analysis of the results shows correlations of baseline resistivity with particle size distributions and correlations between changes in resistivity during infiltration and soil compaction data. Time-lapse electrical images of the three sites will also be compared with published properties for these soils, including particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, available water capacity, and surface texture.

  18. Influence of Deforestation on Infiltration and Erosion in the Brazilian Caatinga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, P. A.; Souza, E.; Gomes, R. J.; Jacques, Y.; Cantalice, J. R. B.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and changes in land use are leading to increasing rates of deforestation and land degradation in the Brazilian Caatinga—a semiarid tropical forest. The influence of deforestation and subsequent recovery on soil hydrological properties and erosion are poorly understood. To investigate the influence of forest regeneration stage on soil hydrological processes, we conducted small plot rainfall simulation experiments on (1) a degraded pasture, recently abandoned; (2) an abandoned pasture left for natural recovery in the past seven years; (3) a 40 year old regenerating forestland; and (4) an old-growth forestland. In addition, we determined infiltration rates using single rings (following the Beerkan Method) and in the laboratory we applied the constant head method to soil core samples. Hydraulic parameters will be obtained using the BEST method with SciLab software and statistical analysis of the data will be carried in R. We found that infiltration rates were highest and erosion the lowest in the old-growth forest. Surprisingly, differences in both infiltration and erosion rates were quite small in the other sites. These results suggest that significant time is required following deforestation for recovery of soil hydrological properties.

  19. Characterisation of the surface structure of 3D printed scaffolds for cell infiltration and surgical suturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantu, Laura; Gleadall, Andrew; Faris, Callum; Segal, Joel; Shakesheff, Kevin; Yang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process. It is vital to be able to control the surface geometry of scaffolds as well as the internal structure to fabricate optimal architectures. This work presents a method to control the surface porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds. Six scaffold designs have been printed with surface porosities ranging from 3% to 21%. We have characterised the overall scaffold porosity and surface porosity using optical microscopy and microCT. It has been found that surface porosity has a significant impact on cell infiltration and proliferation. In addition, the porosity of the surface has been found to have an effect on mechanical properties and on the forces required to penetrate the scaffold with a surgical suturing needle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the surface geometry of extrusion-based 3D printed scaffolds and demonstrates the importance of surface geometry in cell infiltration and clinical manipulation. PMID:26930179

  20. Characterisation of the surface structure of 3D printed scaffolds for cell infiltration and surgical suturing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantu, Laura; Gleadall, Andrew; Faris, Callum; Segal, Joel; Shakesheff, Kevin; Yang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is of great interest for tissue engineering scaffolds due to the ability to form complex geometries and control internal structures, including porosity and pore size. The porous structure of scaffolds plays an important role in cell ingrowth and nutrition infusion. Although the internal porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds have been frequently studied, the surface porosity and pore size, which are critical for cell infiltration and mass transport, have not been investigated. The surface geometry can differ considerably from the internal scaffold structure depending on the 3D printing process. It is vital to be able to control the surface geometry of scaffolds as well as the internal structure to fabricate optimal architectures. This work presents a method to control the surface porosity and pore size of 3D printed scaffolds. Six scaffold designs have been printed with surface porosities ranging from 3% to 21%. We have characterised the overall scaffold porosity and surface porosity using optical microscopy and microCT. It has been found that surface porosity has a significant impact on cell infiltration and proliferation. In addition, the porosity of the surface has been found to have an effect on mechanical properties and on the forces required to penetrate the scaffold with a surgical suturing needle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the surface geometry of extrusion-based 3D printed scaffolds and demonstrates the importance of surface geometry in cell infiltration and clinical manipulation.

  1. Fabrication of Short Graphite Fiber Preforms for Liquid Metal Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; He, Xinbo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Kang, Qiping; Qu, Xuanhui

    2013-06-01

    Starch-based and paraffin wax (PW)-based binders were used to fabricate short graphite fiber preforms for liquid metal infiltration. The effects of different binder components and debinding process parameters on the properties of short graphite fiber preforms were investigated. The results indicate that the graphite fiber preforms with appropriate porosity of 58-62% and relatively high compressive strength of about 2-3 MPa can be made by starch-based and PW-based binders. The graphite fiber preforms made from the PW-based binder exhibit higher compressive strength than that of the starch-based binder. Graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composites fabricated by utilizing these preforms through vacuum pressure infiltration have relatively high density of 98.5% and thermal conductivity of 186.3 W/m K, proving the applicability of the prepared preforms for liquid metal infiltration.

  2. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  3. Effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration in rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Baeten, Coen . E-mail: C.Baeten@surgery.azm.nl; Castermans, Karolien; Lammering, Guido; Hillen, Femke; Wouters, Bradly G.; Hillen, Harry; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Baeten, Cornelius G.M.I.

    2006-11-15

    Background: We and others have shown that angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration are important prognostic factors in rectal cancer. However, little is known about its possible changes in response to radiotherapy (RTX), which is frequently given to rectal tumors as a neoadjuvant treatment to improve the prognosis. We therefore investigated the biologic effects of RTX on these parameters using fresh-frozen biopsy samples of tumor and normal mucosa tissue before and after RTX. Methods: Biopsy samples were taken from a total of 34 patients before and after either a short course or long course of RTX combined with chemotherapy. The following parameters were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction: Microvessel density, leukocyte infiltration, proliferating epithelial and tumor cells, proliferating endothelial cells, adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells, and the angiogenic mRNA profile. Results: The tumor biopsy samples taken after RTX treatment demonstrated a significant decrease in microvessel density and the number of proliferating tumor cells and proliferating endothelial cells (p < 0.001). In contrast, the leukocyte infiltration, the levels of basic fibroblast growth factor in carcinoma tissue, and the adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells in normal as well as carcinoma tissue increased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our data show that together with an overall decrease in tumor cell and endothelial cell proliferation, RTX results in an increase in the expression of adhesion molecules that stimulate leukocyte infiltration. This suggests the possibility that, in addition to its direct cytotoxic effect, radiation may also stimulate an immunologic tumor response that could contribute to the documented improvement in local tumor control and distal failure rate of rectal cancers.

  4. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  5. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  6. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  7. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy.

  8. Metal/ceramic composites via infiltration of an interconnected wood-derived ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Thomas E.

    The use of composites is increasing as they afford scientists and engineers the ability to combine the advantageous properties of each constituent phase, e.g. metal ductility and ceramic stiffness. With respect to materials design, biomimetics is garnering increasing attention due to the complex, yet efficient, natural microstructures. One such biomimetic, or in this case 'bio-derived,' curiosity is wood-derived ceramic, which is made by either replicating or converting wood into a ceramic. The resulting porous and anisotropic material retains the precursor microstructure. The wide variety of precursors can yield materials with a range of pore sizes and distribution of pores. The purpose of this work was to study the processing, microstructure, and properties of aluminum/silicon carbide composites. The composites were made by infiltrating molten aluminum into porous wood-derived SIC, which was produced by the reactive melt-infiltration of silicon into pyrolyzed wood. The composite microstructure consisted of interconnected SiC surrounding Al-alloy 'fibers.' The strength, modulus, and toughness were measured in both longitudinal and transverse orientations. The Al → SiC load transfer was investigated with high-energy X-ray diffraction in combination with in-situ compressive loading. The properties in flexure were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Despite the complex microstructure, predictions of the composite flexural modulus and longitudinal fracture toughness were obtained using simple models: Halpin-Tsai bounds and the Ashby et al. model of the effect of ductile particle-reinforcements on the toughness of brittle materials (Ashby et al. 1989), respectively. In addition, the Al/SiC research inspired the investigation of carbon-reinforced copper composites. The goal was to explore the feasibility of making a high-thermal conductivity composite by infiltrating copper into wood-derived carbon. Results indicated that Cu/C composites could be made with

  9. The diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS). A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Martis, Nihal; Boyer, Julien; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Mekinian, Arsène; Coppo, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is a rare multisystemic syndrome described in HIV-infected patients. It is characterised by CD8(+) T-cell lymphocytosis associated with a CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of multiple organs. DILS is usually seen in uncontrolled or untreated HIV infection but can also manifest itself independently of CD4(+) T-cell counts. The syndrome may present as a Sjögren-like disease that generally associates sicca signs with bilateral parotiditis, lymphadenopathy, and extraglandular organ involvement. The latter may affect the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and digestive tract. Anomalies of the respiratory system are often identified as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Facial nerve palsy, aseptic meningitis or polyneuropathy are among the more frequent neurological features. Hepatic lymphocytic infiltration, lymphocytic interstitial nephropathy and digestive tract lymphocytic infiltration account for more rarely noted complications. Sicca syndrome, organomegaly and/or organ dysfunction associated with polyclonal CD8(+) T-cell organ-infiltration are greatly suggestive of DILS in people living with HIV. Labial salivary gland biopsy is therefore helpful when the focus score is equal or greater than 1 (or Chisholm Score ≥ 3). Primary Sjögren syndrome, chronic HCV or HTLV1 infection, graft versus host disease, IgG4-related disease, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are among the differential diagnoses that need to be considered. Treatment consists in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which is usually effective in resolving clinical signs and symptoms. Steroids, however, may also be occasionally required when organ infiltration does not respond to HAART. This review should provide an insight into this rare entity complicating the course of HIV infection. PMID:25660200

  10. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  11. Feedbacks Between Bioclogging and Infiltration in Losing River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.; Maier, U.; Thullner, M.; Ulrich, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a well-recognized yet poorly understood process associated with losing connected and disconnected rivers. Although several studies have focused on riverbed bioclogging processes at the pore-scale, few studies have quantified bioclogging feedback cycles at the scale relevant for water resources management, or at the meander-scale. At this scale, often competing hydrological-biological processes influence biomass dynamics and infiltration. Disconnection begins when declines in the water table form an unsaturated zone beneath the river maximizing seepage. Simultaneously, bioclogging reduces the point-scale infiltration flux and can either limit the nutrient flux and reduce bioclogging, or preferentially focus infiltration elsewhere and enhance bioclogging. These feedbacks are highly dependent on geomorphology and seasonal patterns of discharge and water temperature. To assess the mutual influences of disconnection, biomass growth, and temperature changes on infiltration in a geomorphologically complex river system, we built a 3D numerical model, conditioned on field data, using the reactive-transport simulator MIN3P. Results show that in disconnected regions of the river, biomass growth reduced vertical seepage downward and extended the unsaturated zone length; however these changes were contingent upon disconnection. Mid-way through the seasonal cycle, biomass declined in these same regions due to limited nutrient flux. Seepage and biomass continued to oscillate with a lag correlation of 1 month. Connected regions, however, showed the largest infiltration rates, nutrient fluxes, and concentrations of biomass. Despite the reduction in conductivity from biomass, flow remains high in connected regions because the feedback between bioclogging and infiltration is not as pronounced due to the sharpening hydraulic gradient. Bioclogging ultimately shapes the pattern of flow, however geomorphology dominates the

  12. Transvaginal ultrasound examination of myometrial infiltration by endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Miklos, P; Klacko, M; Babala, P; Masak, L; Ondrus, D; Waczulikova, I

    2014-01-01

    The depth of myometrial infiltration by endometrial cancer is an important prognostic factor. The examination of the depth of infiltration classifies the patients in the low- and high-risk groups, which influences the therapeutic approach. Transvaginal ultrasonography represents a first-choice diagnostic test for the assessment of the depth of myometrial infiltration as the time consumption and financial demands of magnetic resonance imaging need to be taken into account. In comparison with the MRI, the diagnostic accuracy of the transvaginal ultrasound depends more on the individual experience and professional potential of the examining physician. This fact can contribute to the heterogeneity of published results of transvaginal ultrasound on the determination of infiltration depth. Having in mind the aim to verify these indicators in our local conditions and environment, we decided to prospectively study 150 endometrial cancer patients who were examined with the transvaginal ultrasound in the period 1/2009 - 10/ 2011. Correlated firstly with the preoperative and then secondly with the definitive histopathological examination was the depth-of-infiltration-related data that had been taken from the ultrasound findings. The output being monitored was the exclusion or confirmation of the invasion exceeding half the thickness of myometrium. In our study, the diagnostic accuracy of the method reached 82.67 %, while the other indicators were as follows: sensitivity 92.31 %, specificity 79.28 %, positive predictive value (PPV) 61.02 %, negative predictive value (NPV) 96.7 %, the likelihood ratio of a positive test 4.455 and the likelihood ratio of a negative test 0.097. The results of the depth of myometrial infiltration examination and their comparison with the data from similarly oriented clinical studies entitle us to include this examination in the set of standard preoperative methods used for the examination of patients with endometrial cancer (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref

  13. Asymptomatic leukemic-cell infiltration of the pancreas: US findings.

    PubMed

    Collado, Laura; Dardanelli, Esteban; Sierre, Sergio; Moguillansky, Silvia; Lipsich, José

    2011-06-01

    Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. Pancreatic enlargement in this situation is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis. We report a 3-month-old girl who presented with asymptomatic leukemic infiltration of the pancreas, demonstrated by US with heterogeneous pancreatic enlargement associated with multiple hypoechogenic lesions, without cholestasis. Although these manifestations are rare, ALL should be considered a cause of pancreatic enlargement.

  14. Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma with areas of infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Martín Gutiérrez, Silvia; Nieto Gallo, María Antonia; Noguero Meseguera, Rosario; Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with areas of infiltration is rare in that it constitutes less than 1% of breast cancers. After initial radiological study, these tumors show lesions with little likelihood of malignancy in a high proportion of cases. Two cases of intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with infiltration were diagnosed at the Breast Unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina. In both cases, the reason for consultation arose after palpation of a nodule and the initial radiographic analyses showed lesions with little likelihood of malignancy. PMID:24893058

  15. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  16. Modelling heterogeneous flow in the vadoze zone underneath a stormwater infiltration basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, T.; Lassabatere, L.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Goutaland, D.

    2011-12-01

    Infiltration basins are part of the best management practices. They are aimed at infiltrating stormwater to prevent additional collection and treatment through rainwater systems. In the suburbs of Lyon (France), many of these infiltration basins were built over fluvio-glacial deposit. These basins have been the subject of research programs on vadose zone flow and fate of pollutants. This study focuses on the impact of the heterogeneity of the fluvio-glacial deposit on both flow pattern and solute transfer. A proper geological and sedimentological description is first proposed to characterize the efficient water transfer properties of the fluvio-glacial deposit at the work scale (1 ha). The local geological and sedimentological architecture of the deposit and its lithofacies were investigated locally through trenches using both particle size analysis and sedimentological approach. This information was extended to the whole work by combining several geophysical techniques, i.e. GPR, electric resistivity and seismic refraction tomography. Then water infiltration experiments were performed on each lithofacies to derive the hydrodynamic properties through BEST algorithm (Beerkan estimation of Soil Transfer properties), leading to the corresponding hydrofacies. In addition, soil-column experiments were performed to estimate hydrodispersive parameters (tracer injection) and the geochemical properties of lithofacies (injection of model pollutants). All these data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 2D soil profile with a precise description of the hydrofacies at the basin scale (flow domain 14x2 m2). The results are highly relevant because they emphasize different types of preferential flow due to either the presence of capillary barriers, drainage layers or pipe flow, which may be responsible for the enhancement of pollutant transfer. In particular, they show that sand lenses may play an important role whereas unconnected gravels may

  17. Successful treatment of tardive lingual dystonia with botulinum toxin: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hennings, Johannes M H; Krause, Eike; Bötzel, Kai; Wetter, Thomas C

    2008-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a dreaded side effect of antipsychotic medication. Recommended treatments for TD may provide reliable improvement but can be, in turn, associated with additional adverse reactions. Recently, several reports have suggested that botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in affected muscles may significantly improve TD. Here, we report a case of severe tongue protrusion dystonia secondary to an antipsychotic medication in a young man. Several approaches including clozapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, tiapride and clonazepam failed to improve the symptoms. Injection of 50 U of BTX-A (Dysport, Ipsen, Ettlingen, Germany) into each genioglossal muscle dramatically improved tongue protrusion within few days with a sustained effect. If reasonable precautions are taken, the application seems to be well tolerated with only minor side effects. A review of the literature that is part of this article adverts BTX-A injection as a potential beneficial approach of various kinds of TD. PMID:17936461

  18. Lingual electrotactile stimulation as an alternative sensory feedback pathway for brain-computer interface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. Adam; Walton, Léo M.; Tyler, Mitch; Williams, Justin

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a new method of providing feedback during a brain-computer interface movement task using a non-invasive, high-resolution electrotactile vision substitution system. We compared the accuracy and movement times during a center-out cursor movement task, and found that the task performance with tactile feedback was comparable to visual feedback for 11 participants. These subjects were able to modulate the chosen BCI EEG features during both feedback modalities, indicating that the type of feedback chosen does not matter provided that the task information is clearly conveyed through the chosen medium. In addition, we tested a blind subject with the tactile feedback system, and found that the training time, accuracy, and movement times were indistinguishable from results obtained from subjects using visual feedback. We believe that BCI systems with alternative feedback pathways should be explored, allowing individuals with severe motor disabilities and accompanying reduced visual and sensory capabilities to effectively use a BCI.

  19. The effect of bonded resin surface area on the detachment force of lingual bonded fixed retainers: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-Hong; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Park, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the detachment force and bonding resin surface are and to determine the resin bonding surface area that would provide adequate bonding strength with minimum resin volume. Methods One hundred and sixty human premolars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 40 teeth each. The diameter of the resin surface area in each group was as follows: group 1, 1.5 mm; group 2, 2.5 mm; group 3, 3.5 mm; and group 4, 4.5 mm. Respond Dead Soft straight (length 0.0175 inch) was used to fabricate the retainers, and Transbond™ XT was used to fix the retainers to the tooth surfaces. A pair of teeth was embedded in acrylic blocks for each specimen. Thus, each group comprised 20 samples. Fixed retainers were bonded to the teeth, and vertical force was applied at the middle of wire. The force was measured using a universal testing machine. Results The mean value of detachment force was the highest for group 4 (102.38 ± 2.92 N), followed by group 3 (63.54 ± 2.21 N), group 2 (51.95 ± 1.61 N), and group 1 (24.14 ± 1.38 N). Conclusions The detachment force of lingual fixed retainers was significantly affected as the area of the resin bonding surface increased. Considering the minimum bonding strength of brackets, a resin bonding surface area with a diameter of 3.5 mm would provide adequate bonding strength. PMID:24511512

  20. Wound infiltration with plain bupivacaine as compared with bupivacaine fentanyl mixture for postoperative pain relief after abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Reetika; Liddle, Dootika; Kaur, Baljinder; Varghese, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of wound infiltration with Bupivacaine or Bupivacaine with fentanyl for post operative analgesia. Background: The role of Bupivacaine and fentanyl mixture as wound infiltration for post operative analgesia is less explored in human subjects. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized included 60 ASA grade I, II, and III patients in the age group of 20-75 years of age. The patients were randomized into two groups of 30 patients each: Group A received wound infiltration with a solution containing 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg), while, Group B received infiltration with a solution containing fentanyl 25 μg added to 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg). Results: None of the patients in both groups had unbearable incisional pain but addition of fentanyl to 0.5% bupivacaine reduced analgesic consumption in the postoperative period (P<0.05). Conclusion: Addition of opioids to local anesthetics results in better postoperative analgesia and reduced opioid requirement post operatively. PMID:25885377

  1. Extrapedicular Infiltration Anesthesia as an Improved Method of Local Anesthesia for Unipedicular Percutaneous Vertebroplasty or Percutaneous Kyphoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This report introduces extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia as an improved method of local anesthesia for unipedicular percutaneous vertebroplasty or percutaneous kyphoplasty. Method. From March 2015 to March 2016, 44 patients (11 males and 33 females) with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with a mean age of 71.4 ± 8.8 years (range: 60 to 89) received percutaneous vertebroplasty or percutaneous kyphoplasty. 24 patients were managed with conventional local infiltration anesthesia (CLIA) and 20 patients with both CLIA and extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia (EPIA). Patients evaluated intraoperative pain by means of the visual analogue score and were monitored during the procedure for additional sedative analgesia needs and for adverse nerve root effects. Results. VAS of CLIA + EPIA and CLIA group was 2.5 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 1.0, respectively, and there was significant difference (P = 0.001). In CLIA group, 1 patient required additional sedative analgesia, but in CLIA + EPIA group, no patients required that. In the two groups, no adverse nerve root effects were noted. Summary. Extrapedicular infiltration anesthesia provided good local anesthetic effects without significant complications. This method deserves further consideration for use in unipedicular percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty. PMID:27766261

  2. On Porosity Formation in Metal Matrix Composites Made with Dual-Scale Fiber Reinforcements Using Pressure Infiltration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadi, Reihaneh; Pillai, Krishna M.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Hamidi, Sajad Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    This is the first such study on porosity formation phenomena observed in dual-scale fiber preforms during the synthesis of metal matrix composites (MMCs) using the gas pressure infiltration process. In this paper, different mechanisms of porosity formation during pressure infiltration of Al-Si alloys into Nextel™ 3D-woven ceramic fabric reinforcements (a dual-porosity or dual-scale porous medium) are studied. The effect of processing conditions on porosity content of the ceramic fabric infiltrated by the alloys through the gas PIP (PIP stands for "Pressure Infiltration Process" in which liquid metal is injected under pressure into a mold packed with reinforcing fibers.) is investigated. Relative density (RD), defined as the ratio of the actual MMC density and the density obtained at ideal 100 pct saturation of the preform, was used to quantify the overall porosity. Increasing the infiltration temperature led to an increase in RD due to reduced viscosity of liquid metal and enhanced wettability leading to improved feedability of the liquid metal. Similarly, increasing the infiltration pressure led to enhanced penetration of fiber tows and resulted in higher RD and reduced porosity. For the first time, the modified Capillary number ( Ca*), which is found to predict formation of porosity in polymer matrix composites quite well, is employed to study porosity in MMCs made using PIP. It is observed that in the high Ca* regime which is common in PIP, the overall porosity shows a strong downward trend with increasing Ca*. In addition, the effect of matrix shrinkage on porosity content of the samples is studied through using a zero-shrinkage Al-Si alloy as the matrix; usage of this alloy as the matrix led to a reduction in porosity content.

  3. Progressive renal failure due to renal infiltration by BK polyomavirus and leukaemic cells: which is the culprit?

    PubMed

    Sangala, Nicholas; Dewdney, Alex; Marley, Nicholas; Cranfield, Tanya; Venkat-Raman, Gopalakrishnan

    2011-02-01

    Renal infiltration with leukaemic cells is a common finding in patients suffering with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) but rarely does it lead to significant renal dysfunction. Similarly, BK nephropathy is a recognized cause of graft failure in renal transplant recipients but rarely causes significant disease in native kidneys. In the few reports where leukaemic infiltration of the kidney has led to significant renal impairment, the pathological process causing renal dysfunction is not identified on biopsy. In these cases, it is unclear whether BK polyomavirus (BKV) nephropathy has been excluded. We describe a case of dual pathologies in a patient with Binet stage C CLL and deteriorating renal function where renal biopsy reveals leukaemic infiltration of the kidney occurring alongside BKV nephropathy. The relative importance of each pathology in relation to the rapid decline to end-stage renal failure remains unclear, but the presence of both pathologies appears to impart a poor prognosis. Additionally, we describe the novel histological finding of loss of tubular integrity resulting in tubular infiltration and occlusion by leukaemic cells. It is possible that the patient with advanced CLL is at particular risk of BK activation, and the presence of BK nephropathy may compromise tubular integrity allowing leukaemic cell infiltration and obstruction of tubules. This case bares remarkable resemblance to the first and only other report of its kind in the literature. It is not clear how available immunocytochemistry for polyoma infection is outside transplant centres, and it is possible that BK nephropathy is being under-diagnosed in patients with CLL in the context of declining renal function. At present, the combination of BKV nephropathy and leukaemic infiltration represents a management conundrum and the prognosis is poor. Further research is required in order to better understand the pathological process and therefore develop management strategies.

  4. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1 Section 35.927-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act §...

  5. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are found... carcass shall be condemned. (b) If muscular lesions are found to be distributed in such a manner or to...

  6. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  7. Investigation of rainfall infiltration and slope failure using numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Chang, K.; Wen, J.

    2012-12-01

    This research simulated the real condition of the rain period at Ping Ding Village, Yunlin, Taiwan using FEMWATER and STABLE PRO in order to investigate the effects of infiltration on landslide behavior. We established a three-dimensional numerical groundwater model (FEMWATER) to simulate water infiltration and flow during the rain period in Ping Ding Village, estimated water content of the soil layer, and used STABLEPRO to analysis the stability of the slope. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of infiltration on the slope instability. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, we found the pressure head of Layer-2 was affected by every parameter discussed in this research. And the affect from the Layer-1 and the Layer-3 also played an important role on pressure head of the Layer-2. According to the numerical simulation of rainfall infiltration, the simulation result on the borehole BH02 was satisfied (L1=0.013, L2=0.021, COR=0.997). The result of slope stability analysis showed that the B-B' profile had lower safety factor (0.989) which indicated higher potential of slope failure. The history records also sustained the result of our study. However, the A-A' profile had higher safety (1.142) factor than B-B' profile.

  8. Improved Cellular Infiltration in Electrospun Fiber via Engineered Porosity

    PubMed Central

    NAM, JIN; HUANG, YAN; AGARWAL, SUDHA; LANNUTTI, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Small pore sizes inherent to electrospun matrices can hinder efficient cellular ingrowth. To facilitate infiltration while retaining its extracellular matrix-like character, electrospinning was combined with salt leaching to produce a scaffold having deliberate, engineered delaminations. We made elegant use of a specific randomizing component of the electrospinning process, the Taylor Cone and the falling fiber beneath it, to produce a uniform, well-spread distribution of salt particles. After 3 weeks of culture, up to 4 mm of cellular infiltration was observed, along with cellular coverage of up to 70% within the delaminations. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of extensive cellular infiltration of electrospun matrices. Infiltration appears to be driven primarily by localized proliferation rather than coordinated cellular locomotion. Cells also moved from the salt-generated porosity into the surrounding electrospun fiber matrix. Given that the details of salt deposition (amount, size, and number density) are far from optimized, the result provides a convincing illustration of the ability of mammalian cells to interact with appropriately tailored electrospun matrices. These layered structures can be precisely fabricated by varying the deposition interval and particle size conceivably to produce in vivo-like gradients in porosity such that the resulting scaffolds better resemble the desired final structure. PMID:17536926

  9. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  10. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  11. Pore geometry, avalanching, and subsurface flow: A sand infiltration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardson, R.; Hunt, J. R.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    The deposition of sand into gravel riverbeds has been well-documented, along with its negative impacts on developing salmon eggs and riverbank extraction for water supplies. Dam releases may be used on regulated rivers to flush the bed of fine sediment, but it is not generally known how deep the sand deposit extends or how much sand is there. One-dimensional (plane-bed) experiments consistently show that the depth of infiltration is a function of the sand and gravel grain size distributions and that the saturation sand fraction is near 8-10%. However, precise empirical relationships developed in individual studies do poorly at predicting the results of other experiments. Furthermore, no infiltration model includes the effect of flow conditions in the water column, although flow conditions clearly impact the deposit characteristics. We propose a mechanistic model for the infiltration of fine sediment and compare its predictions to the results of two recent infiltration experiments. This model is based on geometric arguments about pore and particle shape and five mechanisms: particle settling, particle capture, subsurface avalanching, average subsurface flow, and subsurface pressure fluctuations. The model successfully predicts for both experiments the fraction of sand deposited and the shape of that deposit as a function of depth.

  12. Manufacturing of Three-dimensionally Microstructured Nanocomposites through Microfluidic Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors. PMID:24686754

  13. Spatial distribution of pollution in an urban stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-08-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater drainage. Because stormwater is polluted in highly toxic compounds, assessment of pollution retention by infiltration basins is necessary. Indeed, if basins are not effective in trapping pollution, deep soil and groundwater may be contaminated. This study's objective is to investigate soil pollution in infiltration basins: spatial distribution of soil pollution, optimisation of the number of soil samples and a contamination indicator are presented. It is part of a global project on long-term impact of stormwater infiltration on groundwater. Soil sampling was done on a basin in suburban Lyon (France). Samples were collected at different depths and analysed for nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and grain size. Pollutant concentrations decrease rapidly with depth while pH, mineralisation and grain size increase. Sustainable metal concentrations are reached at a 30-cm depth, even after 14 years of operation; hydrocarbon pollution is deeper. Principal component analysis shows how pollutants affect each level. The topsoil is different from other levels. Three specifically located points are enough to estimate the mass of pollution trapped by the basin with a 26% error. The proposed contamination indicator is calculated using either average level concentrations or maximum level concentrations. In both cases, the topsoil layer appears polluted but evaluation of lower levels is dependent on the choice of input concentrations.

  14. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  15. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  16. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  17. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  18. Analytical model of infiltration under constant-concentration boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2010-03-01

    Known integrable models for 1D flow in unsaturated soil have a rescaled soil water diffusivity that is either constant or proportional to C(C - 1)/(C - Θ)2, where Θ is the degree of saturation and C > 1 is constant. With a wider more realistic range of hydraulic conductivity functions than has been used in this context before, a formal series solution is developed for infiltration, subject to constant-concentration boundary conditions. A readily programmed iteration algorithm, applicable for any value of C, is used to construct many coefficients of the infiltration series without requiring any numerical integration. In particular, for either C - 1 small or 1/C small, several infiltration series coefficients are constructed as formal power series in C - 1 or in 1/C, for which we construct a number of terms explicitly. In the limit as the diffusivity approaches a delta function, the infiltration coefficients are obtained in simpler closed form. All but the sorptivity depend on the form of the conductivity function.

  19. 9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. UPSTREAM EXTENSION TO 60' INFILTRATION PIPE: REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF VALVE CONTROL STRUCTURE. Sheet A-20, July, 1939. File no. SA 342/29. - Prado Dam, Embankment, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are found... carcass shall be condemned. (b) If muscular lesions are found to be distributed in such a manner or to be... carcasses, edible organs, and other parts of carcasses showing such muscular lesions. If the lesions...

  1. A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Candiani, A.; Argyros, A.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lwin, R.; Selleri, S.; Pissadakis, S.

    2014-03-17

    We report an in-fiber magnetic field sensor based on magneto-driven optical loss effects, while being implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber. We demonstrate that magnetic field flux changes up to 2000 gauss can be detected when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the fiber axis. In addition, the sensor exhibits high polarization sensitivity for the interrogated wavelengths, providing the possibility of both field flux and direction measurements. The underlying physical and guidance mechanisms of this sensing transduction are further investigated using spectrophotometric, light scattering measurements, and numerical simulations, suggesting photonic Hall effect as the dominant physical, transducing mechanism.

  2. Investigations of infiltration processes from flooded areas by column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrlok, U.; Bethge, E.; Golalipour, A.

    2009-04-01

    In case of inundation of flood plains during flood events there is an increased risk of groundwater contamination due to infiltration of increasingly polluted river water. Specifically in densely populated regions, this groundwater may be used as source for drinking water supply. For the evaluation of this a detailed quantitative understanding of the infiltration processes under such conditions is required. In this context the infiltration related to a flood event can be described by three phases. The first phase is defined by the saturation of the unsaturated soils. Within the second phase infiltration takes place under almost saturated conditions determined by the hydraulic load of the flood water level. The drainage of the soils due to falling groundwater table is characterizing the third phase. Investigations by soil columns gave a detailed insight into the infiltration processes caused by flooding. Inflow at the soil top was established by a fixed water table fed by a Mariotte bottle. Free outflow and a groundwater table were used as lower boundary condition. Inflow and outflow volume were monitored. The evolution of the matrix pressure was observed by micro-tensiometers installed at several depths within the soil column. The flow processes during phase one and two were characterized by a tracer test. Some of the experiments were repeated in order to study the influence of preliminary events. Main results were a difference in infiltration due to the lower boundary condition with regard to inflow rate, outflow dynamics and matrix pressure evolution which is directly related to the water content evolution. Further, the influence of preliminary events was different for the different boundary conditions. A replacement of pre-event water could be observed which was confirmed by volume balances calculated for the infiltration experiments. Although these water balances were almost closed significant dynamics of the matrix pressure remained in soil column in the

  3. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  4. Simulation of Infiltration Into Organic-covered Permafrost Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Carey, S. K.; Quinton, W. L.; Janowicz, J. R.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2008-12-01

    Infiltration into frozen or unfrozen soils is critical in permafrost hydrology, controlling active layer soil water dynamics and influencing runoff. Quantifying the infiltration process in permafrost soils is made difficult by variable ground thawing and freezing and the layered soil profile that frequently has organic soils atop mineral horizons. Moreover, harsh environments impose technical and logistic difficulties in accurately monitoring processes experimentally. Few Land Surface Models (LSMs) and Hydrological Models (HMs) have been developed, adapted or tested for frozen conditions and permafrost soils. A need exists to improve these models to better represent the hydrology of permafrost regions, which are undergoing rapid environmental change worldwide. In this study, three infiltration algorithms commonly used in LSMs and HMs were tested against detailed measurements at four sites in Canada's discontinuous permafrost region with organic soil depths ranging from 0.02 to 3 m. Continuous measurements of liquid soil water content, precipitation, air and soil temperatures, snow depth and density and ground thaw were monitored during two consecutive years. Total soil water content (frozen and liquid) was monitored using twin probe gamma attenuation at three sites. Soil infiltration and runoff components estimated from the above measurements were then used to test simulations by the three algorithms. Parameters for the hydraulic conductivity-soil water potential and soil water potential- liquid water content relations were acquired for organic soils. Three soil hydraulic parametrization schemes were also tested. All infiltration algorithms and soil hydraulic parametrization methods were coded into the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) numerical model to conduct the comparison to ensure the identical inputs, parameters and intermediate process simulations. Preliminary analysis indicates: (1) the single most important factor that controls the infiltration process

  5. Correlation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channel expression with neuropathic pain in human subjects with lingual nerve neuromas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are expressed preferentially in small diameter sensory neurons, and are thought to play a role in the generation of ectopic activity in neuronal cell bodies and/or their axons following peripheral nerve injury. The expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 has been quantified in human lingual nerves that have been previously injured inadvertently during lower third molar removal, and any correlation between the expression of these ion channels and the presence or absence of dysaesthesia investigated. Results Immunohistochemical processing and quantitative image analysis revealed that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were expressed in human lingual nerve neuromas from patients with or without symptoms of dysaesthesia. The level of Nav1.8 expression was significantly higher in patients reporting pain compared with no pain, and a significant positive correlation was observed between levels of Nav1.8 expression and VAS scores for the symptom of tingling. No significant differences were recorded in the level of expression of Nav1.9 between patients with or without pain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are present in human lingual nerve neuromas, with significant correlations between the level of expression of Nav1.8 and symptoms of pain. These data provide further evidence that changes in expression of Nav1.8 are important in the development and/or maintenance of nerve injury-induced pain, and suggest that Nav1.8 may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24144460

  6. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Descour

    2001-04-30

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment.

  7. Development of a Test Cell to Evaluate Embankment Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, T. L.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) has developed and constructed a test pad to evaluate potential infiltration through the designed cover system over the low-level radioactive waste disposal embankments incorporated at the facility. The general design of the test pad follows the recommendations set forth in the Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP) that is currently funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential alternatives to conventional landfill cover designs. The bulk of the test pad is below grade with dimensions approximately 16 feet wide by 28 feet long. The base of the test pad is a lysimeter built to the same dimensions as compliance lysimeters within the disposal embankments at Envirocare. The lysimeter collects all liquids to a single low point and directs the liquids through monitoring instruments within a manhole outside the test pad. The lysimeter is constructed to simulate the ''top of waste'' condition in Envirocare's embankments; consequently, the top of the lysimeter is sloped at an angle of approximately 2.8 percent, the design top slope of the embankment. A replica of the embankment cover is constructed directly above the lysimeter. This cover is constructed exactly the same as final cover is constructed upon the waste disposal embankments, utilizing the same QA/QC measures. Permanent monitoring equipment has been placed during construction at specific intervals throughout the test pad. Monitoring equipment consists of water content reflectometers (WCRs), matric water potential sensors (heat dissipation units; HDUs), and temperature probes. The monitoring equipment provides cross-sectional data of the moisture content and temperatures throughout the constructed cover. Additionally, surface water runoff is collected through a drainage trough and measured in order to perform a water balance over the entire test pad. To aid in the assessment, data collected from the site meteorological stat ion will be used

  8. Is transverse abdominis plane block effective following local anesthetic infiltration in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mun Gyu; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Se-Jin; Park, Sun Young; Yoo, Jae-Hwa; Cho, Ana; Hur, Kyung Yul; Kim, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block can be recommended as a multimodal method to reduce postoperative pain in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, it is unclear whether TAP block following local anesthetic infiltration is effective. We planned this study to evaluate the effectiveness of the latter technique in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP). Methods We randomly divided patients into two groups: the control group (n = 37) and TAP group (n = 37). Following the induction of general anesthesia, as a preemptive method, all of the patients were subjected to local anesthetic infiltration at the trocar sites, and the TAP group was subjected to ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block with 30 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine in addition before TEP. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and post-surgery at 4, 8, and 24 h. Additionally, during the postoperative 24 h, the total injected dose of analgesics and incidence of nausea were recorded. Results: On arrival in the recovery room, the pain score of the TAP group (4.33 ± 1.83) was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (5.73 ± 2.04). However, the pain score was not significantly different between the TAP group and control group at 4, 8, and 24 h post-surgery. The total amounts of analgesics used in the TAP group were significantly less than in the control group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of nausea between the two groups. Conclusions TAP block following local infiltration had a clinical advantage only in the recovery room. PMID:25558340

  9. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  11. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  12. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  13. Infiltration of Metal Substrates with Nanostructured CeO2 by a Room-Temperature Wet Process.

    PubMed

    Presto, Sabrina; Viviani, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    A room-temperature infiltration procedure for the deposition of CeO2 nanopowders on Ni-based foams employing stable CeO2 suspensions in water has been developed. It consists of a two-steps dipping process, the first in nanopowder suspension at pH 6.5 followed by further dipping into a NH3OH solution at pH 12. The pH shift represents a key factor to improve the homogeneity and dispersion of infiltrated powder by avoiding coalescence during the drying step. Water-based suspensions have been prepared starting from a commercial nanostructured CeO2. Powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size and specific surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy. Stability of suspensions was studied by zeta potential measurements at low concentration, while sedimentation tests were carried out on highly concentrated suspensions as a function of pH, CeO2 amount and surfactant presence. Effect of CeO2 concentration, surfactant addition, pH value, substrate composition and microstructure were taken in account. Under best conditions, very homogeneous infiltrations could be obtained without any preferential orientation or agglomerates. Thermal stability of the composites infiltrated materials was also tested. The technique seems to be very promising in advanced nanostructured decorations and coating preparation.

  14. Evaluating the performance of water purification in a vegetated groundwater recharge basin maintained by short-term pulsed infiltration events.

    PubMed

    Mindl, Birgit; Hofer, Julia; Kellermann, Claudia; Stichler, Willibald; Teichmann, Günter; Psenner, Roland; Danielopol, Dan L; Neudorfer, Wolfgang; Griebler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration of surface water constitutes an important pillar in artificial groundwater recharge. However, insufficient transformation of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as clogging of sediments often cause major problems. The attenuation efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients and pathogens versus the risk of bioclogging for intermittent recharge were studied in an infiltration basin covered with different kinds of macrovegetation. The quality and concentration of organic carbon, major nutrients, as well as bacterial biomass, activity and diversity in the surface water, the porewater, and the sediment matrix were monitored over one recharge period. Additionally, the numbers of viral particles and Escherichia coli were assessed. Our study showed a fast establishment of high microbial activity. DOC and nutrients have sustainably been reduced within 1.2 m of sediment passage. Numbers of E. coli, which were high in the topmost centimetres of sediment porewater, dropped below the detection limit. Reed cover was found to be advantageous over bushes and trees, since it supported higher microbial activities along with a good infiltration and purification performance. Short-term infiltration periods of several days followed by a break of similar time were found suitable for providing high recharge rates, and good water purification without the risk of bioclogging. PMID:26606084

  15. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Capillarity in isothermal infiltration of alumina fiber preforms with aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, V.J.; Mortensen, A. . Dept. of Materials Science); Compton, L.M. )

    1994-10-01

    Models derived in petroleum engineering and soil science for flow of two immiscible fluids in a porous medium are extended to the infiltration of ceramic preforms by a liquid metal. SAFFIL alumina fiber preforms are infiltrated with an aluminum matrix in a series of interrupted unidirectional and isothermal experiments at various low applied pressures, to measure profiles of the volume fraction of metal along the length of the preforms. Comparison of experimental data with theory reveals the existence of a pressure-dependent incubation time for wetting of the alumina preforms by molten aluminum at 973 K. If this incubation time is taken into account, experimental curves of metal distribution are well predicted by theory, confirming the validity of the models after initiation of flow.

  17. Rapid-infiltration research at Flushing Meadows Project, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Rice, R.C.; Lance, J.C.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Flushing Meadows Project in Arizona was initiated to investigate the feasibility of using wastewater for irrigation and the effects of infiltration on water quality. The results of the second phase of this 10 yr study, focusing on maximization of nitrogen removal and reduction of hydraulic loading, are discussed. Infiltration rates employed in this phase were 0.3-1 m/d, using a water depth of 0.3 m in the six experimental water basins. Removal of dissolved and suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and pathogens was monitored. Phosphate removal increased with increasing distance of wastewater movement; 65% of the total nitrogen content was removed. (3 graphs, 1 map, 23 references, 3 tables)

  18. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA-RAMIREZ, Adrián; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Felipe; SANCHEZ-CORONA, José; CASTAÑEDA-CISNEROS, Gema; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Nadia M.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five–month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies. PMID:26171364

  19. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  20. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.