This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…
McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael; Long, Louise
This study aimed to explore the consultation experiences of pupils who have additional needs in literacy. An opportunistic sample of eight schools--four in Northern Ireland and four in the Republic of Ireland--were chosen by the researchers; selected pupils were receiving additional literacy support. Focus group discussions and arts-based creative…
Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne
In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…
Krajcik, Joseph S; Sutherland, LeeAnn M
Reading, writing, and oral communication are critical literacy practices for participation in a global society. In the context of science inquiry, literacy practices support learners by enabling them to grapple with ideas, share their thoughts, enrich understanding, and solve problems. Here we suggest five instructional and curricular features that can support students in developing literacy in the context of science: (i) linking new ideas to prior knowledge and experiences, (ii) anchoring learning in questions that are meaningful in the lives of students, (iii) connecting multiple representations, (iv) providing opportunities for students to use science ideas, and (v) supporting students' engagement with the discourses of science. These five features will promote students' ability to read, write, and communicate about science so that they can engage in inquiry throughout their lives.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Craig, C. J.
This study examined the frequency and nature of parental support for the emergent literacy of 264 visually impaired children (age birth to 8). Differences in parental support were found to be based on the primary literacy medium (print, braille, or print-braille) and presence of additional disabilities. Parents differed in the literacy…
Karemaker, Arjette M.; Pitchford, Nicola J.; O'Malley, Claire
This study examined the extent to which multimedia features of typical literacy learning software provide added benefits for developing literacy skills compared with typical whole-class teaching methods. The effectiveness of the multimedia software Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) for Clicker in supporting early literacy acquisition was investigated…
Family literacy studies have shown that the role of parental storybook reading has an impact on children's success in school-based literacy instruction. However, many children who are English language learners come from homes or cultures where storybook readings are not common practice. The purpose of this qualitative research study explored…
Wake, Donna; Whittingham, Jeff
This study explores teacher education candidates' perceptions of technologies used to support K-12 student literacy development. Candidates scored each technology based on their impressions of its ability to support student literacy development. They also evaluated their own level of expertise with each piece of technology using a pre-post…
Karchmer-Klein, Rachel; Shinas, Valerie Harlow
In this article, the authors propose four principles to guide teachers' thinking as they use technology to support teaching and literacy learning in 21st century classrooms. Specifically, teachers must be aware of emerging technologies, recognize the complexities of new literacies, realize tech-savvy students may not be skilled readers and writers…
Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E.; Youngman, B.; Ellins, K. K.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.
Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is an NSF-funded (DRK-12) project that includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, teacher leadership development, and research on student learning, all directed at high school teachers and students. The project's evaluation efforts inform and guide all major components of the project. The research effort addresses the question of what interventions are most effective in helping high school students grasp the complexities of the Earth system and climate processes, which occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The curriculum unit includes three distinct but related modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate, Weather, and the Biosphere; and Climate and the Carbon Cycle. Climate-related themes that cut across all three modules include the Earth system, with the complexities of its positive and negative feedback loops; the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate, weather, and other Earth system processes occur; and the recurring question, "How do we know what we know about Earth's past and present climate?" which addresses proxy data and scientific instrumentation. The professional development component of the project includes online science resources to support the teaching of the curriculum modules, summer workshops for high school teachers, and a support system for developing the teacher leaders who plan and implement those summer workshops. When completed, the project will provide a model high school curriculum with online support for implementing teachers and a cadre of leaders who can continue to introduce new teachers to the resource. This presentation will introduce the curriculum and the university partnerships that are key to the project's success, and describe how the project addresses the challenge of helping teachers develop their understanding of climate science and their ability to convey climate-related concepts articulated in the Next Generation
Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Branen, Jeneille
Adaptive teaching is an instructional approach where differences among learners are clearly recognized. For the last decade, our research team has studied literacy teachers' instructional adaptations in numerous classrooms in different regions of the United States. In this article, we share conclusions and insights from this longitudinal research.…
Karchmer, Rachel A.; Mallette, Marla H.; Kara-Soteriou, Julia; Leu, Donald J. Jr.
Teachers will discover new instructional ideas and resources for the classroom, new visions for the school and district, and new ways to view their work. This volume combines two powerful perspectives that will help use the Internet to support literacy learning: (1) The stories of exemplary teachers who successfully use the Web in their…
MacGillivray, Laurie; Ardell, Amy Lassiter; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda
There are approximately 1.5 million children in the United States who go to sleep each night without a home of their own (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). In this article, we provide insights into how educators can create greater classroom support, particularly in literacy learning and development, for this population. Drawing from…
Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly
This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…
This article deals with an action research project, where a group of university teachers from different disciplines reflected on and gradually extended their knowledge about how to support students' academic literacy development. The project was conducted within a "research circle" [Bergman, L. 2014. "The Research Circle as a…
Saracho, Olivia N
This study focused on the roles five kindergarten teachers assumed to promote literacy. Data were collected through systematic videotaped observations during the children's play periods. Saracho's analysis of the transcriptions in identifying the roles of the teachers suggested teachers' roles in the children's literacy-play include director of instructions (instructing students to follow directions and learn concepts), transition director (directing students to make smooth transitions), supporter of learning (acknowledging and praising students' work to promote learning), storyteller (reading or telling a story and encouraging children to respond), and instructional guide (providing instructional guidance for learning).
Ladue, N. D.; Wysession, M.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.
The Earth Science Literacy Initiative seeks to create community consensus regarding what every person should know about earth science. This NSF-sponsored, inter-agency effort complements the Ocean, Climate, and Atmospheric Science Literacy Principles. The Earth Science Literacy draft document contains the Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts that underlie the research fields funded through the NSF-EAR division. The draft document is written for a high school graduate reading level. Community feedback on this draft is essential to the creation of a robust document that can effectively communicate current scientific understanding of the earth sciences. The draft document has eight Big Ideas which follow the themes of (1)Earth's history, (2) Earth's complex interacting systems, (3) the evolving geosphere, (4) water-related processes, (5) Earth's controls on the evolution of life, (6) Earth's resources, (7) natural hazards and human risks, and (8) human impacts on the Earth. Supporting concepts provide the related detail necessary to understand the Big Ideas. The Earth Science Literacy document has a decidedly anthropomorphic bias with three of the Big Ideas (resources, hazards and human impacts) relating directly to human interactions with the Earth. This human bias is justified by the increasing significance of Earth science-related topics such as increasing population, climate change, and scarcity of resources. Literacy documents from the ocean, atmosphere and climate communities have already had large impacts and the same is expected for the earth science literacy framework. The document will provide a foundation for future K-12 educational standards and K-16 textbooks, provide the basis for the displays and programs of informal education venues, and provide guidance for future governmental agency decisions in the earth sciences.
Jeffrey, Lynn; Hegarty, Bronwyn; Kelly, Oriel; Penman, Merrolee; Coburn, Dawn; McDonald, Jenny
The development of digital information literacy (DIL) has been slow in comparison to changes in information communication technologies, and this remains an issue for the higher education sector. Competency in such skills is essential to full participation in society and work. In addition, these skills are regarded as underpinning the ability to…
Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.
Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…
Department for Education and Skills, London (England).
This handbook is designed to provide support for England's National Literacy Strategy's Literacy Coordinators leading and coordinating literacy across the school. The handbook is designed as a working document and will contain additional materials, LEA (local education authorities) guidance, and additional papers which Coordinators may choose to…
Copeland, Susan R.; McCord, Jessica A.; Kruger, Ashley
Literacy skills enhance opportunities for a meaningful life. Many adults with extensive support needs did not receive effective literacy instruction in school, which limits their future opportunities. We reviewed 17 research studies examining literacy interventions for these adults. We were interested in (a) who were the participants, (b) the…
Di Santo, Aurelia; Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette
The present study examined how a six-week family literacy programme contributed to supporting the efforts 12 mothers living in a residential shelter were making to foster their preschool children's literacy development. We compared pre- and post-programme interviews to explore whether the mothers applied the literacy strategies discussed in the…
Hutchison, Amy; Beschorner, Beth
The purpose of this case study was to examine how iPads could be integrated into literacy instruction in a fourth-grade classroom in ways consistent with new conceptions of literacy and in ways that transform traditional literacy instruction by supporting readers in creating multimodal responses to reading. Results indicate that several features…
Godin, Joanne, Ed.
This document provides a snapshot of literacy programs and activities in Canada for 1995-96. The first section describes the National Literacy Secretariat (NLS), defines literacy, and discusses NLS's mandate, structure, and principles. It describes the following: (1) activity areas supported by NLS (developing learning materials, increasing public…
Krause, Miriam; Byom, Lindsey; Meulenbroek, Peter; Richards, Stephanie; O'Brien, Katy
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can affect developmental trajectories as well as language, attention, memory, executive functions, and other cognitive skills related to literacy. Literacy demands change through adolescence and into young adulthood, with academic literacy demands increasing and vocational literacy demands being introduced. Speech-language pathology services must evolve with the literacy needs of each client. This article discusses assessment and treatment approaches designed for adolescents with TBI and recommendations for adapting literacy interventions from the learning disabilities literature. Through proper assessment and intervention, speech-language pathologists can have a meaningful impact on the academic and vocational literacy needs of adolescents with TBI.
This article describes the Collaborative Media Center pilot at SUNY Old Westbury, a digital literacy project with the aim of narrowing the digital divide at the College by embedding digital projects across the curriculum. The article explains how the Center supported students in four linked courses to create digital projects. Assessment data and…
DesJardin, Jean L.; Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
This study examines the home literacy environment in a group of mothers and their early-school-age children with cochlear implants (N = 16). The goals of this investigation are to (a) describe the characteristics of the home literacy environment and (b) study the relationships between home literacy factors and children's reading skills. Mothers…
Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko
Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…
Ødegaard, Marianne; Haug, Berit; Mork, Sonja M.; Sørvik, Gard Ove
In the Budding Science and Literacy project, we explored how working with an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy approach may challenge and support the teaching and learning of science at the classroom level. By studying the inter-relationship between multiple learning modalities and phases of inquiry, we wished to illuminate possible…
Peercy, Megan Madigan; Martin-Beltran, Melinda; Daniel, Shannon M.
This qualitative case study examines an after-school, bilingual family literacy programme that brought together several groups to form a community of practice (CoP) that worked to support the literacy development of English language learners and their families. We explored the following question: How do parents, teachers, students, and other…
Pearson, P. David; Wixson, Karen K.
Discusses policy and assessment tools needed to support literacy instruction in the future, identifying changes in literacy education policy that moved from teacher-centered professional judgments to legislative curricular mandates in the 1980s. Examines this country's policy, reading, and assessment heritage and discusses future policy and…
Cook, Kristin L.; Dinkins, Elizabeth G.
Many educators support the idea that science requires a specific set of literacy skills and that all students should be equipped with those skills to become scientifically literate; however, this challenge requires science educators to develop methods to underscore the building of disciplinary literacy. In the presented curriculum for preservice…
Norton-Meier, Lori A.; Hand, Brian; Ardasheva, Yuliya
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe teaching actions--embedded in the "Science Writing Heuristic approach," a systematic teaching approach that integrates literacy instruction and argument-based inquiry learning of science--supportive of the cross-disciplinary literacy expectations necessary to compete in the 21st…
Norton-Meier, Lori A.; Hand, Brian; Ardasheva, Yuliya
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe teaching actions--embedded in the "Science Writing Heuristic" approach, a systematic teaching approach that integrates literacy instruction and argument-based inquiry learning of science--supportive of the cross-disciplinary literacy expectations necessary to compete in the 21st…
Steiner, Lilly M.
This study examines a family literacy intervention conducted in two first-grade classrooms with culturally diverse student populations. In the treatment and control classrooms, six parents and a classroom teacher learned practices for building home-school partnerships. Data were analyzed to determine changes in home-literacy practices, increases…
Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard
Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…
This article describes information literacy struggles of ESL college students within the context of four information literacy components: Identify, Locate, Evaluate, Use. Experiences from an online freshman composition course are used to illustrate these struggles, along with techniques academic librarians use to help ESL students from a distance.
Bers, Marina Umaschi
In a digital era in which technology plays a role in most aspects of a child's life, having the competence and confidence to use computers might be a necessary step, but not a goal in itself. Developing character traits that will serve children to use technology in a safe way to communicate and connect with others, and providing opportunities for children to make a better world through the use of their computational skills, is just as important. The Positive Technological Development framework (PTD), a natural extension of the computer literacy and the technological fluency movements that have influenced the world of educational technology, adds psychosocial, civic, and ethical components to the cognitive ones. PTD examines the developmental tasks of a child growing up in our digital era and provides a model for developing and evaluating technology-rich youth programs. The explicit goal of PTD programs is to support children in the positive uses of technology to lead more fulfilling lives and make the world a better place. This article introduces the concept of PTD and presents examples of the Zora virtual world program for young people that the author developed following this framework.
Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.
A collection of articles on adult literacy education includes essays, letters, poetry, interviews, research reports, and discussions of issues in literacy and adult basic education in both developing and developed countries. The first section contains brief articles about programs and initiatives in developing countries, including Madagascar,…
Buck, Zoe Elizabeth
My dissertation research is designed to improve access to STEM content through the development of cosmology visualizations that support all learners as they engage in cosmological sense-making. To better understand how to design visualizations that work toward breaking cycles of power and access in the sciences, I orient my work to following "meta-question": How might educators use visualizations to support diverse ways of knowing and learning in order to expand access to cosmology, and to science? In this dissertation, I address this meta-question from a pragmatic epistemological perspective, through a sociocultural lens, following three lines of inquiry: experimental methods (Creswell, 2003) with a focus on basic visualization design, activity analysis (Wells, 1996; Ash, 2001; Rahm, 2012) with a focus on culturally and linguistically diverse learners, and case study (Creswell, 2000) with a focus on expansive learning at a planetarium (Engestrom, 2001; Ash, 2014). My research questions are as follows, each of which corresponds to a self contained course of inquiry with its own design, data, analysis and results: 1) Can mediational cues like color affect the way learners interpret the content in a cosmology visualization? 2) How do cosmology visualizations support cosmological sense-making for diverse students? 3) What are the shared objects of dynamic networks of activity around visualization production and use in a large, urban planetarium and how do they affect learning? The result is a mixed-methods design (Sweetman, Badiee & Creswell, 2010) where both qualitative and quantitative data are used when appropriate to address my research goals. In the introduction I begin by establishing a theoretical framework for understanding visualizations within cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and situating the chapters that follow within that framework. I also introduce the concept of cosmological literacy, which I define as the set of conceptual, semiotic and
Uyar, Yusuf; Ensar, Ferhat
Development of environmental literacy needs an interdisciplinary effort. Especially language classes, with environment related texts, have potential to support environmental literacy. In this research it is aimed to analyze the Turkish language course books in terms of components of environmental literacy. To this end, four Turkish course books…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai
Although many women value and benefit from social interaction in adult education and family literacy, these social dimensions are often treated as tangential or inconsequential. Utilizing data from two studies of family literacy programs in Pennsylvania, this study examined how family literacy programs provide a supportive social space for women…
Papen, Uta; Thériault, Virginie
This article examines the role of youth workers as literacy mediators: people who help others with written texts. Drawing on a secondary analysis of data from a qualitative study conducted in Quebec, Canada, the authors discuss situations in which staff from a community-based organization helped young people with written texts, such as…
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Bates, C. C.; Martin, Aqueasha
This article examines literacy coaches' (n = 7) digital note-taking practices using mobile technology and their influence on reflective practice. The study, which employed a design-based approach, investigated the coaches' transition from note-taking by paper and pencil to the note-taking application Evernote. Data included interviews with the…
Since 2013/2014, an Information Literacy Advocates (ILA) scheme has been running at the University of Nottingham as an extracurricular module on the Nottingham Advantage Award programme. The Information Literacy Advocates scheme, which recruits medicine and health sciences students in their second year or above, aims to facilitate development of information literacy skills and confidence, as well as communication, organisation and teamwork, through the provision of peer support. Previous research indicates peer assistance effectively enhances such skills and is valued by fellow students who welcome the opportunity to approach more experienced students for help. This article, written by guest writer Ruth Curtis from the University of Nottingham, provides an overview of administering the ILA scheme and explores its impact on the Information Literacy Advocates, peers and librarians, and discusses future developments for taking the scheme forward. H. S.
Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead
We argue that the development of statistical literacy is greatly supported by engaging students in carrying out statistical investigations. We describe the use of driving questions and interesting contexts to motivate two statistical investigations. The PPDAC cycle is use as an organizing framework to support the process statistical investigation.
Ticknor, Anne Swenson; Cavendish, Leslie M.
Relationships matter in learning and in particular they matter for pre-service teachers engaged in learning how to teach in Midwest University, USA. This article reports findings from an 18-month long study that investigated how relationships supported and constrained four elementary pre-service literacy teachers' professional identities as…
Volpe, Robert J.; Young, Gregory I.; Piana, Maureen G.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.
Kindergarten Peer Assisted Learning Strategies and directly teaching and reinforcing behavioral expectations are empirically supported interventions for building early literacy skills and increasing on-task behavior, respectively. Previous research has not investigated the application of both academic and behavior interventions simultaneously to…
Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.
The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…
Foley, Beth E.; Staples, Amy H.
This article describes an integrated augmentative and alternative communication and literacy intervention program developed for five adults with autism in a supported employment facility. Three detailed case studies describe approaches used with project participants who had emerging, beginning, and more advanced levels of communication and…
Fleer, Marilyn; Raban, Bridie
Over the past 10 years, early childhood professionals have been increasingly influenced by cultural-historical theory. In order to support professionals evolving their practice, the Australian government commissioned a set of cultural-historical resources specifically designed to build literacy and numeracy experiences for children from birth to…
Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla
This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…
This ethnographic study reports on one elementary literacy coach's response to high-stakes testing and her approach to support third- through fifth-grade teachers in a Title I school in Texas. Sources of data included field notes and observations of classes and meetings, audio/video recordings, and transcribed interviews. The findings illustrate…
Jay, Annemarie B.; Korin, Dana R.
This article describes a program for supporting parents and caregivers of K-4 students at an urban university's charter school. To create this program, university faculty and school administrators developed a series of workshops to foster school-home literacy connections. Information about surveys, meetings and program implementation are provided…
Shrestha, Sanjana; Krolak, Lisa
This article shows how community libraries can create and support literate environments, which are essential for building and sustaining literacy skills in local communities. The paper begins with a subject analysis reviewing available background materials and literature on the topic. Next, relevant issues are considered based on experiences and…
Paquette, Kelli R.; Rieg, Sue A.
Integrating experiences with music in the early childhood classroom supports English language learners' literacy development (Peregoy and Boyle, "Reading, writing, and learning in ESL." Pearson, Boston, 2008; Saricoban and Metin, "Songs, verse and games for teaching grammar." Internet "TESL J," 2000). This article describes the benefits of…
Polley, Beulah M.
Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…
Sperber, Nina R.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Weinberger, Morris; Allen, Kelli D.
We explored whether the effects of a telephone-based osteoarthritis (OA) self-management support intervention differed by race and health literacy. Participants included 515 veterans with hip and/or knee OA. Linear mixed models assessed differential effects of the intervention compared with health education (HE) and usual care (UC) on pain…
Wissman, Kelly; Costello, Sean; Hamilton, Diane
This article explores the experiences and literacy practices of an adolescent boy enrolled in an academic support class, in which students received an open-ended invitation to respond to S.E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders" with the software programme Comic Life. In constructing this "telling case", we highlight how traditional…
Duhaylongsod, Leslie; Snow, Catherine E.; Selman, Robert L.; Donovan, M. Suzanne
In this article, Leslie Duhaylongsod, Catherine E. Snow, Robert L. Selman, and M. Suzanne Donovan describe the principles behind the design of curricular units that offer disciplinary literacy support in the subject of history for middle school students who represent a wide range of reading levels, and for their teachers, whose own subject matter…
This handbook, which is intended for tutors, disability practitioners, and others working with adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities, contains supplementary materials for and about supporting literacy for people with intellectual/developmental challenges. The handbook is a product of the following activities: extensive research of…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2008
"Supporting Literacy Across the Sunshine State: A Study of Florida Middle School Reading Coaches" examined the effects on student test scores of hiring reading coaches to work with middle school teachers. The program was funded through the statewide "Just Read, Florida!" ("JRF") literacy initiative. The study included…
Alvarez, Claudio; Salavati, Sadaf; Nussbaum, Miguel; Milrad, Marcelo
Education systems worldwide must strive to support the teaching of a set of New Media Literacies (NMLs). These literacies respond to the need for educating human capital within participatory cultures in a highly technologized world. In this paper, we present Collboard, a constructivist problem solving activity for fostering the development of…
Englezou, Eliana; Fragkouli, Elpiniki
The study upon which this article is based investigates teachers' literacy development methods used in nursery and reception classrooms of a British international school, and focuses specifically on children having English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from teaching observations and from interviews with teachers present the techniques…
9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL
support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability
Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Tabler, Jennifer; Ashby, Jeanie; Olson, Lenora M
This cross sectional study assessed the physical and mental health, health literacy and social support of the uninsured utilizing a free clinic to develop intervention programs and research projects to improve the health of free clinic patients. Free clinics are nonprofit organizations that provide underserved and uninsured individuals access to a broad array of free or low cost healthcare services. English or Spanish speaking patients (N = 187) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical, mental and oral health, health literacy, and social support were measured using standardized instruments. Eighty-two participants (45 US born and 37 non-US born) chose the English version of the survey (English speakers) while 105 participants (2 US born and 103 non-US born) chose the Spanish version (Spanish speakers). Overall, both the physical and mental health functioning of the participants was lower than that of the US general population. The participants reported being moderately depressed. US-born English speakers reported the poorest physical and mental health while Spanish speakers reported the best physical health and the lowest level of depression. A higher level of health literacy was associated with better physical health functioning, whereas reporting higher social support was associated with better mental health functioning and less severe depression. Because most free clinics have limited resources, developing services and programs that fit free clinics' circumstances are needed. Our study finding indicates that health literacy education, mental health services, and social support are key services needed by free clinic patients to achieve better health.
Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957
Bindman, Samantha W.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.
Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children’s language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents’ graphophonemic support (letter–sound correspondence), print support (letter formation), and demand for precision (expectation for correcting writing errors). Parents primarily relied on only a couple print (i.e., parent writing the letter alone) and graphophonemic (i.e., saying the word as a whole, dictating letters as children write) strategies. Graphophonemic and print support in preschool predicted children’s decoding skills, and graphophonemic support also predicted children’s future phonological awareness. Neither type of support predicted children’s vocabulary scores. Demand for precision occurred infrequently and was unrelated to children’s outcomes. Findings demonstrate the importance of parental writing support for augmenting children’s literacy skills. PMID:25045186
A literacy project in the eastern hill ranges of India is reported, based on 20 years of involvement, at the beginning of which the tribal language, Adivasi Oriya, was not yet a written language. The literacy rate among tribals in the agricultural community is about 10%. Researchers studied the tribal language, gave it an alphabet, adapted the…
Tsai, Hsin-Yi Sandy; Shillair, Ruth; Cotten, Shelia R
This study examines how older adults learn to use tablet computers. Learning to use new technologies can help older adults to be included in today's digital society. However, learning to use new technologies is not always easy, especially for older adults. This study focuses on how older adults learn to use a specific technology, tablet computers, and the role that social support plays in this process. Data for this project are from 21 in-depth interviews with individuals who own tablet computers. We examine how older adults engage with tablet devices and increase their digital literacy. The findings suggest that, for older adults to start to use tablets, social support plays an important role. In addition, a key way that many participants report gaining expertise with the technology is through "playing around" with the tablets. Suggestions for how to help older adults learn to use new technologies are detailed.
Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA
Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin
New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…
Clark, Christina; Picton, Irene
Parents play a pivotal role in their children's education and literacy is one of the areas where parents have the relatively simple facilities, such as books or other reading materials, to become involved and to make a significant difference. In addition to reading with their children, parents can also show them that they value reading as a…
Shrestha, Sanjana; Krolak, Lisa
This article shows how community libraries can create and support literate environments, which are essential for building and sustaining literacy skills in local communities. The paper begins with a subject analysis reviewing available background materials and literature on the topic. Next, relevant issues are considered based on experiences and impact evaluations from specific community libraries, namely Nepal's Rural Education and Development (READ) Centres. The findings indicate that since their foundation in 1991, READ Centres have evolved from traditional libraries to effective community development centres with a strong focus on social empowerment, economic development and lifelong learning, based on a library concept which is needs-based, community-owned and sustainable.
Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E
Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards.
Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe
During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…
Wilding, Lucy; Claridge, Simon
The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) programme is an example of an individualised intervention to support pupils experiencing a range of social and emotional needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore parents' constructions of several aspects of the programme: its aims and how these are achieved; its impact on children,…
Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the
McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny
In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…
Friedberg, Joan Brest; Segel, Elizabeth
Describes an early intervention literacy program which brings books, children, and parents together in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. States that it provides low-income parents with the information, skills, and encouragement needed to promote the literacy development of their children. (PA)
Shea, Nicole Anne
Science curriculum is often used as a means to train students as future scientists with less emphasis placed on preparing students to reason about issues they may encounter in their daily lives (Feinstein, Allen, & Jenkins, 2013; Roth & Barton, 2004). The general public is required to think scientifically to some degree throughout their life and often across a variety of issues. From an empirical standpoint, we do not have a robust understanding of what scientific knowledge the public finds useful for reasoning about socio-scientific issues in their everyday lives (Feinstein, 2011). We also know very little about how the situational features of an issue influences reasoning strategy (i.e., the use of knowledge to generate arguments). Rapid advances in science - particularly in genetics - increasingly challenge the public to reason about socio-scientific issues. This raises questions about the public's ability to participate knowledgeably in socio-scientific debates, and to provide informed consent for a variety of novel scientific procedures. This dissertation aims to answer the questions: How do individuals use their genetic content knowledge to reason about authentic issues they may encounter in their daily lives? Individuals' scientific knowledge is a critical aspect of scientific literacy, but what scientific literacy looks like in practice as individuals use their content knowledge to reason about issues comprised of different situational features is still unclear. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore what knowledge is actually used by individuals to generate and support arguments about a variety of socio-scientific issues, and how the features of those issues influences reasoning strategy. Three studies were conducted to answer questions reflecting this purpose. Findings from this dissertation provide important insights into what scientific literacy looks like in practice.
DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu
Teacher assessment literacy has become a central priority across many educational systems in North America and elsewhere in response to growing accountability demands. Although many scholars have aimed to measure teacher assessment literacy, recent research has identified that current assessment literacy instruments do not fully reflect current…
The Adolescent Literacy Collaboratory is one model for sharing literacy leadership responsibility at the secondary school level. With the help of computer technology (PCs), it brings teachers and literacy leaders from multiple departments and multiple schools together to learn from and with one another in overlapping professional learning…
Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…
Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Lockwood, J. R.; Martorell, Francisco; Gershwin, Daniel; Naftel, Scott; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Shea, Molly; Barney, Heather; Crego, Al
Although literacy skills needed to engage in the economy and public life have grown, the literacy skills of many adolescents remain low. One popular approach to improving student literacy is using school-based reading coaches; however, there is little empirical evidence regarding the nature of coaching and its effectiveness in changing teacher…
McKenzie, Amy R.
Seven classrooms of students with deaf-blindness or visual and multiple impairments were observed to document the emergent literacy supports that were present, including environmental characteristics, strategies, or activities. The findings revealed that the majority of classrooms used emergent literacy supports that were previously documented for…
Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Gold, A. U.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; Niepold, F.; Lynds, S. E.; Howell, C.
The US Global Change Research Program and a consortium of science and education partners in 2009 concluded "climate change will bring economic and environmental challenges as well as opportunities, and citizens who have an understanding of climate science will be better prepared to respond to both." In order for citizens to achieve that understanding there is a clear need to support teachers, students, and the public in becoming climate and energy literate and to enable them to make responsible decisions about the environment and energy use for themselves and for society. However, to pursue climate and energy literacy it is necessary to identify and access educational materials that are scientifically accurate, pedagogically effective, and technically robust, and to use them effectively. The CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) is a National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) project that is stewarding a collection of materials for teaching climate and energy science in grades 6-16. The collection contains classroom activities, lab demonstrations, visualizations, simulations and more. Each resource is extensively reviewed for scientific accuracy, pedagogical effectiveness, and technical quality. Once accepted into the CLEAN collection, a resource is aligned with the Climate Literacy Essential Principles for Climate Science, the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy and other national standards. The CLEAN website hosts a growing collection of currently 300+ resources that represent the leading edge of climate and energy science resources for the classroom. In this presentation we will demonstrate the various avenues of how the CLEAN portal that can help educators improve their own climate and energy literacy, help them determine why and how to effectively integrate the climate and energy principles into their teaching, and facilitate educators successfully using the resources with their students. This will include a brief overview of the: a
Goeman, Dianne; Conway, Sue; Norman, Ralph; Morley, Jo; Weerasuriya, Rona; Osborne, Richard H; Beauchamp, Alison
Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) study engaged diverse organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS). Methods. Participants were home nursing clients with diabetes. The intervention included tailored diabetes self-management education according to preferred learning style, a standardised diabetes education tool, resources, and teach-back method. Results. Needs analysis of 113 quota-sampled clients showed difficulties managing health and finding and appraising health information. The service-wide diabetes education intervention was applied to 24 clients. The intervention was well received by clients and nurses. Positive impacts on clients' diabetes knowledge and behaviour were seen and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand effective diabetes self-management.
Conway, Sue; Norman, Ralph; Morley, Jo; Weerasuriya, Rona; Osborne, Richard H.; Beauchamp, Alison
Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) study engaged diverse organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS). Methods. Participants were home nursing clients with diabetes. The intervention included tailored diabetes self-management education according to preferred learning style, a standardised diabetes education tool, resources, and teach-back method. Results. Needs analysis of 113 quota-sampled clients showed difficulties managing health and finding and appraising health information. The service-wide diabetes education intervention was applied to 24 clients. The intervention was well received by clients and nurses. Positive impacts on clients' diabetes knowledge and behaviour were seen and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand effective diabetes self-management. PMID:27668261
Osborne, Cara; Burton, Sheila
The Educational Psychology Service in this study has responsibility for providing group supervision to Emotional Literacy Support Assistants (ELSAs) working in schools. To date, little research has examined this type of inter-professional supervision arrangement. The current study used a questionnaire to examine ELSAs' views on the supervision…
This article deals with an action research project in which a group of academics from different disciplines reflect on and gradually extend their knowledge on how to support students' academic literacy development. The aim of this research is to understand how the collaborative work becomes a resource in challenging participants' initial…
Aslan Efe, Hulya; Yucel, Sait; Baran, Medine; Oner Sunkur, Meral
The present study conducted to establish effective environmental education investigated the influence of the project-based environmental education method supported with computer animations and of the traditional environmental education method on students' environmental literacy and on their self-efficacy beliefs in giving environmental education.…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Gillam, Ronald B.
Narrative language proficiency is a critical contributor to academic success for school-aged students. This article presents a narrative language intervention, Supporting Knowledge in Language and Literacy (SKILL), that is based on research in the fields of developmental psycholinguistics and discourse processing. SKILL was designed to provide…
Sadik, Alaa M.; Badr, Khadeja
This study investigated the impact of supplementary video presentations in supporting young children's emergent literacy development. Videos were produced by teachers using prototype software developed specifically for the purpose of this study. The software obtains media content from a variety of resources and devices, including webcam,…
Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate
While there is evidence that access to computers in schools has increased, there remain questions about whether low socio-economic status (SES) schools provide students with equitable supports for achieving information communication technology (ICT) literacy. This research first presents a theoretical model to examine the digital divide within…
Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; Niepold, F.; Carley, S.; Lynds, S. E.; Howell, C. D.
The topic of climate change comes up regularly in news stories and household discussions. However, a recent poll among teenagers about their knowledge of climate change shows that teenagers' understanding of the basics of the climate system is minimal with 54% receiving a failing grade (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). The upcoming Next Generation Science Standards emphasize that solid knowledge about climate change and sustainability is essential for students to be prepared for the decisions the next generation of citizens will face. We summarize the needs described by educators in a national, multi-year informant pool study focused on climate instruction, and outline the demands the new Next Generation Science Standards are posing on educators, in terms of climate and sustainability instruction. We then showcase different tools available to educators to address these needs. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN, cleanet.org) supports educators in addressing these challenges and assists them in their teaching about climate topics. In this presentation we will demonstrate the various avenues through which the CLEAN portal can help educators improve their own climate and energy literacy, support them in determining why and how to effectively integrate the climate and energy principles into their teaching, and facilitate their successful use of the resources with their students. This will include a brief overview of the following features: a) The breadth of the collection , which contains over 450 reviewed resources, and the multi-faceted search that can help educators quickly find materials that are most relevant to their needs; b) Annotations of individual resources that provide information extracted from the reviews about the science, pedagogy, and teaching tips, as well as indicating the relevant climate or energy principles and the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the National Science Education Standards, and the Guidelines for Excellence in
Megwalu, Uchechukwu C
Health literacy has been shown to affect outcomes in a number of medical conditions. Despite the complexity of care that is often required among otolaryngology patients, the literature on health literacy in this field is sparse. Otolaryngologists need to be aware of issues related to health literacy due to the changing health care environment. The increased complexity of medical care, the greater involvement of patients in shared decision making, and the higher administrative burden on patients have increased their health literacy requirements. Assessing health literacy in clinical practice may help identify patients who might require additional help in navigating the health care system. The Brief Health Literacy Screen and the Newest Vital Sign are 2 measures that are easy to apply in clinical practice.
Wilbur, R B
The purpose of this article is to review research dealing with the use of ASL in teaching English and literacy. I review some of the literature (and direct readers to additional sources) that indicates that early learning of ASL need not create concerns for future development of English structure, speech, or other cognitive skills. I also suggest ways in which ASL can contribute directly to developing more of the highlevel skills needed for fluent reading and writing. The global benefit of learning ASL as a first language is that it creates a standard bilingual situation in which teachers and learners can take advantage of one language to assist in acquiring the other and in the transfer of general knowledge. As part of this discussion, I compare English and ASL as natural languages for similarities and differences.
Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles
Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.
Stockwell, Stephanie B
Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science-course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I) present an argument based on evidence, II) analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III) experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science-themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, "Nonscientists should do scientific research." Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement-like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science-themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values.
Afterschool Alliance, 2015
The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with Dollar General Literacy Foundation, is proud to present this issue brief examining the vital role afterschool programs play to build students' literacy skills. This issue brief will explore the additional support needed to help students with their reading, writing and critical thinking skills, as well…
Garay, Mary Sue
The globalization of business has influenced the development of customized, job-specific workplace literacy programs. Work-centered participatory literacy receives support from both business and labor and additional impetus from the National Literacy Act of 1991. The worker of the future will be a thinking and communicating problem solver. The…
Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.
"Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.
Witte-Townsend, Darlene; Whiting, Alice
Discusses the importance of "sweetening" language and literacy experiences by using everyday-life language in playful ways. Maintains that listening to children's language, modeling literacy engagement, playing with language as children do, and loving children unconditionally are primary conditions for optimal, developmentally…
Nitecki, Elena; Chung, Mi-Hyun
With our expertise and experiences in teaching language development and early literacy instruction courses at a teacher education college, we argue that it is imperative to find ways to integrate learning standards with developmentally appropriate play-based methods. We examined what literacy coach candidates found in their classroom observations…
Rath, Linda K.
Describes the curriculum of the public television program "Between the Lions" (BTL), a series modeling behaviors and skills that foster early literacy. Shows how BTL incorporates developmentally appropriate early literacy practices. Highlights teachers' comments illustrating how BTL is being used in different classrooms and how it…
Segel, Elizabeth; Friedberg, Joan Brest
Describes programs such as "Read Together" and the "Gift Book Program" that were developed by "Beginning with Books," a prevention-oriented literacy agency affiliated with the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Discusses projects that promote literacy in home and community. (MG)
Sweeny, Sheelah M.
Writing, for adolescents who live in an age of digital communication, has taken on new importance and plays a prominent role in the way they socialize, share information, and structure communication. New literacies expand the literacy realm by considering the skills needed to function using media other than the printed page. Internet resources can…
Illustrations iv Biography v Introduction 1 Background 2 DSCA Execution 7 DSCA Shortfalls...12 Recommendations 16 Conclusion 19 Bibliography 21 Illustrations Page Figure 1 . Map of 10 FEMA Regions...the United Kingdom …” 1 More than 72,000 uniformed military members deployed in support of the Katrina response to save lives, mitigate human
This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button What is Health Literacy? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir frame support ... information and services to make appropriate health decisions. Health Literacy Capacity and Skills Capacity is the potential a ...
Hutchison, Amy C.; Colwell, Jamie
Digital tools have the potential to transform instruction and promote literacies outlined in the Common Core State Standards. Empirical research is examined to illustrate this potential in grades 6-12 instruction.
Lopez, Karen Dunn; Wilkie, Diana J.; Yao, Yingwei; Sousa, Vanessa; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Johnson, Andrew; Keenan, Gail M.
We present findings of a comparative study of numeracy and graph literacy in a representative group of 60 practicing nurses. The paper focuses on a fundamental concern related to the effectiveness of numeric information displayed in various features in the electronic health record during clinical workflow. Our findings suggest the need to consider numeracy and graph literacy when presenting numerical information as well as the potential for tailoring numeric display types to individual’s cognitive strengths. PMID:26323050
Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.
The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2
Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.
An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.
Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet
This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…
Focusing on federal efforts to fight illiteracy through the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title I, this report describes some of the literacy projects that have been supported by LSCA funds, examines current literacy trends, and discusses some ideas for the future. The definition of literacy is considered, public libraries are…
Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen; Davis, Niki
Many adults need help with literacy learning. This is extremely challenging for the tertiary education sector and workplace-situated learning organisations. E-learning may be an effective and efficient way to improve the delivery of teaching of basic skills to learners. Our research study included five embedded case studies within one tertiary…
Young children explore their world through manipulatives, playing with "technology" that may or may not be digital. To this end, I offer an exploration into how the existing framework of the New Media Literacies (NMLs) paradigm set forth by Henry Jenkins (2006) in "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education…
Holtzheuser, Sierra; McNamara, John
Reading is conceptualized as a hierarchy of component skills where lower order emergent literacy skills set the foundation for higher order reading skills such as fluency and comprehension. Approximately 20% of readers struggle within this hierarchical process (Fielding, Kerr, & Rosier, 2007). Struggling readers are susceptible to the Matthew…
Brown, Carmen Sherry
For all students, a high-quality early education is critical to ensuring their long-term academic success. Early learners need to understand why people read and write in order to be motivated to excel in their own literacy development. Through active engagement in the reading process, children learn ways to use their growing knowledge and skills…
Banerjee, Rashida; Alsalman, Amani; Alqafari, Shehana
English language learners are often at risk for communication and language delays--crucial elements in the foundation of early literacy skills. Studies have shown that preschool children involved in sociodramatic play demonstrate greater proficiency and interest in language development and reading. The manuscript shares evidence-based strategies…
Colwell, Jamie; Hutchison, Amy C.
A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to provide a source of information and practical guidelines for teachers and teacher educators to consider instructional methods for using digital tools in elementary language arts classrooms to promote literacy. Focal studies are highlighted to provide rich descriptions of practical uses…
Santos, Rose A.; Alfred, Mary V.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of eight Latino single fathers as primary caregivers and their engagement with the literacy development of their children. The sample for this study consisted of eight single Latino fathers with children of elementary to middle school age. The primary method of data collection was…
Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K
This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.
Berchin-Weiss, Janice; Falk, Jodi L.; Cunningham, Katherine Egan
The incidence of d/Deaf students with intellectual disabilities in schools for the d/Deaf has increased; however, the development of curricula for this population has not kept up with this trend. A literacy curriculum was developed at St. Joseph's School for the Deaf (SJSD) to address the special needs of these students using a reading and writing…
Research has increasingly highlighted the importance of children's social and cultural experiences for understanding about learning, what is learned and what is perceived as being important for learning. The development of literacy learning begins well before children start school as they engage in the literate practices of their homes and…
Hartley, Robyn; Horne, Jackie
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Social and Economic Benefits of Improved Adult Literacy: Towards a Better Understanding," and is an added resource for further information. The original document is a feasibility study which explores the frameworks and methodologies available for…
Early literacy instruction is receiving increasing emphasis. Many teachers of young children recognize that skills such as identifying and forming letters and practicing oral language skills are important (Helm & Katz, 2010). At the same time, teachers also report feeling pressure to focus on intensive drill and practice of isolated skills such as…
In a time of increased standardization and top-down reform, teachers with democratic and social justice-oriented perspectives must work to create classroom spaces that value student voice and position them as knowledge holders. This article draws on a critical literacy framework to analyze the case study of one teacher working within a teacher…
Friesen, Lori; Delisle, Esther
Over the last 20 years or so, the popularity of animal-assisted literacy learning programs has gained momentum in schools and libraries around the world (Intermountain Therapy Animals, 2011). To date, such programs are currently running in four Canadian provinces and 43 U.S. states, as well as in Australia, the United Kingdom, Italy, and India…
Skinner, I.; Mort, P.
This paper reports the integration of supplementary training in academic literacy, for those without the assumed entry standard, into a standard electrical engineering program without compromising any other educational objectives. All students who commenced an engineering degree were tested as part of their first session's assessment activities.…
Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Buhle, Roberta; Ogle, Donna; Frost, Sharon; Correa, Amy; Kinner, Jodi Dodds
This paper describes the lessons learned from a five-year project to develop urban literacy coaches in a large, diverse, metropolitan school system. The narrative begins by reporting on the progress of the schools in the project, which documents gains exceeding both the state and the district gains. It further describes survey data from principals…
Korat, Ofra; Segal-Drori, Ora; Klien, Pnina
Emergent literacy (EL) enhancement has been the goal of numerous educational programs for years, especially for children from low socioeconomic statuses (LSES) (Snow, 1994; Whitehurst, Zevebergen, Crone, Schultz, Velting, & Fischel, 1999). During the past decade, technology software, including electronic books (e-books), have become…
Murphy, Mike; Sykut, Linda
This article describes the collaborative efforts of the Webster Central School District in New York, USA, and the Learning Forward's Center for Results consultants, in the fall of 2010 in a focus to improve the elementary literacy program. The School District realized it was vital to have a strong, sustained foundation of professional and student…
Fullard, Jeani Z.
Large numbers of children in the United States are not functioning at adequate levels of literacy. Students who have weak reading proficiency skills are identified as "at-risk"; failure to acquire competency early in their schooling adversely affects performance in all academic fields and limits their potential for achievement in life.…
Esterhuizen, Hendrik D.; Ellis, Suria M.; Els, Christo J.
This paper reports on disadvantaged South African practising teachers' perceptions on computer literacy competencies while studying to improve their teaching qualifications. During the process of developing a learning technology integration framework for the School of Continuing Teacher Education at North-West University, South Africa, an initial…
Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Mike
Vocational Education and Training (VET) in high schools has had positive effects on the retention of Indigenous students, providing important pathways into further education and the workforce. However, low-level literacy (and numeracy) skills can make successful completion difficult, especially for students who speak Standard Australian English as…
Murray, Fiona, Ed.
The "literacy.ca" newsletter is a vehicle for literacy workers and supporters to share information, ideas, resources and research on emerging literacy issues. This issue of "literacy.ca" contains the following articles: (1) Riding The Wave: How will the federal election affect progress on a pan-Canadian literacy agenda?; (2)…
Long, Andrew F.; Gambling, Tina
Abstract Background Behavioural change interventions for persons with chronic illness draw on a variety of theoretical approaches including motivational interviewing and shared decision making. Health literacy provides an additional, potentially powerful explanatory framework to guide research and practice. Objective To examine the changes in the depth and detail of diabetes‐related knowledge and confidence for persons with type 2 diabetes. Design Two‐year, prospective, observational study, using questionnaire data at two time points (baseline and 2 years later) and in‐depth interviews with a theoretically selected subsample. Setting and participants A total of 319 patients initially recruited from a deprived urban area in north‐west England Intervention Dedicated tele‐carer education and support, tailored to the individual circumstances of the patient. Main outcome measures Perceptions of confidence, levels of empowerment, learning for self‐care and most helpful aspects of the intervention. Results Over 90% expressed confidence in keeping their blood sugar controlled, and high levels of perceived empowerment (mean = 4.25; 95% CI, 4.17–4.33) were found. Changes in the depth and detail of diabetes‐related knowledge and confidence, from the specific to the more general, were observed and enhanced competence in translating knowledge into practice. Discussion and conclusions The intervention, built within a developed working partnership between tele‐carer and patient, operated at two levels: health literacy, enhancing knowledge, developing personal skills and enabling self‐control; and socio‐psychological behavioural change, tailored to individuals within their socio‐economic environments, enabling increased motivation and supportive problem‐solving. Both approaches find reflection in the findings and provide powerful explanatory lenses to interrogate the data. PMID:21521430
Smalheer, C. V.
The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.
Miller, H. R.; Mattox, S.; Llerandi-Román, P. A.; Dobson, C.
Educating future Americans has long been a debate; with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) now being adopted, climate literacy has become a more dominant discussion in both the classroom and in our society where climate education has often been non-existent or dismal at best. With these new education standards climate literacy is now fundamental to science education, this means understanding climate needs to begin with those headed into the classroom with these future Americans. These educators are expected to be skilled and confident in all subject areas, including science, where they might receive less training. To address this challenge, we have focused on an interdisciplinary approach to climate literacy, which is facilitated through cross-cutting concepts in both Earth and life sciences and parallels NGSS standards. We used the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication to gauge our student's strengths and weaknesses and compare them to the general public's understanding of climate change and complex Earth processes, such as beliefs about climate change, understanding the greenhouse effect, weather versus climate, climate change past and present, impacts and solutions. After a semester of this interdisciplinary course our students felt 95% confident that they are informed about global climate change as compared to 62% of Americans that were surveyed. Our students could define and describe greenhouse effect and 82% of them could classify greenhouse gases as compared to 66% and 45% of Americans respectively. While these non-science, education students were generally more knowledgeable about climate change, the areas where they did not significantly outperform the general public allowed us to refocus our course to aid them in understanding this complex issue where our hopes are that they will be prepared to teach science in their future classroom which will allow their students to be competitive in today's rapidly evolving global economy.
Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie
In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.
Pelger, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla
In higher natural science education, the scientific report is the prevailing genre of writing. Despite the fact that communicative skills are highly valued in working life, earlier studies have shown deficiencies among science students. In this paper, we highlight the need for varied communication training, in particularly arguing for the possibilities that students' popular science writing offers. Our study was based on a questionnaire answered by 64 degree project students in biology. The questions focused on the students' own experiences of writing about their projects for the general public and what contribution the writing made to their learning of science. A vast majority of the students expressed that the writing helped change their perspectives and that they saw their subject and project in a different light. Many of the students described that the popular science writing made it easier for them to put the science content in a context, to better understand the aim of their own work, and the implications of their findings. We discuss the positive effects that popular science writing may have on students' subject matter understanding and development of scientific literacy. Our concluding remark is that popular science writing is a useful tool for reflection and that it adds significant value to the students' capacity to change perspectives, understand their subject and develop scientific literacy.
Arnone, Marilyn P.; Reynolds, Rebecca
AASL's Standards for the 21st Century Learner are based on a number of common beliefs, including the importance of reading and technology skills, and the acknowledgement that the concept of information literacy has indeed become more complex since the last century. The data provided in this article support the importance of considering the…
Harris, Deborah Jayne
The aim of this small-scale study was to evaluate whether music could support communication, language and literacy development within a pre-school setting. The research focused on a music specialist who provided a range of musical activities that engaged both parents and children over a 20-week period. Initial interviews with parents indicated…
This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…
Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).
This guide is intended to help people with intellectual disabilities, their friends, family members, and support workers evaluate and choose a literacy program that includes people who have differences. A brief introduction points out that, in Canada, all citizens have the right to an education and cites Article 15 of the Canadian Charter of…
Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra
This article reviews the authors' findings regarding the electronic book's (e-book's) support of emergent reading among kindergarten-aged children at-risk for reading difficulties. All the studies involved use of educational e-books specially designed by the authors to promote literacy among young children in the 5-6 age group. The review focuses…
Scott, George A.
Deaf and hard of hearing children can face significant challenges developing the language and literacy skills needed to succeed in school and become self-sufficient adults. The federal government supports these children through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program, which awards grants to states to develop systems to screen…
Wood, Jeffrey W.
The current literacy crisis, which has spawned numerous studies and generated vigorous debate, is less about decreasing literacy and ability among the North American and worldwide population than it is about who controls literacy, how literacy is used, and who can use literacy. Most who claim there is a literacy crisis are reacting to the…
Wium, Anna-Marie; Louw, Brenda; Eloff, Irma
Language is required for learning, but educators often find it difficult to facilitate listening and language skills while they have to adapt to a new national curriculum with an outcomes-based approach for which they have not necessarily been adequately trained. A multifaceted support programme was developed for foundation-phase educators to facilitate listening and language for literacy and numeracy, with a particular focus on language for numeracy. The aim of the research was to determine the value of this particular support programme for foundation-phase educators in two different contexts (a semi-rural and a township context). A mixed methods approach with a concurrent, equal status triangulation design was used, where qualitative data were transformed to quantitative data in order to be compared in a matrix. The results show that the participants benefited to varying degrees from the programme. The combination of workshops, practical and mentoring components proved to be an effective means of support. The results indicate a need for pre-training selection procedures as more effective support can be provided to homogeneous groups.
Shamir, Adina; Lifshitz, Irit
The purpose of the study reported here was to examine the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), with/without metacognitive guidance, on the emergent literacy (rhyming) and emergent math (essence of addition, ordinal numbers) of kindergartners at risk for learning disability (LD). Seventy-seven children…
Soler, Janet; Paige-Smith, Alice
In this article we consider the development of key policy issues in England, related to the area of literacy learning and children who are considered to have difficulties in literacy in their early years. We trace the tensions which have arisen since the 1980s between different policies and practices in these areas. These tensions include…
Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Gravel, Brian E.; Wagh, Aditi; Wilson, Naeem; Manderino, Michael; Castek, Jill
Digital literacies for disciplinary learning explores intersections of digital and disciplinary literacies across learning contexts such as community makerspaces and schools and examines learning across disciplines including the arts, engineering, science, social studies, language arts, and math. Columns will address work with both youth and…
Rogers, M. J. B.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Petrone, C.; Shea, N.; Mead, H.
Meeting the challenge of climate change will clearly require 'deep learning' - learning that motivates a search for underlying meaning, a willingness to exert the sustained effort needed to understand complex problems, and innovative problem-solving. This type of learning is dependent on the level of the learner's engagement with the material, their intrinsic motivation to learn, intention to understand, and relevance of the material to the learner. Here, we present evidence for deep learning about climate change through a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate. The exercise puts participants into the roles of delegates to the United Nations climate negotiations and asks them to create an international climate deal. They find out the implications of their decisions, according to the best available science, through the same decision-support computer simulation used to provide feedback for the real-world negotiations, C-ROADS. World Climate provides an opportunity for participants have an immersive, social experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. Evaluation results so far have shown that the exercise is highly engaging and memorable and that it motivates large majorities of participants (>70%) to take action on climate change. In addition, we have found that it leads to substantial gains in understanding key systems thinking concepts (e.g., the stock-flow behavior of atmospheric CO2), as well as improvements in understanding of climate change causes and impacts. While research is still needed to better understand the impacts of simulation-based role-playing exercises like World Climate on behavior change, long-term understanding, transfer of systems thinking skills across topics, and the importance of social learning during the exercise, our results to date indicate that it is a
This paper explores the following questions related to family literacy programs: How is family literacy linked with family literacy programs? What are the theoretical frameworks supporting the various models educators and researchers are using in their pedagogical approaches to family literacy programs? As these questions are explored several…
Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura
This study investigated relationships between digital propensity and support needs as well as predictors of digital propensity in the context of support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity. A total of 118 special education teachers rated the support intensity, digital propensity, and social maturity of 352 students with intellectual disability. Leveraging the Digital Propensity Index, Supports Intensity Scale, and the Social Maturity Scale, descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and regression analyses were employed. The findings revealed significant relationships between digital propensity and support needs. In addition, significant predictors of digital propensity were found with regard to support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity.
The literacy team at Brentwood (NY) High School, a large urban high school, focused its efforts on building content-area teachers' literacy instruction skills. The team is made up of teachers from the various content areas, including physical education and art, as well as supportive administrators. The team developed a pacing guide, a monthly…
Campbell, Robin, Ed.
This collection, with contributors from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, addresses three important themes in the literacy learning of preschool children: children are active constructors of their own learning; families provide invaluable support in the early literacy learning of children; and preschool settings should reflect…
Niklas, Frank; Cohrssen, Caroline; Tayler, Collette
In Australia, emphasis in early childhood education policy is placed on the importance of the role of the family as a child's first educator, and finding effective ways to raise the effectiveness of parents in supporting children's learning, development and well-being. International studies demonstrate that the home learning environment (HLE)…
Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Rajabiun, Serena; Rumptz, Maureen; Welles, Seth L; Relf, Michael; Rebholz, Casey; Holmes, Leah; Dyl, Angela; Lovejoy, Travis; Dekker, Debra; Frye, Alison
This article examines health literacy among a group a HIV-positive persons at risk for receiving suboptimal health care due to histories of substance abuse, mental illness, incarceration, and unstable housing or homelessness. Participants receiving services from three outreach programs funded as part of a multisite demonstration project were screened for health literacy using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) at program enrollment. The goal of this analysis was to identify demographics, risk factors, and health indicators associated with different levels of health literacy. Results indicated that although fewer than 30% of the sample scored in the marginal or inadequate range for health literacy, participants with these lower levels of health literacy were more likely to be African American or Latino/a, heterosexual, speak Spanish as their primary language, and have less than a high school education. The disparities in health literacy found in this study point to a need to assess level of health literacy and provide culturally sensitive health literacy interventions for persons with chronic diseases such as HIV. In addition to offering these services within HIV health care settings, health professionals can use other potential venues for health literacy assessment and intervention including substance abuse treatment and community-based social service, education, and training programs. Health care and support service providers also must become aware of the importance of health literacy when caring for all patients with HIV, particularly those most likely to have low health literacy.
Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha
This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...
Khairutdinova, Rezeda R.; Fedorova, Yuliya A.
Significance of the problem stated in the article is stipulated by the fact that professional self-determination of students at the stage of professional education needs pedagogical support; using resources of additional education program will let the individual make smart choices about future professional sphere. Object of the article is to work…
Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.
Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…
Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Griffiths, Cindy; Stryker, Deb
Three check lists for parents of children with hearing impairments offer suggestions for developing literacy: (1) supporting the school activities; (2) literacy with beginning signs; and (3) literacy with advanced signing. (DB)
Holloway, John H.
Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.
Copeman, Peter; Keightley, Polly
In 2013 the University of Canberra (UC) initiated a program of peer-assisted academic skills help, the Academic Skills Rovers program, with the goal of providing drop-in peer learning support to students at campus locations where they congregate to study. The Academic Skills Rovers were initially recruited from the teacher education discipline,…
Blanch, Norine; Forsythe, Lenora C.; Van Allen, Jennifer H.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth
Given the importance of writing, especially in light of college and career readiness emphasis, and the observations that time spent writing in context diminishes over a student's years in school, this article proposes to reignite writing instruction in elementary classrooms through three practical approaches for supporting students in authentic…
Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura
Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…
Chanock, Kate; Horton, Craig; Reedman, Mark; Stephenson, Bret
This article discusses a Design for Learning project in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, where academic and personal support for students was interwoven in their first semester. Staff of the Academic Language and Learning Unit (ALLU) worked with discipline staff to develop their students' capabilities across a range of disciplines,…
Smith, Sheila; Murphy, Doug; Dennis, Sarah; Davidson, Sherry; Light, Rebecca
Preschool teachers face increasing pressure to ensure that "all" children acquire the competencies they need to start on the path to becoming successful readers in the early grades, including children who may enter preschool with exceptionally weak skills. This article describes efforts to provide individually tailored supports to relatively…
Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Segal-Drori, Ora
In this paper, we present a series of studies performed in the last decade that examined the contribution of e-books reading to the language and literacy of young Hebrew-speaking children. Children worked with two e-books designed by the researchers to achieve this aim. We present the effect of reading these e-books on the language and literacy of…
Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Connor, Carol M.
Specific characteristics of early literacy environments support hearing children's emergent literacy. The researchers investigated these characteristics' role in emergent literacy in young deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children, using the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO; M. W. Smith, Dickinson, Sangeorge, &…
Cease, H.; Lee, A.; /Fermilab
The D-Zero silicon trough is segmented into two half troughs. Loading to the Central Fiber Tracker Barrel 1 is at both ends and near Z = 0. The loading near Z = 0 is thought to be 4 lbs at 4 points. The point locations are at +/-45 degrees for each half trough on each side of Z = O. An additional support at Z = O is required to prevent beam sag and out of round distortions to the CFT Barrel 1. An additional joining washer will be attached between barrels 1 and 2 at Z = 0. Also a support ring will be attached to the inner diameter of barrel 1 to further help in out of round distortions. Details of the washer and loading are modeled using ANSYS.
Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara
This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2) = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.
Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J
Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.
Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.
"Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…
Boyd, Michelle J; Dobrow, Julie
This chapter explores the links among media literacy (specifically news media literacy), civic engagement, and positive youth development (PYD). We begin by providing an overview of the literature on PYD and media literacy, and go on to discuss media literacy in the context of civic development. We also explore the existing literature on the associations between news media use, news media literacy, and civic indicators. In addition, we discuss the promotion of media literacy (with a focus on news media literacy) and PYD in educational, extracurricular, and home settings. We conclude with a discussion of the current research in this nascent and interdisciplinary area and, as well, consider directions for future research.
Aubele, J. C.
Geology and geophysics are frequently perceived by the student, teacher, or adult non-geologist as "difficult to understand"; however, most non-geologists of all ages appreciate geological landforms such as mountains, volcanoes and canyons, and are interested in phenomena such as earthquakes and natural resources. Most people are also interested in local connections and newsworthy programs and projects. Therefore, the EarthScope Project is a perfect opportunity to excite and educate the public about solid-Earth geoscience research and to increase the non-geologist's understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. As the EarthScope Project sweeps across the country, the general public must be made aware of the magnitude, scope, excitement, and achievements of this national initiative. However, EarthScope science is difficult for the non-scientist to understand. The project is large-scale and long-term, and its data sets consist of maps, structural graphics, 3D and 4D visualizations, and the integration of many different geophysical instruments, all elements that are difficult for the non-scientist to understand. Targeted programs for students, teachers, and visitors to the National Parks will disseminate EarthScope information; in addition, museums and other informal science education centers can also play an important role in translating scientific research for the general public. Research on learning in museums has shown that museums educate an audience that is self-selected and self-directed (non-captive), includes family/groups, multigenerational, and repeat visitors, and requires presentation of information for a variety of learning styles. Informal science centers have the following advantages in geoscience-related education: (1) graphics/display expertise; (2) flexibility in approach and programming; (3) ability to quickly produce exhibits, educational programming, and curricula themed to specific topics of interest; (4) inclusion of K-12 teachers in the
Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes
Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.
Basic Skills Agency, 2007
The second in a series of five, module 2 provides everything one will need to run sharply focused, practical staff development training sessions for adult and Post-16 literacy, language and numeracy teachers. Each module addresses aspects of teaching and learning commonly identified as areas in need of improvement and can be used individually or…
Basic Skills Agency, 2006
The first in a series of five, module 1 provides everything one will need to run sharply focused, practical staff development training sessions for adult and Post 16 literacy, language and numeracy teachers. Each module addresses aspects of teaching and learning commonly identified as areas in need of improvement and can be used individually or as…
Cooper, Linda Z.
Children are natural visual learners--they have been absorbing information visually since birth. They welcome opportunities to learn via images as well as to generate visual information themselves, and these opportunities present themselves every day. The importance of visual literacy can be conveyed through conversations and the teachable moment,…
Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.
The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…
Matera, Carola; Gerber, Michael M.
This article reports the results of a preliminary study that applied a randomized posttest-only design to evaluate the effectiveness of a literacy curriculum that incorporated explicit opportunities for Spanish-speaking Head Start preschool children (N = 76) to develop writing abilities in English. The study also addressed English language…
Burns, Caroline; Foo, Martin
This study reports on a further iteration of an action research cycle, discussed in Burns and Foo (2012, 2013). It explores how formative feedback on academic literacy was used and acted upon, and if a Formative Feedback Intervention (FFI) increased the students' confidence in future assignments. It also considers whether the assignment of a grade…
Korat, O.; Shamir, A.
The effects of an educational electronic book (e-book) on 149 five- to six-year-old kindergarteners' emergent literacy levels were researched in two SES groups: low (LSES) (79 children) vs. middle (MSES) (70 children). In each SES group, children were randomly assigned to four groups. Three groups were assigned to work individually in one of three…
Cajita, Maan Isabella; Cajita, Tara Rafaela; Han, Hae-Ra
Background Low health literacy affects millions of Americans, putting those who are affected at a disadvantage and at risk for poorer health outcomes. Low health literacy can act as a barrier to effective disease self-management; this is especially true for chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) that require complicated self-care regimens. Purpose This systematic review examined quantitative research literature published between 1999 and 2014 to explore the role of health literacy among HF patients. The specific aims of the systematic review are to (1) describe the prevalence of low health literacy among HF patients, (2) explore the predictors of low health literacy among HF patients, and (3) discuss the relationship between health literacy and HF self-care and common HF outcomes. Methods A systematic search of the following databases was conducted, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus, using relevant keywords and clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusions An average of 39% of HF patients have low health literacy. Age, race/ethnicity, years of education, and cognitive function are predictors of health literacy. In addition, adequate health literacy is consistently correlated with higher HF knowledge and higher salt knowledge. Clinical Implications Considering the prevalence of low health literacy among in the HF population, nurses and healthcare professionals need to recognize the consequences of low health literacy and adopt strategies that could minimize its detrimental effect on the patient's health outcomes. PMID:25569150
I taught music in three schools where 10-40% of the student population spoke another language at home. I ran an all-select choir for Kindergarten, Primary, Junior and Intermediate students once per week. I was interested in answering the following questions: What impact might weekly rehearsals of an all-select choir have on language learning? How…
Responding to a need among Pacific Northwest schools for assistance in changing their literacy programs, this paper presents case studies of 2 schools that were part of the Equity in Early Literacy Development program, which supported the schools in moving from individual classroom literacy innovations to schoolwide practices consistent with…
Coaching is a professional development approach that is utilized to support classroom teachers' implementation of research-based teaching strategies and methods. Studies have shown that coaching supports classroom teachers' implementation of teaching strategies and methods; however, there is little research on what coaches do to support…
Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Education, 2005
The toolkit contains print and electronic resources, including (1) "eMERGing Literacy and Technology: Working Together", A 492 page curriculum guide; (2) "LitTECH Interactive Presents: The Beginning of Literacy", a DVD that provides and overview linking technology to the concepts of emerging literacy; (3) "Your Preschool Classroom Computer Center:…
Altoona Area Public Library, PA.
In light of research confirming the important effects of parents' literacy skills on their children's eventual acquisition of literacy skills, a project was undertaken in the Altoona Area School District in Blair County, Pennsylvania, to provide basic literacy training to a group of Head Start parents who were unable to read and who were not…
Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.
These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different…
Perkins, Joan, Ed.
This journal issue focuses on teaching various types of literacies. The journal contains the following 16 articles: "Our Heritage, Ourselves: The Importance of Maintaining Cultural Literacy in the Pacific Islands" (Masa-Aki Emesiochl); "It Works! Web-Based Reading Program Helps ELLs Make Literacy Gains" (Zoe Ann Brown); "A…
Singleton, Kate, Comp.
This toolkit is a resource to help adult education instructors and administrators better understand the problem of health literacy as it affects their learners. It is designed to support creative approaches to helping learners increase their health literacy as they engage in sound, productive adult literacy instruction. Information resources are…
Mayer, C; Wells, G
Drawing on Cummins' (1989) linguistic interdependence model, proponents of bilingual-bicultural models of literacy education for deaf students claim that, if ASL is well established as the L1, then literacy in English (L2) can be achieved by means of reading and writing without exposure to English through either speech or English-based sign. In our opinion, this claim is based on a false analogy: the situation of the deaf learner of English literacy does not match the conditions assumed by the linguistic interdependence model. We draw on the work of Vygotsky and Halliday to develop a conceptualization of the processes involved in becoming literate, examining the particular and unique challenges that deaf students face as they strive to become members of the linguistic community of users of written English. We argue that becoming literate involves mastering three modes of lanuage use: 'social speech,' 'inner speech,' and written text. In some respects the educational context for deaf students is analogous to that of other bilingual learners; in some crucial aspects, it is very different.
Hamel, Erin Coccia; Shaw, Sally; Taylor, Tammy Smith
A teacher study group explores issues of home and community literacies with a goal of utilizing out-of-school literacies to support in-school literacy learning. The result was the beginning of a new mindfulness that allowed them to begin to recognize the existence and legitimacy of home and community literacies. They explored how their own biases…
The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Seifi, Mohsen; Gorelik, Michael; Waller, Jess; Hrabe, Nik; Shamsaei, Nima; Daniewicz, Steve; Lewandowski, John J.
As the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry moves towards industrial production, the need for qualification standards covering all aspects of the technology becomes ever more prevalent. While some standards and specifications for documenting the various aspects of AM processes and materials exist and continue to evolve, many such standards still need to be matured or are under consideration/development within standards development organizations. An important subset of this evolving the standardization domain has to do with critical property measurements for AM materials. While such measurement procedures are well documented, with various legacy standards for conventional metallic material forms such as cast or wrought structural alloys, many fewer standards are currently available to enable systematic evaluation of those properties in AM-processed metallic materials. This is due in part to the current lack of AM-specific standards and specifications for AM materials and processes, which are a logical precursor to the material characterization standards for any material system. This paper summarizes some of the important standardization activities, as well as limitations associated with using currently available standards for metal AM with a focus on measuring mission-critical properties. Technical considerations in support of future standards development, as well as a pathway for qualification/certification of AM parts enabled by the appropriate standardization landscape, are discussed.
Ntainjua N, Edwin; Piccinini, Marco; Pritchard, James C; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Moulijn, Jacob A; Hutchings, Graham J
The effect of halide and acid addition on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide is studied for magnesium oxide- and carbon-supported bimetallic gold-palladium catalysts. The addition of acids decreases the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, and the effect is particularly pronounced for the magnesium oxide-supported catalysts whilst for carbon-supported catalysts the pH requires close control to optimize hydrogen peroxide synthesis. The addition of bromide leads to a marked decrease in the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with either catalyst. These effects are discussed in terms of the structure of the gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles and the isoelectric point of the support. We conclude that with the highly active carbon-supported gold-palladium catalysts these additives are not required and that therefore this system presents the potential for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide to be operated using green process technology.
Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa
This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…
Fletcher, Jo; Parkhill, Faye; Fa'afoi, Amosa; Taleni, Leali'ie'e Tufulasi; O'Regan, Bridget
The changing ethnic population of schools in New Zealand challenges our educators to respond proactively in reviewing how students from minority groups develop effective literacy and learning skills. Pasifika students' achievement levels in literacy, particularly reading and writing literacy, has been an area of national focus for the Ministry of…
Workplace literacy has been a recent addition to the field of literacy education and research, achieving a level of "commonsense" acceptability so that its meaning(s) or constructions have largely gone unchallenged. A study, therefore, explored the concepts of "work,""workers," and "literacy," not so much to…
Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A
Literacy is an important determinant of health and well-being across the life span but is critical in aging, when many influential health and financial decisions are made. Prior studies suggest that older persons exhibit lower literacy than younger persons, particularly in the domains of financial and health literacy, but the reasons why remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (a) examine pathways linking diverse resources (i.e., education, word knowledge, cognitive function, and decision making style) to health and financial literacy among older persons and determine the extent to which the relation of age with literacy represents a direct effect versus an indirect effect due to decrements in specific cognitive functions (i.e., executive functions and episodic memory); and (b) test the hypothesis that declines in executive function and episodic memory are associated with lower literacy among older persons without dementia. Six-hundred and forty-five community-based older persons without dementia underwent detailed assessments of diverse resources, including education, word knowledge, cognitive function (i.e., executive function, episodic memory) and decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and completed a measure of literacy that included items similar to those used in the Health and Retirement Study, such as numeracy, financial concepts such as compound inflation and knowledge of stocks and bonds, and important health concepts such as understanding of drug risk and Medicare Part D. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of age on literacy, with about half of the effect of age on literacy due to decrements in executive functions and episodic memory. In addition, executive function had an indirect effect on literacy via decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and education and word knowledge had independent effects on literacy. Finally, among (n = 447) persons with repeated cognitive assessments available for up to 14 years, regression
Allen, L. B.; Steiner, M.; Crowley, K. J.
Climate literacy is an important and timely aspect of students' and educators' scientific understanding. Climate science is a challenging topic to understand and communicate, given that factors affecting change in climate are spatially and temporally distant from one another, and include layers of understanding biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic factors. Some learning scientists describe complex processes such as these "constraint-based interactions" and consider them to be among the more difficult for learners to grasp. An additional challenge for climate education is the politicized nature of the issue of climate change among U.S. adults. Our goal is to create a climate literacy program that bridges informal and formal learning for middle school students by integrating tools and ideas from pre-field trip classroom activities into deep investigations on the floor of the natural history museum. In this presentation, we address the challenges and successes of an in-progress climate literacy project sponsored by NASA from the perspective of educator learning. A group of experienced natural history docents were asked to participate in an iteratively designed field trip program for climate education. The project challenged educators with both new content and a new pedagogical structure: using real NASA satellite data to visualize and explore earth's climate, while implementing student-centered, participatory learning on the floor of the museum. By engaging in an iterative, design-based research process of prototyping field trips at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, we collected observational and interview data from seven dedicated informal educators who were asked to change both the content and the format of their interactions with middle school field trip students. These docents have a wide variety of experiences and opinions around climate science, data, and student-centered teaching and learning pedagogies. Over the course of one semester of iteratively
Paulsen, Rhonda L.
Aboriginal literacy encompasses oral tradition, culture, language, identity, and world view in addition to the written word, and is a process of lifelong learning, much of which occurs beyond school walls. When defining Native literacy, one must move away from measuring Aboriginal students by Euro-Western definitions and move toward a balanced,…
Nabors, Sammy A.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.
Michael, Jaklina; Aylen, Tracy; Ogrin, Rajna
Australia has a high number of people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds whose primary language is not English. CALD population groups have comparatively lower levels of education and health literacy, and poorer health outcomes compared with the Australian-born population. The delivery of consumer health information to people from CALD backgrounds usually includes the use of translated resources. Unfortunately, the quality of translated resources available on health issues is highly variable and may impact efforts to address the disparities in health outcomes. Currently applied guides to translation focus on accuracy and literalness of the translation; however, for health translations, conveying meaning and incorporating culturally relevant information is essential. Minimum standards for developing translated resources are needed to provide an indication of quality for end users, including healthcare providers, the client and carer. This paper describes the development of a Translation Standard, led by a community nursing organisation in collaboration and consultation with CALD community members and peak community organisations in Melbourne, Australia. The Translation Standard includes 10 components that have been identified as necessary to ensure a minimum standard of translation that is of high quality and caters to the health literacy levels of the target audience.
Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.
Low functional literacy and low health literacy continue to be under-recognized and are associated with poorer patient health outcomes. Health literacy is a dynamic state influenced by how well a healthcare system delivers information and services that match patients’ abilities, needs and preferences. Oncology care poses considerable health literacy demands on patients who are expected to process high stakes information about complex multidisciplinary treatment over lengths of time. Much of the information provided to patients in clinical care and research is beyond their literacy levels. In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available guidelines and resources to improve how the needs of patients with diverse literacy skills are met by cancer care providers and clinics. We present recommendations for health literacy assessment in clinical practice and ways to enhance the usability of health information and services by improving written materials and verbal communication, incorporating multimedia and culturally appropriate approaches, and promoting health literacy in cancer care settings. The paper also includes a list of additional resources that can be used to develop and implement health literacy initiatives in cancer care clinics. PMID:20464884
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007
This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…
Apologia of St. Ignatius Loyola's Cura Personalis: Brigham Young University's Positive Behavior Support Initiative Compared to the Syracuse Academy of Science Charter School's 7th and 8th Grade Literacy Program: A Qualitative Analysis (Abridgment)
McBath, Gabrielle L.
The following is an abridged version of the author's original Master's thesis written in 2008 for LeMoyne College in Syracuse, New York. This qualitative, structural, comparison determined if twelve Character Education studies of Brigham Young University, specifically the Positive Behavioral Support Initiative, assessed the same literacy program…
Eick, Charles J.
A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science and language arts curriculum. This teacher's early life experiences supported her strong interest in science and nature in the outdoors and experiencing it with her children. Children interacted with the outdoor classroom throughout the day as a context for science and literacy learning. All but one child successfully met Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) goals in reading at the end of the school year.
von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas
ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604
While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…
As K12 teachers seek ways to provide meaningful learning opportunities for students to understand climate change, they often face barriers to teaching about climate and/or lack relevant resources on the topic. In an effort to better understand how to support K12 teachers in this role, a survey about "teaching climate change" was created and distributed. The results of the 2015 survey are presented, based on more than 200 teacher responses. Respondents included National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, 2015 STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Fellows and science teachers from several U.S. school districts. The survey identifies teachers' perceived barriers to teaching climate change, for example difficulty integrating climate change concepts into specific core courses (i.e., biology), as well as desired classroom resources, such as climate change project-based learning (PBL) units that connect to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Survey results also indicate possible pathways for federal agencies, non-profits, universities and other organizations to have a more significant impact on climate literacy in the classroom. In response to the survey results, a comprehensive guide is being created to teach climate change in K12 classrooms, addressing barriers and providing resources for teachers. For example, in the survey, some teachers indicated that they lacked confidence in their content knowledge and understanding of climate change, so this guide provides web-based resources to help further an educator's understanding of climate change, as well as opportunities for relevant online and in-person professional development. In this quest for desired resources to teach climate change, gaps in accessible and available online resources are being identified. Information about these "gaps" may help organizations that strive to support climate literacy in the classroom better serve teachers.
The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…
This publication is a compilation of information on "literacy theater," a process that involves the act of presenting a short, worst-case scenario that is followed by the actors staying in character for a dialogue with audience members. The guide defines literacy theater as being constructed to involve the interaction of two to five people, a…
Suggests that in an era of excessive high-stakes testing and a blind embrace of "technicism," literacy not only matters, but may represent one of the last hopes to "salvage our already feeble democracy." Concludes that literacy matters if, and only if, it is viewed as a democratic right and as a human right. (SG)
San Marcos Unified School District, CA.
THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: After viewing many computer-literacy programs, we believe San Marcos Junior High School has developed a unique program which will truly develop computer literacy. Our hope is to give all students a comprehensive look at computers as they go through their two years here. They will not only learn the…
As communication technologies change, so do libraries. Library instruction programs are now focused on teaching information literacy, a term that may just as well be referred to as information "literacies." The new media age involves information in a wide variety of mediums. Educators everywhere are realizing media's power to communicate and…
Minter, Deborah Williams; And Others
Describes a service learning course for which students participated in a seminar on literacy and an after-school tutoring program for children. Shows how undergraduate representations of literacy share common features with conversations among well-known writers (such as Walter Ong and David Olson) and also implicitly critique them. (TB)
Pickens, Alex L., Ed.; Kali, Alex P., Ed.
To examine literacy instruction in light of recent research and practice, this journal issue presents five articles focusing on the creation of a literate society where people appreciate literature and can use reading and writing to enrich their lives. The first article, "Literacy Instruction: An Alternative" (A. S. Bayer), presents an…
McGee, Lea M.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel
Kindergarten is a time for playful and enriching learning activities that support children's literacy emergence while enhancing their social and cognitive development. The routines of a busy, engaged, productive kindergarten classroom are vividly brought to life in this information-packed book. Demonstrated are whole-class and small group…
Operation Centers (JOCs) and Joint Military Analysis Cells ( JMACs ) as well as procedures for crisis response for missions have been established. The...coordination and use of IT capacities in the field, particularly in support of JOC/ JMAC .95 It also needs a better public information capacity in the UN HQ and
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011
Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…
Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano
Introduction Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Methods Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: “treatment literacy,” “treatment education,” “health literacy,” and “prevention literacy.” Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Results and discussion Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural/environmental approaches
Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.
The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.
Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela
This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.
Higgins, Edel; Fitzgerald, Johanna; Howard, Siobhán
Worldwide, considerable emphasis is currently being placed on the provision of appropriate classroom-based preventative interventions and in-class literacy support, in preference to withdrawal methods of educational support. Many schools in Ireland are currently implementing Literacy Lift-Off in their classrooms. Literacy Lift-Off is an adaption…
This booklet offers practical, up-to-date information on early childhood literacy for those who interact with young children. Topics addressed by the booklet include: (1) supportive learning environments; (2) learning to talk; (3) optimizing learning; (4) supporting the literacy development of young children; and (5) fundamental principles for…
Bark, Caroline; Brooks, Greg
There is evidence that pupils with weak literacy skills struggle on transition to secondary school. Many experience a drop in attainment in the summer break between the two. A British government-funded programme of rigorously designed research on boosting literacy at transition had (by 2015) found only four of 15 interventions evaluated had…
Edelstein, Sara; Lowenstein, Christopher
This issue brief is one of three that focus on programs providing services to youth transitioning out of foster care in three common service domains: education, employment, and financial literacy and asset building. This brief highlights why financial literacy and asset building services are important to youth currently or formerly in foster care,…
Background eHealth literacy is gaining importance for maintaining and promoting health. Studies have found that individuals with high eHealth literacy are more likely to adopt healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. In addition, previous studies have shown that various individual factors (eg, frequency of seeking information on health issues, degree of health concern, frequency of eating organic food, and students’ college major) are associated with eHealth literacy and health-promoting lifestyles. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles among college students. Moreover, there is a lack of studies that focus on eHealth literacy as a predictor of psychological health behaviors. Objective To examine the associations among various individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Methods The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. The Health-promoting Lifestyle Scale is a 23-item instrument developed to measure college students’ self-actualization, health responsibility, interpersonal support, exercise, nutrition, and stress management. A nationally representative sample of 556 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to gather the respondents’ background information, including the frequency of seeking information on health issues, the frequency of eating organic food, the degree of health concern, and the students’ major. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Results The study found that factors such as medical majors (t550=2.47-7.55, P<.05) and greater concern with health (t550=2.15-9.01, P<.05) predicted college students’ 4-6 health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and the 3 dimensions
Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela
Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…
Knotts, Lester William
Literacy is inextricably linked to the social context in which literacy is taught, and in which the language is used. Cultural expectations require the use of specific literacies. Who a person is, in terms of a literacy user and a literacy worker are dictated by the culture in which a person chooses to operate. Literacy is not neutral, but an…
Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra
The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.
Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W; Wu, Shu-Chieh
In a recent article, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) reported that abruptly onsetting distractors produce costs in performance even when spatial-cuing effects confirm the presence of a top-down set for color. The authors argued that these results show that abruptly onsetting new objects capture attention independent of a top-down set and, thus, provide conclusive evidence against the theory that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attentional control settings (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). In the following article, we argue that, contrary to the conclusion drawn by Schreij et al., their own data (1) disconfirm the claim that their abrupt onsets captured spatial attention and (2) are consistent with nonspatial interference accounts of singleton-distractor effects. In support of the nonspatial account, we show that in a paradigm similar to Schreij et al.'s, distractors that do not capture attention can nonetheless influence responses to a target. We conclude that the results of Schreij et al. do not represent a challenge to contingent capture theory.
Health literacy refers to how well a person can get the health information and services that they need, and how ... is also about using them to make good health decisions. It involves differences that people have in ...
Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the fourth assessment of Earth’s climate in 2007, laying the foundation for mitigation and adaptation measures but leaving a chasm between well-documented evidence and society’s ability to comprehend climate change mechanisms. Educators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are bridging this climate literacy gap with on-line curriculum and a NASA supported professional development program for science teachers. The distance learning curriculum (http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/climatechange/) utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the IPCC Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy. With funding from NASA’s Global Climate Change Education program (GCCE), UW-Madison’s Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) combines teacher workshops with the web-based course and an emerging discussion forum to support educators as they become ambassadors of climate literacy in their local schools and communities. This session will demonstrate key elements and activities featured in the on-line course and describe some first-tier Climate Literacy Ambassador projects which range from classroom lesson plans to household mitigation actions to community action plans.
Epperson, Alison B.
The primary purpose of this case study was to determine if the university under study had adequate health-related programs, services, and supports in place to develop health-literate young adults. A secondary purpose was to identify strengths and gaps in these university health-related programs, services, and supports, which, if addressed, could…
International research has demonstrated that a considerable amount of children's literacy development occurs prior to formal schooling and that emergent literacy skills at school entry are strong predictors of later literacy and general academic achievement. These findings have prompted vigorous early intervention programmes aimed at promoting emergent literacy development to optimise the development of conventional literacy. While there is considerable research conducted in developed countries, there is limited research on the emergent literacy skills of children in South African contexts. In the light of increasing evidence of poor literacy performance of South African children in the foundation phase of schooling it is imperative that appropriate and timely intervention be undertaken. However it is important that intervention be informed by baseline assessments of the children's literacy competencies in the full spectrum of socio-cultural contexts in this diverse country. This study documents the emergent literacy competencies of 101 grade R (the year prior to grade 1, equivalent to kindergarten in the United States) learners attending schools in historically disadvantaged coloured communities on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape. An Emergent Literacy and Language Assessment protocol was developed for use with this population. The children's performance on the assessment tool indicated that in general they possessed a reasonable repertoire of emergent literacy skills. Although they displayed adequate skills to support acquisition of print decoding skills necessary for fluent reading, weaknesses in the decontextualised language skills that have been found to support later reading comprehension, were evident.
Das, D.; Ravichandran, G.; Chakrabarty, D.K.
As the demand for light (C2-C4) olefins, an important raw materials for a number of chemical industries, is ever increasing considerable attention is now being paid to the design of suitable catalysts with high selectivity for small chain olefins. Although Fischer-Tropsch synthesis yields a wide spectrum of products from methane to waxes it is possible to restrict the chain growth to a few carbon atoms by containing the active metal panicles inside the small pores of a suitable support like zeolite. The nature of the zeolite support also has a strong influence on the product selectivity due to secondary reactions. This paper discusses the results of syngas conversion to light olefins over iron and cobalt catalysts supported on silicalite-1. Effect of the addition of manganese which is known to improve the selectivity to light olefins is also discussed.
Wenner, J. M.; Manduca, C.; Baer, E. M.
Quantitative literacy is more than mathematics; it is about reasoning with data. Colleges and universities have begun to recognize the distinction between mathematics and quantitative literacy, modifying curricula to reflect the need for numerate citizens. Although students may view geology as 'rocks for jocks', the geosciences are truthfully rife with data, making introductory geoscience topics excellent context for developing the quantitative literacy of students with diverse backgrounds. In addition, many news items that deal with quantitative skills, such as the global warming phenomenon, have their basis in the Earth sciences and can serve as timely examples of the importance of quantitative literacy for all students in introductory geology classrooms. Participants at a workshop held in 2006, 'Infusing Quantitative Literacy into Introductory Geoscience Courses,' discussed and explored the challenges and opportunities associated with the inclusion of quantitative material and brainstormed about effective practices for imparting quantitative literacy to students with diverse backgrounds. The tangible results of this workshop add to the growing collection of quantitative materials available through the DLESE- and NSF-supported Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website, housed at SERC. There, faculty can find a collection of pages devoted to the successful incorporation of quantitative literacy in introductory geoscience. The resources on the website are designed to help faculty to increase their comfort with presenting quantitative ideas to students with diverse mathematical abilities. A methods section on "Teaching Quantitative Literacy" (http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/index.html) focuses on connecting quantitative concepts with geoscience context and provides tips, trouble-shooting advice and examples of quantitative activities. The goal in this section is to provide faculty with material that can be readily incorporated
Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S
additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke.
Price-Dennis, Detra; Holmes, Kathlene A.; Smith, Emily
In this article instructional practices from a diverse inclusive 5th grade classroom are examined to better understand how students engaged in 21st century literacies. The authors focus on one classroom to provide insight into how a 21st century literacies perspective can support inclusive literacy practices that 1) create a community of learners,…
Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Thomas, Dawn V.
A key to supporting a child's emerging literacy is building relationships with adults and peers through interactions around literacy activities. The development of sustained relationships with adults who engage a child in authentic conversations increases the opportunities for the child to build literacy connections. Robust relationships with…
Ryan, Jenny; Capra, Steph
Describes the ILPO (Information Literacy Planning Overview) that combines facets of information literacy including critical thinking, problem solving, and information technology into a planning document to support teachers and teacher-librarians. Discusses the whole-school approach to integrating information literacy into the curriculum that has…
Fisher, Robert; Williams, Mary
An edited collection describing key issues in supporting literacy development, this book helps to "unlock" the mysteries behind helping children learn to read, write, speak and listen. It explores ways to help children develop their skills in literacy, thinking and learning and shows how literacy teaching can be used creatively and…
The study investigates strategies and contexts for supporting the literacy development of young, augmented speakers, whose difficulties in literacy learning are not explained by their levels of cognition alone. Indeed, quantitative and qualitative differences exist in their literacy experiences at home and school. In this study, four primary…
Washburn, Erin; Cavagnetto, Andy
The integration of literacy in science education has been supported by both literacy and science researchers and educators. Recent federal initiatives such as the Common Core State Standards and A Framework for K-12 Science Education have also emphasized the need to integrate literacy and science. However, few tools exist to help educators think…
DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu
Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…
Chaparro, Erin A.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Hanson, Natalie; Ryan-Jackson, Kathleen
In the face of dwindling financial resources, educational leaders are looking to refine resource allocation while maintaining a focus on improved student outcomes. This article presents initial findings from a professional development state initiative called Effective Behavioral and Instructional Support Systems (EBISS). The EBISS initiative aims…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai A.
Supportive social relationships are an important dimension of marginalized women's participation in community-based adult education programs. However, policy makers and researchers often consider these social dimensions to be tangential or secondary to instrumental outcomes such as obtaining employment or increasing standardized test scores.…
Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili
The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…
Friedland, Ellen S.; McMillen, Susan E.; del Prado Hill, Pixita
This article offers recommendations for literacy and mathematics leaders as they design and implement effective professional development and support for middle and secondary mathematics teachers to integrate literacy into their instruction. To cross the mathematics-literacy divide, the authors provide an annotated bibliography of articles…
Halden, Amanda; Clark, Christina; Lewis, Fiona
In May 2011 "Nursery World" and the National Literacy Trust launched its language development survey to celebrate Hello; the national year of communication. The National Literacy Trust teamed up with "Nursery World" to carry out research into the sector's support for children's language and literacy development. Two hundred…
Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah
This is the second of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. Part 1 was published in April ( Lambert and Keogh 2014 ). This article explains how to detect low levels of health literacy among parents and children, and outlines the challenges to assessing health literacy levels, including the stigma and discrimination some people experience. Some basic healthcare communication strategies for supporting health literacy in practice are suggested.
In this chapter I deploy a synthesis of methods I term virtual literacy ethnography to investigate the diverse literacy practices of the Schome Park project (SPP). This project worked with teenagers on the first European "closed" (i.e. protected) island in the 3D virtual world Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) as described in the previous chapter. Firstly I introduce an ethnographic perspective on this lengthy, rich project and reflect on my own interpretive approach. Introducing my own focus of interest, the new literacy practices fostered by the environment and in particular activities I judge to be especially creative, I begin to develop the methodology of a "virtual literacy ethnography". I show how the diverse multimodal affordances of the communicative domains are imaginatively exploited by the students, supported by peers and staff in an environment characterised by "fluid leadership". I include some analysis of literacy work around a genre traditionally valued by educators, a dictionary, which I was not involved in at the time. I suggest this is an exemplar literacy practice, creative in itself and illustrative of the methodological possibilities and of course limitations linked with the technologies utilised. Traditional distinctions between "reading" and "writing" become permeable in interesting ways as new creative practices, fostered by the environment of the Schome Park programme, emerged. I offer support for Kress's (2005) claim that changes in writing and reading practices amount to a "revolution in the world of communication." In conclusion, I claim that virtual literacy ethnography, as I have proposed it here, can be fruitful in exploring the complexity and creativity of the students' literacy practices, although more developmental work is needed.
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo
Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…
International Reading Association, Newark, DE.
Literacy educators have a responsibility to effectively integrate information and communication technologies (ICT) into the literacy curriculum to prepare students for the literacy future they deserve. The International Reading Association (IRA) believes that much can be done to support students in developing the new literacies that will be…
Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010
For over 30 years, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) has provided a forum and voice for literacy organizations, practitioners and learners across the country. In partnership with its member literacy coalitions, learner representatives from every province and territory and other key stakeholders, MCL has supported the literacy and essential…
Saadat, Ahmed H.
The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant…
Wells, Sherry L.
School districts often find it challenging to teach strategies and skills in literacy development to the parents of the students they serve. These challenges underscore the importance that parents understand the research-based strategies teachers use to assist their children at home with literacy development. In order to support parents'…
Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Gibbon, Cynthia A.
This article proposes that the integration of information literacy standards into the management classroom can address underdeveloped student research strategies and promote effective use of print, digital, and free Web resources. Incorporating information literacy can support management educators in their need to balance disciplinary content,…
keith, john d.
Describes the author's experiences during two years as a Peace Corps volunteer serving in South Africa. Describes his difficulties, doubts, and successes working to support literacy in poor rural village schools. Notes the impact of painting educational murals in one school and discusses how literacy emerged for the author and for villagers over…
Thompson, Helen; Henley, Susan
Discusses how library media specialists can get teachers' support and cooperation to implement a schoolwide information literacy program. Highlights include national or state curriculum standards in language arts, social studies, science, and math; and an example of a poetry unit for language arts that includes information literacy and language…
Montgomery, Sarah E.
The present study explored the ways in which the production of digital media, specifically podcasts (i.e., downloadable digital audio files), rooted in the key tenets of critical literacy, can support education for democracy, in addition to the overall benefits and barriers of podcasting in an elementary classroom. The project can be considered a…
Robertson, Trina R.; Wilkinson, L. David
The Austin Independent School District (Texas) developed the Accelerating Literacy Program (ALP) in 1993 to provide additional support for students who were having trouble passing the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) in the elementary grades. The ALP operates on the principle of integrating reading, writing, listening, and speaking…
Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming
The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.
Tabak, Iris Ellen
The goal of this dissertation was to study how to harness technological tools in service of establishing a climate of inquiry in science classrooms. The research is a design experiment drawing on sociocultural and cognitive theory. As part of the BGuILE project, I developed software to support observational research of natural selection, and a complementary high school unit on evolution. Focusing on urban schools, I employed interpretive methods to examine learning as it unfolds in the classroom. I present design principles for realizing a climate of inquiry in technology-infused classrooms. This research contributes to technology design, teaching practice and educational and cognitive research. My pedagogical approach, Domain-Specific Strategic Support (DSSS), helps students analyze and synthesize primary data by making experts' considerations of content knowledge explicit. Students query data by constructing questions from a selection of comparison and variable types that are privileged in the domain. Students organize their data according to evidence categories that comprise a natural selection argument. I compared the inquiry process of contrastive cases: an honor group, a regular group and a lower track group. DSSS enabled students at different achievement levels to set up systematic comparisons, and construct empirically-based explanations. Prior knowledge and inquiry experience influenced spontaneous strategy use. Teacher guidance compensated for lack of experience, and enabled regular level students to employ strategies as frequently as honor students. I extend earlier research by proposing a taxonomy of both general and domain-specific reflective inquiry strategies. I argue that software, teacher and curriculum work in concert to sustain a climate of inquiry. Teachers help realize the potential that technological tools invite. Teachers reinforce software supports by encouraging students utilize technological tools, and by modeling their use. They also
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
This Wisconsin state test booklet contains 110 multiple choice questions that measure civic literacy. The questions require knowledge of: (1) the U.S. Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence; (2) the three branches of the U.S. government; (3) the structure of Wisconsin's government; (4) U.S. political parties and…
Cai, Mingshui; Traw, Rick
Describes how literature is used in elementary classrooms, and is a problem in pedagogical practice. Argues for the need to place a greater emphasis on the study of literature as a subject in the reading program and to help students develop "literary literacy." Suggests a holistic approach to teaching literature that combines transactional and…
"Mathematical literacy" implies that a person is able to reason, analyze, formulate, and solve problems in a real-world setting. Mathematically literate individuals are informed citizens and intelligent consumers. They have the ability to interpret and analyze the vast amount of information they are inundated with daily in newspapers, on…
Knobel, Michele; Lankshear, Colin
New literacies research offers valuable insights into young people's everyday literacy practices. Teachers can use the kinds of research outcomes reported here to build on new literacies in appropriate ways for academic purposes.
Richardson, R. M.; McCallum, W. G.
Quantitative literacy seems like such a natural for the geosciences, right? The field has gone from its origin as a largely descriptive discipline to one where it is hard to imagine failing to bring a full range of mathematical tools to the solution of geological problems. Although there are many definitions of quantitative literacy, we have proposed one that is analogous to the UNESCO definition of conventional literacy: "A quantitatively literate person is one who, with understanding, can both read and represent quantitative information arising in his or her everyday life." Central to this definition is the concept that a curriculum for quantitative literacy must go beyond the basic ability to "read and write" mathematics and develop conceptual understanding. It is also critical that a curriculum for quantitative literacy be engaged with a context, be it everyday life, humanities, geoscience or other sciences, business, engineering, or technology. Thus, our definition works both within and outside the sciences. What role do geoscience faculty have in helping students become quantitatively literate? Is it our role, or that of the mathematicians? How does quantitative literacy vary between different scientific and engineering fields? Or between science and nonscience fields? We will argue that successful quantitative literacy curricula must be an across-the-curriculum responsibility. We will share examples of how quantitative literacy can be developed within a geoscience curriculum, beginning with introductory classes for nonmajors (using the Mauna Loa CO2 data set) through graduate courses in inverse theory (using singular value decomposition). We will highlight six approaches to across-the curriculum efforts from national models: collaboration between mathematics and other faculty; gateway testing; intensive instructional support; workshops for nonmathematics faculty; quantitative reasoning requirement; and individual initiative by nonmathematics faculty.
Van Heertum, Richard; Share, Jeff
A broader view of literacy has emerged as part of the larger debate about educational reform across the globe. Many now argue that availing children with additional skills in technological and media literacy will foster creativity, motivate youth, and improve their economic opportunities while increasing the core of high skilled labourers…
Dickinson, David K., Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.
Current research increasingly highlights the role of early literacy in young children's development--and informs practices and policies that promote success among diverse learners. This handbook presents cutting-edge knowledge on all aspects of literacy learning in the early years. Volume 2 provides additional perspectives on important topics…
Coyne, Peggy; Evans, Miriam; Karger, Joanne
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) has been shown to have benefits for students with disabilities. However, little is known about its potential to support literacy for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This qualitative study explored (a) to what extent students with IDD are able to use Udio, an online UDL literacy environment; and (b) how students with IDD experienced and perceived Udio. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze classroom observations, as well as teacher and student interviews. Electronic usage logs and student-produced discussions and projects were analyzed descriptively. Students independently navigated the environment and used embedded supports, including audio-assisted reading and sentence starters. In addition, findings indicate that age-relevant content, choice, and opportunities to socialize in online discussions were especially engaging for students. Further research is warranted to determine how UDL environments affect the literacy development of students with IDD.
Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura
Recognizing the profound relationship between thinking and language, the authors have developed the traditional Paideia seminar into a literacy cycle of instruction that involves students in reading, speaking, listening, writing, and thinking. As staff members of the National Paideia Center, they have observed that learning to think requires…
Muller, Josef, Comp.
Designed as a supplement to workshops on radio support for literacy, this reader is intended to assist workshop participants to put radio in the broader perspective of development support communication and to provide background information on the use of radio in adult literacy education. An introduction provides an overview of literacy and…
Literacy Practitioner, 1997
This theme issue of a newsletter for adult literacy practitioners focuses on community development. Nine articles on this topic include the following: "Adult Literacy and Community Development" (Hal Beder); "Why Community Development?" (Kirk Baker); "Freire's Revolution" (Ruth Pelz); "Impacting Communities…
Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne; van Kraayenoord, Christina E.
Being literate empowers individuals to be effective consumers, to be informed about lifestyle options, to read aesthetically for relaxation and enjoyment and to further their knowledge of people and places that can enable them to participate more fully in communities. However, there are limited literacy opportunities and programs specifically…
In response to the need for attention and support perceived by participants in a summer institute for building equity in early literacy, this booklet offers 12 pieces of advice for teachers and administrators trying to implement school literacy improvement plans. The advice presented in the booklet is: (1) do not be intimidated by other people's…
Paugh, Patricia; Carey, Jane; King-Jackson, Valerie; Russell, Shelley
This article focuses on the evolution of the classroom literacy block as a learning space where teachers and students renegotiated activities for independent vocabulary and word work within a high-stakes reform environment. When a second grade classroom teacher and literacy support specialist decided to co-teach, they invited all students in the…
Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki
This family-risk (FR) study examined whether the literacy skills of parents with dyslexia are predictive of the literacy skills of their offspring. We report data from 31 child-parent dyads where both had dyslexia (FR-D) and 68 dyads where the child did not have dyslexia (FR-ND). Findings supported the differences in liability of FR children with…
Diehl, Sandra J.
Building health literacy skills among adult learners has the potential to contribute to efforts to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Adults with limited literacy skills are more likely to be underserved by health services and at risk for poorer health. Recognition of the need for stronger health literacy skills and a desire…
Examines two issues: whether different modes of presentation used by communication media require their own unique brand of literacy, and whether the consequences of one kind of literacy, e.g., television literacy and all of its skill components, may affect those of another kind. (MBR)
Miller, Andrew; Schulz, Samantha
Literacy teachers in schools and universities share a common goal: to prepare students with the "literacies" they need to succeed in and beyond educational settings. In a "widening-participation" era universities must increase and expand their literacy offerings to help students make the most of their university experiences. At…
Tomlinson, Elizabeth C.
This study uses fieldwork to investigate the sponsorship of legal literacy within a court mediation program. This examination of institutional involvement in literacy sponsorship demonstrates the ideological nature of literacy by showing the importance of context, investigating literacy-based relationships, and uncovering the intertwined nature of…
Lombardi, Joan; Curry-Rood, Leah; Racin, Jean Berry; Schickedanz, Judith A.; Allison, Jeanette
Presents five articles discussing aspects of literacy promotion in the day care center setting: "Promoting Language, Literacy, and a Love of Learning Makes a Difference (Joan Lombardi); "Creating Readers" (Leah Curry-Rood); "Family Literacy" (Jean Berry Racin); "Setting the Stage for Literacy Events in the Classroom" (Judith A. Schickedanz); and…
Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia
The Spanish Literacy Investigation Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…
Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.
This collection of essays addresses issues related to basic literacy and mathematical competence in the United States. Articles include the following: "The Roots of Literacy" (David Hawkins); "Historical Perspectives on Literacy and Schooling" (Daniel P. Resnick); "Reconciling the Literacies of Generations" (William…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
This publication is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) annotated bibliography of books and articles concerned with family planning and literacy. The subject is divided into four major listings: (1) Literacy; (2) Education; (3) Literacy and Family Planning; and (4) Functional Literacy/Family Planning Projects and Programs.…
Padden, Carol; Ramsey, Claire
Issues in deaf culture and literacy are addressed, including literacy versus reading and writing, the nature of deaf culture, the relationship between culture (particularly deaf culture) and literacy, the relationship between literacy and face-to-face communication, and application of theory to practice. (DB)
Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.
This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…
This paper presents a case and some ideas for integrating basic skills development with occupational training. Explaining why traditional instructional methods do not work in the workplace, the paper summarizes learning theories that support work force literacy programs. It explains how to identify the skills needed in the workplace, provides…
This book grew out of research conducted during a sabbatical as Associate Professor of Education at Rockhurst University in Kansas City. The study focused on collecting folktales from recently emigrated school children in order to build a curriculum to support the growth of English literacy in these students and their native English-speaking…
A qualitative case study examined beliefs and practices of itinerant teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students concerning literacy development, the match between these teachers' beliefs and practices, and the impact of itinerant settings. Five itinerant teachers and 15 students participated. Hearing losses were mild to profound. The research addressed 5 areas: sociocultural aspects of literacy development; effects of hearing loss on literacy development; beliefs about teaching and literacy development; practices used to develop literacy; the impact of itinerant settings on literacy development of deaf and hard of hearing learners. Five themes emerged from the data: Itinerant teachers used a variety of practices to develop literacy; itinerant teachers played a supporting role in developing literacy; most of the teachers' beliefs about literacy development were matched in their practices; the itinerant teachers were lifelong learners; the impact of itinerant settings on literacy development took many forms.
Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael
Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.
Banbury, Annie; Chamberlain, Daniel; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Len; Parkinson, Lynne
Social support is a key component in managing long-term conditions. As people age in their homes, there is a greater risk of social isolation, which can be ameliorated by informal support networks. This study examined the relationship between changes in social support networks for older people living in a regional area following weekly videoconference groups delivered to the home. Between February and June 2014, we delivered 44 weekly group meetings via videoconference to participants in a regional town in Australia. The meetings provided participants with education and an opportunity to discuss health issues and connect with others in similar circumstances. An uncontrolled, pre-post-test methodology was employed. A social network tool was completed by 45 (87%) participants either pre- or post-intervention, of which 24 (46%) participants completed the tool pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 14 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups were conducted. Following the intervention, participants identified increased membership of their social networks, although they did not identify individuals from the weekly videoconference groups. The most important social support networks remained the same pre- and post-intervention namely, health professionals, close family and partners. However, post-intervention participants identified friends and wider family as more important to managing their chronic condition compared to pre-intervention. Participants derived social support, in particular, companionship, emotional and informational support as well as feeling more engaged with life, from the weekly videoconference meetings. Videoconference education groups delivered into the home can provide social support and enhance self-management for older people with chronic conditions. They provide the opportunity to develop a virtual social support network containing new and diverse social connections.
Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S
Limited health literacy has been linked to worse health outcomes for a range of medical conditions. In addition, limited health literacy is more prevalent among specific racial and ethnic minorities. Although these findings have been widely acknowledged, little systematic research has been conducted to elucidate the role of health literacy in the creation of health disparities or to evaluate the possibility that interventions relating to health literacy may help eliminate health disparities. This paper presents recommendations for a research agenda that is focused on advancing the science for how health literacy research can promote the effort to eliminate health disparities.
Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.
This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.
Di Santo, Aurelia
Literacy programs often target preschool children who are from minority groups, are from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and are second language learners, as they are deemed to be at risk for academic difficulties. The family literacy program described in this article is unique in that it focuses on families who have an additional risk…
Sjostrom, Margareta; Sjostrom, Rolf
The Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia, begun in 1962 and concentrated in rural areas for the benefit of adults, was evaluated in a study of 466 program participants and 66 additional adult villagers. The study focused on student achievement, teaching methods, benefits experienced by participants, and the literacy campaign's role…
Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.
This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…
Johns, Jerry L.; VanLeirsburg, Peggy
A study extended two earlier studies and collected additional information from educators regarding their perceptions about the use of portfolios to assess literacy development. Subjects, 140 elementary teachers, secondary teachers, administrators, and English-as-a-Second-Language teachers who participated in a week-long literacy workshop in the…
Quick Guide to Health Literacy Fact Sheet Health Literacy and Health Outcomes Table of Contents About This Guide Fact Sheets Fact Sheet: Health Literacy Basics » Fact Sheet: Health Literacy and Health Outcomes ...
Roter, Debra L
Literacy deficits are widespread; one-quarter of the U.S. population has below basic literacy skills and the health consequences of literacy deficits are well-known and significant. While the need to simplify written health education print material is widely recognized, there has been little attempt to describe or reduce the literacy demand of health care dialogue. Patients with limited literacy complain they are not given information about their problems in ways they can understand, leaving them uninformed, frustrated, and distrustful. The purpose of this article is to review a conceptual approach to describing oral literacy demand in health care dialogue, to review several key studies that support the predictive validity of the conceptual framework in regard to patient satisfaction and recall of information, and to propose several practical ways to diminish literacy demand and facilitate more effective health care exchanges with patients.
Deasy, Michael Joseph
Concern over worldwide literacy rates prompted the United Nations to establish the UN Literacy Decade (2003-2012) with one area of focus being to provide support to schools to develop effective literacy programs (UNESCO, 2005). This study addressed the area of providing support to schools to develop effective literacy programs by exploring the…
Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.
In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307
Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.
Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…
Navsaria, Dipesh; Sanders, Lee M
School readiness and educational success is strongly mediated by early literacy skills. In both exam-room and community-based settings, child-health providers can affect the trajectory of early literacy by implementing evidence-based, culturally appropriate interventions that support child development, parenting skills, and child-caregiver interaction. Despite limited research on the subject, these interventions should also attend to the evolving role of digital-media exposure (both positive and negative) on the developmental health of children.
Marks, David F
A body of data on IQ collected over 50 years has revealed that average population IQ varies across time, race, and nationality. An explanation for these differences may be that intelligence test performance requires literacy skills not present in all people to the same extent. In eight analyses, population mean full scale IQ and literacy scores yielded correlations ranging from .79 to .99. In cohort studies, significantly larger improvements in IQ occurred in the lower half of the IQ distribution, affecting the distribution variance and skewness in the predicted manner. In addition, three Verbal subscales on the WAIS show the largest Flynn effect sizes and all four Verbal subscales are among those showing the highest racial IQ differences. This pattern of findings supports the hypothesis that both secular and racial differences in intelligence test scores have an environmental explanation: secular and racial differences in IQ are an artifact of variation in literacy skills. These findings suggest that racial IQ distributions will converge if opportunities are equalized for different population groups to achieve the same high level of literacy skills. Social justice requires more effective implementation of policies and programs designed to eliminate inequities in IQ and literacy.
Literacy is both special and individual, and literacy programs should provide for both needs and interests of all students. Some students learn to read through phonological skills. Some are influenced greatly by their parents and their interest in literature. Of the 30 people interviewed in a random survey of students and personnel in a university…
This examination of important trends in the field of computing and education identifies and discusses four key computer literacy goals for educators as well as obstacles facing educators concerned with computer literacy. Nine references are listed. (Author/MBR)
Eldred, Janet Carey; Mortensen, Peter
Maintains that literacy studies can contribute to the general field of literary criticism. Uses George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion" as an introduction to the concept of literacy narratives, raising many questions about the process and politics of language acquisition. (SR)
Burne, Brian; Knafelc, Valerie; Melonis, Maureen; Heyn, Patricia C
The Individuals with Disabilities Act was implemented in 1975 to assure that all children aged 0-21 years old have access and the right to an equal education. However, young children with disabilities continue to need additional support to meet the reading readiness standards as outlined in The No Child Left Behind legislation (2004). Although all children benefit from readiness skills, it is essential for children with special needs. With the technology boom of the past decade, assistive technology (AT) has been used increasingly to enhance emerging literacy skills. In order to identify current trends in the use of AT as a means to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children with disabilities, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken. The findings from this review support the scarcity of empirical research demonstrating the benefit of AT to promote emergent literacy with young children with disabilities. We also found a need for evidence supporting education approaches for the proper use of AT in early childhood literacy as well as little family knowledge regarding the implementation and instructional use of AT.
An Afghan instructor works with two Afghan National Police of- ficers during literacy training in Kabul, 5 June 2010. (Courtesy of the author...challenges that we face in every training course we provide to the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). The reason I care about literacy ... literacy . When I took command of NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan (NTM-A) almost a year ago, the overall literacy rate of the Afghan National Security
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...
... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...
... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...
... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...
... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...
Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others
These proceedings contain 37 papers from 51 authors noted for their expertise in the field of visual literacy. The collection is divided into three sections: (1) "Examining Visual Literacy" (including, in addition to a 7-year International Visual Literacy Association bibliography covering the period from 1983-1989, papers on the perception of…
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tomas, Louisa; Tones, Megan
In response to international concerns about scientific literacy and students' waning interest in school science, this study investigated the effects of a science-writing project about the socioscientific issue (SSI) of biosecurity on the development of students' scientific literacy. Students generated two BioStories each that merged scientific information with the narrative storylines in the project. The study was conducted in two phases. In the exploratory phase, a qualitative case study of a sixth-grade class involving classroom observations and interviews informed the design of the second, confirmatory phase of the study, which was conducted at a different school. This phase involved a mixed methods approach featuring a quasi-experimental design with two classes of Australian middle school students (i.e., sixth grade, 11 years of age, n = 55). The results support the argument that writing the sequence of stories helped the students become more familiar with biosecurity issues, develop a deeper understanding of related biological concepts, and improve their interest in science. On the basis of these findings, teachers should be encouraged to engage their students in the practice of writing about SSI in a way that integrates scientific information into narrative storylines. Extending the practice to older students and exploring additional issues related to writing about SSI are recommended for further research.
Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie
News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…
Ellsworth, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others
Focusing on transcending traditional definitions of literacy, this book presents 16 essays that discuss major conceptual and practical issues that confront professionals in the field of literacy. Essays in the book make explicit the questions that underlie a redefinition of literacy and offer specific suggestions for implementation. Essays in the…
Information Update, 1991
This document examines political questions that surround the issue of literacy. "City Literacy Cuts" outlines effects of the most recent budget cuts in New York City. "Families, Inequality, and Power: The Cultural Politics of Literacy" (Deborah D'Amico-Samuels) focuses on the importance of understanding the different models…
Resnick, Daniel P., Ed.
The result of a conference bringing historians and educators together with government officials to learn about current literacy research and to discuss research needs, this book presents eight conference papers. Topics covered include (1) the spread of literacy, (2) the impact of the printing press on current attitudes toward literacy, (3) the…
Davenport, David; Jones, Jeffery M.
After decades of debate inside the educational community, literacy policy has recently moved to the larger stage of national politics. Prior to 1997 no federal bill had specifically addressed child literacy as an issue. But in the 2000 presidential campaign, George W. Bush regularly touted his record on literacy, and he and his wife Laura, a…
World Education, Inc. Reports, 1987
This journal issue focuses on the learner, looks at why literacy has become a major concern and examines the changes brought about by the mastery of new skills. "Literacy/Illiteracy in an International Perspective" (Carman St. John Hunter) frames the discussion by stressing that literacy and illiteracy are moving targets, not fixed by…
As educators struggle to find ways to engage students in literacy development and content area exploration, performance literacy is emerging as an important pedagogical tool. This article defines performance literacy as the process of teaching students to write and perform stories. The author lists the five major components in the development of…
Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others
Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)
To prosper as adults, students must develop varied literacies, including personal economic skills (understandings of credit, home ownership, retirement planning, taxation, and investing) and social and emotional literacies such as family and personal coping skills. Regarding aesthetic literacy, art should permeate the school environment through…
McKenna, Greg; Penner, Audrey J.
This study evaluates the influence of literacy on outcomes in college programs with defined course requirements. This overcomes the limitations of previous research by contextualizing literacy according to program requirements. Results suggest (a) learner literacy varies considerably among programs, (b) there are socio-demographic variables…
The educational use of computers is changing the way people think and steering culture toward a more functional and self-conscious form of literacy. This supposition is based in Walter Ong's theory of orality and literacy (maintaining that literacy caused a removal from immediate, everyday existence and enabled the development of an analytical…
In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the fundamental elements of moral literacy. Moral literacy involves three basic components: ethics sensitivity; ethical reasoning skills; and moral imagination. It is the contention of the author that though math and reading literacy is highly valued by the American educational…
Kintgen, Eugene R., Ed.; And Others
This book contains 28 essays that form the core of an advanced course in the theoretical backgrounds of literacy. The book contains the following articles: "The Consequences of Literacy" (Jack Goody and Ian Watt); "Some Psychodynamics of Orality" (Walter Ong); "Implications of Literacy in Traditional China and India"…
Gaughan, Karen K.
Literacy Volunteers of America is described as a grassroots effort that has grown to national proportions. An overview of its development and case studies of library literacy projects in various states are provided, and recommendations are made for continued and future library participation in the literacy effort. (EM)
Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl
Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.
Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin
Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.
Adult literacy is a long-lasting issue in modern US and adult literacy education often falls off the radar of the support system for education. This study examined and synthesized extensive literature relevant to adult literacy education with a focus on minorities in the US. It identified progresses and challenges in three major issues in adult…
Wright, Katherine Landau; Franks, Amanda D.; Kuo, Li-Jen; McTigue, Erin M.; Serrano, Jiniva
Many journal articles detail recommendations to naturally integrate literacy instruction into content-area classes, particularly science, claiming that such instructional practices will support both literacy and content-knowledge acquisition. This begs the question, are the literacy strategies recommended for content-area instruction founded in…
Family literacy programs in North America and the United Kingdom have enjoyed widespread public and political support. Thousands of initiatives following a variety of models currently operate under the spectrum of family literacy programs. In this paper, the influence of learning theories, the research on children's early literacy development, and…
Nokes, Jeffery D.
Literacy is a basic element of the discipline of history and of traditional secondary history instruction. However neither the growing body of research on learning with texts nor modern learning theories support the traditional literacy practices that are taking place in many secondary history classrooms. Nor are classroom literacy practices a…
Ortiz, Robert W.; Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario
Early reading experiences in the home prepare children for formal literacy instruction when they enter school. Most practitioners and researchers support the need for educational initiatives for increasing parents' involvement in early literacy. However, there is less of a consensus about how to develop family literacy models for Latino families.…
We hold this truth to be self-evident: Students on the autism spectrum need support with life literacy before they can reach for content literacy. This article provides educators with an understanding of the interplay between life and content literacy in the classroom, as well as strategies to maximize success for these diverse learners. Students…
Miller, Allyson Laura
Kindergarten teachers are being asked to deliver differentiated small-group literacy instruction. The problem is managing the independent work being done by the rest of the class during the literacy period. Research on early childhood development and literacy indicates that the classroom environment plays an important role in supporting student…
Huber, Jeffrey T.; Shapiro, Robert M., II; Gillaspy, Mary L.
The health literacy movement has been socially constructed over time. Unlike the consumer health information movement, which developed with broad public support, the health literacy movement has been fashioned primarily from the top down, initiated by policy makers and imposed on targeted populations. Interest in the health literacy movement has…
This case study addresses a middle class family's role in their son's literacy development through an investigation of the socio-cultural practices that support his literacy acquisition. Rogoff's socio-cultural framework, which proposes three planes of analysis for observation of human development, is used for the analysis. The literacy practices…
The purpose of this qualitative action research study was to explore content area teachers' understanding of literacy, the strategies they use in working with content materials to support their students' learning of content, and how collaboration with a literacy expert informs literacy instruction. In my work with content area teachers,…
This paper problematises the notion of the "knowledge society" found in two recent initiatives: the OECD's International Adult Literacy Survey, and the New Zealand Foresight Project. The author supports a broadening of the concept of literacy, as suggested by the OECD reports, but points to some of the limits of "information" as the focus for such a re-definition. The principle of theorising social and economic futures is also endorsed, but the form this takes in the Foresight Project is seen as unnecessarily restrictive. To date, the Foresight Project can be seen as a synthesis of elements of market liberalism and scientific rationalism. Both projects ignore crucial political and ethical questions in their accounts of the "knowledge society" and the process of globalisation, and both are wedded to a technocratic mode of policy development and planning. The author calls for further critical work on changing patterns of literate activity in the information age, and stresses the importance of contemplating futures other than those driven by the imperatives of global capitalism.
Venugopal, Ajay; Fegler, Waldemar; Spaniol, Thomas P; Maron, Laurent; Okuda, Jun
The dinuclear lutetium dihydride dication supported by metalated tripodal ligands undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H(2) to form a trihydride dication. Molecular orbital analysis shows that the LUMO is a bonding Lu···Lu orbital that is poised to activate dihydrogen.
Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua
Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163
BCL Brief, 1992
This brief lists computer-based adult literacy training materials. The listings are divided into three sections: work force/workplace literacy curricula; general curriculum/program development; and guides and research reports. The first section contains nine programs or sets of program materials (including computerized and print materials): Basic…
The gap in literacy rates between women and men continually broadens. In 1985, 63 percent of the world's approximately 1,000 million illiterate people were female, compared to 60 percent in 1970 and 58 percent in 1960. A process of social change, including community involvement and mobilization in favor of women's literacy, is needed to sustain…
Street, Brian V.
A number of counter-assumptions can be posited to challenge the usual basic assumptions of the professional literacy establishment. These counter-assumptions include the following: (1) literacy is not just a technical skill neutral across all cultures; (2) culture refers to basic questions about truth and knowledge and varies from one society to…
Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei
The use of games in educational contexts has recently received growing attention; however, many teachers struggle with finding a right context to adopt games in the classroom. To strengthen teachers' beliefs about the educational value of games, this article explains the similarities and differences between new literacies and gaming literacy and…
Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Degener, Sophie C.; Jacobson, Erik; Soler, Marta
Investigates relationships between two dimensions of adult literacy instruction and change in the literacy practices of adult literacy students. Finds that authenticity of class literacy activities and texts had a statistically significant effect on change in student literacy practices; and increases in types of texts involved reading and writing…
Adult Literacy Information Office, Ashfield (Australia).
Adult literacy is a context-dependent, purposeful, and constantly changing phenomenon. What counts for literacy at the end of the 20th century is not what counted for literacy at the beginning of the century. Literacy is the ability to read, use written information, and write appropriately in a range of contexts. Literacy also includes the…
Literacy specialists and coaches are called upon for literacy leadership in schools and often wrestle with the tensions of implementing top-down reforms and making room for teacher- and student-led practices, such as critical literacy. Critical literacy education holds the promise of engaging learners to use literacy practices in ways that matter…
The new literacy studies (NLS) is a tradition of research that includes ethnographic work on literacy that has many applications for classroom teachers. The NLS include explorations of local literacies and critical literacy as well as the notion of literacy itself. When teachers draw on the NLS, students are able to draw on their practices in…
Goeman, Dianne; Michael, J; King, J; Luu, Huy; Emmanuel, Claire; Koch, S
Objective The aim of the Vietnamese Dementia talking-book was to address low health literacy in older people of Vietnamese background living with dementia through the provision of an online resource to help individuals, their families and carers better understand and manage this condition and provide information about available dementia services. Design This qualitative study used codesign and participatory action research to develop and refine the talking-book in consultation with expert stakeholders, a consumer advocacy group and the Vietnamese community to assess its utility and ensure cultural and linguistic appropriateness and relevance. Participants 59 members of the Vietnamese community, 11 stakeholders from community health services and ethnic agencies, consumer advocacy groups and the research team participated in the codesign and refinement of the talking-book. 22 members of the Vietnamese community appraised the final product. Setting Vietnamese community planned activity groups in the Western, Northern and Southern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Results Our codesign study outlines the process required to develop a Vietnamese Dementia Talking-Book resource partnering with consumers and expert stakeholders to identify consumer need, selection of the content and appropriate language level, construction of the book, measuring acceptability of the talking-book, modification based on feedback and production and dissemination. Feedback on the final version of the talking-book revealed widespread consensus that the book enhanced the knowledge of members of the Vietnamese community in regard to understanding dementia and navigation and accessing of available services. Conclusions This free internationally available online Vietnamese Dementia Talking-Book facilitates improved dementia-related health literacy in the Vietnamese community. The book also serves as a tool to facilitate the provision of care to Vietnamese people living with memory loss by assisting
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim
Designing and delivering literacy programs that benefit both parents (or other family members) and children makes sense. But do family literacy programs really work? And if so, who benefits? The concept of family literacy is firmly rooted in a substantial research base from several disciplines, including adult literacy, emergent literacy, child…
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim
The concept of family literacy is firmly rooted in a substantial research base from several disciplines, including adult literacy, emergent literacy, child development, and systems analysis. Results from a review of research from each discipline found answers to questions about benefits of family literacy. Results show family literacy programs do…
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim
The concept of family literacy is firmly rooted in a substantial research base from several disciplines: adult literacy, emergent literacy, child development, and systems analysis. Research from these disciplines was reviewed to determine the benefits of family literacy. The results show that family literacy programs do work and that at least four…
Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Tan, Shuai; Jones, Christopher W
Supported amines are promising candidate adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from flue gases and directly from ambient air. The incorporation of additives into polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides is an effective strategy to improve the performance of the materials. Here, several practical aspects of this strategy are addressed with regards to direct air capture. The influence of three additives (CTAB, PEG200, PEG1000) was systematically explored under dry simulated air capture conditions (400 ppm of CO2, 30 °C). With SBA-15 as a model support for poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), the nature of the additive induced heterogeneities in the deposition of organic on the interior and exterior of the particles, an important consideration for future scale up to practical systems. The PEG200 additive increased the observed thermodynamic performance (∼60% increase in amine efficiency) of the adsorbents regardless of the PEI content, while the other molecules had less positive effects. A threshold PEG200/PEI value was identified at which the diffusional limitations of CO2 within the materials were nearly eliminated. The threshold PEG/PEI ratio may have physical origin in the interactions between PEI and PEG, as the optimal ratio corresponded to nearly equimolar OH/reactive (1°, 2°) amine ratios. The strategy is shown to be robust to the characteristics of the host support, as PEG200 improved the amine efficiency of PEI when supported on two varieties of mesoporous γ-alumina with PEI.
Farver, Jo Ann M; Xu, Yiyuan; Lonigan, Christopher J; Eppe, Stefanie
This study examined children's early literacy skills in both English and Spanish at entry to preschool to investigate the pattern of association among these skills and their families' home language and literacy practices. The participants were 392 primarily Latino immigrant (85%) families and their children. Mothers completed questionnaires about their families and their home literacy environment (HLE), and children's emergent literacy skills were measured in English and Spanish at the outset of the preschool year. Project assistants interviewed mothers in their homes and tallied the presence of literacy-related materials. Results of structural equation modeling showed that the 3 preliteracy skills were significantly associated within and across English and Spanish, suggesting the possible transfer of these early preliteracy skills across languages. For the English language HLE, parents' literacy-related behaviors, sibling-child reading, and families' literacy resources were all associated with children's English oral language skills, and their English print knowledge was associated with their home resources. For the Spanish language HLE, only parents' literacy-related behaviors were related to children's Spanish oral language and print knowledge skills. There were no significant cross-linguistic relations between any aspect of the English HLE and children's Spanish preliteracy skills, whereas parents' literacy-related behaviors in Spanish were negatively associated with children's English oral language and phonological awareness skills. Given the importance of oral language and vocabulary in promoting children's literacy, these results indicate that parents can support this skill in both languages, but their relative impact seems to be within rather across language.
Hourcade, Jack J.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Boeckmann, Nichole; Blum, Craig
This paper outlines the use of a technology toolkit to support emergent literacy curriculum and instruction in early childhood education settings. Components of the toolkit include hardware and software that can facilitate key emergent literacy skills. Implementation of the comprehensive technology toolkit enhances the development of these…
National Institute for Literacy, 2009
Business owners are an integral part of the community. As neighborhood leaders, they contribute to the welfare of the community and its members. As employers, they understand the importance of literacy and the challenge of helping everyone learn how to read proficiently. By supporting early childhood literacy, business owners can make a difference…
Moratelli, Katelyn; DeJarnette, Nancy K.
Literacy assessment scores in an urban 5th grade classroom left much to be desired. In this diverse classroom population, typical urban distractions such as poverty, crime, English as a second language, and lack of parental support contribute to extremely low literacy scores. This classroom study examined the effects of implementing clickers, a…
Wepner, Shelley B.; Cotter, Michelle
Notes that new literacies use computer graphics to tell a story, demonstrate a theory, or support a definition. Offers a functionality framework for assessing the value of computer graphics for early literacy learning. Provides ideas for determining the value of CD-ROM software and websites. Concludes that graphics that give text meaning or…
Snow, Catherine E.; Burns, M. Susan; Griffin, Peg
Because of the variation in support for literacy development in different homes, many children need high-quality preschool and school environments and excellent primary instruction to be sure of reading success. This Digest discusses the research on preschool literacy environments and their contributions to reading skills development. The overall…
Achugar, Mariana; Carpenter, Brian D.
This paper reports on a design experiment (Brown, 1992) where we explored how providing a linguistic support for understanding historical documents affected students comprehension of historical documents and their disciplinary literacy. The functional approach to disciplinary literacy parallels historians' reading practices while supporting…
Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Beswick, Joan F.; Willms, J. Douglas
Most children who do not learn to read during the primary grades will probably never learn to read well. Children who reach the end of third grade with low literacy skills typically have less access to the regular curriculum, require long-term support, and fall further behind their peers in literacy achievement and curricular knowledge. However,…
Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John
The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…
Department for Education and Employment, London (England).
The eight units of work in this document are designed to complement existing literacy booster units. Each unit is based on teaching objectives from the National Literacy Strategy Framework. They have been produced with the help of Year 5 teachers and have been trialled with pupils in a range of schools. The units support teachers' work with Year 5…
Jennings, Nancy A.; Hooker, Steven D.; Linebarger, Deborah L.
Research on children's television suggests that preschool programs can facilitate literacy and language development. In 1998 Whitehurst and Lonigan described two interdependent sets of skills involved in literacy acquisition: "outside-in" or oral language skills and "inside-out" or code-related skills. Outside-in skills support children's…
Bolton, Clare; Clark, Christina
This report outlines research that was conducted in February 2012 at the launch of the National Literacy Trust's Words for Life campaign that encourages parents to support their children's communication and literacy development and gives them the confidence to feel they can make a positive difference. The campaign was set up as it is parents who…
Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.
The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…
This paper explores how literacy learning can support women's empowerment and the development of greater equality, benefitting not only individual women, but families, communities and economies too. It describes and reflects upon some of the most promising approaches to developing literacy and learning for women, who form the majority of the…
Puzio, Kelly; Colby, Glenn T.
We conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of cooperative and collaborative learning to support enhanced literacy outcomes. Interventions considered were provided in regular education settings (i.e., not pull-out instruction) with students from Grades 2 through 12. Reviewing more than 30 years of literacy research, we located 18…
Lesgold, Alan M., Ed.; Welch-Ross, Melissa, Ed.
A high level of literacy in both print and digital media is required for negotiating most aspects of 21st-century life, including supporting a family, education, health, civic participation, and competitiveness in the global economy. Yet, more than 90 million U.S. adults lack adequate literacy. Furthermore, only 38 percent of U.S. 12th graders are…
Friedrich, Nicola; Anderson, Jim; Morrison, Fiona
Researchers have documented bilingual family literacy programmes in terms of their structure and programming as well as their effect on children's language and literacy development and parents' ability to support such development within the home. What is missing from the discussion is a description of how facilitators mediate understanding within…
National Institute for Literacy, 2007
A growing research base on adolescent literacy supports an emphasis on direct instruction in the reading and writing skills needed to perform these more complex literacy tasks. However, many middle and high school teachers have little or no preparation for teaching these skills within their content-area disciplines and have few resources upon…
How many adults with literacy problems actually have learning disabilities (LD)? Do most adults with severe literacy problems actually have a learning disability? What data exist to support the claims? How is LD being defined? Is the label overused? Is social/economic disadvantage misinterpreted as LD? What technologies and software exist to…
Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Anne M.
There is increasing support for using media products as early intervention tools for deaf children. Because deaf children are visual learners, products such as interactive DVDs and videos can be an effective supplement in the teaching of ASL and literacy skills to deaf children. While adult mediation during literacy activities has been shown to…
Burguete, M Isabel; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Vicent, María J; Luis, Santiago V; Pennemann, Helmut; Graf von, Keyserling Nikolai; Martens, Jürgen
[formula: see text] Polymeric monoliths 10 containing an amino alcohol moiety derived from an industrial waste material represent one of the best ligands for the enantioselective catalytic addition of ZnEt2 to benzaldehyde (99% ee), being recoverable and usable under flow conditions.
Discusses health literacy studies in medical journals, definitions of health literacy, ways to recognize patients with low literacy skills, and implications for adult literacy education. Urges more discussion and collaboration between adult literacy and health professionals. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)
Mattson, B. J.; Lochner, J. C.
Science has many stories to tell. A carefully crafted series of stories can create a rich experience based in science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. In particular, framing the stories as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons. NASA's Cosmic Times materials illustrate how we applied this model to tell the story of our understanding of the expanding universe over the past century. Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for grades 7-12. The series includes six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time during the past 100 years with articles describing the discoveries. The articles trace astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, the nature of supernovae, and the nature of the expansion of the universe. Each poster is accompanied by inquiry-based lessons that teach the science, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. In addition, these lessons include cross-curricular activities exploring the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. These materials serve as a springboard for a discussion on using science literacy and storytelling with other science topics, ranging from our modern understanding of the planets and planet formation to the development of the theory of evolution.
This hands-on guide shows elementary school teachers how to create multilingual classroom communities that support every learner's success in reading, writing, and general literacy development. The author provides a practical overview of key ideas and techniques and describes specific literacy activities that lead to vocabulary and oral English…
Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced
Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars
Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868
Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M.
“Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climate’s influence on you and society.” In order to ensure the nation increases its literacy, the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science document has been developed. In order to promote the implementation of these Climate Literacy Essential Principles the Climate Literacy Network (CLN, http://www.climateliteracynow.org) was formed in January 2008. Made up of a broad spectrum of stakeholders, this group addresses the complex issues involved in making climate literacy real for all citizens. Efforts within the CLN to improve climate literacy and energy awareness include: 1) the development of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway project, recently funded by NSF’s National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and Climate Change Education programs; and 2) the development of a regional model (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network-New England - CLEAN-NE) to coordinate and leverage the wide range of activities focused on climate and energy that are already occurring, with plans that the model will be adapted to other regions around the country. The CLEAN Pathway project will steward a collection of resources that directly address the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science. In addition, it will provide a number of avenues of professional and community development opportunities to facilitate cyberlearning on climate and energy. CLEAN-NE is an initiative to educate high school and college students in the region about climate change and energy and its importance to our planet and society. Through this program, high school students will connect with college mentors, and together they will gain the foundation of climate literacy necessary to change their actions to reflect a more energy-conscious lifestyle. They will then engage their peers and communities in their mission to become climate-literate citizens and
Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie
The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…
Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam
Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.
Cullen, Tracy; Hatch, Janelle; Martin, Wanda; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Sheppard, Rosanna
The term food literacy is emergent, and as a result the literature reflects a great variety of definitions. Simultaneously, new research and food literacy programming is being developed without an agreed upon definition of what food literacy is and how food skills, food security, and health literacy may fit with the definition. We undertook a scoping review and conceptual analysis to identify how the term is understood and to determine shared components of definitions. We found that although most definitions included a nutrition and food skills component, there was great variation in how the ability to access, process, and enjoy food was affected by our complex food system. We propose a definition of food literacy that includes the positive relationship built through social, cultural, and environmental experiences with food enabling people to make decisions that support health. We offer a framework that situates food literacy at the intersection between community food security and food skills, and we assert that behaviours and skills cannot be separated from their environmental or social context. The proposed definition and framework are intended to be guiding templates for academics and practitioners to position their work in education and advocacy, bringing together separate spheres for collective action.
Hsu, Hui-Yin; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Runco, Lisa
Due to the rapid advancements of information and communication technologies (ICTs), educational researchers argue that multimodal and new literacies should become common practices in schools. As new ICTs emerge and evolve, students need the new literacies skills and practices to successfully participate fully in the civic life of a global community. Are teachers prepared to integrate ICTs in the classroom to develop students' new literacies skills? The purpose of this study is to suggest a new literacies framework that guides ICTs integration and supports scientific inquiry, as well as investigate middle school teachers' confidence to practice new literacies in science classrooms. The study adopted mixed-methodology design, surveyed 32 middle school science teachers' ICTs and new literacies skills, and randomly observed 15 teachers' new literacies practices in the classrooms. The results revealed that even though teachers have high confidence in using ICTs, the meaningful technology integration and new literacies practices were scarcely observed in their classroom practices.
Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E
Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda.
Nonesuch, Kate, Ed.
This book is designed for instructors and tutors working with female learners in literacy and English-as-an-additional language (EAL). It consists of a series of papers that explore some of the links among feminism, literacy, violence, and a women-centered curriculum while simultaneously presenting suggested activities, readings, and discussions…
Brock, Cynthia H.; Boyd, Fenice B.
This article takes us inside two urban middle school classrooms where the majority of students speak African American English. In addition to exploring the nature of literacy instruction inside Mrs. Baird's and Ms. Lawson's classrooms, we examine both teachers' underlying beliefs with respect to language, literacy, and learning. This inquiry…
Light, Janice; McNaughton, David
Children with complex communication needs (CCN) resulting from autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and other disabilities are severely restricted in their participation in educational, vocational, family, and community environments. There is a substantial body of research that demonstrates convincingly that children with CCN derive substantial benefits from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in their development of communication, language and literacy skills, with no risk to their speech development. Future research must address two significant challenges in order to maximize outcomes for children with CCN: (1) investigating how to improve the design of AAC apps/technologies so as to better meet the breadth of communication needs for the diverse population of children with CCN; and (2) ensuring the effective translation of these evidence-based AAC interventions to the everyday lives of children with CCN so that the possible becomes the probable. This article considers each of these challenges in turn, summarizing the state of the science as well as directions for future research and development.
Lindgren, Kurt; Koldkjær Sølling, Ina; Carøe, Per; Siggaard Mathiesen, Kirsten
The purpose of this study is to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment between education in technology, business, and nursing. This collaboration creates natural interest and motivation for welfare technology. The aim of establishing an interaction between these three areas of expertise is to create an understanding of skills and cultural differences in each area. Futhermore, the aim is to enable future talents to gain knowledge and skills to improve health literacy among senior citizens. Based on a holistic view of welfare technology, a Student Academy was created as a theoretically- and practically-oriented learning center. The mission of the Student Academy is to support and facilitate education in order to maintain and upgrade knowledge and skills in information technology and information management related to e-health and health literacy. The Student Academy inspires students, stakeholders, politicians, DanAge Association members, companies, and professionals to participate in training, projects, workshops, and company visits.
Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F
The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.
Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav
In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400
Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie; Lorgelly, Paula; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Inder, Brett
Social support in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been indicated to be beneficial to person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their families, but very few ART service providers go beyond ART. This study investigates whether receipt of social support in addition to ART for PLWHA makes the households that they reside in better off than households that have PLWHA but are without social support. The analysis uses data comprising of 450 households, which is a sub-sample from the 2010/2011 Centre for Health Economics Ugandan HIV Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 596 households that was undertaken in Uganda. Data were collected from households of clients that obtained ART from two major ART service providers in Central Uganda; The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) and Ministry of Health (MOH), Uganda. Probit models and ordinary least squares regressions are employed to compare outcomes for individuals from households with a TASO or MOH client. Outcomes for individuals in households with a TASO PLWHA are hypothesised to be superior to those from households with an MOH PLWHA given that the benefits from social support accrue not only to the PLWHA but also to the household and communities they belong to. The results confirm that individuals from a household with a TASO PLWHA are better off in terms of physical health outcomes including better productivity as non-wage labour hours and having more cash in hand and having savings. The findings highlight the importance of additional support to HIV/AIDS clients and have implications for supplementation of ART service provision with other services to maximise the benefits from ART in resource constrained countries like Uganda.
Sobel, Rina M; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Waite, Katherine R; Rittner, Sarah S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Wolf, Michael S
Asthma 1-2-3 is a newly-developed low-literacy multimedia education tool designed to promote asthma self-care concepts among African American adults. An expert panel (n = 10) informed content development for the tool. The video script and storyboard imagery were shown to 30 African Americans recruited from the American Lung Association, whose reactions and comments guided further revisions. The final version was pilot tested in three diverse community settings in Chicago to determine the efficacy of Asthma 1-2-3 at improving patient understanding of asthma and its symptoms. In all, 130 adults participated in the pilot test. Knowledge scores significantly improved from pretest to posttest following presentation of the developed tool for subjects across all literacy levels (Pretest: Mean = 4.2 [SD = 1.6]; Posttest: M = 6.8 [SD = 2.0], P < 0.001). Symptom pathophysiology concepts were the least understood. Individuals with low literacy had less total knowledge score gains compared to those with marginal and adequate literacy (1.8, 2.6, and 3.2 respectively; P = 0.002). The multimedia tool significantly improved understanding of asthma. Individuals with limited literacy may require additional instruction, repeated viewing, or added tangible cues (i.e. supplementary print materials) to support knowledge retention. In general, feedback from the target population was particularly helpful in the development of the tool and its initial evaluation, and should be considered as a necessary step in the creation of other patient education materials.
Impey, C.; Buxner, S.
We have been conducting a study of university students' science literacy for the past 24 years. Based on the work of the National Science Board's ongoing national survey of the US public, we have administered the same survey to undergraduate science students at the University of Arizona almost every year since 1989. Results have shown relatively little change in students' overall science literacy, descriptions of science, and knowledge of basic science topics for almost a quarter of a century despite an increase in education interventions, the rise of the internet, and increased access to knowledge. Several trends do exist in students' science literacy and descriptions of science. Students who exhibit beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon (e.g., lucky numbers, creationism) consistently have lower science literacy scores and less correct descriptions of scientific phenomenon. Although not surprising, our results support ongoing efforts to help students generate evidence based thinking.
Raju, T N
This study assesses the relationship between literacy and labour rates among the adults and children in 17 Indian states. Among children aged 5-14 years, 53.9% were literate and 3.74% were working for wages; these figures, however varied markedly among the states. Kerala, a state with the best overall adult literacy, also recorded the highest child literacy rate, and the lowest child employment rate. The states with high adult literacy also tended to have high child literacy (Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, Rho 1 = 0.95, P less than 0.001), and low child labour (Rho = 0.56, P less than 0.02). Child labour rates did not correlate with adult labour rates. However, change in adult literacy and labour rates over a 7-year period correlated significantly both with the change in child literacy and labour rates: The states with a greater increase in adult literacy also observed a greater rise in child literacy, and a greater fall in child labour rates. But the states with a greater increase in adult labour had a greater rise in child labour rates; for each ten additional adults working, two more children also worked for wages, suggesting that increasing job opportunities drew both adults and children into the labour force. The findings, and their implications for pediatric care are discussed.
Singleton, Kate; Krause, Elizabeth M S
Nurses today are providing care, education, and case management to an increasingly diverse patient population that is challenged with a triad of cultural, linguistic, and health literacy barriers. For these patients, culture and language set the context for the acquisition and application of health literacy skills. Yet the nursing literature offers minimal help in integrating cultural and linguistic considerations into nursing efforts to address patient health literacy. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate the interconnections between patient culture, language, and health literacy in order to improve health outcomes for culturally diverse patients. In this article the authors begin by describing key terms that serve as background for the ensuing discussion explaining how culture and language need to be considered in any interaction designed to address health literacy for culturally diverse patients. The authors then discuss the interrelationships between health literacy, culture, and language. Next relevant cultural constructs are introduced as additional background. This is followed by a description of how literacy skills are affected by culture and language, a note about culturally diverse, native-born patients, and a presentation of case examples illustrating how culture and language barriers are seen in patients' healthcare experiences. The authors conclude by offering recommendations for promoting health literacy in the presence of cultural and language barriers and noting the need for nursing interventions that fully integrate health literacy, culture, and language.
This article shares a literacy strategy to support students' analysis of the theme of text and provide evidence to support their assertion. The strategy is called Visual to Print Transfer (VPT). The VPT strategy leverages students' out-of-school literacy practices involving media images of Hollywood icons as a way to support their understanding of…
McCaffrey, M. S.; Wise, S. B.; Buhr, S. M.
With the release of the Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy: A Guide for Individuals and Communities in the Spring of 2009, an important step toward an shared educational and communication framework about climate science was achieved. Designed as a living document, reviewed and endorsed by the thirteen federal agencies in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (now U.S. Global Change Research Program), the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy complement other Earth system literacy efforts. A variety of emerging efforts have begun to build on the framework using a variety of cyberlearning tools, including an online Climate Literacy course developed by Education and Outreach group at CIRES, the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, and the Independent Learning program of the Continuing Education Division at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The online course, piloted during the Summer of 2009 with formal classroom teachers and informal science educators, made use of the online Climate Literacy Handbook, which was developed by CIRES Education and Outreach and the Encyclopedia of Earth, which is supported by the National Council for Science and the Environment and hosted by Boston University. This paper will explore challenges and opportunities in the use of cyberlearning tools to support climate literacy efforts, highlight the development of the online course and handbook, and note related emerging cyberlearning platforms and programs for climate literacy, including related efforts by the Climate Literacy Network, the NASA Global Climate Change Education programs, the National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and AAAS Project 2061.
... is making a poor choice. What are the dangers connected to her decision? Antibiotic resistance. There are ... of ways including in acne medication or with animals used for food, there are additional sources of ...
This paper uses direct measures of literacy skill levels provided by the International Adult Literacy Survey to estimate the return to literacy skills. Using a very simple human capital earnings equation and standard ordinary least squares regression, it tested estimates of the return to literacy skills for their robustness to alternative scalings…
Barton, David, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Ivanic, Roz, Ed.
This book contains 13 papers on situated literacies and reading and writing in context. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Denny Taylor); "Introduction: Exploring Situated Literacies"; "Literacy Practices" (David Barton, Mary Hamilton); "Expanding the New Literacy Studies: Using Photographs To Explore…
Wagner, Daniel A.
The importance of research in literacy is that it provides some routes to greater efficiency in literacy provision. Research from the past shows how important reading and writing have been over the centuries. Literacy was often invested with social and moral power as well, and religious literacy was the predominant form of reading and writing from…
Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Niepold, F., III
Numerous climate change education efforts exist that aim to enable citizens and society to make informed decisions addressing environmental and societal issues arising from climate change. To extend the reach and impact of these efforts, it is necessary to coordinate them in order to reach a greater collective impact. The Collective Impact model, as described by Kania & Kramer (2011), requires five elements: 1) a common agenda; 2) shared measurement systems; 3) mutually reinforcing activities; 4) continuous communication; and 5) a well-funded backbone support organization. The CLEAN Network, as an example of a rudimentary form of such an organization, engages in continuous communication through weekly teleconferences, an active listserv and other activities to share resources, activities, and ideas that is moving the network to develop common understandings that will likely lead to the development of effective collective impact on increasing climate and energy literacy. A Spring 2013 survey of the CLEAN Network provided insight as to how the CLEAN Network was addressing member needs and identified what other support was needed to increase its collective impact. In addition, community discussions identified the components needed for an effective overarching backbone support organization. A Fall 2015 survey of the CLEAN Network and the broader climate change education community is being conducted to examine 1) how the CLEAN Network make up and needs have evolved and how they compare to the broader community, and 2) to gather further input into the shaping of the elements of collective impact on climate and energy literacy. This presentation will describe the results from the 2015 survey and compare them to the 2013 survey and the community discussions. This will include describing the CLEAN Network's evolving professional make up, engagement of its members network activities, the importance of the network to members; how the findings compare with the broader climate
This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…
Meleisea, Ellie, Ed.
Despite the benefits of literacy for individuals, communities, and nations, a vast number of people remain illiterate. This publication will enable readers to understand the current literacy challenge and the United Nations Literacy Decade Plan of Action, to learn about the potential of using ICT as an effective literacy tools, and to appreciate…
Absalom, Doug; Golebiowski, Zosia
Outlines recent concerns regarding a perceived decline in literacy standards in Australia, with reference to changing literacy abilities and standards in tertiary education. Summarizes and critiques current discussions on changes in literacy expectations and contemporary notions of literacy. Concludes with discussion of three important agents of…
Media literacy is taking its place in the array of literacies increasingly recognised as necessary for participating actively in democracy or, indeed, in day-to-day life. Financial literacy is another current example. "Literacy" is a term now widely used in relation to adults. The Oxford English Dictionary describes it as a…
Raymond, James C., Ed.
First presented as papers in a symposium on literacy conducted at the University of Alabama, essays in this volume explore three areas of human literacy--law, linguistics, and the English language; testing; and literacy's relation with culture and human consciousness. Following an introduction examining literacy as a human problem, the following…
Hill, Robert J.
Examining the intersection of civic engagement and environmental literacy is particularly timely because 2012 marked a critical juncture in history: the United Nations Literacy Decade ended, and a 20-year appraisal of the United Nation's Earth Summit commenced. The Literacy Decade, launched in 2003 under the slogan "Literacy as Freedom," situated…
Epstein, Donald B.
Following a brief history of literacy from the dawn of civilization in Egypt to the founding of the community college movement in the United States in 1945-55, this paper describes the Guided Studies Program at Clackamas Community College. The aim of the program is to increase literacy, which is viewed as a means to help students' self improvement…
Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.
The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…
Moine-Boothe, Judith D., Ed.
This volume contains the following articles: "Orthography and Identity in Cameroon" (Steven Bird); "Literacy Evaluation Tool" (Becky Feldpausch, Jean Nichols, Robin Rempel); "Kenyang Literacy Program" (Tanyi Eyong Mbuagbaw); "Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E): A Brief Overview" (Ian Mowatt);…
Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun
Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…
Critical scholarship frequently depicts literacy education as an "initiation into passivity." Disconnected from the lives of students and reduced to strategies for scoring points on tests, literacy becomes an exercise in the reproduction of a moral economy of discipline, compliance, and productivity. Yet people also recognize that the modern world…
Bloome, David, Ed.
This book offers a broad range of perspectives on the study of literacy in which reading and writing is examined as it occurs in classrooms, businesses, communities, and families, among other settings. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "In Search of Meaning" (Judith Green); (2) "The Development of Literacy: Access, Acquisition and…
Literacy is discussed in the broadest sense. From an Aboriginal perspective, literacy is about sustaining a world view and culture, resymbolizing and reinterpreting past experience while honoring traditional values, living these values, and visioning a future in which an Aboriginal way of being will continue to thrive. Meaningful Aboriginal…
Turner, Jennifer D.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty; Applegate, Anthony J.
The authors make the case that literacy leadership is not a quality restricted to specialists with extra certifications. Instead, literacy leadership qualities are within the grasp of every conscientious classroom teacher who is willing to take advantage of opportunities for personal and professional growth.
El Dorado County Office of Education, Placerville, CA.
A K-12 computer literacy course of study is presented. Four basic parts are included: (1) a reference index which organizes 37 computer literacy topics into seven major categories; (2) a master index which presents goals for each topic by grade level and lists a reference number for each goal; (3) a scope and sequence organized by grade level…
Adams, Dennis; Hamm, Mary
Considers the expanding definition of literacy from traditional reading and writing skills to include technological, visual, information, and networking literacy. Discusses the impact of media on social interactions and intellectual development; linking technology to educational goals; influences of new media symbol systems on communication;…
Explores the process of designing, teaching, and revising an online information literacy course at St. Petersburg College (SPC) (Florida). Shares methods for encouraging participation in online courses and ways of tracking students' progress. Reports that basic computer information and literacy is now a graduation requirement at SBC. Contains…
This article investigates the tendency of those who explore the topic of "electronic literacies" to downplay the fundamental nature and importance of the perceptual habits associated with print literacy, and highlights the opposite tendency of reading and writing specialists to decontextualize the acquisition of these fundamental skills…
In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…
Warmkessel, Marjorie M.
This article presents an annotated list of seven recent articles on the topic of information literacy assessment. They include: (1) "The Three Arenas of Information Literacy Assessment" (Bonnie Gratch Lindauer); (2) "Testing the Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia for Library-User Education" (Karen Markey et al.); (3)…
Rudd, Amanda S., Comp.
Based on the concept that literacy is a family affair, this book presents an annotated list of materials published in the 1980s appropriate for use by organizations and individuals involved in literacy training and for learners seeking materials for their personal needs and enrichment. Each of the over 750 entries includes a bibliographic…
Dragan, Pat Barrett
Beginning a new school year can be a daunting task for any teacher. This book, the work of an experienced teacher, advances the Overnight Book Program as the core of the literacy curriculum. According to the book, everything developing readers and writers need to understand literacy can be learned easily and joyfully by taking books home to share…
Disch, Robert, Ed.
A variety of contributors explore the implications and the historical background of the future of literacy. We have inherited a belief that a vital literary tradition can uphold humane values, but events of twentieth century history have completely undermined faith in literacy as a stronghold of humanism. George Steiner suggests that literature is…
While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…
21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…
Greenlaw, M. Jean
Noting that being illiterate in this country precludes full participation in society, this paper addresses the issue of whether or not American society is truly literate. The first section of the paper offers a historical review of commentary on literacy and education to show that there has never truly been "a golden age of literacy," but rather…
This newsletter reviews two books about family literacy in the United States. The first, "A Survey of Family Literacy in the United States" (edited by Lesley Mandel Morrow, Diane H. Tracey, and Caterina Marcone Maxwell), is a reference guide for educators and policymakers that includes the following: brief descriptions of programs for children and…
The term "critical literacy" refers to use of the technologies of print and other media of communication to analyze, critique, and transform the norms, rule systems, and practices governing the social fields of everyday life (A. Luke, 2004). Since Freire's (1970) educational projects in Brazil, approaches to critical literacy have been…
von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas
This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.
Davis, Kimberlee; Durband, Dorothy Bagwell
Placing a monetary value on education is a complex task. A more difficult task is to determine at what monetary level individuals will support educational improvements. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of the implementation of financial literacy education in Texas public schools. A Web-based survey was administered to…
Bingham, C. Steven; Neal, Elizabeth Anne; Tesh, Linda; Turner, Patsy; Millsaps, Cherise
Describing the SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE) program and its mission to promote and support the continual improvement of educational opportunities for all learners in the Southeast, this paper focuses on the importance of improving student literacy outcomes in schools due to the demands of living in a technological,…
Phillips, Thelma Jodale
In an effort to enhance student achievement in reading, many high schools have integrated instructional literacy coaches into the teaching staff to provide support for the English teachers. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to explore the relationship between the self-reported servant leadership practices used by…
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…
Tice, Carolyn J.
Presents findings from a two-year evaluation of a family literacy program in rural Appalachian Ohio. Demonstrates positive results for both impact/outcome and process objectives. Highlights an extensive network of interpersonal and interagency relationships that maximized resources and supported families as they changed. Suggests the importance of…
Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2011
This document is a revised version of the National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework (the Framework) originally developed in 2005. It articulates a rationale for consumer and financial education in Australian schools; describes essential consumer and financial capabilities that will support lifelong learning; and provides guidance on how…
Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F
Community awareness and understanding of depression ("depression literacy") underpins successful implementation of prevention, early intervention and treatment programs. Improving depression literacy is a major goal of beyondblue: the national depression initiative. Although other countries have previously attempted to address this issue, there is little evidence to indicate that those attempts have achieved their aims. Work in other areas of health promotion, such as the widely used PRECEDE model, offers a useful framework from which to develop effective depression literacy initiatives in Australia. This model proposes that effective health promotion strategies should focus not on health actions per se, but on the knowledge and attitudes that encourage or impede individuals from taking such actions. We identify the goals of an effective depression literacy campaign and a range of educational strategies for achieving change in each of these areas. Applying these strategies may give a stronger basis for improving depression literacy than previous initiatives.
Nickerson, Jane Freiburg
The study examined how literacy portfolios were used as tools in a college developmental English class in which deaf students assessed their reading comprehension as well as their writing processes and products. The students' reading and writing assignments involved reflective thinking and were grounded in authentic tasks. Immediate feedback was provided. The study was multidimensional, longitudinal, and ongoing. A variety of field research techniques were used to ascertain the uses and influences of portfolios in regard to students' reading, writing, and reflective thinking. The results support the idea that the use of literacy portfolios can positively influence students who are deaf when they assess their reading and writing abilities.
Chan, Connie V; Matthews, Lisa A; Kaufman, David R
There are a range of barriers precluding patients from fully engaging in and benefiting from the spectrum of eHealth interventions developed to support patient access to health information, disease self-management efforts, and patient-provider communication. Consumers with low eHealth literacy skills often stand to gain the greatest benefit from the use of eHealth tools. eHealth skills are comprised of reading/writing/numeracy skills, health literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, and scientific literacy . We aim to develop an approach to characterize dimensions of complexity and to reveal knowledge and skill-related barriers to eHealth engagement. We use Bloom's Taxonomy to guide development of an eHealth literacy taxonomy that categorizes and describes each type of literacy by complexity level. Illustrative examples demonstrate the utility of the taxonomy in characterizing dimensions of complexity of eHealth skills used and associated with each step in completing an eHealth task.
Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro
We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.
Smylie, Janet; Williams, Lewis; Cooper, Nancy
This is a summary report of the Aboriginal content of the Language and Culture theme at the Canadian Public Health Association's Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Our key premise is that Indigenous conceptualizations of literacy need to build on Indigenous understandings and perspectives. We support this premise through a review of the relevant literature in the disciplines of Aboriginal literacy, Indigenous education, health literacy, health promotion, and knowledge translation and our synthesis of the presentations, workshops, and discussions at the meeting. Key emergent themes include: the unique and culturally determined ways in which Aboriginal peoples and their languages conceptualize learning, education, and health; and the recognition that self-determination of language and learning are human rights. Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to literacy naturally link to and overlap with Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to health. The paper includes an overview of gaps in the field and an example of the way that research and practice can be brought together in the context of one First Nations community.
Wolf, Michael S; Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Rapp, David N; Waite, Katherine R; Bocchini, Mary V; Davis, Terry C; Rudd, Rima E
The relationship between literacy and health outcomes are well documented in adult medicine, yet specific causal pathways are not entirely clear. Despite an incomplete understanding of the problem, numerous interventions have already been implemented with variable success. Many of those who proposed earlier strategies assumed the problem to originate from reading difficulties only. Given the timely need for more effective interventions, it is of increasing importance to reconsider the meaning of health literacy to advance our conceptual understanding of the problem and how best to respond. One potentially effective approach might involve recognizing the known associations between a larger set of cognitive and psychosocial abilities with functional literacy skills. Here we review the current health literacy definition and literature and draw on relevant research from the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology. In this framework, a research agenda is proposed that considers an individual's "health-learning capacity," which refers to the broad constellation of cognitive and psychosocial skills from which patients or family members must draw to effectively promote, protect, and manage their own or a child's health. This new, related concept will lead, ideally, to more effective ways of thinking about health literacy interventions, including the design of health-education materials, instructional strategies, and the delivery of health care services to support patients and families across the life span.
Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris David; Follette, Katherine B.; Dokter, Erin F.; McCarthy, Don; Vezino, Beau; Formanek, Martin; Romine, James M.; Brock, Laci; Neiberding, Megan; Prather, Edward E.
Introductory astronomy courses often serve as terminal science courses for non-science majors and present an opportunity to assess non future scientists’ attitudes towards science as well as basic scientific knowledge and scientific analysis skills that may remain unchanged after college. Through a series of studies, we have been able to evaluate students’ basic science knowledge, attitudes towards science, quantitative literacy, and informational literacy. In the Fall of 2015, we conducted a case study of a single class administering all relevant surveys to an undergraduate class of 20 students. We will present our analysis of trends of each of these studies as well as the comparison case study. In general we have found that students basic scientific knowledge has remained stable over the past quarter century. In all of our studies, there is a strong relationship between student attitudes and their science and quantitative knowledge and skills. Additionally, students’ information literacy is strongly connected to their attitudes and basic scientific knowledge. We are currently expanding these studies to include new audiences and will discuss the implications of our findings for instructors.
McDonnell, Ryan William
The recent adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards call for changes to science education in the United States. The new standards emphasize an integrated approach to teaching science concepts and habits of mind through inquiry and literacy teaching practices. These habits of mind are necessary to meet the demands of college level science courses. However, data from international assessments of science achievement indicate that U.S. students underperform in science and the achievement of English Language Learners (ELLs) is significantly less than their native English speaking peers. This study aimed to identify current teacher perceptions and practices on the integration of science content and literacy in their curriculum in light of the new standards. Furthermore, a goal of this study was to identify promising practices for educating ELLs in secondary science classes. Qualitative methods were used for data collection. Three semi-structured interviews and three classroom observations were conducted with four secondary biology and/or anatomy-physiology teachers at two charter high schools located within a large urban city in southern California. Both school sites contained significant populations of ELL students. Constant comparative methods were used for data analysis. The findings for this study were that teachers viewed literacy as an important tool to teach scientific concepts. Teachers were able to integrate literacy through close reading and academic discussion. Furthermore, ELLs were supported through the instructional scaffolds in vocabulary instruction and peer-based learning activities. An additional finding was that inquiry was viewed as an important tool for teaching science; however the teachers enacted more literacy-based pedagogy over inquiry-based. This suggested that the focus on infusing more literacy into the curriculum has taken precedence over implementing inquiry-based instruction. An implication of
Bybee, Rodger; McCrae, Barry
International assessments provide important knowledge about science education and help inform decisions about policies, programmes, and practices in participating countries. In 2006, science was the primary domain for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Compared to the school curriculum orientation of Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), PISA provides a perspective that emphasises the application of knowledge to science and technology-related life situations. The orientation of PISA includes both knowledge and attitudes as these contribute to students' competencies that are central to scientific literacy. In addition to students' knowledge and competencies, the 2006 PISA survey gathered data on students' interest in science, support for scientific enquiry, and responsibility towards resources and environments. The survey used both a non-contextualised student questionnaire and contextualised questions. The latter is an innovative approach which embedded attitudinal questions at the conclusion of about two-thirds of the test units. The results presented in this article make connections between students' attitudes and interests in science and scientific literacy.
Vinogradov, Patsy; Bigelow, Martha
In addition to learning to read and write for the first time, adult English language learners with limited or emerging literacy skills must acquire oral English. Often, learners with limited print literacy in their first language have oral skills in English that exceed their English literacy skills (Geva & Zadeh, 2006). While this mismatch of oral…
Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J
This study aimed to validate a Turkish version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) (Baker et al, Development of a brief test to measure functional health literacy. Patient Educ Counsel 1999; 38: :33-42) and a Turkish version of the Chew self-report scale (Chew et al., Brief questions to identify patients with inadequate health literacy. Family Med, 2004; 36: :588-94) for measuring functional health literacy. The original English version of the S-TOFHLA and the Chew items were translated by applying standardized translation methods and cultural adaptations, and both were administered to a sample of diabetes patients (N = 302) in two diabetes clinics in one of the major cities in Turkey. Self-administered paper-pencil questionnaires were distributed to eligible outpatients who had a clinic appointment. In addition to the S-TOFHLA measurement and the Chew screening questions, gender, age, educational attainment, income, marital status and diabetes knowledge were obtained. The Turkish version of S-TOFHLA showed high internal consistency. Both S-TOFHLA and the Chew screening scale correlated significantly with known predictors of health literacy: age, education and income. The Chew scale was also related weakly but significantly with general diabetes knowledge. It is expected that the Turkish versions of S-TOFHLA and the Chew scale will be used in Turkey as well as in other countries with large Turkish communities.
Information literacy, as a concept, has suffered from terminological confusion and has been burdened with untenable expectations. In addition, insufficient attention has been given to the place of information with the context of information behavior or information practices generally. Significant challenges remain to developing information…
Brown, Peggy, Ed.
The uses of computers by colleges and universities are described, and some definitions of computer literacy are proposed. In addition, an essay, "Computing and Higher Education: The Revolution Is Through the Gates," by Robert G. Gillespie briefly considers the efforts colleges are making to explore the potential of the personal computer.…
McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.
The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…
Nutbeam, Don; McGill, Bronwyn; Premkumar, Pav
Governments around the world have adopted national policies and programs to improve health literacy. This paper examines progress in the development of evidence to support these policies from interventions to improve health literacy among community populations. Our review found only a limited number of studies (n=7) that met the criteria for inclusion, with many more influenced by the concept of health literacy but not using it in the design and evaluation. Those included were diverse in setting, population and intended outcomes. All included educational strategies to develop functional health literacy, and a majority designed to improve interactive or critical health literacy skills. Several papers were excluded because they described a protocol for an intervention, but not results, indicating that our review may be early in a cycle of activity in community intervention research. The review methodology may not have captured all relevant studies, but it provides a clear message that the academic interest and attractive rhetoric surrounding health literacy needs to be tested more systematically through intervention experimentation in a wide range of populations using valid and reliable measurement tools. The distinctive influence of the concept of health literacy on the purpose and methodologies of health education and communication is not reflected in many reported interventions at present. Evidence to support the implementation of national policies and programs, and the intervention tools required by community practitioners are not emerging as quickly as needed. This should be addressed as a matter of priority by research funding agencies.
DeVeau, Stacy; Blackwell, J.; Edwards, D.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S.
Results of and future plans for education-related components related to educator participation in the NASA/IPAC 2011 Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) are presented. NITARP engages both formal and informal educators in conducting authentic science research utilizing publicly available Kepler Mission data sets under the direction of scientists. This team's research entailed the analysis of stellar light curves, comparing periodicity and temperature from a sample of 250 known variable stars, to determine their characteristics using light curves, power spectra, and phased-plot diagrams. Participating educators shared their research experiences with students, educators, and the public in a variety of ways. Additionally, students were directly involved in the research project, providing additional insights into how science research is conducted. Education activities related to the science research are presented. This program provides educators, students, and the public at large, insight into the world of authentic science research while providing avenues to support science education. Linking the learning of science to the doing of science promotes true science literacy of students and the public. An understanding of the nature of science is vital to promoting the science literacy of civilization.
Hamilton, Lorna G.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
ABSTRACT The home literacy environment (HLE) predicts language and reading development in typically developing children; relatively little is known about its association with literacy development in children at family-risk of dyslexia. We assessed the HLE at age 4 years, precursor literacy skills at age 5, and literacy outcomes at age 6, in a sample of children at family-risk of dyslexia (n = 116) and children with no known risk (n = 72). Developmental relationships between the HLE and literacy were comparable between the groups; an additional effect of storybook exposure on phoneme awareness was observed in the family-risk group only. The effects of socioeconomic status on literacy were partially mediated by variations in the HLE; in turn, effects of the HLE on literacy were mediated by precursor skills (oral language, phoneme awareness, and emergent decoding) in both groups. Findings are discussed in terms of possible gene–environment correlation mechanisms underpinning atypical literacy development. PMID:28250707
International Literacy Year, 1990, is intended to alert readers to the persistence of illiteracy. The challenge of illiteracy can only be met by concerted action on the part of all those concerned, acting together to conquer ignorance, eliminate poverty, promote peace, and assert the solidarity and interdependence of nations and peoples. As early…
Powell, William R.
The retention factor of literacy must be the target variable in any projection of literacy programs of the future. Further, the success of literacy programs of the future is contingent upon the resolution of three major problem areas: (1) the concept of literacy; (2) the programs of literacy; and (3) the politics of literacy. A concept of literacy…
Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely on…
Relates the author's experiences with literacy in another medium during 18 months of concentrated music study. Describes how this experience produced insights about the student/teacher relationship, about learning, and about the writing process. (SR)
Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)
Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine
When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions.
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Darragh, Amy; Johnston, Mark
Although the contributions of reading ability and numeracy skills in successful navigation of health-related systems are understood, the skills that comprise interactive and critical health literacy are not fully explicit. Using a phenomenological approach and the conceptual frame of health literacy as an asset, we conducted focus group interviews with 35 caregivers of children who had significant medical needs. Caregiver quotes were coded and categorized and then compared to the Revised Blooms Taxonomy. The purpose of the analysis was to better understand the interactive and critical health literacy skills caregivers use when coordinating their children's care. The findings support a dynamic constructivist perspective of health literacy such that caregiver skill changed relative to the children's health conditions. In addition, a taxonomic code of cognitive and communicative skills emerged from the data. This taxonomy may be useful in developing instrumentation to measure interactive and critical health literacy as well as in identifying a potential foci of interventions aimed at improving interactive and critical health literacy.
Rapp, David N.
Recently, support has grown for using comic books and graphic novels to enhance and support literacy instruction. In some ways, it's surprising that the medium has only recently enjoyed such support. Stereotyped views of comics as unsophisticated, disposable entertainment or material written to the lowest common denominator fail to consider the…
Provides an overview of literacy and literacy education in Morocco. Sketches the historical context, and then discusses literacy in formal school settings, adult programs, and needed improvements. (SR)
Dominicans are one of the fastest growing Hispanic subgroups in the United States, and they are greatly affected by type 2 diabetes. Health literacy and general literacy are critical components in diabetes self-management given that type 2 diabetes is a disease that relies heavily on a person having the skills needed to actively participate in their diabetes care. Three PubMed searches were conducted using search words Dominicans, Hispanics, diabetes, type 2 diabetes, diabetes education, health literacy, and literacy. These searches were based on published articles completed from January 2000 to May 2012. There were 14 articles reviewed. Eight articles were eliminated from the 3 literature searches. These findings show a lack of data and research on Dominicans with diabetes and on health literacy and general literacy among this Hispanic subgroup. Qualitative and quantitative studies are urgently needed to examine diabetes in Dominicans and the impact health literacy and general literacy have on diabetes health outcomes in this Hispanic subgroup.
Covic, Amalia Neide; Kanemoto, Eduardo; Bastos, Andre Covic
To receive treatment for cancer, patients in Brazil often travel to larger hospitals that may be located far away from their families and communities. Pediatric patients miss time in the classroom and may achieve educational milestones later than other students. They may also struggle with some educational topics after receiving certain types of cancer treatment. The Hospital School at the GRAACC helps to close this education gap by providing educational support to school-age students receiving treatment for cancer. In addition to providing educational services during treatment, teachers at the hospital school, Mobile School - Specific Student (EMAE). The objective of this preliminary study is to build knowledge about the impact of school enrollment on mathematics literacy in hospitalized cancer patients undergoing treatment. We followed 15-year-old patients (n = 54) with at last 1 year inside the hospital school for a period of 8 years (2001-2008). Study participants were affected by a variety of diseases including bone tumors (n = 39), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 08) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 07). The level of participants' mathematical literacy was regularly assessed by reviewing the results of formative assessments completed by students. Using that information, students were grouped into categories according to mathematics literacy levels established by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The formative assessment is based on the analysis of all the material produced by the student and the EMAE teacher across the years of the study, including the recordings of working meetings that were held with all the teachers every class day.
Basic Skills Agency, 2008
This publication contains a series of sessions developed and used by Newcastle City Council Family Learning Service and now published to share practice. The sessions were developed specifically to support "Skills for Life" tutors to deliver the adult literacy and numeracy curricula but can also be used by other practitioners. There are…
Barone, Diane M., Ed.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.
This book presents current, research-based best practices for supporting young children's development as readers and writers. From leading figures in early literacy, the book's essays demonstrate that scientifically grounded instruction need not be dull, drill-oriented, or "one-size-fits-all"--rather, it describes language-rich approaches to…
Department for Education and Skills, London (England).
These medium-term plans have been produced to support, but not prescribe, teachers' planning. They exemplify ways in which England's National Literacy Strategy (NLS) Framework objectives (and the Early Learning Goals) can be clustered. The Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 medium term plans cluster the NLS text, sentence and word level objectives into…
Dugan, Celeste Corbin Hester
School districts are hiring literacy coaches to provide professional development and follow-up support for teachers as a means to improve teacher effectiveness and student achievement in reading. A paucity of research exists reflecting a clear analysis of the factors which can be used to determine the effectiveness of a coach. According to a…
Kozono, Kazutake; Ikeda, Naomitsu; Irie, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Yoichi; Oshima, Shunsuke; Murayama, Koichi; Taguchi, Hirotsugu
Recently, the importance of an engineering education increases by the development of the information technology (IT) . Development of the information literacy education is important to deal with new IT in the education on college of technology. Our group investigated the current state of information literacy education on college of technology at Kyushu area and the secondary education. In addition, we investigated about the talent whom the industrial world requested. From these investigation results, this paper proposed cooperation with the elementary and secondary education, enhancement of intellectual property education, introduction of information ethics education, introduction of career education and enhancement of PBL to information literacy education on college of technology.
This paper is a critical review of some recent literature around the "literacies of the digital" in schools and higher education. It discusses the question: "what does the conjoining of the terms "digital" and "literacy" add to our understanding of teaching and learning in higher education"? It explores the continuing role of critical literacy in…
Venezky, Richard L.
Literacy policy has often developed independently of other social and employment programs. As a consequence, literacy tends to become an end unto itself, and assessment is directed more toward academic, archival ends than toward policy evaluation. Many justifications given for large-scale literacy programs are not based upon empirical data.…
Tarc, Aparna Mishra
My paper situates literacy in the pre-symbolic implications of the maternal relation. Turning to child psychoanalysis, particularly Melanie Klein's theories of infancy and symbolization, my paper discusses the role the child's inner life plays in her engagements with literacy. Citing cases of second language learning, I pose literacy as…
Weiser, Brenda Gayle
During the past thirty years, significant progress has been made in defining environmental education and its goals, and operationally by the emerging concept of environmental literacy. Environmental literacy includes affective, behavioral, and cognitive components. Roth (1992) includes environmental sensitivity, knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, personal investment and responsibility, and active involvement as components of environmental literacy. In addition, Simmons (1995) identifies affect, ecological knowledge, socio-political knowledge, knowledge of environmental issues, skills, environmentally responsible behaviors, and additional determinants of environmentally responsible behaviors as components of environmental literacy. Environmental education is the primary vehicle for promoting environmental literacy. Most K through 12 environmental education is delivered in non-formal programs outside traditional curriculum and instruction and is exemplified by the National Envirothon program. Student teams compete to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of ecological principles in aquatics, forestry, soils, wildlife, and a selected environmental issue. Each year over 75,000 high school students participate in the Envirothon. The purpose of the study was to identify the effects of Envirothon participation on its high school students from 17 out of 43 states with Envirothon programs. One hundred forty eight students completed the Wisconsin Environmental Literacy Assessment Instrument; (Peri, 1996), to assess their environmental literacy status. Data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance where the pretest was the covariate. The results indicated the participation in the Envirothon program does make a statistically significant difference between the environmental literacy of those high school students who have participated in the Envirothon program and the environmental literacy of those high school students who have not participated in the
Trenholm, Brian; Mirenda, Pat
This exploratory survey was conducted to gain a detailed understanding of the home and community literacy experiences of children, adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. The data were collected from 224 parents/guardians across Canada who were asked to indicate literacy goals and priorities for their children with Down syndrome, the literacy resources they and their children utilised at home and in the community, perceived barriers to their children's literacy attainment, and solutions for alleviating the barriers. The results were analysed according to age when appropriate, in order to better understand the course of literacy development. Overall, the number of respondents who indicated their children with Down syndrome could read and write appeared to be consistent with previously published estimates, including the number reporting advanced reading levels. The wide range of reading and writing materials observed in use at home appeared to be greater than the range of materials actually used by children with Down syndrome. Relatively few of the parents who read storybooks to their children reported asking higher-level questions, suggesting that some parents might benefit from support in this activity. Many respondents reported using the library, and many expressed concerns about the quality and scarcity of literacy programs. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for how parents, caregivers, teachers, and program providers can encourage literacy development in persons with Down syndrome, and suggestions for future research.