Science.gov

Sample records for additional literature review

  1. Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manit; Chan, Edward KS; Gupta, Sunil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement technology has progressed from industrial Plexiglass administration in the 1950s to the recent advent of nanoparticle additives. Additives have been trialed to address problems with modern bone cements such as the loosening of prosthesis, high post-operative infection rates, and inflammatory reduction in interface integrity. This review aims to assess current additives used in PMMA bone cements and offer an insight regarding future directions for this biomaterial. Low index (< 15%) vitamin E and low index (< 5 g) antibiotic impregnated additives significantly address infection and inflammatory problems, with only modest reductions in mechanical strength. Chitosan (15% w/w PMMA) and silver (1% w/w PMMA) nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity with no significant reduction in mechanical strength. Future work on PMMA bone cements should focus on trialing combinations of these additives as this may enhance favourable properties. PMID:23610754

  2. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  3. Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  4. Literature review :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  5. Supernumerary teeth: literature review.

    PubMed

    Rao, P V; Chidzonga, M M

    2001-01-01

    A review of the literature on supernumerary teeth in general and supernumerary molars in particular was carried out on prevalence, aetiology, complications and the treatment of supernumerary teeth. Additional teeth are relatively common and are usually of simple conical shape (supernumerary teeth) but may resemble teeth of the normal size and shape. The aim of this review is to provide reference material for dental practitioners in Zimbabwe. PMID:11961855

  6. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  7. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in childhood: A systematic review of the literature and an additional case report

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Magne, Miguel Garcia; Salemme, Marianna; Cheli, Maurizio; Boroni, Giovanni; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment in children with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (AMG). METHODS: AMG is a degenerative disease characterized by a proliferation of the mucosal epithelium which deeply invaginates and extends into the thickened muscular layer of the gallbladder, causing intramural diverticula. Although AMG is found in up to 5% of cholecystectomy specimens in adult populations, this condition in childhood is extremely uncommon. Authors provide a detailed systematic review of the pediatric literature according to PRISMA guidelines, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic assessment. An additional case of AMG is also presented. RESULTS: Five studies were finally enclosed, encompassing 5 children with AMG. Analysis was extended to our additional 11-year-old patient, who presented diffuse AMG and pancreatic acinar metaplasia of the gallbladder mucosa and was successfully managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean age at presentation was 7.2 years. Unspecific abdominal pain was the commonest symptom. Abdominal ultrasound was performed on all patients, with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Five patients underwent cholecystectomy, and at follow-up were asymptomatic. In the remaining patient, completely asymptomatic at diagnosis, a conservative approach with monthly monitoring via ultrasonography was undertaken. CONCLUSION: Considering the remote but possible degeneration leading to cancer and the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy even in small children, evidence suggests that elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy represent the treatment of choice. Pre-operative evaluation of the extrahepatic biliary tree anatomy with cholangio-MRI is strongly recommended. PMID:27170933

  8. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  9. Elementary Science Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

  10. Compadrazgo: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Gill-Hopple, Kathy; Brage-Hudson, Diane

    2012-04-01

    Compadrazgo, "coparenthood," is a traditional ritual fictive kinship system that provides a network of mutually supportive relationships in the Mexican American culture. A literature search of CINAHL, Medline, PsychoInfo, and Web of Science was used to identify peer-reviewed journals and original sources. Keywords included comadre, compadrazgo, fictive kin, social support, Mexican, and Mexican American. Additional resources were identified through a focused review of references. Findings from this study indicate knowledge about compadrazgo, is limited to the social organization, historical practices, and a preliminary description of the compadres role. Minimal information is available about the relationship between compadrazgo, and health, and variations in roles and responsibilities of compadrazgo, participants. Frequency of enactment of compadrazgo, responsibilities and barriers to the enactment of social support by compadres remain unknown. Variations in practice have not been explored. Nursing implication include the recommended ways that compadrazgo, can be encouraged or promoted in patient care. PMID:22267550

  11. Literature review and need for additional study of surface-water quality in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area encompasses about 24 miles of the middle reach of the Cuyahoga River and parts of four major tributaries -- Furnace Run, Brandywine Creek, Chippewa Creek, and TInkers Creek. Water quality in this reach does not meet Ohio water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen, fecal bacteria, ammonia, and lead. Point sources of effluent contribute contaminants. On the basis of a review of scientific and technical literature, National Park Service management goals, and water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, three subject areas for future study are suggested: (1) The dissolved oxygen regime, (2) chemical quality of base flow, and (3) quality of storm-water runoff.

  12. The effect of selected alloying element additions on properties of Mg-based alloy as bioimplants: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Xu, Zhao-Bin; Bai, Xue-Ling; Shang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This review investigates the current application limitations of Mg and Mg alloys. The key issues hindering the application of biodegradable Mg alloys as implants are their fast degradation rate and biological consideration. We have discussed the effect of some selected alloying element additions on the properties of the Mg-based alloy, especially the nutrient elements in human (Zn, Mn, Ca, Sr). Different grain sizes, phase constituents and distributions consequently influence the mechanical properties of the Mg alloys. Solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening are enhanced by the addition of alloying elements, generally improving the mechanical properties. Besides, the hot working process can also improve the mechanical properties. Combination of different processing steps is suggested to be adopted in the fabrication of Mg-based alloys. Corrosion properties of these Mg-based alloys have been measured in vitro and in vivo. The degradation mechanism is also discussed in terms of corrosion types, rates, byproducts and response of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the clinical response and requirements of degradable implants are presented, especially for the nutrient elements (Ca, Mn, Zn, Sr). This review provides information related to different Mg alloying elements and presents the promising candidates for an ideal implant.

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: report of an additional 5 cases with comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Bisceglia, Michele; Dimitri, Lucia; Giannatempo, Giuseppe; Carotenuto, Vincenzo; Bianco, Mario; Monte, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Vincenzo; Magro, Gaetano

    2011-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the central nervous system was first described in 1996. A number of cases have been reported since. The authors present 5 new cases: 4 intracranial and 1 intraspinal. All patients were adults (age range, 47 to 75 years); 4 were male and 1 female; 4 cases were primary tumors; and 1 was a second tumor recurrence. All patients were surgically treated with gross total removal. All cases were histologically examined with immunohistochemical confirmation; 2 tumors exhibited diffuse classic histology, 1 tumor was a cellular variant, 1 tumor was myxoid, and 1 was predominantly classic with focal myxoid features and focally pleomorphic. The postoperative course was uneventful in all. The patient with the cellular variant experienced 2 local recurrences and eventually died of disease 10 years after the initial diagnosis. The patient with the myxoid variant--the tumor studied--which was the second recurrence of a previously misdiagnosed fibrous meningioma surgically treated 15 years earlier, had a recurrence after 2 years for the third time and eventually died of disease. Three patients are alive and well 11.6, 6, and 4 years after surgery. SFT is a rare tumor that needs to be differentiated from some mimickers, mainly fibrous meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, and with regard to the myxoid variant, also adult-onset myxochordoid meningioma and myxoid peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Immunohistochemistry is crucial for the correct diagnosis of SFT. The authors also performed a review of the literature and found a little more than 200 cases on record.

  14. Cartilaginous Tumors of the Larynx and Trachea in the Dog: Literature Review and 10 Additional Cases (1995-2014).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, G A; Altimira, J; Vilafranca, M

    2015-11-01

    Cartilaginous tumors of the larynx and trachea are uncommon in the dog. The authors describe 10 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014 and review 16 cases in the literature. Seven of our cases were tracheal and 3 were laryngeal. Two of the laryngeal tumors were chondromas, which have not been previously reported in this site. The third laryngeal tumor was a myxochondroma. Of the 7 tracheal tumors, 6 arose from the ventral tracheal wall, including 2 that were extraluminal. Tracheal tumor types included chondrosarcoma (n = 3), chondroma (n = 2), and osteochondroma (n = 2). All of the laryngeal tumors and 5 of 7 of the tracheal tumors occurred in adult dogs (aged 5-11 years). The 2 tracheal osteochondromas were in young dogs (3-4 months) and were intrathoracic, while the remaining tracheal tumors were cervical. Surgical excision had a good outcome in most cases. Combining our 10 cases with the 16 previously reported cases showed that 6 (27%) of the affected dogs were Arctic breeds (Alaskan Malamute or Siberian Husky) suggesting a predisposition in this type of dog.

  15. CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical

  16. Homework. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

  17. Health implications of increased manganese in the environment resulting from the combustion of fuel additives: a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is effective in raising the octane level of gasoline and is currently used in Canada for that purpose in a maximal concentration of 18 mg Mn/l (slightly less than 0.07 g Mn/US gal). It has been estimated that if MMT were used in all US gasoline in these amounts, the median increase of Mn in ambient air would be not more than 0.05 ..mu..g Mn/m/sup 3/, with increments generally less than 0.5 ..mu..g Mn/m/sup 3/ along urban corridors. Respirable manganese in ambient air due to MMT combustion would be many orders of magnitude below the concentrations associated with occupational manganism and respiratory problems and also below those reported in isolated episodes of respiratory symptoms in communities near ferromanganese plants. Evidence was reviewed on the possibilities of: (1) increased absorption of inhaled manganese compared with ingested manganese; (2) hypersusceptibility of infants and persons of advanced age; and (3) increased absorption associated with iron deficiency. Experimental animals that inhaled the combustion products of MMT in concentrations of approximately 10, 100, and 1000 ..mu..g Mn/m/sup 3/ for 9 mo did not show toxic effects, although there was temporary elevation of tissue levels of Mn. Rhesus monkeys, susceptible to the neurologic effects of Mn, showed no symptoms after inhaling the combustion products of MMT in concentrations of 100 ..mu..g Mn/m/sup 3/ for up to 66 wk. Monkeys exposed to 5000 ..mu..g Mn/m/sup 3/ also showed no symptoms.

  18. Bruxism: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S Varalakshmi; Kumar, M Praveen; Sravanthi, D; Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Anuhya, V

    2014-01-01

    Parafunctional activities associated with the stomatognathic system include lip and cheek chewing, nail biting, and teeth clenching. Bruxism can be classified as awake or sleep bruxism. Patients with sleep bruxism are more likely to experience jaw pain and limitation of movement, than people who do not experience sleep bruxism. Faulty occlusion is one of the most common causes of bruxism that further leads to temporomandibular joint pain. Bruxism has been described in various ways by different authors. This article gives a review of the literature on bruxism since its first description. PMID:25628497

  19. Lysimeter literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Benign pleomorphic adenoma of the larynx: report of a case and review and analysis of 20 additional cases in the literature.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S P; Banerjee, S; Ghosh, L M; Roy, S

    1997-08-01

    Among the benign pleomorphic adenomas of the minor salivary glands, those that develop in the larynx are very rare. One such case of benign pleomorphic adenoma of the larynx in an adult female is described. The patient was treated with epiglottectomy with a lateral pharyngotomy approach. Review of the literature showed an additional 20 well-described cases of benign pleomorphic adenoma of the larynx. These patients usually present with hoarseness, dyspnea or dysphagia, or any combination of these depending on the site of origin and the size of the tumor. Occasionally the tumor may be discovered incidentally. The tumor can occur in any part of the larynx with the epiglottis being the most common site. Clinically they are indistinguishable from other benign laryngeal neoplasms, as surface mucosal lining remains intact. Histopathological examination is used to make the definitive diagnosis, but rarely, misinterpretation may occur. Conservative surgery provides a lasting cure.

  1. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  2. [Literature review of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    This review focuses on the following: the measurement and monitoring of pollutants; treatment systems, including physicochemical processes, as well as biological processes; industrial wastes (management); hazardous wastes (waste management as well as remediation); and the fate and effects of pollutants.

  3. Cosmic electrons. [literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The published literature on cosmic electrons is summarized. The primary and secondary sources of cosmic electrons are discussed, and the propagation of the electrons in the interstellar medium is studied with respect to energy loss mechanisms, age distributions, and spectral modifications during flight. Various portions of the electron and positron spectra are then considered in relation to problems of astrophysics. New information is presented on such topics as the origin of low-energy positrons, the decay kinematics of the pi-mu-e process, the application of age distributions for nuclear cosmic rays to cosmic electrons, and the possibility of nonidentical sources for cosmic electrons and protons.

  4. Reviews of Professional Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, David; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "DEC Recommended Practices," a publication of the Division for Exceptional Children; "Empowering At-Risk Families during the Early Childhood Years" (Swick and Groves); "Developing Home-School Partnerships" (Swap); "Parent-Teacher Conferencing in Early Childhood Education" (Lawler); and the video "Jumpstart: How to Become Your Child's Best…

  5. Garlic: Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Adaki, Shridevi; Adaki, Raghavendra; Shah, Kaushal; Karagir, Amol

    2014-01-01

    Garlic is one of the components, which have effects on reducing the risk of cancer. Including garlic in the diet helps for the betterment of the health. Medicinal effects of the garlic were known since 5,000 years. Recently, studies were carried out to known its effect on the cancer cell lines. Many studies have shown its effects not only on carcinomas, but also on the cardiovascular system and immune system. Functions of the each component of the garlic were studied to know exactly, which component has got beneficial effect. So this review has been carried out to know about the component, functions of each component, mode of action, and beneficial effects of the garlic.

  6. Using Mindtools in Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent

    2009-01-01

    This paper will describe the use of developed resources for doctoral students taking a literature review class (DOC722) at the University of Phoenix. The paper offers a description of several Mindtools along with their educational advantages for research projects. Today's graduate students are challenged to identify and interpret relevant research…

  7. Sentence Combining: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sylvia E.

    Sentence combining--a technique of putting strings of sentence kernels together in a variety of ways so that completed sentences possess greater syntactic maturity--is a method offering much promise in the teaching of writing and composition. The purpose of this document is to provide a literature review of this procedure. After defining the term…

  8. Literature Reviews: Advising Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The rapid expansion of available information has created new opportunities and challenges for today's research students. Academic and public libraries have developed sophisticated electronic databases to better manage knowledge to make it more accessible to researchers. Literature reviews are a major challenge for doctoral students. The focus of…

  9. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews…

  10. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  11. Working postures: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Kumar, Shrawan

    2004-06-01

    Working postures are addressed in many papers in the ergonomics field but, surprisingly, scientific literature dealing with working posture itself is not common; knowledge has been elusive. This article reviews the working postures literature. Selected papers published in the English language before March 2003 including the phrase "working postures" in the title, abstract, or keywords were searched in the PubMed, Scirus, and Science Direct databases and reviewed. The literature provides evidence that working postures and musculoskeletal health are related. This relationship is supported by the overexertion, differential fatigue, and cumulative load theories of musculoskeletal injuries' precipitation. Goniometers, inclinometers, photographic techniques, electrogoniometers, and video recording systems are the means that are most often used to measure working postures. Information about working postures need to be collected and analyzed in a more systematic way in order to contribute for a deeper understanding of the relationship between working postures and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This information will help to improve the control and rehabilitation of these highly prevalent disorders.

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  14. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  15. Improving intelligence: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Buschkuehl, M; Jaeggi, S M

    2010-05-01

    Intelligence is associated with performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks and is a reliable predictor for educational and professional success. Therefore, the development of effective training regimens that aim to improve intelligence is of high interest. In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that certain interventions have a positive impact on intelligence. The aim of the present paper is to provide a literature review on such studies. Despite promising results, we conclude that there are still many unknown variables and that the mechanisms that underlie improvements in intelligence are not well understood. More work is needed in order to disentangle these involved processes and to further refine existing training regimens.

  16. Refeeding syndrome: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Khan, L U R; Ahmed, J; Khan, S; Macfie, J

    2011-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) describes the biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished catabolic individual. RFS has been recognised in the literature for over fifty years and can result in serious harm and death. Crude estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality are available for specific populations. RFS can occur in any individual but more commonly occurs in at-risk populations. Increased awareness amongst healthcare professionals is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality. This review examines the physiology of RFS and describes the clinical manifestations. A management strategy is described. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized.

  17. Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

  18. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  19. [Work ability: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to present a literature review on work ability and functional ageing. An extensive search of publications from 1966 to 2006 was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Several aspects of work ability are presented in this manuscript: the historical context when the theme emerged, the theoretical framework, the determinant factors and an explanatory model, the current methodology to evaluate and monitor the work ability, the importance of its promotion. Highlights of the current situation about the research, practice and future perspectives regarding the theme are also discussed. In the context of the workforce aging, the work ability became an important indicator because their consequences to the worker's health, well-being and employability, with impacts to the individuals, organizations and society. In spite of their relevance, there is a lack of attention to the issues about work ability and functional ageing.

  20. Titanium Allergy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Goutam, Manish; Giriyapura, Chandu; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium. PMID:25484409

  1. Wound healing - A literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Costa, Tila Fortuna; Andrade, Zilton de Araújo; Medrado, Alena Ribeiro Alves Peixoto

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration and tissue repair processes consist of a sequence of molecular and cellular events which occur after the onset of a tissue lesion in order to restore the damaged tissue. The exsudative, proliferative, and extracellular matrix remodeling phases are sequential events that occur through the integration of dynamic processes involving soluble mediators, blood cells, and parenchymal cells. Exsudative phenomena that take place after injury contribute to the development of tissue edema. The proliferative stage seeks to reduce the area of tissue injury by contracting myofibroblasts and fibroplasia. At this stage, angiogenesis and reepithelialization processes can still be observed. Endothelial cells are able to differentiate into mesenchymal components, and this difference appears to be finely orchestrated by a set of signaling proteins that have been studied in the literature. This pathway is known as Hedgehog. The purpose of this review is to describe the various cellular and molecular aspects involved in the skin healing process.

  2. Resilon: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Shahidi, Atabak

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. An ideal root canal filling material should completely seal the entire root canal space and block communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; it should also be nontoxic, noncarcinogenic, non-genotoxic, biocompatible, insoluble in tissue fluids and dimensionally stable. Bonding to dentin is a promising property, which can prevent leakage and improve the sealing ability of root canal filling materials. Resilon was developed and rec-ommended initially because the existing rootcanal filling materials did not bond to root canal dentin. Since its introduction in 2004, numerous reports have been published regarding various aspects of this material. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding Resilon’s physical and chemical properties and leakage studies. Materials and methods. A review of the literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for Resilon from May 2004 to April 2012. Results. There are many published reports regarding Resilon. The searchshowed that Resilon is composed of a parent polymer, polycaprolactone or Tone, which is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, with filler particles consisting of bioactive glass, bismuth oxychloride and barium sulfate. It possesses some antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is a promising material for root canal filling. Despite the presence of numerous case reports and case series regarding these applications, there are few designed research studies on clinical applications of this material. Resilon has some drawbacks such as high cost. Conclusion. Resilon seals well and is a biocompatible material. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy compared with other materials. PMID:24082982

  3. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors: A Review of the Literature and Addition of a Fourth Lichenoid Reaction.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Morgan; Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-06-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcet's disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy.

  4. Job Search: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Stephen L.

    This review focuses on what the literature can tell about the appropriate content and conduct of a job search training program. The chapters correspond to the four bodies of literature concerning job searches that were reviewed. The chapter on the theoretical literature of the scholarly journals examines the basic model of job search, trade-off…

  5. Supernumerary premolars: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Solares, Roberto; Romero, Maria Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Supernumerary premolars appear to be more common than previously estimated. The purpose of this report was to review most of the cases published in the dental literature since 1932. The authors found that supernumerary premolars occur 3 times more in males than in females, indicating a possible sex-linked inheritance, with the highest frequency of occurrence in the mandibular premolar region (74%). They are also the most common supernumerary teeth in the mandibular arch (7%), and their incidence is 1% (1 in 157)-much higher than previously reported. Maxillary supernumerary premolars were found to occur at a lower rate (26%). The possible mechanisms of development are described, with a localized hyperactivity of the dental lamina being the most widely accepted theory. Recurrence of supernumerary premolars after being surgically removed has been reported in 8% of the cases reviewed. Patients with a previous history of anterior conical or tuberculated supernumerary teeth at an early age have a 24% possibility of developing single or multiple supernumerary premolars at a later age. Early diagnosis and appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs is extremely important. Various treatment recommendations are also discussed. PMID:15460302

  6. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD): a case with additional features and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chew, H B; Ngu, L H; Keng, W T

    2011-01-01

    A rare syndrome of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) has been recently described. We report the first patient with this syndrome in Southeast Asia and review reported cases to date. Our patient was good health with normal development until the age of 2. He then developed hyperphagic obesity, hypersomnolence, seizures, alveolar hypoventilation, central hypothyroidism, sodium and water dysregulation, gastrointestinal dysmotility, strabismus, disordered temperature and irregular heart rate, altered sweating, delayed puberty, mental retardation and recurrent respiratory tract infections. The cardiomyopathy with heart failure and abnormal cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter analysis present in our patient have not been reported previously. Tumours of the sympathetic nervous system are known to be associated with this syndrome but had not been found in our patient at the time of reporting. We highlight the difficulty of achieving the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its overlap with other well-established disease entities. The mortality and morbidity resulting from the high incidence of cardiorespiratory arrest may be prevented by early ventilatory support. PMID:22715259

  7. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD): a case with additional features and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chew, H B; Ngu, L H; Keng, W T

    2011-03-01

    A rare syndrome of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) has been recently described. We report the first patient with this syndrome in Southeast Asia and review reported cases to date. Our patient was good health with normal development until the age of 2. He then developed hyperphagic obesity, hypersomnolence, seizures, alveolar hypoventilation, central hypothyroidism, sodium and water dysregulation, gastrointestinal dysmotility, strabismus, disordered temperature and irregular heart rate, altered sweating, delayed puberty, mental retardation and recurrent respiratory tract infections. The cardiomyopathy with heart failure and abnormal cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter analysis present in our patient have not been reported previously. Tumours of the sympathetic nervous system are known to be associated with this syndrome but had not been found in our patient at the time of reporting. We highlight the difficulty of achieving the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its overlap with other well-established disease entities. The mortality and morbidity resulting from the high incidence of cardiorespiratory arrest may be prevented by early ventilatory support.

  8. Critical review of the literature on acrolein toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kligerman, A.D.; Morgan, K.T.; Heck, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed literature review with 520 references of human and animal toxicity studies of acrolein is presented, and information gaps identified that call for further investigation. Specific recommendations are suggested for additional short-/long-term studies, including chemical disposition and cytogenetic investigations. Two bibliographies are provided indicating the scope of the review: (1) literature actually cited and (2) literature examined but not included. 520 references.

  9. Synthesising the literature as part of a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Ann

    2015-03-18

    This article examines how to synthesise and critique research literature. To place the process of synthesising the research literature into context, the article explores the critiquing process by breaking it down into seven sequential steps. The article explains how and why these steps need to be kept in mind if a robust comprehensive literature search and analysis are to be achieved. The article outlines how to engage in the critiquing process and explains how the literature review needs to be assembled to generate a logical and reasoned debate to examine a topic of interest or research in more detail.

  10. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  11. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  12. Laparoscopy During Pregnancy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazuke, Salli; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Seidman, Daniel S.; Phillips, Douglas R.; Nezhat, Camran R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature regarding the role of laparoscopy during pregnancy, particularly adnexal mass and non-obstetric surgery, incorporating the results of a series of 9 cases of laparoscopy during pregnancy at our centers. Materials and Methods: A Medline search was performed to review the literature, and the reference lists provided by those articles were further explored for citations regarding laparoscopic adnexal surgery, appendectomy, and cholecystectomy. Our series of 9 patients consisted of pregnant patients with adnexal mass or acute abdomen who would otherwise have undergone exploratory laparotomy. Follow-up data for these 9 cases were collected by office visits, inquiry to the primary referring physicians, and telephone calls to the patient. Results: The literature search yielded 42 additional cases of operative pelvic laparoscopy and 51 cases of abdominal operative laparoscopy (cholecystectomy and appendectomy). The publications, particularly regarding cholecystectomy, were supportive of the laparoscopic approach during pregnancy. All of the patients in our series had favorable outcomes. Conclusions: Advanced operative laparoscopy has been successfully performed for certain indications during pregnancy. PMID:9876642

  13. Rural Medical Education: Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    (Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…

  14. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  15. Should All Literature Reviews Be Systematic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, D.; Nursten, J.; Williams, P.; Woodward, M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an outline of the framework for conducting a literature review based on experiences in reviewing the literature on the epidemiology of mentally disordered offenders. The approach covers the key areas of: (1) definition of the problem and criteria for inclusion and exclusion; (2) the search strategy; (3) criteria for the evaluation of…

  16. Literature Review on Dynamic Cellular Manufacturing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri Houshyar, A.; Leman, Z.; Pakzad Moghadam, H.; Ariffin, M. K. A. M.; Ismail, N.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2014-06-01

    In previous decades, manufacturers faced a lot of challenges because of globalization and high competition in markets. These problems arise from shortening product life cycle, rapid variation in demand of products, and also rapid changes in manufcaturing technologies. Nowadays most manufacturing companies expend considerable attention for improving flexibility and responsiveness in order to overcome these kinds of problems and also meet customer's needs. By considering the trend toward the shorter product life cycle, the manufacturing environment is towards manufacturing a wide variety of parts in small batches [1]. One of the major techniques which are applied for improving manufacturing competitiveness is Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). CMS is type of manufacturing system which tries to combine flexibility of job shop and also productivity of flow shop. In addition, Dynamic cellular manufacturing system which considers different time periods for the manufacturing system becomes an important topic and attracts a lot of attention to itself. Therefore, this paper made attempt to have a brief review on this issue and focused on all published paper on this subject. Although, this topic gains a lot of attention to itself during these years, none of previous researchers focused on reviewing the literature of that which can be helpful and useful for other researchers who intend to do the research on this topic. Therefore, this paper is the first study which has focused and reviewed the literature of dynamic cellular manufacturing system.

  17. The Reviewing of Management Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marcy; Rehman, Sajjad ur

    1987-01-01

    This study identified the most productive reviewing journals for newly published business management titles. Two assumptions were shown to be supported by the data: a small core of journals carry the greatest number of reviews and a few monographs are reviewed repeatedly but the majority rarely or not at all. (Author/EM)

  18. Value Streams in Microgrids: A literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Mashayekh, Salman; Forget, Thibault; DeForest, Nicholas; Agarwal, Ankit; Schönbein, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Microgrids are an increasingly common component of the evolving electricity grids with the potential to improve local reliability, reduce costs, and increase penetration rates for distributed renewable generation. The additional complexity of microgrids often leads to increased investment costs, creating a barrier for widespread adoption. These costs may result directly from specific needs for islanding detection, protection systems and power quality assurance that would otherwise be avoided in simpler system configurations. However, microgrids also facilitate additional value streams that may make up for their increased costs and improve the economic viability of microgrid deployment. This paper analyses the literature currently available on research relevant to value streams occurring in microgrids that may contribute to offset the increased investment costs. A review on research related to specific microgrid requirements is also presented.

  19. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Material and methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed. Results In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described. Conclusions The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression PMID:24421998

  20. Alcohol Public Education Literature. Alcohol Countermeasures Literature Review. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLellis, John D.; Griffin, Patrick

    The underlying theme of virtually all of the literature under review can be simply stated: If we are to achieve positive results in combating abusive drinking and its ramifications, we must revamp our thinking on the subject of alcohol and human behavior, discarding stereotypes and negative approaches. Effectively, communicating the basics of…

  1. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  2. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  3. Science in Afterschool Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Karen; McClure, Patricia; McComb, Errin M.

    2006-01-01

    In considering science in afterschool, research was reviewed and is presented in this document on how students learn science; how science is assessed, particularly inquiry science; recommended practices for afterschool science; and current afterschool science programs. Databases such as ERIC, Wilson Web, and PsychINFO were searched using…

  4. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Surgery and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Suresh; Venkatswamy, Srihari; Ramu, Veena; Banu, Khurshida; Ehtaih, Sham; Kashyap, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the clinical and radiologic features and management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia with review of literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment in a tertiary healthcare centre was done using the parameters of patients' details, clinical features, radiological findings, management and postoperative review. Results: Of the six patients, 3 females and 2 males were in the 2nd decade of life and 1 male in the 1st decade of life. The disease was restricted to maxilla in 3 patients, involved the temporal and frontal bones in addition to maxilla in one, involved the frontal bone in one patient and involved frontal and parietal bones in one patient. The primary reason for seeking treatment in all the 6 cases was facial deformity. There was absence of pain in all 6 cases. For surgical treatment in all three cases involving the maxilla, the approach was intraoral while bicoronal approach was used for the other three cases. Treatment consisted of surgical contouring and reshaping the area. All cases were followed up over a period of 2 years with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: Treatment of craniofacial fibro-osseous lesions is highly individualized. Most cases of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia manifest as swellings that cause facial deformity and surgical recontouring after cessation of growth seems to provide the best results. PMID:23662263

  5. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem.

  6. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals.

  7. Cyberbullying: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon; Roden, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The article is a literature review on cyberbullying from 2007-2013. Topics covered in the review have been categorized starting with definition of cyberbullying; roles of persons involved and statistics of who is being targeted; reasons for cyberbullying; differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying; and gender comparisons related to…

  8. Design of Educational Game: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Li, Yi

    This review focuses on educational game design, including the developmental stage of design thought, design theories, design approaches, etc. Specifically it highlights the balance and integration between educational character and playfulness in educational games. This review also suggests limited research areas in existing literature and illuminates the possible further research in educational game design.

  9. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  10. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  11. Phenomenology: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on the use of phenomenology as a research methodology in education research, with a focus on music education research. The review is organized as follows: (a) general education, (b) music research, (c) music education research, (d) dissertations, (e) important figures, (f) themes, and (g) the future.…

  12. Review of Family Literacy Programming Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vickie S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on current and past literature as it relates to family literacy. Reviews that related to models of literacy programming that include a library instruction component were considered as part of this review. Overall, researchers perceived that there are transformative long term benefits for the participating…

  13. Vapour Intrusion into Buildings - A Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a review of recent research on vapour intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The chapter builds on a report from Tillman and Weaver (2005) which reviewed the literature on vapour intrusion through 2005. Firstly, the term ‘vapour intru...

  14. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging. PMID:26017950

  15. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  16. Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Flahault, Adrien; Vignon, Marguerite; Rabant, Marion; Hummel, Aurélie; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Canioni, Danielle; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Suarez, Felipe; El Karoui, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We report the case of a multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with initial renal involvement. Although the renal involvement in this case was typical of MCD, it constitutes a rare presentation of the disease, and in our case the renal manifestations led to the haematological diagnosis. Clinical Findings/Patient Concerns: The patient was admitted for fever, diarrhea, anasarca, lymphadenopathies and acute renal failure. Despite intravenous rehydration using saline and albumin, renal function worsened and the patient required dialysis. While diagnostic investigations were performed, right hemiplegia occurred. There was no anemia or thrombocytopenia. Diagnoses: Kidney biopsy was consistent with glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Lymph node histology was consistent with hyalin-vascular variant of Castleman disease. Outcomes: Given the renal and neurological manifestations of this MCD-associated TMA, the patient was treated with plasma exchange during one month, and six courses of rituximab, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. The evolution was favorable. Conclusion: Although rare, this diagnosis is worth knowing, as specific treatment has to be started as soon as possible and proved to be efficient in our case as well as in other reports in the literature. PMID:27741115

  17. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  18. Intrauterine infections: a literature review.

    PubMed

    França, Cristiane Miranda; Mugayar, Leda R F

    2004-01-01

    During gestation, many microorganisms can infect the fetus, causing severe birth defects. Such organisms and the resulting clinical syndromes have been categorized as TORCH infections, a useful acronym referring to Toxoplasma gondii, other microorganisms (like syphilis), rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpesviruses. Since dental patients typically report pregnancy or previous infections as part of their health history, and TORCH infections can manifest oral symptoms, the dentist is in a position to act as an educator and screener for these infections. This article reviews TORCH agents for dentists to help the clinician in educating pregnant patients about the risks these infections pose to the fetus. The authors also note oral symptoms related to these infections. PMID:15552342

  19. Static electricity: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  20. Cu-Cr Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Need, Ryan F.

    2012-08-09

    Cu-Cr alloys are part of a class of face-centered cubic (FCC)-body-centered cubic (BCC) composites that includes similar alloys, such as Cu-Nb and Cu-Ta. When heavily deformed, these FCC-BCC materials create 'in situ' composites with a characteristic structure-nanoscale BCC filaments in a ductile FCC matrix. The strength of these composites is vastly greater than predicted by the rule of mixtures, and has been shown to be inversely proportional to the filament spacing. Lower raw materials costs suggest that Cu-Cr alloys may offer more economical solution to high-strength, high-conductivity wire than either their Nb or Ta counterparts. However, Cr is also more brittle and soluble in Cu than Nb or Ta. These qualities necessitate thermal treatments to remove solute atoms from the Cu matrix, improve conductivity, and maintain the ductility of the Cr filaments. Through the use of different thermomechanical processing routes or the addition of select dopants, alloys with strength in excess of 1 GPa at 70% IACS have been achieved. To date, previous research on Cu-Cr alloys has focused on a relatively small number of alloy compositions and processing methods while the effects of dopants and ageing treatments have only been studied independently. Consequently, there remains considerable opportunity for the development and optimization of these alloys as a leading high-strength, high-conductivity material.

  1. Vicarious learning: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Experiential learning theory stresses the primacy of personal experience and the literature suggests that direct clinical experience is required in order for learning to take place. However, raw or first hand experience may not be the only mechanisms by which students engage in experiential learning. There is a growing body of literature within higher education which suggests that students are able to use another's experience to learn: vicarious learning. This literature review aims to outline vicarious learning within a nursing context. Many of the studies regarding vicarious learning are situated within Higher Education in general, however, within the United States these relate more specifically to nursing students. The literature indicates the increasing global interest in this area. This paper reveals that whilst the literature offers a number of examples illustrating how vicarious learning takes place, opinion on the role of the lecturer is divided and requires further exploration and clarification. The implications for nurse education are discussed.

  2. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Katherine L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual’s life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches. Results The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm. Conclusions Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology. PMID:26014671

  3. Robotic radical hysterectomy. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Pareja, R; Ramirez, P T

    2009-08-01

    Advanced laparoscopic procedures are increasingly being used as an alternative to laparotomy in gynecologic surgery. Several reviews have been completed that examine the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. Robotic technology offers the promise of overcoming many of the shortcomings of laparoscopy, while preserving classic operative techniques. This review article summarizes some of the most recent literature provided in the arena of robotic assisted radical hysterectomy for the treatment of cervical or endometrial cancer.

  4. Training Transfer: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is…

  5. Hypermedia on Learning: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Fan; Dwyer, Francis M.; Chuang, Chung-Pei

    This article reviews the literature of hypermedia research. Several perceived problems are identified, including: irrelevant assessment of outcome variables; weak methodological design in conducting experimental research; lack of theoretical foundations in designing hypertext systems; lack of specification of precise learning outcomes; and lack of…

  6. Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

  7. Urban Teacher Stress: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Victor Brian

    This review of literature on stress among teachers in urban schools examines the stress concept as it is defined in medicine, psychology, and teaching; causes of teacher stress; the nature of the stress response in teachers; ways of coping with stress and the effects of various stress reduction techniques; economic and educational costs of teacher…

  8. Business Involvement in Education: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols Education Consulting Group, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The literature on business involvement in education in Canada, the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other European countries was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: workplace trends/changes; skill requirements/deficits; youth employment/unemployment; integration versus…

  9. Secondary Schools Included: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vroey, Annet; Struyf, Elke; Petry, Katja

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, inclusive discourse comprises the development of a school for all, both in primary and in secondary education. Facing long-standing barriers for effective comprehensive education, secondary schools show specific interests, strengths and needs in a school-wide movement towards inclusion. Reviewing literature of recent research in…

  10. Cracked Teeth: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; FERRACANE, JACK

    2013-01-01

    Although cracked teeth are a common problem for patients and dentists, there is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cracks in teeth. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to establish what evidence exists regarding the risk factors for cracked teeth and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:20590967

  11. Attracting New Learners: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillage, Jim; Aston, Jane

    This report provides a review of the United Kingdom (UK) and international literature about initiatives to stimulate demand for post-16 learning. Chapter 1 introduces sources and method. Chapter 2 outlines the current pattern of participation in learning activity in the UK and identifies the main barriers impeding further involvement. Chapters 3-5…

  12. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  13. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  14. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  15. The Complexity of Transdisciplinary Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montuori, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The transdisciplinary literature review is an opportunity to situate the inquirer in an ecology of ideas. This article explores how we might approach this process from a perspective of complexity, and addresses some of the key challenges and opportunities. Four main dimensions are considered: (a) inquiry-based rather than discipline-based; (b)…

  16. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  17. Mentoring and Young People: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John C.

    This literature review was commissioned by the Scottish Executive Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Department (SEELLD) from the Scottish Council for Research in Education Centre of Glasgow University. An implementation team was formed to explore the use of mentors to support client groups in their transition to post-school education, training, and…

  18. Rural Gifted Education: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    2009-01-01

    This review of literature about gifted rural education reveals not only important information but the need for further work. The concepts presented have applicability that is not exclusively rural, but they derive from studies done with rural students and take rural culture, history, and circumstances into account. Understanding the context of…

  19. Academic Integrity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Zhang, Jingjing; Pun, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a literature review on academic integrity, which encompasses the values, behaviour and conduct of academics in all aspects of their practice. This is a growing area of academic research as a result of the expansion of higher education on a global basis and concerns about standards of professional conduct. The article maps the…

  20. Literature Reviews: Analysis, Planning, and Query Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.; Kaunelis, David

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students, tenured and tenure-track professors, and other professionals conduct scholarly research and have their findings published in recognized journals. Undergraduate and graduate students engage in rudimentary research to gather data relevant to case assignments in order to develop reasoned arguments. A focused literature review helps…

  1. Resilience and Deaf Children: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alys; Green, Lorraine; Rogers, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical frameworks encompassed by resilience have scarcely been applied to an understanding of the experiences of deaf children and their families, nor to specific interventions in relation to this group. This article critically reviews mainstream (i.e. non-deaf-related) resilience literature to analyse its intersection with the concerns…

  2. School-Community Connections: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Marian C.; Gregg, Soleil

    This literature review surveys the varieties and purposes of connections between schools and communities, from home-school relationships to schools as social service centers and communities as school curricula. It explores the benefits of school-community connections to students, communities, and schools. It describes the processes by which…

  3. The os trigonum syndrome. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Blake, R L; Lallas, P J; Ferguson, H

    1992-03-01

    The os trigonum syndrome, a musculoskeletal ankle disorder causing posterior ankle pain, is an entity that may present as numerous disorders. To accurately diagnose and treat the syndrome, its anatomy, origin, nomenclature, and biomechanics must be thoroughly understood. For this purpose, a review of recent literature is presented.

  4. High School Flexibility Enhancement: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended to help inform the development and implementation of innovative, educationally sound high school redesigns in Alberta. It is provided as a support resource for school administrators involved in Alberta Education's High School Flexibility Enhancement Project. Support is provided in the following ways: (1) a brief…

  5. Faculty Collective Bargaining. A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronsard, Donald R.

    This literature review and historical overview of academic collective bargaining in American higher education, with special emphasis on public higher education in Connecticut, is part of a Ph.D. dissertation entitled "A Development, Comparison, and Contrast of Selected Faculty Administration Consensuses Regarding Collective Bargaining Contracts in…

  6. Disease and Stigma: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature pertaining to disease and stigma. Specifically, a definition of stigma is provided along with an historical overview of disease and stigma and research trends related to three public health perils-AIDS, mental illness, and obesity.

  7. Professional boundary violations: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J; Eymard, Amanda S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the nursing literature related to professional boundary violations in nursing. A search was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, Ebscohost, and NCSBN. The key words searched were professional boundaries, boundary violation, boundary crossings, nurse, home health nurses, and home nursing. The search returned over 40 publications related specifically to boundary violations and nursing although only four of them are published research studies and one as a dissertation. Seven common characteristics emerged from the nonresearch nursing articles on professional boundaries: (1) Dual relations/role reversal, (2) Gifts and money, (3) Excessive self-disclosure, (4) Secretive behavior, (5) Excessive attention/overinvolvement, (6) Sexual behavior, and (7) Social media. Additional nursing research is greatly needed in the area of professional boundaries. The nurse-patient relationship should always be maintained for the benefit of the patient and not the personal gain of the nurse. Ongoing education in nursing practice regarding professional boundaries is needed. Nurses need to be mindful of state practice acts, codes of conduct, and employer policies. PMID:26034824

  8. Industrial reuse and recycle of wastewaters: Literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. E.

    1980-12-01

    The literature on reuse/recycle of wastewaters by industry is presented. The principal time period reviewed was 1967 to 1978. A total of 912 references are cited. The most prominant references for nine different industrial categories are cited. In addition, sections on industrial use of municipal wastewater, reclamation processes, and economics of water reuse/recycle are included.

  9. A Literature Review of the Psychosocial Development of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…

  10. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2014-01-01

    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed. PMID:24503314

  11. Pair programming in education: a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renée; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in solutions, and improvement in learning outcomes. Moreover, there is some evidence that women, in particular, benefit from pair programming. The literature also provides evidence that the transition from paired to solo programming is easy for students. The greatest challenges for paired students appear to concern scheduling and partner compatibility. This review also considers practical issues such as assigning partners, teaching students to work in pairs, and assessing individual contributions, and concludes with a discussion of open research questions.

  12. A literature review of dental casualty rates.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, G D; Coombs, M

    2000-10-01

    The ability to determine dental casualty rates for the Australian Defence Force in a given situation is vital for military planners. This article reviews the literature and the available Australian Defence Force data on the subject to give some guide to planners. The review found the studies to be fairly consistent in that a well-prepared dentally fit force can expect 150 to 200 dental casualties per 1,000 soldiers per year. If the force were less prepared, as in the case of a reserve call out, this figure would be likely to increase; in the extreme case of an ill-prepared force or a force assisting in humanitarian aid, the emergency rate could be five times that figure. The literature also indicates a change in the nature of dental casualties. Although maxillofacial cases have remained steady at 25%, dental disease has decreased and endodontic cases have had a corresponding increase.

  13. Nipple Shields: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McKechnie, Anne Chevalier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evidence for safety or effectiveness of contemporary nipple shield use. PMID:20807104

  14. Human responses to electricity: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive review of literature on research concerning biomedical sensors is presented for establishing standards for current limiting devices. The physiological and pathological responses of the human, when exposed to electricity are reported including the thresholds: for perception of electricity, pain by electric current, induction of muscular contraction by electric shock, and ventricular fibrillation. The passive electrical properties of cells and tissues are also reported.

  15. Renal hemangiopericytoma: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vetorazzo, José Eduardo; Bahia, Leandro Augusto Costa; Esteves, Paulo Ebert; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioperycytoma is a rare perivascular tumor that seldom involves the urogenital system. This tumor often appears with an unspecific clinical picture, and sometimes is associated with hematuria or hypertension. Diagnosis is based on a combination of histological and immunohistological findings. We report a case of a 52-year-old patient with renal hemangiopericytoma who underwent surgical treatment at our service. This report also includes a literature review on the subject. PMID:25946050

  16. Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Shelef, G.; Sukenik, A.; Green, M.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to present a discussion of the literature review performed on methods of harvesting microalgae. There is no single best method of harvesting microalgae. The choice of preferable harvesting technology depends on algae species, growth medium, algae production, end product, and production cost benefit. Algae size is an important factor since low-cost filtration procedures are presently applicable only for harvesting fairly large microalgae. Small microalgae should be flocculated into larger bodies that can be harvested by one of the methods mentioned above. However, the cells' mobility affects the flocculation process, and addition of nonresidual oxidants to stop the mobility should be considered to aid flocculation. The decision between sedimentation or flotation methods depends on the density difference between the algae cell and the growth medium. For oil-laden algae with low cell density, flotation technologies should be considered. Moreover, oxygen release from algae cells and oxygen supersaturation conditions in growth medium support the use of flotation methods. If high-quality algae are to be produced for human consumption, continuous harvesting by solid ejecting or nozzle-type disc centrifuges is recommended. These centrifuges can easily be cleaned and sterilized. They are suitable for all types of microalgae, but their high operating costs should be compared with the benefits from their use. Another basic criterion for selecting the suitable harvesting procedure is the final algae paste concentration required for the next process. Solids requirements up to 30% can be attained by established dewatering processes. For more concentrated solids, drying methods are required. The various systems for algae drying differ both in the extent of capital investment and the energy requirements. Selection of the drying method depends on the scale of operation and the use for which the dried product is intended.

  17. Nanofibrillated cellulose as an additive in papermaking process: A review.

    PubMed

    Boufi, Sami; González, Israel; Delgado-Aguilar, Marc; Tarrès, Quim; Pèlach, M Àngels; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-12-10

    During the last two decades, cellulose nanofibres (CNF) have emerged as a promising, sustainable reinforcement with outstanding potential in material sciences. Though application of CNF in papermaking is recent, it is expected to find implementation in the near future to give a broader commercial market to this type of cellulose. The present review highlights recent progress in the field of the application of cellulose nanofibres as additives in papermaking. The effect of CNF addition on the wet end process is analysed according to the type of pulp used for papermaking. According to the literature consulted, improvement in paper's overall properties after CNF addition depended not only on the type and amount of CNF applied, but also in the pulp's origin and treatment. Bulk and surface application of CNF also presented significant differences regarding paper's final properties. This review also revises the mechanisms behind CNF reinforcing effect on paper and the effect of chemically modified CNF as additives. PMID:27577906

  18. A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2009-01-01

    Writing a faulty literature review is one of many ways to derail a dissertation. This article summarizes some pivotal information on how to write a high-quality dissertation literature review. It begins with a discussion of the purposes of a review, presents taxonomy of literature reviews, and then discusses the steps in conducting a quantitative…

  19. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  20. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  1. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  2. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  3. Maternal Intensive Care’: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Van Parys, A.S.; Verstraelen, H.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to review current scientific knowledge on the definition of and the indications for maternal/obstetric intensive care (MIC). Methods: We conducted a extensive search in OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL and CEBAM using the keywords: maternal/obstetric intensive care, subacute care, intermediate care, postacute care, critical care, sub intensive care, progressive patient care, postnatal care, perinatal care, obstetrical nursing, neonatology, pregnancy, maternal mortality/morbidity and pregnancy complication. A total of 180 articles and one guideline were identified and supplemented by a hand search. After title, abstract and full text evaluation, the articles and guideline were subjected to critical appraisal. Results: Out of 180 potentially relevant articles, we identified 44 eligible articles of which 14 relevant MIC-articles of relatively good quality were selected. The concept ‘maternal intensive care’ was not found elsewhere, “high-dependency care” and “obstetrical intermediate care” appeared to be best comparable to what is understood as a MIC-service in Belgium. This thorough literature search resulted in a limited amount of scientific literature, with most studies retrospective observational tertiary centre based. No clear definition and admission criteria for maternal intensive care were found. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed that 1) there is no standard definition of maternal intensive care and 2) that admission criteria to a MIC unit differ widely. Further research is needed to create an evidence-based triage system to help clinicians attribute women to the appropriate level of care and thus stimulate an efficient utilization of maternal/obstetric intensive care services. PMID:25013706

  4. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects.

  5. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects. PMID:24895178

  6. MERALGIA PARESTHETICA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.; Salamh, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Meralgia Paresthetica (MP) is a nerve entrapment which may cause pain, paresthesias, and sensory loss within the distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. When the differential diagnosis of lateral or anterolateral thigh pain is inconclusive, MP should be considered as a potential source. MP produces similar signs and symptoms as those associated with more common diagnoses such as lumbar spine pathology. This clinical commentary will review the most relevant literature on MP with an emphasis on recognition and management of this condition. Description of Topic with Related Evidence: The authors reviewed the most relevant published literature on MP from 1970 to 2013 located using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Proquest. Discussion/Relation to Clinical Practice: MP still remains a diagnostic challenge since it can mimic other common diagnoses. Understanding the current literature surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of MP is essential for clinicians practicing in the outpatient environment. The consensus on the most effective non‐surgical and surgical interventions is still limited, as is the research on physical therapy interventions for this condition. Perhaps the lack of research and global consensus represents a knowledge deficit that makes MP a challenge to diagnose and successfully treat. Future collaborative studies are needed to improve the clinical diagnostics and understanding of interventions for this pathology. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24377074

  7. Nonhuman primate dermatology: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph A.; Didier, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In general, veterinary dermatologists do not have extensive clinical experience of nonhuman primate (NHP) dermatoses. The bulk of the published literature does not provide an organized evidence-based approach to the NHP dermatologic case. The veterinary dermatologist is left to extract information from both human and veterinary dermatology, an approach that can be problematic as it forces the clinician to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on two very disparate bodies of literature. A more cohesive approach to NHP dermatology – without relying on assumptions that NHP pathology most commonly behaves similarly to other veterinary and human disease – is required. This review of the dermatology of NHP species includes discussions of primary dermatoses, as well as diseases where dermatologic signs represent a significant secondary component, provides a first step towards encouraging the veterinary community to study and report the dermatologic diseases of nonhuman primates. PMID:19490576

  8. Inducible urticaria: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Daniel; Sánchez, Andrés; Sánchez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Inducible urticaria is a heterogeneous group of skin disorders characterized by the appearance of wheals, pruritus and/or angioedema, sometimes accompanied by systemic symptoms caused by innocuous stimuli (cold, heat, pressure, etc.). This group of disorders compromises people's quality of life and most of the literature in this regard comes from case reports and case series since its epidemiology has been poorly studied and some cases are very rare. The aim of this review is to show an up-to-date overview of the available literature for various types of inducible urticarias, always beginning with an illustrative case and then describing their pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment. PMID:27622434

  9. Social Marketing and Breastfeeding: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally. PMID:23618478

  10. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  11. Schedule Uncertainty Control: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yan, Liu

    Risk control on project schedule is one of the focus problems in the academic circle and the practical area all the time. Lots of research about risk control on project schedule have been fulfilled and many achievements have appeared in recent several decades. The literature on the techniques of schedule uncertainty control was reviewed. A summary analysis on those chievements is presented such as CPM, PERT, MC, BBN, and so on and in light of that summary analysis a deep discussion in terms of advantages and disadvantages of existing research has been analyzed, so that researchers can continue to refine their research.

  12. Pseudocirrhosis: A Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Adike, Abimbola; Karlin, Nina; Menias, Christine; Carey, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocirrhosis describes morphological changes of the liver that closely mimic cirrhosis, without the typical histopathological changes seen in cirrhosis. It most commonly occurs in patients with metastatic breast cancer, although it has been reported in other malignancies as well. Like in cirrhosis, portal hypertension is often seen in patients with pseudocirrhosis. Pseudocirrhosis is a rare but important complication of metastatic cancer. In this case series and literature review, we describe 6 patients with hormone-receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. We report the significant morbidity associated with pseudocirrhosis in the course of treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

  13. Military parachuting injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C; Craig, S C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a literature review of the aspects of military parachuting related to occupational medicine and focuses on 'conventional' military static line parachuting using a round parachute. The analysis of injuries resulting from military parachuting provide an excellent example of military occupational medicine practice. The techniques of military parachuting are described in order to illustrate the potential mechanisms of injury, and a number of 'classical' parachuting injuries are described. Finally some recommendations are made for the recording of parachute injuries which would assist in the international comparison of injury rates and anatomical distribution. PMID:10451583

  14. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  15. [Bariatric surgery and pregnancy: literature review].

    PubMed

    Ferrand Miranda, Pedro; Contreras Rivas, Tomas; Leigh Pacciarini, Stephanie

    2014-02-14

    Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.

  16. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics. PMID:25719896

  17. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  18. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  19. Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

    2014-06-01

    The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation.

  20. Literature review on decontaminating groundwater sampling devices: Organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.V.

    1995-07-01

    Current protocols for decontaminating devices used to sample groundwater for organic contaminants are reviewed. Most of the methods given by regulatory agencies provide little scientific evidence that justify the recommended protocols. In addition, only a few studies that actually compared various decontamination protocols could be found in the open literature, and those studies were limited in their scope. Various approaches for decontamination and criteria that are important in determining how effectively a surface could be decontaminated are discussed.

  1. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  2. Review of the literature on reference pricing.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, G; Puig-Junoy, J

    2000-11-17

    This paper reviews the literature on reference pricing (RP) in pharmaceutical markets. The RP strategy for cost containment of expenditure on drugs is analyzed as part of the procurement mechanism. We review the existing literature and the state-of-the-art regarding RP by focusing on its economic effects. In particular, we consider: (1) the institutional context and problem-related factors which appear to underline the need to implement an RP strategy; i.e. its nature, characteristics and the sort of health care problems commonly addressed; (2) how RP operates in practice; that is, how third party-payers (the insurers/buyers) have established the RP systems existing on the international scene (i.e. information methods, monitoring procedures and legislative provisions); (3) the range of effects resulting from particular RP strategies (including effects on choice of appropriate pharmaceuticals, insurer savings, total drug expenditures, prices of referenced and non-referenced products and dynamic efficiency; (4) the market failures which an RP policy is supposed to address and the main advantages and drawbacks which emerge from an analysis of its effects. Results suggest that RP systems achieve better their postulated goals (1) if cost inflation in pharmaceuticals is due to high prices rather than to the excess of prescription rates, (2) when the larger is the existing difference in prices among equivalent drugs, and (3) more important is the actual market for generics.

  3. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. “Pub med” is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented. Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects. PMID:24708750

  4. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; German, Sidra; Qureshi, Wardah Asif

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. "Pub med" is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented. Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects. PMID:24708750

  5. Process mining in healthcare: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Eric; Munoz-Gama, Jorge; Sepúlveda, Marcos; Capurro, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Process Mining focuses on extracting knowledge from data generated and stored in corporate information systems in order to analyze executed processes. In the healthcare domain, process mining has been used in different case studies, with promising results. Accordingly, we have conducted a literature review of the usage of process mining in healthcare. The scope of this review covers 74 papers with associated case studies, all of which were analyzed according to eleven main aspects, including: process and data types; frequently posed questions; process mining techniques, perspectives and tools; methodologies; implementation and analysis strategies; geographical analysis; and medical fields. The most commonly used categories and emerging topics have been identified, as well as future trends, such as enhancing Hospital Information Systems to become process-aware. This review can: (i) provide a useful overview of the current work being undertaken in this field; (ii) help researchers to choose process mining algorithms, techniques, tools, methodologies and approaches for their own applications; and (iii) highlight the use of process mining to improve healthcare processes.

  6. Reviewing Literature to Inform Policy: Some Complexities and Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menter, Ian; Hulme, Moira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of carrying out a literature review commissioned to support the Review of Teacher Education in Scotland, this paper discusses the role of literature reviews within the movement for "evidence-based policy" making. The first part of the paper discusses the purposes of such reviews and some of the misconceptions that may be…

  7. [Decubitus ulcer and nutritional status: literature review].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lillian Dias; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand aspects related to the nutritional assessment of patients in risk for pressure ulcers, we reviewed the national and international literature indexed on Medline and LILACS bibliographic databases, from 1987 to 2001. The aim of this research was to investigate the knowledge production on pressure ulcers and nutritional status, as well as to learn about the authors and the publication focus. We concluded that patients in risk for pressure ulcers can be early identified based on nutritional assessment, including biochemical data, anthropometric evaluation, clinical data, diet history and energetic consumption. The alterations are frequent in elderly patients, hospitalized patients, patients with a chronic disease such as a vascular cerebral accident, cancer and spinal cord injury.

  8. Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements.

  9. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity. PMID:26930767

  10. Electronic whiteboards: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Wyatt, Jeremy; Gardner, Peter; Pearman, Alan; Honey, Stephanie; Dowding, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Electronic whiteboards are being introduced into hospitals to communicate real-time patient information instantly to staff. This paper provides a preliminary review of the current state of evidence for the effect of electronic whiteboards on care processes and patient outcomes. A literature search was performed for the dates 1996 to 2014 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, and the ACM Digital Library. Thirteen papers, describing 11 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of studies took place in the Emergency Department. While studies looked at the impact of electronic whiteboards on the process of care, there is an absence of evidence concerning impact on patient outcomes. There is a need for robust research measuring the impact of electronic whiteboards on inpatient care.

  11. Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuwen; Nahon, Meyer; Sharf, Inna

    2011-04-01

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities adapted to these lighter-than-air vehicles. However, the modeling techniques for airship dynamics have lagged behind and are less systematic than those for fixed-wing aircraft. A state-of-the-art literature review is presented on airship dynamics modeling, aiming to provide a comprehensive description of the main problems in this area and a useful source of references for researchers and engineers interested in modern airship applications. The references are categorized according to the major topics in this area: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, incorporation of structural flexibility, incorporation of atmospheric turbulence, and effects of ballonets. Relevant analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on how the main differences between lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft have been addressed in the modeling. Directions are suggested for future research on each of these topics.

  12. A review of recent literature on plague

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    In his comprehensive monograph on plague, published by WHO in 1954, Dr Pollitzer pointed out that despite the marked drop in the incidence of this disease in recent years, he considered it impossible for various reasons to be complacent about the situation. Since this monograph appeared, plague has shown a truly spectacular decrease, but in case this is partly the outcome of a natural periodicity of the infection, the author still feels that the disease ”should be given continued attention by those interested in global public health”. To this end he summarizes here the latest information on the subject, his review covering not only works published since 1954, but also some earlier literature (particularly from the USSR) which was not available to him at the time of preparation of his monograph. PMID:13736873

  13. Automation literature: A brief review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D.; Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Current thought and research positions which may allow for an improved capability to understand the impact of introducing automation to an existing system are established. The orientation was toward the type of studies which may provide some general insight into automation; specifically, the impact of automation in human performance and the resulting system performance. While an extensive number of articles were reviewed, only those that addressed the issue of automation and human performance were selected to be discussed. The literature is organized along two dimensions: time, Pre-1970, Post-1970; and type of approach, Engineering or Behavioral Science. The conclusions reached are not definitive, but do provide the initial stepping stones in an attempt to begin to bridge the concept of automation in a systematic progression.

  14. [Nursing audit: systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Dias, Teresa Cristina Lyporage; Santos, José Luís Guedes dos; Cordenuzzi, Onélia da Costa Pedro; Prochnow, Adelina Giacomelli

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific production about audit in nursing, published in national papers, between 1998 and 2008. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, with articles being searched in the databases LILACS and SciELO, from the key words: audit, nursing, quality health care and nursing supervision. The sample consisted of ten works. The analyzed publications describe the main distortions and non-conformities found in nursing records, relating them mainly with the quality of nursing care and with the financial damage to the institutions. The publications also include the administrative role of the nurse, especially her/his leadership role in the team of nursing; and nursing audit as an educational process. PMID:22460497

  15. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity.

  16. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  17. Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

    2013-06-06

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

  18. The value of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

    2007-11-01

    This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  20. [Advancements in dental preparation technique (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Júlia; Csillag, Mária; Fazekas, Arpád

    2002-06-01

    This paper has reviewed the literature on the methods of cavity preparation. The different methods are summarised in Table 1. Nowadays rotary instruments are accepted as standard for cavity preparation. The limitation of using a rotary instrument is the iatrogenic damage to adjacent teeth. Therefore some of the hand instruments remained an essential part of quality restorative dentistry. In order to reduce iatrogenic injury oscillating instruments had been developed. The oscillating instruments change the rotary movement into an oscillating movement and copy the shape of the working tip through an abrasive medium to the tooth surface. The abrasive medium is generally diamond. A new possibility in tooth preparation is the Er:YAG laser. It can be used for both cavity preparation and caries removal. The chemo-mechanical caries removal means the selective chemical softening is followed by the mechanical removing of carious dentin.

  1. Suicide in elderly people: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    A literature review was carried out focusing on the main factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts and completed suicide in elders. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SciELO and Biblioteca Virtual em Violência e Saúde da BIREME (BIREME's Violence and Health Virtual Library), referring to the period from 1980 to 2008. Fifty-two references were selected and analyzed. They showed a strong relationship among suicide ideation, attempt and completion in elderly individuals, which results from the interaction of complex physical, mental, neurobiological and social factors. Suicide associated with depression in the elderly can be prevented, provided the person is properly treated. In Brazil, it is necessary to invest in research, given the persistent increase in suicide rates among aged people, especially among males.

  2. Integrated literature review of postdischarge telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Sarah J; Solverson, Susan; Schlidt, Andrea; Hack, Deborah; Smith, Jeri Lynn; Ryan, Polly

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature assessed the impact of a postdischarge telephone call on patient outcomes. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and an evidence table was developed. The content, timing, and professional placing the call varied across studies. Study strength was low and findings were inconsistent. Measures varied across studies, many sample sizes were small, and studies differed by patient population. Evidence is inconclusive for use of phone calls to decrease readmission, emergency department use, patient satisfaction, scheduled and unscheduled follow-up, and physical and emotional well-being. Among these studies, there was limited support for medication-focused calls by pharmacists but no support for decreasing readmission. Health care providers benefited from feedback but did not need to place the call to realize this benefit. Inpatient nurses were unable to manage the volume of calls. There was no standardized approach to the call, training, or documentation requirements. PMID:23833254

  3. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  4. Renal leiomyoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Schiavina, Riccardo; Vagnoni, Valerio; Caprara, Giacoma; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumours of the kidney originating from muscle cells. They are usually found by an autopsy, whether the patient is asymptomatic or has symptoms (i.e., abdominal/flank pain, hematuria, palpable mass). Today the widespread use of ultrasonography and computed tomography has increased the detection of clinically asymptomatic renal leiomyomas. The differential diagnosis between leiomyomas and other malignant lesions (above all renal cell carcinoma or leiomyosarcoma) is still possible by histological examination. Radiological examinations are not sufficient for the differential diagnosis. Renal leiomyomas have no aggressive behaviour and they usually do not metastasize. The prognosis, after surgery, is excellent without recurrence. We report a case of leiomyoma in a 31-year-old man who presented hematuria and flank pain. We also review the literature and provide a summary of clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:22511443

  5. [Facebook in oncology. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Veneroni, Laura; Ferrari, Andrea; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Internet and particularly the so-called Web 2.0 are powerful tools of communication characterized by high user participation in the creation of content through various sites, such as those of social networking, where Facebook is the best known and most widely used. The aim of the present paper is to review the literature on the use of Facebook in health care. The international scientific literature of the past 10 years has been collected by major databases online. From the research were identified 262 articles of which 57 are considered relevant. The articles are schematically divided into three categories according to the topic: use of Facebook for psychosocial support for communication, for doctor-patient relationship, for institutional communication. The authors have identified the critical aspects and the possibility of using this tool in the communication and relationship between patients and health professionals. Despite the presence of critical issues, the use of social media is to be considered with interest and is worthy of study and research in the clinical setting. It should at the same time that health professionals are aware of the risks associated with the use of social networking but also trained in the use of the potential of these virtual tools that cannot replace real interactions but can support them. PMID:25621781

  6. [Facebook in oncology. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Veneroni, Laura; Ferrari, Andrea; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Internet and particularly the so-called Web 2.0 are powerful tools of communication characterized by high user participation in the creation of content through various sites, such as those of social networking, where Facebook is the best known and most widely used. The aim of the present paper is to review the literature on the use of Facebook in health care. The international scientific literature of the past 10 years has been collected by major databases online. From the research were identified 262 articles of which 57 are considered relevant. The articles are schematically divided into three categories according to the topic: use of Facebook for psychosocial support for communication, for doctor-patient relationship, for institutional communication. The authors have identified the critical aspects and the possibility of using this tool in the communication and relationship between patients and health professionals. Despite the presence of critical issues, the use of social media is to be considered with interest and is worthy of study and research in the clinical setting. It should at the same time that health professionals are aware of the risks associated with the use of social networking but also trained in the use of the potential of these virtual tools that cannot replace real interactions but can support them.

  7. Nocardia Arthritis: 3 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, Hélène; Lebeaux, David; Gras, Guillaume; Catherinot, Emilie; Rammaert, Blandine; Poiree, Sylvain; Lecuyer, Hervé; Zeller, Valérie; Bernard, Louis; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria responsible for infections ranging from opportunistic life-threatening disseminated diseases to chronic skin and soft-tissue infections. Even if virtually all organs can be infected, articular involvement is rare. Therefore, we report 3 recent cases and performed a literature review of cases of Nocardia arthritis in order to describe clinical features, therapeutic challenges, and outcome of these patients. Among 34 patients (31 in the literature plus our 3 cases), 21 (62%) were due to hematogenous dissemination, 9 (26%) were due to direct bacterial inoculation through the skin, and in 4 cases, the mechanism of infection was unknown. Four out of these 34 cases occurred on prosthetic joints. Whereas hematogenous infections mostly occurred in immunocompromised hosts (17 of 21, 81%), direct inoculation was mostly seen in immunocompetent patients. Eighty-two percent of patients (28 out of 34) received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-containing regimens and median antibiotic treatment duration was 24 weeks (range, 12–120) for hematogenous infections and 12 weeks (range, 6–24) for direct inoculations. Outcome was favorable in 27 cases despite unsystematic surgical management (17 cases) without sequelae in 70% of the cases. Nocardia arthritis is rare but its management is complex and should rely on a combined approach with rheumatologist, infectious diseases expert, and surgeon. PMID:26496274

  8. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  9. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient's clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived.

  10. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. Aim To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Design Integrative literature review. Data sources Five electronic databases (2001–2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Results Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) ‘characteristics of dying’ involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) ‘treatment orientation’ where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. Conclusions The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of ‘uncertainty in diagnosing dying’ and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. PMID:24780536

  11. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed. PMID:21442132

  12. Zirconia: cementation of prosthetic restorations. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; NAPOLI, E.; PUJIA, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim of the work Aim of the work was to execute a review of the international literature about the cementation of zirconia restorations, analyzing the properties of the cements most commonly used in clinical activities. Materials and methods It was performed, through PubMed, a bibliographic search on the international literature of the last 10 years using the following limits: studies in English, in vitro studies, randomized clinical trial, reviews, meta-analysis, guide-lines. Were excluded from the search: descriptive studies, case reports, discussion articles, opinion’s leader. Results From studies results that common surface treatments (silanization, acid etching) are ineffective on zirconia because it has an inert surface without glassy component (on which this surface treatments act primarily), instead the sandblasting at 1atm with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) results significantly effective for the resulting roughening that increase the surface energy and the wettability of the material. Furthermore it has been shown that zinc phosphate-based cements, Bis-GMA-based and glass-ionomer cements can’t guarantee a stable long-term adhesion, instead resin cements containing phosphate monomer 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown higher adhesion and stability values than the other cements. In particular, it has seen that bond strength of zirconia copings on dentin, using MDP-based cement, is about 6,9MPa; this value is comparable to that obtained with gold copings cementation. Conclusions Analyzed studies have led to the following conclusions: sandblasting with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is the best surface treatment to improve adhesion between resin cements and zirconia; resin cements containing phosphate ester monomers 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown in the studies an higher bond strength and stability after ageing treatment; the best procedure for cementing zirconia restorations results the combination of

  13. Burnout During Residency Training: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Lederer, Sara; Mandili, Carla; Nikravesh, Rose; Seligman, Laurie; Vasa, Monisha; Ogunyemi, Dotun; Bernstein, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Burnout is a state of mental and physical exhaustion related to work or care giving activities. Burnout during residency training has gained significant attention secondary to concerns regarding job performance and patient care. This article reviews the relevant literature on burnout in order to provide information to educators about its prevalence, features, impact, and potential interventions. Methods Studies were identified through a Medline and PsychInfo search from 1974 to 2009. Fifty-one studies were identified. Definition and description of burnout and measurement methods are presented followed by a thorough review of the studies. Results An examination of the burnout literature reveals that it is prevalent in medical students (28%–45%), residents (27%–75%, depending on specialty), as well as practicing physicians. Psychological distress and physical symptoms can impact work performance and patient safety. Distress during medical school can lead to burnout, which in turn can result in negative consequences as a working physician. Burnout also poses significant challenges during early training years in residency. Time demands, lack of control, work planning, work organization, inherently difficult job situations, and interpersonal relationships, are considered factors contributing to residents' burnout. Potential interventions include workplace-driven and individual-driven measures. Workplace interventions include education about burnout, workload modifications, increasing the diversity of work duties, stress management training, mentoring, emotional intelligence training, and wellness workshops. Individual-driven behavioral, social, and physical activities include promoting interpersonal professional relations, meditation, counseling, and exercise. Conclusions Educators need to develop an active awareness of burnout and ought to consider incorporating relevant instruction and interventions during the process of training resident physicians

  14. A review on augmentation of heat transfer in boiling using surfactants/additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anil; Pise, Ashok

    2016-09-01

    Studies of heat transfer enhancement in boiling under various conditions and configurations have given different results. Understanding the boiling behaviour from these studies, literature is reviewed in terms of surface texture, heater geometry and orientation, experimental and numerical studies in presence of surfactant/additives. After understanding different behaviour in boiling, the effect of environment friendly surfactant is studied through literature review. Benchmarking of experimental procedure is done by experimenting and comparing some surfactants studied in literature.

  15. [Palliative care to adolescents with cancer: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Remedi, Patrícia Pereira; Mello, Débora Faleiros de; Menossi, Maria José; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de

    2009-01-01

    Providing care to adolescents with cancer in the process of death and dying has been a great challenge for health professionals. This challenge is marked by a high emotional burden and specificities of this stage of human development. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding palliative care to adolescents with cancer. This study is a literature review, which data collection was performed using Lilacs, Medline, and PsycInfo, in addition to non-systematic databases. An analysis of the manuscripts revealed three themes: adolescence and its different definitions; the particularities of adolescents with cancer; and palliative care to adolescents with cancer. The study showed there is a scarcity of evidenced-based research defining the panorama of symptoms affecting the quality of life during palliative care and an absence of specific programs in the stage of fast changes that, alone, demand for adaptive efforts.

  16. Strength of zirconia fixed partial dentures: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; CAPPELLO, A.; OTTRIA, L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The aim of this study is a systematic review of the literature on the strength and long-term behavior of zirconia FPDs. Methods The literature search was performed using as the primary source the Medline database. Were also imposed a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to narrow the search to differentiate the two distinct parts in which it was structured the review. In addition, MeSH terms were applied to further refine the choice of articles more relevant to the review. In the part of the review concerning the long-term behavior of zirconia fixed partial dentures were considered useful only those studies with a minimum follow-up of one year. Results The search provided a total of 813 articles, but only 25 were considered for the review because they were the only ones who satisfied search criteria. In particular, 13 items relate to the mechanical strength of zirconia prostheses and 12 regarding the long term behavior of zirconia FPDs. The resistance values also exceed the 2000 N while the survival rate reaches to almost 94%. Conclusions Based on this review, Zirconia FPDs can be considered reliable products in both the anterior and posterior fields with survival rates comparable to traditional metal-ceramic prostheses. PMID:23285392

  17. Survivin and gliomas: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Rosilin Kotakkathu; Torp, Sverre Helge

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, the diagnosis of which is challenging. In this respect, the use of immunohistochemical proliferation markers may aid diagnosis; survivin, also known as Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5, is one such marker. Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein gene family, and is known for its dual function as an apoptosis inhibitor and mitosis regulator. Furthermore, survivin has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a number of malignancies. The purpose of the present literature review was to gain an overview of studies published on the diagnostic and/or prognostic use of survivin in gliomas. Using PubMed, 19 studies matching the inclusion criteria were ultimately included in the present review. The majority of the studies identified revealed that survivin was significantly associated with other proliferation markers, histological malignancy grade, and inversely associated with prognosis. However, there were a number of inconsistencies between studies, which suggests a requirement for standardization of immunohistochemical procedures. PMID:27588117

  18. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  19. Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

  20. Epidemiology of concussion in sport: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Michael B.; Glover, Kari L.; Lowe, Duane T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to summarize sport concussion incidence data, identify sports that present higher injury frequency, reveal the degree of risk in some lesser-known sports, and outline specific details within the sports literature that raise additional concerns, such as helmet-to-helmet contact and player positions that experience frequent impact. Methods A systematic literature review of Pub Med using keyword search on injury, concussion, and sports was performed through May 2012. Abstracts were identified, selections were made based upon inclusion criteria, and full-length articles were obtained. Additional articles were considered following review of reference sections. Articles were reviewed and tabulated according to sport. Results Two hundred eighty-nine articles were screened, and 62 articles were reviewed. The overall incidence of concussion in sport ranged from 0.1 to 21.5 per 1000 athletic exposures. The lowest incidence was reported in swimming and diving. Concussion incidence was highest in Canadian junior ice hockey, but elevated incidence in American football remains a concern because of the large number of participants. Conclusions The literature reviewed included incidence of concussion on the field of play under real-world conditions and influenced by the current culture of sport. The studies examined in this article show that there is risk of concussion in nearly every sport. Some sports have higher concussion frequency than others, which may depend upon the forces and roles of the positions played in these sports. Younger athletes have a higher incidence of concussion, and female incidence is greater than male in many comparable sports. Headgear may reduce concussion in some sports but may also give athletes a false sense of protection. PMID:24396326

  1. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS LITERATURE REVIEW 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is an urban wet weather flow (WWF) literature reviews for the year of 1999. The reviews were originally published in the annual literature review issues of Water Environment Research. Over the past year, many people were involved in preparing these urban wet weather f...

  2. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  3. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described. PMID:26052848

  4. Shared Communications: Volume 1. A Summary and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, O

    2004-09-22

    This paper provides a review of examples from the literature of shared communication resources and of agencies and/or organizations that share communication resources. The primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system communications involving transit. Citations will not be limited, however, to rural activities, or to ITS implementation, or even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. Literature references to issues that contribute to both successful and failed efforts at sharing communication resources are reviewed. The findings of this literature review indicate that: (1) The most frequently shared communication resources are information/data resources, (2) Telecommunications infrastructure and technologies are the next most frequently shared resources, (3) When resources are successfully shared, all parties benefit, (4) A few unsuccessful attempts of sharing resources have been recorded, along with lessons learned, (5) Impediments to sharing include security issues, concerns over system availability and reliability, service quality and performance, and institutional barriers, (6) Advantages of sharing include financial benefits to agencies from using shared resources and benefits to the public in terms of congestion mitigation, information transfer (e.g., traveler information systems), mobility (e.g., welfare-to-work paratransit), and safety (e.g., speed of incident response, incident avoidance), (7) Technology-based solutions exist to address technology-based concerns, and (8) Institutional issues can be addressed through leadership, enhanced knowledge and skills, open communication, responsiveness, and attractive pricing structures.

  5. Djenkolism: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia.

  6. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  7. Naringenin and atherosclerosis: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay E; Nabavi, Seyed F; Daglia, Maria; Tenore, Gian C; Mansouri, Kowsar; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol in macrophages of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks as well as stroke. Epidemiological studies showed that there is an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of atherosclerosis. The promising effect of high vegetable and fruit containing diet on atherosclerosis is approved by several experimental studies on isolated phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are known to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant system, suppress oxidative and nitrosative stress, decrease macrophage oxidative stress through cellular oxygenase inhibition as well as interaction with several signal transduction pathways and from these ways, have therapeutic effects against atherosclerosis. Naringenin is a well known flavonoid belonging to the chemical class of flavanones. It is especially abundant in citrus fruits, especially grapefruits. A plethora of evidences ascribes to naringenin antiatherosclerotic effects. Naringenin abilities to decrease LDL and triglycerides as well as inhibit glucose uptake; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL); co-oxidation of NADH; suppress protein oxidation; protect against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); suppress macrophage inflammation; inhibit leukotriene B4, monocyte adhesion and foam cell formation; induce of HO-1 and G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and down regulate atherosclerosis related genes are believed to have crucial role in the promising role against atherosclerosis. In the present review, we have summarized the available literature data on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of naringenin and its possible mechanisms of action.

  8. [ATTENUATED PSYCHOSIS SYNDROME: A LITERATURE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Szmulewicz, Alejandro; Smith, José M; Valerio, Marina P

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent findings on the treatment of schizophrenia, it is an illness still associated with high morbidity and incapacity in social and work domains. There is a growing interest in examining the phases prior to the development of the illness so as to make early interventions that would potentially change its devastating course. The attenuated psychosis syndrome was included in the section III of the last version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition in which a patient exhibits mild psychotic symptoms, an intact reality testing and certain degree of social or occupational impairment. The present work is a review of the available literature on this subject. The main findings were: the risk of conversion to a psychotic disorder is relatively low and there are some variables (social withdrawal, negative symptoms, neurocognitive impairment, poor global functioning and certain neuroimaging findings) that increase this risk. Those people diagnosed with attenuated psychosis syndrome had one or more other current psychiatric comorbid conditions and these are the main reason to warrant medical attention. Regarding to the treatment of this condition, there are available evidence on atypical antipsychotics, cognitive-behavioral therapy and omega 3 fatty acid. PMID:26650554

  9. Hand Injury in Rock Climbing: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, A; Pivato, G; Pegoli, L

    2016-02-01

    With the amazing increasing in number of participants, rock climbing has become a popular sport in the last decade. A growing number of participants, with different skill level, inevitably leads to an increased number of injuries related to this practice. The kind of lesions that can be observed in rock-climbers is very specific and often involves the hand. For this reason is very important for any hand surgeon that is exposed to sport injuries to know which and the most common injuries related to this sport and which are the basic principles for the treatment of those. The aim of this article is to review the literature that has been published in the last ten year in this topic. On the NCBI database 22 articles where found that where related to rock climbing lesion affecting the hand or the whole body. Differences where found according to kind of rock climbing activity that was analyzed, alpine climb leads to more serious injuries, often affecting the lower limb, while in sport and recreational rock climbing the upper limb and the hand are definitely the most affected parts. Flexor pulley lesions, followed by fractures and strains are the most common lesions affecting the hand that are related to this practice.

  10. Hand Injury in Rock Climbing: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, A; Pivato, G; Pegoli, L

    2016-02-01

    With the amazing increasing in number of participants, rock climbing has become a popular sport in the last decade. A growing number of participants, with different skill level, inevitably leads to an increased number of injuries related to this practice. The kind of lesions that can be observed in rock-climbers is very specific and often involves the hand. For this reason is very important for any hand surgeon that is exposed to sport injuries to know which and the most common injuries related to this sport and which are the basic principles for the treatment of those. The aim of this article is to review the literature that has been published in the last ten year in this topic. On the NCBI database 22 articles where found that where related to rock climbing lesion affecting the hand or the whole body. Differences where found according to kind of rock climbing activity that was analyzed, alpine climb leads to more serious injuries, often affecting the lower limb, while in sport and recreational rock climbing the upper limb and the hand are definitely the most affected parts. Flexor pulley lesions, followed by fractures and strains are the most common lesions affecting the hand that are related to this practice. PMID:27454496

  11. Gastric sarcoidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, David B; Price, Jennifer Cohen; Ahmed, Haitham; Farmer, Nicole; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Giday, Samuel A

    2010-04-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare. Clinically recognizable gastrointestinal system involvement occurs in 0.1% to 0.9% of patients with sarcoidosis. We encountered a 22-year-old African American female admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, Maryland) for a 2-week history of fever, chills, eye pain, and abdominal pain. Her abdominal CT scan showed multiple subcentimeter retroperitoneal lymph nodes. An upper endoscopy was performed and discovered an antral nodule that measured about 7 mm and antral gastritis in which biopsies showed active chronic necrotizing granulomatous gastritis. Biopsies of the antral polyp showed focal intestinal metaplasia and active chronic necrotizing granulomatous pattern. Stains for Helicobacter pylori, acid fast, and fungi were negative. A small-bowel series showed no abnormality. Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed panuveitis with bilateral optic disc edema. The patient was later prescribed 60 mg of prednisone by mouth once a day and subsequently her abdominal pain and fever resolved during follow-up 2 months later. This literature review demonstrates the importance in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, types of gastric sarcoidosis, major endoscopic findings, and management of gastric sarcoidosis. PMID:20437743

  12. Vulnerability synthetic indices: a literature integrative review.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Lívia Rejane Miguel Amaral; Schumann, Lívia Amaral; Moura, Leides Baroso Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    The concept of vulnerability is delimited by dynamic social and multigenerational processes involving at least three dimensions: exposure to risk trajectories, internal and external capabilities of reaction and possibilities of adaptation based on both the intensity of risk and the resilience of people. In order to identify and describe the synthetic indices of vulnerability, there was an integrative literature review. We consulted free access articles indexed in the following databases: BioMed, Bireme, PubMed, Reldalyc, SciELO and Web of Science; and we used controlled descriptors in English and Portuguese for all time slots available with selection and analysis of 47 studies that reported results of 23 synthetic indices of vulnerability. The results showed that the synthetic indices of vulnerability address four themes: social determinants of health; environmental and climatic conditions; family and course of life; territories and specific geographic areas. It was concluded that the definition of the components and indicators, as well as the methodologies adopted for the construction of synthetic indices need to be evaluated by means of the limitations and advantages of reporting the vulnerability through summary measures in policy formulation and decision-making aimed at human development. PMID:26132249

  13. Djenkolism: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:24790471

  14. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. PMID:27373872

  15. Djenkolism: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bunawan, Nur C; Rastegar, Asghar; White, Kathleen P; Wang, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Djenkolism is an uncommon but important cause of acute kidney injury. It sporadically occurs after an ingestion of the djenkol bean (Archidendron pauciflorum), which is native to Southeast Asia. The clinical features defining djenkolism include: spasmodic suprapubic and/or flank pain; urinary obstruction; and acute kidney injury. The precise pathogenesis of acute kidney injury following djenkol ingestion remains unknown. However, it is proposed that an interaction between the characteristics of the ingested beans and the host factors causes hypersaturation of djenkolic acid crystals within the urinary system, resulting in subsequent obstructive nephropathy with sludge, stones, or possible spasms. We report a case of djenkolism from our rural clinic in Borneo, Indonesia. Our systematic literature review identified 96 reported cases of djenkolism. The majority of patients recovered with hydration, bicarbonate therapy, and pain medication. Three patients required surgical intervention; one patient required ureteral stenting for the obstructing djenkolic acid stones. Four of the 96 reported patients died from acute kidney failure. We stress the importance of awareness of djenkolism to guide medical practitioners in the treatment of this rare disease in resource-poor areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:24790471

  16. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  17. Training in Patient Navigation: A Review of the Research Literature.

    PubMed

    Ustjanauskas, Amy E; Bredice, Marissa; Nuhaily, Sumayah; Kath, Lisa; Wells, Kristen J

    2016-05-01

    Despite the proliferation of patient navigation programs designed to increase timely receipt of health care, little is known about the content and delivery of patient navigation training, or best practices in this arena. The current study begins to address these gaps in understanding, as it is the first study to comprehensively review descriptions of patient navigation training in the peer-reviewed research literature. Seventy-five patient navigation efficacy studies published since 1995, identified through PubMed and by the authors, were included in this narrative review. Fifty-nine of the included studies (79%) mentioned patient navigation training, and 55 of these studies additionally provided a description of training. Most studies did not thoroughly document patient navigation training practices. Additionally, several topics integral to the role of patient navigators, as well as components of training central to successful adult learning, were not commonly described in the research literature. Descriptions of training also varied widely across studies in terms of duration, location, format, learning strategies employed, occupation of trainer, and content. These findings demonstrate the need for established standards of navigator training as well as for future research on the optimal delivery and content of patient navigation training.

  18. Comorbidity psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Titlic, M; Basic, S; Hajnsek, S; Lusic, I

    2009-01-01

    While reviewing the available literature, we noticed comorbidity of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were observed more frequently in patients with high seizure frequency. There is significant prevalence of epilepsy comorbidity with depression, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent with bipolar disorders and other forms of psychosis. Suicidal risk factors, ideation and attempts in these patients as correlates of depression or as psychopathological features were associated to epileptic disease. This is confirmed by additional burden of epilepsy patients with psychic disorders (Ref. 70). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408842

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in native Americans: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Campos-Outcalt, D

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle) have been studied in a number of Native American tribes, and such studies are increasing as the CVD mortality rate rises. This article reviews the literature between 1980 and 1991 concerning the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population. In addition to summarizing the data, we describe limitations inherent in comparison and address the need for standardization of methodology in future studies. PMID:7848673

  20. Platelet-rich fibrin application in dentistry: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Oliví, Daniel García; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Garlet, Katia; Weber, Benjamín; Beltrán, Víctor; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The development of bioactive surgical additives to regulate the inflammation and increase the speed of healing process is one of the great challenges in clinical research. In this sense, platelet rich fibrin (PRF) appears as a natural and satisfactory alternative with favorable results and low risks. The following review attempts to summarize the relevant literature regarding the technique of using PRF, focusing on its preparation, advantages, and disadvantages of using it in clinical applications. PRF alone or in combination with other biomaterials seems to have several advantages and indications both for medicine and dentistry, due it is a minimally invasive technique with low risks and satisfactory clinical results. PMID:26221349

  1. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Homesickness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Van Tilburg, M A; Vingerhoets, A J; Van Heck, G L

    1996-09-01

    Homesickness has not received due attention from psychological researchers, in spite of the fact that it is of considerable interest to counsellors and care-givers of those who have migrated or moved temporarily or permanently (e.g. immigrants, refugees, students, soldiers). First, this review addresses the definition of homesickness, the possible different kinds of homesickness, its prevalence rate, and symptomatology, Secondly, an overview is given of the theories that account for psychological distress following leaving home. These theories link homesickness with separation-anxiety and loss, the interruption of lifestyle, reduced control, role change, and internal conflict. In addition, the review focuses on: (i) studies that show that subjects reporting homesickness differ from non-homesick persons in terms of personality; (ii) the analyses of environmental characteristics that may play a crucial role in the onset and course of homesickness. Thirdly, Fisher's (1989) composite model of homesickness, which summarizes key findings of the major studies on homesickness is discussed. Fourthly, methodological issues are addressed. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented and possibilities for interventions are proposed.

  3. [Food and nutrition education in school: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Flavia Pascoal; Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa

    2013-11-01

    Food and nutrition education is viewed as a key strategy for promoting healthy eating habits, and the school is an appropriate space for developing these activities. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the scientific literature on intervention studies on food and nutrition education in Brazilian schools. A literature review was conducted, selecting articles published from 2000 to 2011. Despite the topic's current importance, there were few articles, and most were published after 2009. The main results showed improvement in the children's nutritional knowledge and food choices. However, most studies that performed anthropometric measurements failed to show changes in nutritional status. In addition, the studies chose designs based on epidemiological intervention studies, indicating the need for interventions based on innovative health education methodologies and research models that are consistent with the study's objects.

  4. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Oliver; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to

  5. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

    2011-09-22

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

  6. [Dentinogenesis imperfecta: a developmental anomaly of the dentin in the primary dentition. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Bercovich, R

    2010-01-01

    This literature review summarizes the current knowledge about Dentinigenesis Imperfecta, a developmental anomaly of thedentin.The phenomenon's classification is presented in details, as well as its etiology, clinical, rentgenological and histological characteristics. In addition, the treatment modes are described.

  7. Improving the Writing of Literature Reviews through a Literature Integration Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Ted; Campbell, Nittaya

    2006-01-01

    Students are often required to write literature reviews in advanced business communication courses, especially as part of a research project. Likewise, in the workplace, business communicators may need to review the literature in analyzing a problem or proposing a solution. However, instructors often find that even students who otherwise write…

  8. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  9. Management Reviewing Literature: An Evaluation of Selected Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    1987-01-01

    Reports results of a study which compared the treatment of selected characteristics of the reviewing literature of management in professional and trade journals. The characteristics examined included lag time, review length, descriptive or analytic nature of reviews, positive or negative evaluations, and affiliation of the reviewer. (CLB)

  10. Literature and Practice: A Critical Review of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappe-Laverde, Andres; Hine, Nicolas; Martínez-Silva, Jose Andres

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a review of both literature and practical experiences concerning MOOCs. The literature analyzed was published in peer-reviewed journals between 2007 and 2013. 268 items were selected for this study, of which 100 were analyzed in detail. The issues raised by this analysis were used as the criteria for the analysis of 10…

  11. Women and Minorities in Engineering: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamaril, Natasha J. A; Royal, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    This review of the literature investigates the various factors identified by researchers to explain women's underrepresentation in the engineering field. Because a great deal of research has been published through the years, a compilation summary of existing research was necessary. This literature review utilized searches from thousands of…

  12. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  13. Child Development and the Housing Environment. Volume 3: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Systems Research and Engineering, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    As the final part of a three-volume study, this review focuses on housing as an instrument of environmental change with particular emphasis on socioeconomic rather than physical dimensions. Three literature orientations relating to the effectiveness of intervention in the lives of the poor are used for review. They are (1) literature that is…

  14. Situating Disability within Comparative Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alisha M. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an inquiry into where the topic of disability falls within the vast field of comparative education research. It explores the extent to which disability is present in comparative education literature, and in what ways it is represented. A review of literature across the core comparative education peer-reviewed journals was conducted.…

  15. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  16. Philosophy, Religion and Education American Style: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Terry Anne

    2007-01-01

    This literature review presents an overview of Christian higher education in the United States with particular attention to philosophical trends and their influence on institutions of Christian origin. This literature review is situated in the context of the discussion of the need, or lack thereof, for helping students integrate their faith with…

  17. The Evolving Military Learner Population: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…

  18. Relationship between Music Learning and Language Reading? Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Carrie

    This paper reviews literature in the past 60 years about the relationship between music experience and language reading. Results of the literature review fall into three categories: the first group of studies (group I) indicates that music experience benefits language reading due to six transfers of learning--prediction skill, whole-to-part…

  19. Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

  20. Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kathleen E.; Murowchick, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Creating literature reviews encompasses skills that are central to psychology students' academic and professional lives, yet writing them consistently challenges students. Research shows that instruction leads to improvement in students' literature reviews within courses (Boscolo, Arfé, & Quarisa, 2007; Granello, 2001), but little work…

  1. A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

  2. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected.

  3. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ① those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ② those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed.

  4. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected. PMID:26465249

  5. African Primary Care Research: Reviewing the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the second article in the series on African primary care research. The article focuses on how to search for relevant evidence in the published literature that can be used in the development of a research proposal. The article addresses the style of writing required and the nature of the arguments for the social and scientific value of the proposed study, as well as the use of literature in conceptual frameworks and in the methods. Finally, the article looks at how to keep track of the literature used and to reference it appropriately. PMID:26245433

  6. Posterior resin-based composite: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J O; Walker, Richard; Davidson, J M

    2002-01-01

    The use of direct posterior resin-based composite has increased primarily due to patient esthetic desires and product improvements. Other factors (substantiated or not) contributing to increased use of resin-based composite are environmental and health concerns with dental amalgam. New visible light cured resin-based composite products are introduced yearly, as manufacturers continue to improve this tooth-colored restorative material. This paper will characterize current posterior resin-based composite materials (hybrid, microfill, flowable, and packable), review recent in vitro and clinical research, and recommend indications for these materials. In addition, the literature on compomers will be reviewed and recommendation made for their use. The data indicates that composite resin is a technique sensitive restorative material that can be used in large preparations if proper manipulation and isolation can be maintained. Compomers may also be used as an esthetic posterior restorative if proper isolation is provided.

  7. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; Guérin, Noémie A; Kirkham, Alison C

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.

  8. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols. PMID:26300817

  9. Methodology - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    This review examines studies conducted mainly in industrialized, developed countries and published in English between 1982 and December 2003 for pregnant or lactating women, infants, toddlers, and preschoolers.

  10. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  11. On Contemporary Literature: Critiques, Reviews and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this focused issue draw attention to works of contemporary literature with classroom potential. Four articles suggest new approaches for the reading and teaching of such established writers as Robert Frost; Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Eudora Welty; and Saul Bellow. Two other articles examine the bestsellers "Ordinary People" and "The Color…

  12. Grief Counseling: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneker, Darlene; Cashwell, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Grief counseling has grown over the past two decades to become a well respected specialty within the field of counseling. This article examines books, articles, and literature developed by leading agencies in the field. Grief counseling is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the clinical aspects of working with individuals involved in dying and…

  13. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sumamry Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries. PMID:25991942

  14. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  15. Gastric bronchogenic cysts: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TU, CHAOYONG; ZHU, JINGDE; SHAO, CHUXIAO; MAO, WEIBO; ZHOU, XINGMU; LIN, QIAOMEI; LI, ZHUKAI; ZHANG, JIE; ZHOU, QINGYUE; CHEN, WEI

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bronchogenic cysts are rare lesions, first described in 1956, with only 34 cases reported in the literature to date. The present study described a case of bronchogenic cyst of the stomach in a 17-year-old female who presented with periodic epigastric pain. In addition, the study analyzed the existing literature on these lesions. Gastric bronchogenic cysts are more common in females (female:male ratio, 21:14) and the median age of their development is 43 years. In total, 48.57% of the 34 previously reported cases were identified incidentally, and the remainder presented mainly with epigastric pain. Cyst sizes varied between 1.7 and 15 cm. In 3 cases, preoperative diagnosis was performed using needle biopsy, whereas several studies were initially misdiagnosed as stromal tumors. In 85% of the cases (31/35), cyst resection was performed, with laparoscopy used in 4 of the cases. The findings of the present study and literature review suggested that bronchogenic cysts of the stomach are rare, and surgical resection is warranted to treat symptoms and prevent malignant transformation. PMID:27073434

  16. Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizing, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

  17. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood.

  18. Ozone and caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Ozone, either in gaseous form or as ozonated water, has been available for use as a treatment for dental caries for a decade. This paper reviews the literature on the subject by examining the findings of publications in the peer review literature. Eighteen papers were identified by a literature search. From the review of these, it was concluded that, while some laboratory studies and some short duration clinical studies have suggested that ozone may be effective in the treatment of root caries or killing of oral micro-organisms, the clinical evidence for the use of ozone in treatment of caries is not compelling.

  19. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    WANG, KE; NI, MING; WANG, LIANG; JIA, GUIJUN; WU, ZHEN; ZHANG, LIWEI; ZHANG, JUNTING

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is rare, and the clinical characteristics and treatment strategy remain unclear. In the present study, a case of cerebellar liponeurocytoma was retrospectively reported and a literature review was performed. A 45-year-old female presented due to occipital headaches, exhibiting a hoarse voice and a broad-based gait. Pre-operative magnetic resonance images revealed a lesion occupying the right hemisphere of the cerebellum and the inferior vermis, compressing the medulla oblongata from the right side, and extending through the foramen magnum to the C2 level. A total resection was performed, and pathological analysis of the lesion showed positivity for synaptophysin, S-100 and neuronal nuclear antigen, partial positivity for Olig-2, and negativity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen. In addition, the Ki-67 index was low (<5%). Thus, a diagnosis of cerebellar liponeurocytoma was determined. Total resection was successful and the patient was followed up closely. A review of the literature showed that cerebellar liponeurocytoma is mainly located in the cerebellum, with rare extra-cerebellar cases. Certain studies have suggested that the tumor may be located supratentorially and subtentorially, and should be renamed as solely liponeurocytoma. Total resection of the tumor contributes to an improved prognosis, while a subtotal resection and high Ki-67 index lead to recurrence. The tumor is similar to a tumor of low malignancy, with long-term recurrence. Radiation is recommended when there is residual tumor, recurrence or when the Ki-67 is high. PMID:26893691

  20. Cutaneous Metaplastic Synovial Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Hamed; Dehghani, Nima; Dehghani, Siavash; Behnia, Hossein; Pourdanesh, Fereydoun; Mohajerani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cutaneous metaplastic synovial cyst (CMSC) is a rare cutaneous lesion characterized by a tender subcutaneous nodule, which usually occurs at the site of previous surgical or local trauma. Histologically, the lesion includes a cystic structure with villous-like projections and a lining mimicking hyperplastic synovium. Case Presentation: We reported the first case of CMSC which developed at the surgical incision site of treatment of a maxillofacial fracture. In addition, we reviewed English literature to evaluate all previously reported CMSC cases and discussed its clinical and histopathological features and etiology. From 1987 to now, reviewing the English literature about CMSC includes 17 studies that described 28 cases, and our presented case was the 29th. There was no sex predilection and age of patients ranged from 7 to 82 years, but most of them were over 40 years. We can see this lesion in any site of the body and hand/arm is the most prevalent involved region (28% cases). Most of the patients had a history of previous local trauma or operation in the involved area. Conclusions: Although the actual etiology of CMSC remains unclear, trauma, as the most probable etiologic factor, plays a role in development of CMSC. Surgical excision of the lesion is the preferable treatment choice and rate of recurrence is low. PMID:26756011

  1. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  2. Chondroid chordoma. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Spoden, J E; Bumsted, R M; Warner, E D

    1980-01-01

    A case of the chondroid variant of chordoma is presented. The differentiating features of this entity are discussed on a clinical and histopathologic basis. A review of the topic of chordoma is also provided.

  3. Congenital Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Ryan Chin Taw; Kassam, Karim; Eccles, Simon; Hensher, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Congenital temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is an uncommon condition that presents itself at or soon after birth in the absence of acquired factors that could have contributed to the ankylosis such as infection and trauma. The experience of managing one such case is reported in light of a review of the literature on this condition. Key management principles include adequate removal of the ankylotic mass, costochondral grafting, and post-op physiotherapy. Most patients reported in the literature with the condition experienced relapse. This echoes our own experience where there was recurrence of the ankylosis. However, after removal of the ankylotic mass, the patient maintains a satisfactory maximal incisal opening (MIO) till the present day. The additional challenges faced in the congenital form in addition to the already complex management of acquired paediatric temporomandibular joint ankylosis are (1) much earlier insult to the TMJ, (2) reduced opportunity for neuromuscular development of the muscles of mastication, and (3) reduced compliance with postoperative physiotherapy programmes due to the younger age of these patients. PMID:27190665

  4. Intentional replantation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Drain, D E; Petrone, J A

    1995-01-01

    Through a case report and a review of the literature, the indications and contraindications for intentional replantation are discussed. The current procedures and techniques for this seldom used modality are presented.

  5. AIR INFILTRATION MEASUREMENTS USING TRACER GASES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review of air filtration measurements using tracer gases, including sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and radioactive argon and krypton. Sulfur hexafluoride is the commonest tracer gas of choice...

  6. Leadership in Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Pat (Meadley)

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerned with leadership in education. Topics addressed include trait theories of leadership; behavioral theories; situational leadership; instructional leadership; transformational leadership; value-added leadership; community of leaders; women as leaders; and organizational leadership. (Contains 44 references.) (LRW)

  7. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  8. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Lareau, John P.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  10. Rett Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne

    1991-01-01

    This nontechnical review of the literature on Rett Syndrome, a developmental disability found only in females, examines the syndrome's history, diagnostic criteria, clinical stages, incidence, differential diagnosis, etiology, genetics, treatment approaches, and prognosis. (Author/DB)

  11. Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, Corine E.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Langendam, Miranda; Timen, Aura; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007–2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description, aetiology, prevention, therapy, and prognosis, of fatigue following acute Q-fever. Design A systematic review was conducted through searching Pubmed, Embase, and PsycInfo for relevant literature up to 26th May 2015. References of included articles were hand searched for additional documents, and included articles were quality assessed. Results Fifty-seven articles were included and four documents classified as grey literature. The quality of most studies was low. The studies suggest that although most patients recover from fatigue within 6–12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusions Long-term fatigue following acute Q-fever, generally referred to as QFS, has major health-related consequences. However, information on aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of QFS is underrepresented in the international literature. In order to facilitate comparison of findings, and as platform for future studies, a uniform definition and diagnostic work-up and uniform measurement tools for QFS are proposed. PMID:27223465

  12. Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to provide a critical overview of existing research on the health of immigrant youth within the last decade. Although the review focuses primarily on Canada, the findings have implications for public health planning, policy, and settlement/immigration services in other immigrant-receiving countries. The main objectives are: (i) to locate relevant literature written in the past 10 years (January 1998-January 2008); (ii) to undertake a critical review of retrieved studies; (iii) to highlight gaps in the current state of our knowledge and make recommendations for future research directions. The review focuses on the influence of migration experience on health of youth.

  13. The Effects of Job Sharing on Student Performance Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Dorothy

    The River Forest (Illinois) District 90 wished to examine the educational literature on the effects of job sharing by teachers on student performance. This document presents a review of the literature and summarizes and synthesizes this information. Only limited information was found on this subject. However, anecdotal reports of the impact of job…

  14. Defining Spiritual Health: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Literature review explores various components of spiritual health, defining and categorizing existing definitions identified in the literature into six perspectives: sense of fulfillment in life; values and beliefs of community and self; wholeness in life; a factor in well-being; a controlling higher power; and human/spiritual interaction. (SM)

  15. Corporate Advocacy: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of the literature pertaining to corporate advocacy (non-product advertising by corporations, addressing political or social issues). More specifically, the paper examines research from the communication, business, public relations, and advertising literature dealing with justifications for the practice of…

  16. LITERATURE REVIEW AND REPORT: SURFACE-SEDIMENT SAMPLER DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review was conducted to identify available surface sediment sampling technologies with an ability to collect undisturbed sediments to depths of up to 1 meter below the water sediment interface. This survey was conducted using published literature and references, Envi...

  17. Considerations of the Concept of Infant Health: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd; Axelsson, Asa

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a wide range of literature in order to describe factors associated with the concept of infant health. The design of the study is a literature review examining 21 research studies, written in the English language. The study explored which factors were found to exert an influence on the concept of infant health. The result showed…

  18. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  19. Mentors and Proteges: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1983-01-01

    This review divides the literature on mentoring into three sections: mentoring in adult growth and development, in the business world, and in academic settings. Although the literature is biased in favor of the phenomenon, the concept needs clarification and more rigorous research and evaluation. (SK)

  20. Human Resource Development Practices in Russia: A Structured Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review aimed to investigate the literature on HRD in Russian enterprises, U.S. firms in Russia, or U.S.-Russian joint ventures to determine the role and function of HRD practitioners in creating a successful economic transition. Thirty-three articles were selected through a database search and examined using content analysis. Three…

  1. Solid fuel grindability: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, L.

    2007-07-01

    The most commonly used measurement of coal grindability is the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) however, many solid fuels do not exhibit the grinding performance predicted by this index. Parameters which can influence grindability and possibly lead to inaccurate prediction of grindability as determined by HGI include: composition and texture, mineral components, brittleness, and rank (which establishes carbon, volatile matter, and moisture contents). Descriptions of these parameters are provided. Alternative measurements of grindability from literature are presented. The most promising may be a revision on the standard HGI, in which a mill capacity factor is derived from the number of mill rotations to crush coal to a specific fineness. 88 refs.

  2. [Laryngeal amyloidosis: a clinical case and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Fries, S; Pasche, P; Brunel, C; Schweizer, V

    2015-09-30

    Amyloidosis consists of different forms of systemic or isolated organ lesions characterised by fibrillary protein deposits in extra-cellular tissue. The isolated involvement of the larynx is the most frequent form in the ENT sphere. We present a clinical case of a 67 year-old woman addressed for a sub-acute laryngitis resistant to conservative treatment, and finally diagnosed with laryngeal amyloidosis. We reviewed its physiopathology, the scientific literature as well as the different possibilities of management. Laryngeal amyloidosis is rare. A thorough additional work-up for the research of multifocal or systemic forms is highly recommended. The treatment aims at a minimal invasive endoscopic surgery with functional organ preservation.

  3. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  4. Family Caregiver Identity: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Dudley, William; Perko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the multitude of available resources, family caregivers of those with chronic disease continually underutilize support services to cope with the demands of caregiving. Several studies have linked self-identification as a caregiver to the increased likelihood of support service use. Purpose: The present study reviewed the…

  5. Social Reinforcement: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raben, Charles S.; And Others

    Major studies and theoretical positions within the incentive motivation field are reviewed in order to present an integrated picture of past and present research. Special emphasis is placed on delineating social reinforcement variables in an attempt to explicate their relative importance within the context of social reinforcement theory; however,…

  6. Technology Integration: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl A.; Bolick, Cheryl Mason

    2007-01-01

    Technology has been viewed as a lodestone for improving student academic performance and for increasing the flexibility of public schools. This review provides a synthesis that addresses the effect of technology on teaching and learning and analyzes these effects through the lens of diffusion theory. This synthesis examines the historical trends…

  7. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.

  8. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching

    PubMed Central

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270

  9. [Culture and mental health in Haiti : a literature review].

    PubMed

    Pierre, Andrena; Minn, Pierre; Sterlin, Carlo; Annoual, Pascale C; Jaimes, Annie; Raphaël, Frantz; Raikhel, Eugene; Whitley, Rob; Rousseau, Cécile; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. We searched Medline, Google Scholar and other available databases to gather scholarly literature relevant to mental health in Haiti. This was supplemented by consultation of key books and grey literature relevant to Haiti. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to a basic understanding of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health.

  10. [Culture and mental health in Haiti : a literature review].

    PubMed

    Pierre, Andrena; Minn, Pierre; Sterlin, Carlo; Annoual, Pascale C; Jaimes, Annie; Raphaël, Frantz; Raikhel, Eugene; Whitley, Rob; Rousseau, Cécile; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. We searched Medline, Google Scholar and other available databases to gather scholarly literature relevant to mental health in Haiti. This was supplemented by consultation of key books and grey literature relevant to Haiti. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to a basic understanding of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health. PMID:21076788

  11. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter.

  12. All about compression: A literature review.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Magali Rezende; de Andrade, Isabelle Silveira; de Abreu, Alcione Matos; Leite Ribeiro, Andrea Pinto; Peixoto, Bruno Utzeri; de Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista

    2016-06-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a significant public health problem as they frequently progress to chronicity, significantly impact daily activities and comfort, and represent a huge financial burden to the patient and the health system. The aim of this review was to discuss the best approach for venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Online searches were conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and reference lists and official guidelines. Keywords considered for this review were VLU, leg ulcer, varicose ulcer, compressive therapy, compression, and stocking. A complete assessment of the patient's overall health should be performed by a trained practitioner, focusing on history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dietetic habits, medications, and practice of physical exercises, followed by a thorough assessment of both legs. Compressive therapy is the gold standard treatment for VLUs, and the ankle-brachial index should be measured in all patients before compression application. PMID:27210451

  13. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter. PMID:26679320

  14. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  15. Basidiomycosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lacaz, C da S; Heins-Vaccari, E M; De Melo, N T; Hernandez-Arriagada, G L

    1996-01-01

    The basidiomycosis, fungal infections provoked by basidiomycetes or agaric fungi have been recorded at growing frequencies in the medical literature, especially after the advent of AIDS in 1991. The basidiospores of these fungi, scattered in the atmosphere and transported by winds or air currents, reach the maxillary sinuses through the nasal route, most of the times causing signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis. Basidiomycetes have also been isolated from sputum, especially Schizophyllum commune. Lesions of the buccal mucosa, brain abscesses, onychomycosis and endocarditis have been described, with a growing interest in this type of deep mycosis on the part of mycologists and infectologists. The present paper reports descriptions of mycetism as well as infectious processes caused by basidiomycetes, such as Schizophyllum commune, Ustilago maydis (= Ustilago zeae) and Coprinus cinereus.

  16. Intramuscular Lipoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McTighe, Shane; Chernev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common type of soft tissue mesenchymal tumors. They are typically located subcutaneously and consist of mature fatty tissue. When they occur under the enclosing fascia, they are called deep-seated lipomas. Infrequently, lipomas can arise inside the muscle and are called intramuscular lipomas. Intramuscular lipomas have been commonly investigated and categorized in the same group as other deep-seated and superficial lipomatous lesions. Their clinical, histological and imaging characteristics may resemble well-differentiated liposarcomas, further adding to the difficulties in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes the available literature and describes the typical epidemiological, pathological and clinical features of intramuscular lipomas, as well as delineating their treatment and prognosis. PMID:25568733

  17. Pompe disease: literature review and case series.

    PubMed

    Dasouki, Majed; Jawdat, Omar; Almadhoun, Osama; Pasnoor, Mamatha; McVey, April L; Abuzinadah, Ahmad; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2014-08-01

    Pompe disease is a rare multi-systemic metabolic myopathy caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the acidic alpha glucosidase (GAA) gene. Significant progress had been made in the diagnosis and management of patients with Pompe disease. Here, we describe our experience with 12 patients with various forms of Pompe disease including 4 potentially pathogenic, novel GAA variants. We also review the recent the recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with Pompe disease.

  18. Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    T. Rajan, Sharada; Malathi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Xylene, an aromatic hydrocarbon is widely used in industry and medical laboratory as a solvent. It is a flammable liquid that requires utmost care during its usage. On exposure the vapours are rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the slowly through the skin. Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. This article reviews the various acute and chronic health effects of xylene through various routes of exposure. PMID:24701554

  19. Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Vijaya Veeranna; Lunge, Snehal; Swamy, Manjunathswamy Basavapuruda; Pandit, Ashok Maharudrayya

    2015-01-01

    Livedo reticularis (LR) is a cutaneous physical sign characterized by transient or persistent, blotchy, reddish-blue to purple, net-like cyanotic pattern. LR is a benign disorder affecting mainly middle-aged females, whereas livedo racemosa (LRC) is pathologic, commonly associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This article aims to review the causes of LR and LRC along with the evaluation and management. PMID:26500860

  20. Literature review of SNOMED CT use

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis; de Keizer, Nicolette; Lau, Francis; Cornet, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper is to report on the use of the systematised nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) by providing an overview of published papers. Methods Published papers on SNOMED CT between 2001 and 2012 were identified using PubMed and Embase databases using the keywords ‘systematised nomenclature of medicine’ and ‘SNOMED CT’. For each paper the following characteristics were retrieved: SNOMED CT focus category (ie, indeterminate, theoretical, pre-development/design, implementation and evaluation/commodity), usage category (eg, prospective content coverage, used to classify or code in a study), medical domain and country. Results Our search strategy identified 488 papers. A comparison between the papers published between 2001–6 and 2007–12 showed an increase in every SNOMED CT focus category. The number of papers classified as ‘theoretical’ increased from 46 to 78, ‘pre-development/design’ increased from 61 to 173 and ‘implementation’ increased from 10 to 34. Papers classified as ‘evaluation/commodity’ only started to appear from 2010. Conclusions The majority of studies focused on ‘theoretical’ and ‘pre-development/design’. This is still encouraging as SNOMED CT is being harmonized with other standardized terminologies and is being evaluated to determine the content coverage of local terms, which is usually one of the first steps towards adoption. Most implementations are not published in the scientific literature, requiring a look beyond the scientific literature to gain insights into SNOMED CT implementations. PMID:23828173

  1. Cellulite treatment: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Zerini, Irene; Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Ciappi, Serena; Russo, Francesco; Brandi, Cesare; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    An effective and long-term treatment of cellulite has not been well established. To our knowledge, no review has analyzed the whole range of treatments for this condition. We conducted a review of in vivo studies on humans adopting the key words "cellulite" and "treatment." The studies were included according to eligibility criteria. We performed an analysis to estimate the overall effect of cellulite treatments from clinical studies. Medline library was screened up to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. We included 73 original studies in the present review. All of them were clinical studies, in most of them, only women were recruited. Above the studies searched up, 66 tested the effectiveness of an exclusive treatment performed without the association to other procedures: 11 topical agents, 10 shock-wave therapy, 10 radio frequency, eight laser therapy, five oral therapy, four manual massage therapy, three carbon dioxide therapy, two compressive therapy, two infrared therapy, one dermabrasion, and 11 devices that use an association of multiple treatments. Seven papers tested a combination of two or more treatments. The mean difference of clinical morphologic features and ultrastructural changes between the treated group and the controlled showed significant heterogeneity between studies. It is still difficult to indicate an exclusive and effective single treatment for this condition. Our analysis purposed to obtain a complete overview of the available treatments in cellulite reduction.

  2. Cellulite treatment: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Zerini, Irene; Sisti, Andrea; Cuomo, Roberto; Ciappi, Serena; Russo, Francesco; Brandi, Cesare; D'Aniello, Carlo; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    An effective and long-term treatment of cellulite has not been well established. To our knowledge, no review has analyzed the whole range of treatments for this condition. We conducted a review of in vivo studies on humans adopting the key words "cellulite" and "treatment." The studies were included according to eligibility criteria. We performed an analysis to estimate the overall effect of cellulite treatments from clinical studies. Medline library was screened up to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. We included 73 original studies in the present review. All of them were clinical studies, in most of them, only women were recruited. Above the studies searched up, 66 tested the effectiveness of an exclusive treatment performed without the association to other procedures: 11 topical agents, 10 shock-wave therapy, 10 radio frequency, eight laser therapy, five oral therapy, four manual massage therapy, three carbon dioxide therapy, two compressive therapy, two infrared therapy, one dermabrasion, and 11 devices that use an association of multiple treatments. Seven papers tested a combination of two or more treatments. The mean difference of clinical morphologic features and ultrastructural changes between the treated group and the controlled showed significant heterogeneity between studies. It is still difficult to indicate an exclusive and effective single treatment for this condition. Our analysis purposed to obtain a complete overview of the available treatments in cellulite reduction. PMID:26147372

  3. Living on the edge: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    PetersonLund, Robin R

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature of the universal experience of living on the edge is discussed. Literature was reviewed from biology, criminology, ecology, economics, ethics, finance, fine arts, historical biography, medicine, nursing, philosophy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and theology. Three themes emerged with this literature review: living on the edge as a sacred place one travels to or where one lives, living on the edge as a choice in taking risks and surviving danger, and living on the edge as engaging with health experiences in which persons and nurses coparticipate. Living on the edge is a visionary quest into a new frontier that holds illimitable possibilities that transform the world. The literature is discussed according to theoretical and research findings. PMID:24085664

  4. Training Paraprofessionals to Support Students with Disabilities: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Virginia L.; Smith, Carol G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe intervention research studies in which paraprofessionals received training applicable to student with disabilities. Thirty studies were systematically reviewed to identify (a) characteristics of study participants and settings, (b) characteristics of paraprofessional training and…

  5. Quality in Distance Education: A Preliminary Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Edna Q.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    With the increase use of the Internet, distance education will continue to provide a vehicle for instruction and/or training. Traditional methods for measuring quality instruction and training may need to be reviewed for their applicability and use with current technological methods of instructional delivery. This paper reviews literature on the…

  6. Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jing; Ha, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyse empirical studies on inclusion in physical education (PE) over the past 20 years and then propose recommendations for future research. A systematic process was used to search the literature for this review. First, a total of 75 research-based articles from computerised education databases were included in…

  7. Vocational Education in Secondary Schools. A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; And Others

    The literature on vocational education (VE) in secondary schools was reviewed. The main conclusion of the review of international and Australian policy trends and directions in VE was that, to date, Australian attempts to create a more vocationally relevant curriculum have resulted in a system in which the academic curriculum has remained central…

  8. Joblessness and Unemployment: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Patrick L.

    This literature review examines evidence on the relationship between African American male economic potential in the formal sector of the economy and transitions in African American family structure and marital stability. This review also provides insight into the crime, unemployment, family structure, and race debate. Competing theoretical…

  9. Retirement financial planning and the RN: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2013-11-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  10. Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-10-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  11. Employer Perceptions of Online Degrees: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbaro, Norina L.; Monaghan, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review explores research regarding the perception of potential employers or "gatekeepers" about online degrees in comparison with those earned in a traditional format. This review contributes to the field of knowledge because higher education can benefit from understanding how these perceptions affect students' employment…

  12. A Review of Literature: What Is an Ideal Internationalised School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Sherene

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a literature review conducted from 2005 to 2013 on the elements involved when a school internationalises. In the past there has been predominant focus on the teachers or the international students at schools with little emphasis on a whole school approach to internationalisation. This review considers the body…

  13. Organizational Culture and Internationalization: A Brief Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaumer, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This brief literature review introduces an area of emerging research about the impact of organizational culture on institutional strategies for internationalization. The review begins by introducing the concept of organizational culture, particularly within higher education. Five articles published between 2003 and 2012 are examined that introduce…

  14. The Production of Quality Choral Performance: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolsten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This review of literature is a synthesis of research surrounding the production of superior choral performance. Findings described in this review suggest director characteristics, rehearsal techniques, singer behaviors, and auxiliary supports that are important to, or common in, the creation of meritorious performance. Effects of instructional…

  15. The Gifted-Visually Handicapped Child: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shang-Ping; Sikka, Anjoo

    This literature review examines and integrates research addressing visual handicap and giftedness and provides suggestions for the identification and education of gifted students with visual handicaps. The review addresses definitions of visual handicap and giftedness, characteristics of the gifted visually handicapped child, the problem of…

  16. Ereaders in Academic Libraries--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tees, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This literature review describes the experiences of universities in their use of ereaders as textbook replacements and of academic libraries and their lending of ereaders. Information gained from this review will inform Southern Cross University (SCU) Library's forthcoming Ereader Project, which will trial the lending of ereaders as leisure…

  17. Student and Employee Wellness in Higher Education: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, T. Ross

    This paper reviews the literature related to wellness. Wellness is reviewed in terms of definitions, theoretical perspectives, and research approaches. The definitions of wellness by six theorists are outlined. Regardless of definition chosen, today's conception of wellness has been fostered by disillusion with traditional medicine and the growing…

  18. An Integrative Literature Review of Knowledge Sharing through Cultural Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, EunJee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative review of literature on cultural dimensions that have been suggested as facilitative and inhibitive to knowledge sharing in organizations. Content analysis was conducted on articles related to national, organizational and professional culture and knowledge sharing process. Based on a review of existing literature…

  19. Modes of Modelling Assessment--A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frejd, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of literature investigating assessment of mathematical modelling. Written tests, projects, hands-on tests, portfolio and contests are modes of modelling assessment identified in this study. The written tests found in the reviewed papers draw on an atomistic view on modelling competencies, whereas projects are…

  20. Library Science Literature, 1965/1969; A Selective Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiker, Reuben

    This selective review of the library science literature of the five-year period 1965-1969 aims to provide library science teachers and libraries with a checklist of material pinpointing the more significant works in each major area. The selection has been limited to 150 works from various parts of the world in order to keep the review within…

  1. The State of the Nation in CPD: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review in support of the "State of the Nation" (SoN) investigation into CPD in England indicated a number of limitations both in how researchers see CPD and how schools themselves participate and register this participation in such activities. The SoN review was conducted in the period from late 2007 to early 2008, but was…

  2. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  3. Disruptive Students in the Classroom: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Daisy F.; Kirkpatrick, Caroline

    This literature review explores the issue of disruptive students in the classroom and offers suggestions and possible solutions to the problem. The review was divided into three major areas: (1) definitions and characteristics of disruptive students; (2) reasons why students misbehave; and (3) suggestions and solutions for solving the problem. The…

  4. [Hypophysitis autoimmune. Case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Guadalupe; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis is a rare condition that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pituitary tumor. We present a series of nine patients with clinical and radiologic diagnosis of autoimmune hypophysitis that were admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ) in Mexico City between 2000-2012. Clinical, biochemical, imaging features (on MRI), treatment, and follow-up are described, and a review on this disease is presented.

  5. [Antimicrobial peptide in dentisty. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Sato, F Simain; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2009-12-01

    The use of antimicrobial substances has contributed to the development of multiple antimicrobial resistances (1), challenging the pharmaceutical industry to develop with new, innovative, and effective molecules. Discovered around 1980, molecules called natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear to hold great potential for the treatment of infections. These cationic peptides are able to stop the bacterial development and to control infections. The purpose of this review is to help improve the understanding of the way AMPs operate in the context of the development of new cures against viruses, bacteria, and mushrooms found in the human body in general and in the oral cavity in particular. PMID:20143750

  6. Mycetism: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Graeme, Kimberlie A

    2014-06-01

    Approximately 100 of the known species of mushrooms are poisonous to humans. New toxic mushroom species continue to be identified. Some species initially classified as edible are later reclassified as toxic. This results in a continually expanding list of toxic mushrooms. As new toxic species are identified, some classic teachings about mycetism no longer hold true. As more toxic mushrooms are identified and more toxic syndromes are reported, older classification systems fail to effectively accommodate mycetism. This review provides an update of myscetism and classifies mushroom poisonings by the primary organ system affected, permitting expansion, as new, toxic mushroom species are discovered.

  7. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides.

  8. Surgery and pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis: a scientific literature review

    PubMed Central

    Subotic, Dragan; Yablonskiy, Piotr; Sulis, Giorgia; Cordos, Ioan; Petrov, Danail; Centis, Rosella; D’Ambrosio, Lia; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health concern, mostly affecting resource-constrained settings and marginalized populations. The fight against the disease is hindered by the growing emergence of drug-resistant forms whose management can be rather challenging. Surgery may play an important role to support diagnosis and treatment of the most complex cases and improve their therapeutic outcome. We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature based on relevant keywords through PubMed database. Papers in English and Russian were included. The search was focused on five main areas of intervention as follows: (I) diagnosis of complicated cases; (II) elimination of contagious persisting cavities, despite appropriate chemotherapy; (III) treatment of destroyed lung; (V) resection of tuberculomas; (VI) treatment of tuberculous pleural empyema. Although specific practical guidelines concerning surgical indications and approaches are currently unavailable, a summary of the evidence emerged from the scientific literature was elaborated to help the clinician in the management of severely compromised TB patients. The decision to proceed to surgery is usually individualized and a careful assessment of the patient’s risk profile is always recommended before performing any procedure in addition to appropriate chemotherapy. PMID:27499980

  9. Literature review of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Heryanto; Schoo, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence regarding the efficacy of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers.  We aimed to compare and contrast these results with findings from previous literature reviews, the last of which were published in 2009. Methods In order to capture studies since the last published literature reviews, five databases and grey literature were searched for publications from January 2008 to January 2015. A search for literature reviews without using the timeframe limitation was also performed. Results The search from January 2008 to January 2015 resulted in the inclusion of 12 studies. Five systematic reviews of the topic were found which included 39 individual studies that were also analysed. Nearly all studies reported positive effects. Twenty nine studies reported change in attitudes, 28 reported modification in knowledge, 28 reported change in behaviour, 6 reported change in the organisation and two reported change in program participant’s students. There were substantial threats of bias present. Conclusions The literature reviewed demonstrated many positive effects of teaching skills programs, which supports their utilization. However, high level outcomes need to be evaluated over longer periods of time to establish their true impact. An organisation specific approach to these programs needs to occur using sound course design principles, and they need to be reported in evaluation trials that are designed with robust methodology. PMID:26826798

  10. Berberine and neurodegeneration: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Touqeer; Gilani, Anwar-Ul-Hassan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species in nervous tissues is considered one of the major risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of natural products and compounds isolated from natural products which are often characterized by high efficacy and low adverse effects. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, widely present in different medicinal herbs, especially in the genus Berberis. It is mainly used as antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal agent. However, current research has focused on its beneficial role in neurodegenerative diseases, mainly due to its powerful antioxidant effect. The therapeutic potential of Berberine in different neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington disease has been brought to evidence by numerous studies. However, a limited number of reviews focus on the beneficial role of Berberine against neurodegeneration. The main objective of this review is to discuss the role of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration and the potential role of antioxidant compounds, in particular Berberine which is analyzed in its chemical structure, source, bioavailability, therapeutic potential, with special attention to its mechanism of action at a molecular level.

  11. Managing COPD using pulmonary rehabilitation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mukundu, Lowina; Matiti, Milika Ruth

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a literature review of the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to decrease patient mortality and hospital admissions. The literature search resulted in 13 articles being selected for review. Three themes were identified: improvement in exercise tolerance, improvement in breathlessness and improvement in health-related quality of life. This review enhances our knowledge of the mechanisms through which pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients and provides an evidence base to guide nursing decisions regarding patient education, health promotion and psychological support. PMID:26639292

  12. Grynfelt hernia: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cesar, D; Valadão, M; Murrahe, R J

    2012-02-01

    Back lumbar hernia is a rare abdominal wall defect that usually presents spontaneously after trauma or lumbar surgery or, less frequently, during infancy (congenital). Few reports have been published in the literature describing primary lumbar hernia. A general surgeon will have the opportunity to repair only one or a few lumbar hernia cases in his/her lifetime. We report a case of a healthy 50-year-old man, with no previous surgeries or history of trauma, who presented to the outpatient department with abdominal discomfort, pain, and a sensation of a growing mass on his lower left back for 4 years. CT scan of the abdomen showed a mass in the left posterolateral abdominal wall. Specifically, a herniation of retroperitoneal fat between the erector spinae muscle group and internal oblique muscles through aponeurosis of the transversalis muscle (Grynfeltt hernia). The patient underwent a small lumbotomy, polypropylene mesh was placed and he recovered well. Although many techniques have been described for the surgical management of such hernias, none of them can be recommended as the preferred method. Our impression, however, is that the open approach, with a small lumbotomy, seems to be easy, safe and presents good postoperative recovery.

  13. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.

  14. Temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis. Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Dorrit; González-Garcia, Raul

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is still controversial. TMJ arthrocentesis represents a form of minimally invasive surgical treatment in patients suffering from internal derangement of the TMJ, especially closed lock. It consists of washing the joint with the possibility of depositing a drug or other therapeutic substance. Resolution of symptoms is due to the removal of chemical inflammatory mediators and changes in intra-articular pressure. Numerous clinical studies regarding this technique have been published. The goal of this paper is to review all clinical articles that have been published with regard to the critique of this technique. 19 articles with different designs fulfilling selection guidelines were chosen. A series of clinical and procedure variables were analyzed. Although the mean of improvement was higher that 80%, further research is needed to determine more homogeneous indications for TMJ athrocentesis. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, arthrocentesis, minimally invasive surgery. PMID:22322493

  15. A literature review on integrated perinatal care

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Charo; des Rivières-Pigeon, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Context The perinatal period is one during which health care services are in high demand. Like other health care sub-sectors, perinatal health care delivery has undergone significant changes in recent years, such as the integrative wave that has swept through the health care industry since the early 1990s. Purpose The present study aims at reviewing scholarly work on integrated perinatal care to provide support for policy decision-making. Results Researchers interested in integrated perinatal care have, by assessing the effectiveness of individual clinical practices and intervention programs, mainly addressed issues of continuity of care and clinical and professional integration. Conclusions Improvements in perinatal health care delivery appear related not to structurally integrated health care delivery systems, but to organizing modalities that aim to support woman-centred care and cooperative clinical practice. PMID:17786177

  16. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment. PMID:27545009

  17. Rethinking health numeracy: a multidisciplinary literature review.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Jessica S; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to organize various published conceptions of health numeracy and to discuss how health numeracy contributes to the productive use of quantitative information for health. We define health numeracy as the individual-level skills needed to understand and use quantitative health information, including basic computation skills, ability to use information in documents and non-text formats such as graphs, and ability to communicate orally. We also identify two other factors affecting whether a consumer can use quantitative health information: design of documents and other information artifacts, and health-care providers' communication skills. We draw upon the distributed cognition perspective to argue that essential ingredients for the productive use of quantitative health information include not only health numeracy but also good provider communication skills, as well as documents and devices that are designed to enhance comprehension and cognition.

  18. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment.

  19. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  20. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  1. Risk-taking behaviour in adolescence: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Leather, Nicola C

    2009-09-01

    This article gives a review of the literature outlining risk-taking behaviour in the adolescent population, linking this to developmental tasks. The review includes reference to health, peers, parenting, self-esteem and quality of life issues. A theoretical overview of the research area in general is presented and links to social and society issues. The possible causes of risk-taking, including alcohol, drugs and violence, are considered and factors reviewed.

  2. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krastl, Gabriel; Allgayer, Nikola; Lenherr, Patrik; Filippi, Andreas; Taneja, Pankaj; Weiger, Roland

    2013-02-01

    It is common knowledge that materials used in endodontics may cause discoloration and thus impair the aesthetic outcome of the treated tooth. The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing knowledge on the discoloration potential of materials used for endodontic procedures. A comprehensive literature search covering the period from 1966 to 2011 was conducted on Pubmed and the Cochrane Library using different keyword combinations including 'tooth', 'colour', 'discoloration', 'staining', 'endodontic''root canal''sealer', 'dressing', 'medicament', 'obturation', 'filling', 'treatment', 'portland cement', 'MTA' and 'antibiotic paste'. Any relevant work published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals and presenting pertinent information related to the purpose of this overview was considered for inclusion. In addition, bibliographies of all relevant papers and previous review articles were hand searched and the reference lists from endodontic textbooks were also reviewed. Articles were excluded if an English abstract was unavailable, if only single clinical reports or conference reports were included, or if the topic was unrelated to the subject. Ten in-vitro studies, one randomized controlled trial and one multicenter randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. There were not any recently used endodontic materials that would not induce at least measurable colour changes. For a wide range of materials currently available on the market there is only scarce or no evidence available on their staining ability. Endodontic therapy should not focus solely on biological and functional aspects, but take aesthetic considerations into account as well. To reduce the risk of material-induced tooth discoloration all materials should be applied carefully in areas of aesthetic concern. The need for further research in this field and for the development of non-staining endodontic materials is evident. PMID:22513082

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  4. Sickness at high altitude: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, G

    2002-03-01

    When some individuals spend just a few hours at low atmospheric pressure above 1,500 m (5,000 ft)--such as when climbing a mountain or flying in a plane at high altitude--they become ill. Altitude sickness studies originally concentrated on life-threatening illnesses which beset determined and athletic climbers at extreme altitudes. In recent years, however, research attention is moving towards milder forms of sickness reported by a significant proportion of the growing number of visitors to mountain and ski resorts at more moderate altitude. Some of this research is also relevant in understanding the problems experienced by passengers in newer planes that fly at a significantly higher equivalent cabin altitude, i.e. 2,440 m (8,000 ft), than earlier designs. Engineering solutions--such as enriched oxygen in enclosed spaces at altitude, or in the case of aircraft, lower cabin altitudes--are possible, but for an economic assessment to be realistic an engineer needs to identify the scale of the problem and to understand the factors determining susceptibility. This review concentrates on the problems of mountain sickness in the ordinary population at altitudes of around 3,000 m (10,000 ft); this is a problem of growing concern as ski resorts develop, mountain trekking increases in popularity, and as higher altitude cabin pressures are achieved in aircraft.

  5. Complex ankle arthrodesis: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Remy V; Haleem, Amgad M; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2015-01-01

    Complex ankle arthrodesis is defined as an ankle fusion that is at high risk of delayed and nonunion secondary to patient comorbidities and/or local ankle/hindfoot factors. Risk factors that contribute to defining this group of patients can be divided into systemic factors and local factors pertaining to co-existing ankle or hindfoot pathology. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of these risk factors and their association with patients’ outcomes after complex ankle fusions. Both external and internal fixations have demonstrated positive outcomes with regards to achieving stable fixation and minimizing infection. Recent innovations in the application of biophysical agents and devices have shown promising results as adjuncts for healing. Both osteoconductive and osteoinductive agents have been effectively utilized as biological adjuncts for bone healing with low complication rates. Devices such as pulsed electromagnetic field bone stimulators, internal direct current stimulators and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound bone stimulators have been associated with faster bone healing and improved outcomes scores when compared with controls. The aim of this review article is to present a comprehensive approach to the management of complex ankle fusions, including the use of biophysical adjuncts for healing and a proposed algorithm for their treatment. PMID:26396936

  6. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  7. Fingerprint composition and aging: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cadd, Samuel; Islam, Meez; Manson, Peter; Bleay, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Fingerprints have a key role in criminal investigations and are the most commonly used form of evidence worldwide. Significant gaps remain however, in the understanding of fingerprint chemistry, including enhancement reaction mechanisms and the effect of environmental variables and time on composition. Determining the age of a fingerprint is also a relatively unexplored area. A successful method, with reliable and quantitative estimates, would have numerous advantages. Previous unreliable methods have predominantly focused on enhancement success based on physical and chemical changes. This review explores variations in composition due to donor characteristics and environmental variables, and identifies gaps for further research. We also present a qualitative and quantitative summary of the effect of time on composition. Kinetics are presented where known, with summary schematics for reaction mechanisms. Previous studies exploring methods for determining the age of a fingerprint are also discussed, including their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly we propose a potentially more accurate and reliable methodology for determining fingerprint age based on quantitative kinetic changes to the composition of a fingerprint over time.

  8. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  9. A Literature Review of Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Mark W.; Bosserman, Elizabeth A.; Guerra, Marta A.; Smith, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease which has been associated with laboratory-acquired infections. No recent reviews have addressed the characteristics of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB). English-language literature was reviewed to identify reports of laboratory exposures to Brucella spp. and LAB cases between 1982 and 2007. Evaluation of 28 case reports identified 167 potentially exposed laboratory workers, of whom 71 had LAB. Nine reports were identified that summarized an additional 186 cases of LAB. Only 18 (11%) exposures were due to laboratory accidents, 147 (88%) exposures were due to aerosolization of organisms during routine identification activities, and the circumstances of 2 (1%) exposures were unknown. Brucella melitensis was the causative agent in 80% (135/167) of the exposures. Workers with high-risk exposures were 9.3 times more likely to develop LAB than workers with low-risk exposures (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0 to 38.6; P < 0.0001); they were also 0.009 times likelier to develop LAB if they took antimicrobial PEP than if they did not (95% CI, 0 to 0.042; P < 0.0001). The median incubation period in case and summary reports was 8 weeks (range 1 to 40 weeks). Antimicrobial PEP is effective in preventing LAB. The incubation period may be used to identify appropriate serological and symptom surveillance time frames for exposed laboratory workers. PMID:23824774

  10. The costs of traumatic brain injury: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ioan; Wood, Rodger L; Phillips, Ceri J; Macey, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to review the literature relating to the psychosocial costs associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Nine online journal databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and PUBMED, were queried for studies between July 2010 and May 2012 pertaining to the economic burden of head injuries. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications and using Google internet search engine. Results One hundred and eight potentially relevant abstracts were identified from the journal databases. Ten papers were chosen for discussion in this review. All but two of the chosen papers were US studies. The studies included a cost-benefit analysis of the implementation of treatment guidelines from the US brain trauma foundation and a cost-effectiveness analysis of post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Conclusion Very little research has been published on the economic burden that mild and moderate traumatic brain injury patients pose to their families, careers, and society as a whole. Further research is needed to estimate the economic burden of these patients on healthcare providers and social services and how this can impact current health policies and practices. PMID:23836998

  11. Catamenial pneumothorax - a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marjański, Tomasz; Sowa, Katarzyna; Czapla, Aleksandra; Rzyman, Witold

    2016-06-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax should be defined as recurrent accumulation of air in the pleural cavity in reproductive-age women without concomitant respiratory diseases. The sine qua non criterion is the occurrence of the pneumothorax in the period of 72 hours before or after the menses. Additional criteria include characteristic pleural lesions, right-sided occurrence, and coexistence of endometriosis. There are no radiological or pathological conditions allowing an exact confirmation of catamenial pneumothorax. In the case of catamenial pneumothorax, treatment failure most commonly consists in disease recurrence. It may occur even as late as several years after the initial treatment. The recurrence rate in patients undergoing surgery ranges from 8% to 40%. Finding and resecting the visible pleural lesions is of key importance during surgical treatment. Reconstruction of the diaphragm must be performed in every patient in whom diaphragmatic perforations are found. Hormonal therapy seems to be effective in sustaining the effects of surgical treatment. PMID:27516783

  12. [Psoriasis and comorbidity--literature review].

    PubMed

    Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Acnieszka; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we know that psoriasis is more than "skin deep": it is considered a systemic disease. An increasing number of studies on the pathogenesis of psoriasis have shown that this disease is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Psoriasis appears to be a risk factor for the development of these diseases. That is why the concept of "psoriatic march" was proposed to demonstate that severe psoriasis may cause cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies have shown frequent coexistence of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system) in patients with severe course of psoriasis. Additionally, we observe a frequent coexistence of autoimmune disorders and cancers in patients with psoriasis. Suffering from psoriasis causes impaired self-esteem and depressive disorders. It is a source of stress for the patients, making them more likely to use alcohol or cigarettes.

  13. Dengue disease surveillance: an updated systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, S; McCall, P J; Kroeger, A; Horstick, O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for the application of tools for dengue outbreak prediction/detection and trend monitoring in passive and active disease surveillance systems in order to develop recommendations for endemic countries and identify important research needs. Methods This systematic literature review followed the protocol of a review from 2008, extending the systematic search from January 2007 to February 2013 on PubMed, EMBASE, CDSR, WHOLIS and Lilacs. Data reporting followed the PRISMA statement. The eligibility criteria comprised (i) population at risk of dengue, (ii) dengue disease surveillance, (iii) outcome of surveillance described and (iv) empirical data evaluated. The analysis classified studies based on the purpose of the surveillance programme. The main limitation of the review was expected publication bias. Results A total of 1116 papers were identified of which 36 articles were included in the review. Four cohort-based prospective studies calculated expansion factors demonstrating remarkable levels of underreporting in the surveillance systems. Several studies demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel-based reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting. Additional improvements for passive surveillance systems are possible by incorporating simple data forms/entry/electronic-based reporting; defining clear system objectives; performing data analysis at the lowest possible level (e.g. district); seeking regular data feedback. Six studies showed that serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months. Three studies found that data on internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data. Conclusions Passive surveillance providing the baseline for outbreak alert should be strengthened and appropriate threshold levels for outbreak

  14. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  15. Peliosis hepatis: Personal experience and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Daniele; Palmieri, Andrea; Pedullà, Giuseppe; Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Grazi, Gian Luca

    2015-01-01

    Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a disease characterized by multiple and small, blood-filled cysts within the parenchymatous organs. PH is a very rare disease, more common in adults, and when it affects the liver, it comes to the surgeon’s attention only in an extremely urgent situation after the lesion’s rupture with the resulting hemoperitoneum. This report describes the case of a 29-year-old woman affected by recurring abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans showed a hepatic lesion formed by multiple hypodense areas, which showed an early acquisition of the contrast during the arterial phase. Furthermore, it remained isodense with the remaining parenchyma during the late venous phase. We decided on performing a liver resection of segment VII while avoiding a biopsy for safety reasons. The histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of focal PH. PH should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Clinicians should discuss the possible causes and issues related to the differential diagnosis in addition to the appropriate therapeutic approach. The fortuitous finding of a lesion, potentially compatible with PH, requires elective surgery with diagnostic and therapeutic intents. The main aim is to prevent the risk of a sudden bleeding that, in absence of properly equipped structures, may have a fatal outcome. PMID:26675327

  16. A Review of Research on the Literacy of Students with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…

  17. Cheerleading injuries: A narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bagnulo, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Background: With its increase in participation rate and complex stunts and gymnastic-like maneuvers, cheerleading injuries are on the rise. Objective: A structured narrative review of the literature was performed to discover the status of the literature on a growing yet under recognized sport. Cheerleading injuries are described in terms of distribution, etiology, and prevention. Methods: A literature search was conducted. The articles were then reviewed and included based on broad criteria set out by the author. Results: The search produced 87 articles related to cheerleading injuries or articles with a mention of cheerleading. A total of 26 articles were included in this review based on the inclusion criteria. The most common injury experienced by a cheerleader is an ankle ligament sprain. Summary: The recognition of cheerleading as a sport and a mandatory reporting database are needed along with further research for injury prevention strategies to be implemented. PMID:23204573

  18. Solutions in radiology services management: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Vergara, Lizandra Garcia Lupi; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz; Wagner, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature to identify solutions for problems observed in radiology services. Materials and Methods Basic, qualitative, exploratory literature review at Scopus and SciELO databases, utilizing the Mendeley and Illustrator CC Adobe softwares. Results In the databases, 565 papers – 120 out of them, pdf free – were identified. Problems observed in the radiology sector are related to procedures scheduling, humanization, lack of training, poor knowledge and use of management techniques, and interaction with users. The design management provides the services with interesting solutions such as Benchmarking, CRM, Lean Approach, ServiceBlueprinting, continued education, among others. Conclusion Literature review is an important tool to identify problems and respective solutions. However, considering the small number of studies approaching management of radiology services, this is a great field of research for the development of deeper studies. PMID:26543281

  19. A review of gear housing dynamics and acoustics literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik Chin; Singh, Rajendra

    1989-01-01

    A review of the available literature on gear housing vibration and noise radiation is presented. Analytical and experimental methodologies used for bearing dynamics, housing vibration and noise, mounts and suspensions, and the overall gear and housing system are discussed. Typical design guidelines, as outlined by various investigators, are also included. Results of this review indicate that although many attempts were made to characterize the dynamics of gearbox system components, no comprehensive set of design criteria currently exist. Moreover, the literature contains conflicting reports concerning relevant design guidelines.

  20. The shortened dental arch: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Armellini, Debora; von Fraunhofer, J Anthony

    2004-12-01

    The functional demands of patients are highly variable and individual, requiring dental treatment to be tailored to the individual's needs and adaptive capability. The World Health Organization indicates that a functional, esthetic, natural dentition has at least 20 teeth, while the literature indicates that dental arches comprising the anterior and premolar regions meet the requirements of a functional dentition. The English-language peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the short dental arch (SDA) was identified through the Medline search engine covering the period between 1966 and the present and critically reviewed. This treatment option for the partially dentate patient may provide oral functionality, improved oral hygiene, comfort, and, possibly, reduced costs.

  1. Electromagnetic Sensor-Guided Enteral Access Systems: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Smithard, David; Barrett, Nicholas A; Hargroves, David; Elliot, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    Enteral feeding is the nutritional support of choice for acutely ill patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts who are unable to swallow. Several benefits including reduced mortality and length of hospital stay have been associated with early initiation of enteral feeding. However, misplacement of conventional nasoenteric tubes is relatively common and can result in complications including pneumothorax. In addition, the need to confirm the position by X-ray can delay the start of using the tube. Eliminating these delays can help patients start feeding, and minimise the adverse impact on initiating hydration and medication. The purpose of this review was to critically examine whether electromagnetic sensor-guided enteral access systems (EMS-EAS) can help overcome the challenges of conventional nasoenteric feeding tube placement and confirmation. The Royal Society of Medicine's library performed two searches on Medline (1946-March 2014) and Embase (1947-March 2014) covering all papers on Cortrak or electromagnetic or magnetic guidance systems for feeding tubes in adults. Results from the literature search found an agreement between the radiographic and EMS-EAS confirmation of placement. EMS-EAS virtually eliminated the risk of misplacement and pneumothorax was not reported. In addition, studies showed a small decrease in the number of X-rays with EMS-EAS and a reduced average time to start feeding compared with blind placement. This review suggests that EMS-EAS reduces several complications associated with the misplacement of nasoenteric feeding tubes, and that there could be considerable improvements in mortality, morbidity, patient experience and cost if EMS-EAS is used instead of conventional methods.

  2. Use of wildlife webcams - Literature review and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Conservation Training Center requested a literature review product that would serve as a resource to natural resource professionals interested in using webcams to connect people with nature. The literature review focused on the effects on the public of viewing wildlife through webcams and on information regarding installation and use of webcams. We searched the peer reviewed, published literature for three topics: wildlife cameras, virtual tourism, and technological nature. Very few publications directly addressed the effect of viewing wildlife webcams. The review of information on installation and use of cameras yielded information about many aspects of the use of remote photography, but not much specifically regarding webcams. Aspects of wildlife camera use covered in the literature review include: camera options, image retrieval, system maintenance and monitoring, time to assemble, power source, light source, camera mount, frequency of image recording, consequences for animals, and equipment security. Webcam technology is relatively new and more publication regarding the use of the technology is needed. Future research should specifically study the effect that viewing wildlife through webcams has on the viewers' conservation attitudes, behaviors, and sense of connectedness to nature.

  3. [Exercise in haemodyalisis patients: a literature systematic review].

    PubMed

    Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI

  4. Clinical librarianship: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Winning, M A; Beverley, C A

    2003-06-01

    Clinical librarianship (CL), currently receiving renewed interest world-wide, seeks to provide quality-filtered information to health professionals at the point of need to support clinical decision-making. This review builds upon the work of Cimpl (Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1985, 73, 21-8) and attempts to establish the evidence base for CL. The objectives were to determine, from the literature, whether CL services are used by clinicians, have an effect on patient care, and/or clinicians' use of literature in practice and/or are cost-effective. The methodology used was a systematic review of the literature, following, where possible, the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) framework. Modifications to this methodology included the resources searched, and the critical appraisal checklist (CriSTAL) used. Two hundred and eighty-four unique references were retrieved. Seventeen (16 unique) evaluative and a further 33 descriptive studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of reporting of the literature was generally poor. CL programmes appear to be well-used and received by clinicians. However, there is insufficient evidence available on their effect on patient care, clinicians' use of literature in practice, and their cost-effectiveness, thus highlighting the need for further high-quality research. PMID:12757432

  5. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors. Results A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p<0.001); however, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in more fibrin sealant than control patients (6.7% versus 2.0%, p>0.05). Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials) that were not designed or

  6. Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

    While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

  7. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  8. A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

  9. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature. PMID:27413273

  10. Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

  11. Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps-Yonas, Susan

    1980-01-01

    The literature is reviewed in terms of medical studies: who becomes pregnant, teenagers who choose to abort, psychological considerations, contraceptive utilization, attitudes of male adolescents, and the children of adolescents. The effectiveness of special programs for pregnant adolescents and their offspring and implications for policy and…

  12. One-to-One Mobile Computing. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This literature review is intended to provide practical information; lessons learned and promising practices which have been drawn from recent Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) one-to-one mobile computing research reports and related articles. The information is presented in the form of answers to the following questions: (1) How is one-to-one…

  13. Motivation to Transfer Training: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Veermans, Koen; Festner, Dagmar; Gruber, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Motivation to transfer is essential for the transfer of training. Without motivation, newly acquired knowledge and skills will not be applied at work. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize, critique, and synthesize past transfer motivation research and to offer directions for future investigations. First, seven…

  14. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  15. The Socialization of Music Teachers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Many institutions provide an undergraduate experience that can lead to professional certification to teach music. Each institution provides a unique socialization experience in the music teaching profession. In this literature review, studies are presented that provide information on the decision to become a music teacher, the early socialization…

  16. Managing Older Worker Training: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Su-Fen; Courtenay, Bradley C.; Valentine, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews literature on educational gerontology, adult education, and training and identifies factors that may encourage or discourage older workers from participation in training. Previous research has emphasized models based on either motivation or deterrent factors. This article offers a unique exploratory model combining five…

  17. Working Together: A Literature Review of Campus Information Technology Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Eleta

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature about the essential but often uneasy alliances made between content experts (archivists and librarians) and technology experts. Differing professional cultures, misunderstandings of one another, limited abilities to envision change, and lack of support from top-level administrators are the most often…

  18. Mindfully Teaching in the Classroom: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Nicole J.; Albrecht, Patricia M.; Cohen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is being used with increased frequency in schools around the world. In the current literature review we outline some of the core concepts and practices associated with mindfulness and discuss studies analysing the process of mindfulness teacher training. Preliminary research in this emerging field suggests that…

  19. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  20. Keloidal Atypical Fibroxanthoma: Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tongdee, Emily; Touloei, Khasha; Shitabata, Paul K.; Shareef, Shahjahan; Maranda, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (KAF) has recently been categorized as a variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. This paper will emphasize the importance of including KAF in both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions which exhibit keloidal collagen and will also review the current literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, immunochemistry and treatments. PMID:27462224

  1. Political Bias in the College Classroom: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linvill, Darren L.; Havice, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    This review of literature explores current research addressing political bias in higher education. The perception of a pervasive liberal political bias in academia is addressed first. This discussion focuses on the debate surrounding the Academic Bill of Rights, a document that outlines principles defending students' academic freedom and advocates…

  2. Health Status of Migrant Farmworkers: A Literature Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the medical literature on the health status of migrant farmworkers. Finds adequate coverage of dental health, nutrition, and childhood health, as well as several disease categories. Finds that more research is needed on population estimates, basic health status indicators, and the prevalence rates of the most common causes of death. (FMW)

  3. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  4. The State of ICT Education in China: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, Fuyin

    2010-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has made significant progress in China in the last two decades and this paper provides an overall presentation of its prevalence and usage. In this paper, a literature review has been conducted based on the research in the field of ICT in education. Eleven major issues have been…

  5. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Mode Deactivation Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Marsha Ann; Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article literature published on Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was reviewed in depth. Several studies were identified that used a common outcome measure of reduction of physical and sexual aggression, other risk related behaviors. Comparisons of MDT and, other standardized approaches typically used in treating aggression in juveniles,…

  6. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  7. The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machi, Lawrence A.; McEvoy, Brenda T.

    2012-01-01

    This new edition of the best-selling book offers graduate students in education and the social sciences a road map to developing and writing an effective literature review for a research project, thesis, or dissertation. Organized around a proven six-step model and incorporating technology into all of the steps, the book provides examples,…

  8. A review of gear housing dynamics and acoustics literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Lim, Teik Chin

    1988-01-01

    A review of the available literature on gear housing vibration and noise reduction is presented. Analytical and experimental methodologies used for bearing dynamics, housing vibration and noise, mounts and suspensions, and the overall geared and housing system are discussed. Typical design guidelines as outlined by various investigators are given.

  9. Medicare Prospective Reimbursement for Mental Health Services: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, William R.; Thompson, Warren A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature evaluating appropriateness of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) through Diagnostic-Related Groups (DRGs), since its implementation in 1983, for psychiatric care. Cites shortcomings that make the system untenable for mental health care, including lack of homogeneity of DRGs, inability to predict length of stay, and…

  10. Preschool Teacher Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…

  11. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  12. Aquatics for the Handicapped--A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Irene

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on aquatic activity for the disabled, discussing the physical, physiological, psychological, and sociological benefits of swimming and water safety activities. Unique properties of water and legal requirements regarding physical education of the handicapped, specifically citing the development of skills in…

  13. The Syndrome of Absence Status Epilepsy: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pappatà, Sabina; De Simone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The authors review the literature for cases fulfilling the criteria for the proposed idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome (IGE) of absence status epilepsy described by Genton et al. (2008). Difficulties arising in diagnosing such cases are remarked, and possible overlapping with other proposed IGE syndromes is discussed. PMID:24660061

  14. Influences on Learning in Early Childhood: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Raymond S.; And Others

    This paper is an interdisciplinary review of literature related to early childhood education over the past five years. Although some references to infancy and toddlerhood are included, the emphasis is on children's learning and education in the preschool and primary grades (age 3 through age 9-10). Chapter I, The Early Childhood Problem, is an…

  15. Teacher Educators' Identity: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadinia, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of a teacher educator identity is a central process in becoming a teacher educator. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of teacher identity. However, teacher educator identity seems to be still under-researched. In this article, a review of literature on teacher educator identity is…

  16. Management Training Needs of Women and Minorities: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify the unique knowledge, skills, and interpersonal needs of women and minorities who hold or aspire to managerial positions in educational research and development. The first tasks toward the goals of providing expanded opportunities for the training of women and minorities and developing effective…

  17. Burnout in the Human Services: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursprung, Alex W.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive literature review on burnout, describes categories of variables that have been related to burnout, discusses methodological problems in burnout research, suggests directions for future research, and presents implications for professional practice in the field of rehabilitation. (Author/ABB)

  18. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  19. Female Coaches and Job Stress: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Shelley H.; Keshock, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies on job satisfaction for females in the coaching profession have indicated many specific factors that can lead to job transfers, attrition, or burnout. This article reviews empirically-based studies from the extant literature that sheds some light on these critical concerns in the field. The focus is on the central issues of problems…

  20. Learning in Communities of Inquiry: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate learning in communities of inquiry (CoI) as the terms are defined in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's (2000) framework. We identified 252 reports from 2000-2008 that referenced the framework, and we reviewed them using Ogawan and Malen's (1991) strategy for synthesizing multi-vocal bodies of literature.…

  1. The Library in Tomorrow's Society. A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kenneth H.

    Intended to reflect the international library community's expectations for the next 10 to 15 years and the place of the library in tomorrow's world, this extensive selective review focuses on the professional literature published between 1982 and 1986 which treats the probable evolution of different types of libraries in both developed and…

  2. CBT and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Sharon R.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The overall intention of this project was to enhance awareness, for those involved with persons on the autism spectrum, of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) strategies for treating persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The project involved a literature review on autism and the use of CBT strategies for people with autism spectrum disorders…

  3. Adolescents' Views of Helping Professionals: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freake, Helen; Barley, Val; Kent, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews 54 papers exploring adolescents' own views of their interactions with doctors, mental health workers and other "helping professionals". Twelve global themes emerge repeatedly in the qualitative literature, where adolescents are asked to talk about their preferences or their experiences of receiving help from such professionals.…

  4. Literacy and the New Work Order. An International Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Chris; Frank, Fiona; Cooke, Tony

    This book is an international review of the literature on literacy and the new work order. The book begins with an overview examining the following topics: the history of workplace literacy education, the changing nature of work, the problem of illiteracy, and literacy in the context of the workplace. Part 1 presents texts critiquing or supporting…

  5. Erupted complex odontoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, Luis A; Suresh, Lakshmanan; Valderrama, Lucia S; Neiders, Mirdza E

    2004-01-01

    A case involving a 17-year-old girl with a large erupted odontoma associated with a deeply impacted mandibular molar is reported. The molar, which previously had been displaced to the border of the mandible, erupted successfully three years after surgical removal of the odontoma. A review of the literature presents guidelines for treating similar cases.

  6. Odontomas in the primary dentition: literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Evelyn C; Odell, Edward W; Al-Jaddir, Ghaida

    2004-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous developmental malformations of dental tissues. They are very rarely diagnosed in the primary dentition. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in relation to odontomas in the primary dentition, and describe the dental management of a child, age 4 years and 8 months, who had a complex odontoma.

  7. Compound Odontoma: Differential Diagnosis and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gedik, R; Müftüoğlu, S

    2014-12-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine radiography. Compound odontomas are regularly calcified tissue that bear similarity to teeth or appear as a collection of small teeth. We report a rare case of compound odontoma in the mandible of an adult patient with clinical and radiological features and a review of the literature.

  8. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  9. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  10. Approximating the Practice of Writing the Dissertation Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to join the conversation about doctoral preparation that has been a persistent but intermittent topic of interest in educational journals. Previous articles have focused on the format of the dissertation, the purpose of the literature review, and approaches to supporting doctoral students in acquiring professional…

  11. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching

    2016-01-01

    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  12. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  13. Experimental Studies on Electronic Portfolios in Turkey: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alan, Selahattin; Sünbül, Ali Murat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a literature review was conducted about an individual's selected efforts, products stored in electronic format, and electronic portfolios that reflect the development and capacity of multimedia systems. In this context, relevant experimental studies performed in Turkey are collected to show e-portfolio application forms, their…

  14. Integrated Early Years Services: A Thematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a thematic review of research literature about integrated early years services (IEYS) [1995-2012]. Four themes are discussed: broad support for IEYS; critiques of claims about IEYS; a focus on inter-professional practice; and the challenge of evaluating IEYS. The article concludes with reflections concerning…

  15. Individualised Educational Programmes. Part I: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Alan; Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan; Riddell, Sheila; Banks, Pauline; Kane, Jean; Wilson, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    The first of two articles on individualized education programs (IEPs) reviews the literature. It traces the origins of IEPs and compares and contrasts their use in different educational systems. Issues in IEPs in the United Kingdom, other European countries, the United States, and Australia are analyzed and general implications for policy and…

  16. Transition to Preschool Special Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Delia G.; Gallagher, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Services to young children with disabilities and their families are provided through state and federal resources to those who meet eligibility requirements. This article reviews the literature that addresses the transition to preschool special education services occurring from the time a child reaches 2 years, 6 months, of age…

  17. Nonoperative Management of Craniocervical Ligamentous Distraction Injury: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Nathan B.; Molinari, Christine; Molinari, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review and case report. Objective Review the existing literature and report the successful nonoperative management of a two-level craniocervical ligamentous distraction injury. Methods A PubMed and Medline review revealed only three limited reports involving the nonoperative management of patients with craniocervical distraction injury. This article reviews the existing literature and reports the case of a 27-year-old man who was involved in a motorcycle accident and sustained multiple systemic injuries and ligamentous distraction injuries to both occipitocervical joints and both C1–C2 joints. The patient's traumatic brain injury and bilateral pulmonary contusions precluded safe operative management of the two-level craniocervical distraction injury. Therefore, the patient was placed in a halo immobilization device. Results The literature remains unclear as to the specific indications for nonoperative management of ligamentous craniocervical injuries. Nonoperative management was associated with poor outcomes in the majority of reported patients. We report a patient who was managed for 6 months in a halo device. Posttreatment computed tomography and flexion–extension radiographs demonstrated stable occipitocervical and C1–C2 joints bilaterally. The patient reported minimal neck pain and had excellent functional outcome with a Neck Disability Index score of 2 points at 41 months postoperatively. He returned to preinjury level of employment without restriction. Conclusions Further study is needed to determine which craniocervical injuries may be managed successfully with nonoperative measures. PMID:26682101

  18. Teacher Wellbeing in Neoliberal Contexts: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, Renae; Glasgow, Patti

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the wellbeing of a workforce is an important consideration in any organisation. Within the context of education, possibilities for supporting teacher wellbeing are mediated by neoliberal policy technologies that are incongruent with key aspects of wellness. Reviewing the literature, it appears there is value…

  19. Religion in American Textbooks: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppewal, Donald

    This section, from a larger report describing a project designed to systematically investigate how religious and traditional values are represented in today's public school curricula, presents a review of the literature focusing on studies that have analyzed the treatment of religion and values in elementary and secondary textbooks. This survey is…

  20. Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirfakhrai, Mohammad H.

    This literature review on job satisfaction of academic librarians is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the conceptual framework which includes two theoretical approaches to job satisfaction. These theories include Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory and Herzberg's Two-Factor (Motivation/Hygiene) Theory. Criticisms of these…

  1. Terminology of Sexuality Expressions that Exclude Penetration: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menn, Mindy; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, Buzz; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    Precise terminology is paramount in sexuality education. Most sexuality research focuses on the dichotomous concepts of sexual intercourse and virginity, yet there are many expressions of sexuality classified as neither. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and examine the various terms and definitions describing sexuality…

  2. Literature Review: Reported Educator Concerns Regarding Cyberspace Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czubaj, Camilia Anne

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and educators have expressed many concerns regarding cyberspace curricula. In this review of the literature, it was found that articles dealing with educator concerns regarding cyberspace curricula reported five major categorical concerns: insufficient teacher training, insufficient educator involvement in the technology development…

  3. Teaching Poetry in Elementary Grades: A Review of Related Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann, Theresa N.

    In order to assess current ideas, reveal their shortcomings, and suggest steps for future investigation, this review of the literature on teaching poetry discusses definitions of poetry, references on teaching poetry, teaching methods, poetic forms, experimental research, and the benefits of poetry. The paper concludes that the lack of empirical…

  4. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  5. Understanding Adolescents' Motivation To Prevent Pregnancy: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Recent efforts targeting teenage pregnancy in the United States have marked a renewed conviction to reduce the level of childbearing among adolescents. Some of the behavioral, psychosocial, and ethnographic studies that explore the underlying motivation to delay sex and to effectively use contraception are the focus of this literature review.…

  6. Cancer Nursing Education: Literature Review and Documentary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Helen; Blunden, Gillian; Hek, Gill

    The knowledge and skills needed by cancer nurses and the content and strategies of England's existing cancer nursing education programs were examined. The study included a comprehensive literature review and an analysis of course documents from selected English National Board-approved post-qualifying cancer nursing and palliative care courses…

  7. Rectal angiolipoma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Sabite; Kuran, Sedef; Temucin, Tulay; Odemis, Bulent; Karadeniz, Nilufer; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2007-03-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare vascular variant of the benign lipomatous tumors and is generally seen in subcutaneous tissues. We report a 70-year-old female with abdominal distension not related to rectal small polypoid mass with peduncule described as angiolipoma by histologically, and review the literature.

  8. The Process of Technological Innovation: Reviewing the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This review of literature concerned with technological innovation and innovation process research is divided into five general parts. Part I defines basic concepts and terms and outlines major analytical themes. Part II develops the individual and organizational dimensions within which innovative activities take place. In Part III, the sequence of…

  9. Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

  10. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  11. Depression in Down Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. C.; Dosen, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Depression has been frequently reported in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the clinically relevant literature concerning depression in DS, with a focus on epidemiology, potential risk factors, diagnosis, course characteristics and treatment. Methods: We…

  12. Debugging: A Review of the Literature from an Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Renee; Fitzgerald, Sue; Lewandowski, Gary; Murphy, Laurie; Simon, Beth; Thomas, Lynda; Zander, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature related to the learning and teaching of debugging computer programs. Debugging is an important skill that continues to be both difficult for novice programmers to learn and challenging for computer science educators to teach. These challenges persist despite a wealth of important research on the subject dating…

  13. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  14. Technology and Secondary Writing: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Matthew U.; Margarella, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a review of the literature that focused on relationship between writing instruction and technology in the secondary classroom since the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act over the past two decades. Based on the search, six themes have emerged across the fields of writing instruction and assessment. Within writing…

  15. Integrated Programs for Science and Mathematics: Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Kursat; Pehlivan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a review of literature on the integration of science and mathematics, focusing on the dominant trends in the related studies. Majority of the studies conclude that the concept of the integration between science and mathematics is still vogue. On the other hand, there are various methods, techniques and models to achieve this…

  16. Focus-on-Form Instruction: A Review of Related Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this literature review I have first provided an introduction in which I've clarified the meaning of focus on form issue and some debates about its advantages and disadvantages and the needed degree of focus on form in teaching structures in classroom. Then I have stated some features of focus on form and the ways that focus on form can…

  17. Investigating the Problem of Skill Generalization: Literature Review III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris

    The third in a series of literature reviews, this monograph presents three articles on skill generalization among individuals with severe disabilities. Kathleen A. Liberty analyzes the results of 15 studies to determine how teaching self-control affected students' performance in training and generalization, "Behavior-Control of Stimulus Events to…

  18. [Bilateral Warthin tumors. Case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Sancipriano, J A; Santa Cruz, S; Blanco, P; Suárez, S; Guillén, V; Aguirre, F

    1996-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are fairly frequent among the tumors of the head and neck. Cystoadenolymphoma is a benign salivary tumor. A case of bilateral Warthin tumor was diagnosed eight years after the appearance of the first homolateral lesion. The diagnosis, literature review, and treatment are discussed.

  19. [Parapharyngeal space tumors. Presentation of three cases and literature review].

    PubMed

    Almela Cortés, R; Aldasoro Martín, J; Gozalbo Navarro, J M

    2003-01-01

    Tumors originating in the parapharyngeal space are rare. Eighty percent of the parapharyngeal space neoplasms are benign, and 20% are malignant. The most frequent tumours of this localization are those of salivary origin followed by neurogenic tumor and in third place the paragangliomas. This paper presents three representative cases of parapharyngeal space neoplasms. The literature is reviewed.

  20. Successful Leadership: A Review of the International Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Christopher; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    School leaders are under considerable pressure to demonstrate the contribution of their work to school improvement, which has resulted in the creation of a wide range of literature which addresses leadership in the context of school improvement. This review pays particular attention to issues including transformational leadership,…

  1. Intravascular Myopericytoma in the Heel: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Valero, José; Salcini, José L.; Gordillo, Luis; Gallart, José; González, David; Deus, Javier; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intravascular myopericytoma (IVMP), regarded as a variant of myopericytoma, is a rare tumor. Very few cases have been described, none in the foot. The first case of IVMP located in the heel of the foot is described in this article. A literature review is reported of all cases of IVMP published in the English literature. A 48-year-old man possessed an IVMP on the heel of the right foot. The physical examination and histopathological and ultrasound studies are described. The literature review yielded 5 cases of IVMP, 2 of which were in the thigh and 1 each in the oral mucosa, the periorbital region, and the leg. The possibility that these lesions may be malignant suggests that the histopathological study of vascular tumors should include immunohistochemical tests. PMID:25789958

  2. Use of prebriefing in nursing simulation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Page-Cutrara, Karin

    2014-03-01

    Simulation has gained much attention in the literature for its contributions to nursing education; however, the simulation process itself and how each of the components-prebriefing, scenario, and debriefing-are effective for learning are understudied. Specifically, how prebriefing may enrich simulation for learners without adequate prior clinical experience or how it may develop complex thinking skills and clinical judgment is not well understood. This article comprehensively reviews the available nursing simulation literature about the phenomenon of prebriefing and critically evaluates its current role as a component of nursing simulation. Gaps in the reviewed literature regarding the definition and purpose of prebriefing, alternate learning structures used in prebriefing, and use in relation to learner outcomes were identified. Implications for undergraduate nursing education and recommendations for further research are discussed.

  3. Curriculum reform in baccalaureate nursing education: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Maryann O; Hickey, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the need for reform in nursing education has been heard for well over a decade. Recently, deficiencies in the quality of patient care, as well as patient safety issues, have led to calls for change in health professions education by nursing organizations and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The rationale and scope of any proposed curricular revision or changes in teaching practices must be firmly grounded in a comprehensive review of the literature and based on current research findings. This article synthesizes the recent literature related to curriculum reform and innovation in nursing education. Four themes were identified in the literature: incorporating safety and quality in nursing education, re-designing conceptual frameworks, strategies to address content laden curricula, and teaching using alternative pedagogies. Synthesis of the recent literature in the field will assist faculty who are beginning the curriculum evaluation and revision process in their own schools.

  4. Malignant prolactinoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kars, Marleen; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2006-10-01

    Pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare. In general, the initial clinical, biochemical, and histological characteristics are of minimal utility in distinguishing benign adenomas from pituitary carcinomas. We describe a 63-year-old woman with a macroprolactinoma, who presented with diplopia and blurred vision. This unusual initial presentation and the subsequent aggressive clinical course, with diffuse local and distant intramedullary metastases, prompted us in retrospect to make a detailed analysis of the therapeutic interventions and histology. In addition, we reviewed all available literature on published cases of malignant prolactinoma and detailed their epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological characteristics. In brief, it is postulated that pituitary carcinomas arise from the transformation of initially large, but benign, adenomas. Unusual and/or atypical clinical manifestations appear to occur more frequently. In vivo, the development of dopamine agonist resistance in invasive macroprolactinoma is indicative of malignancy and should prompt the clinician to perform a biopsy of the tumor. For pituitary tumors that exhibit high mitotic activity, increased Ki-67 and/or p53 immunoreactivity, it may be useful to denote these tumors as 'atypical' prolactinomas to raise the possibility of future malignant development.

  5. Bite Injuries to the Hand - Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Pradyumna; Khan, Wasim; Haddad, Behrooz; Mahapatra, Anant Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with bite injuries to the hand sustain them through a number of causes including domesticated as well as stray animal bites, and human bites commonly sustained as a result of violence. The nature of the injuries sustained can be very deceptive. A small tooth mark on the exterior can be a fulminant infection in the tissues deeper down. Tendon injuries, fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges and management of the wound are critical issues faced by a surgeon in dealing with such patients. Similarly the less common bite injuries to the hand, often with disastrous and sometimes fatal complications, do also present to the emergency department. A high incidence of suspicion is needed in dealing with these injuries effectively. In our article we discuss the common as well as uncommon causes of bite injuries to the hand and their management. In addition to reviewing the literature to ascertain the management of such injuries, we also discuss interesting and rare case reports. PMID:25097675

  6. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Bryce D.; Cohen, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis. PMID:26083934

  7. Acromegaloid Facial Appearance: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoacromegaly is characterized by an acromegalic appearance without any abnormality of growth hormone function. It may be caused by several congenital and acquired conditions. One such condition is the acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) syndrome. This condition has been described in approximately eight cases/families. It encompasses a spectrum of acromegaloid physical findings, normal growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1) levels, and variable mode of inheritance. The most common physical findings are coarse facies, bulbous nose, and thickened lips. We present a case and a review of the literature on this illness. The patient is a 57-year-old woman who was referred to the endocrinology division for evaluation of suspected acromegaly. She had an acromegaloid appearance since birth as well as a terminal hypertrichosis. Her endocrine laboratory evaluation and chromosomal analyses were normal. AFA needs to be considered when evaluating any patient with pseudoacromegaly. Additional cases/families need to be identified in order to better understand the clinical spectrum, clinical implications, and mode of inheritance of AFA. PMID:23533839

  8. Epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    PALIOTTA, ANNALISA; SAPIENZA, PAOLO; D'ERMO, GIUSEPPE; CERONE, GENNARO; PEDULLÀ, GIUSEPPE; CROCETTI, DANIELE; DE GORI, ANTONIETTA; DE TOMA, GIORGIO

    2016-01-01

    An epidermal inclusion cyst (EIC) of the breast is a rare, benign condition that may potentially be malignant. The present study conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to identify pathological hypotheses, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic and treatment options. A search for relevant studies was conducted through the Scopus, Embase and Medline databases during September 2014. The search term employed was ῾epidermal inclusion cyst breast᾽. Studies were selected if they contained adequate information regarding symptoms at presentation, diagnostic tools, pathology, characteristics, type of procedure performed and follow-up routines. A total of 35 papers describing 91 patients affected by EIC of the breast were identified. Following this, a total of 82 patients, including an additional case supplied from the present study, were selected for further analysis. EIC of the breast typically occurs during the fifth decade of life. A palpable mass of the breast was present in 65 (79%) patients. Ultrasonographic imaging was consistently utilized as a diagnostic tool in all the cases analyzed, whereas fine-needle aspiration cytology was used in 70% of the cases and mammography in 65%. No tumor recurrence was reported at a mean follow-up time of 53 months. The present study demonstrated that elliptical excision is the preferred treatment for EIC of the breast, with pathological analysis required to exclude malignancy. PMID:26870262

  9. Burnout in critical care nurses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Epp, Kirstin

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and its development in critical care nurses is a concept that has received extensive study, yet remains a problem in Canada and around the world. Critical care nurses are particularly vulnerable to developing burnout due to the chronic occupational stressors they are exposed to, including high patient acuity, high levels of responsibility, working with advanced technology, caring for families in crisis, and involved in morally distressing situations, particularly prolonging life unnecessarily. The purpose of this article is to explore how the chronic stressors that critical care nurses are exposed to contribute to the development of burnout, and strategies for burnout prevention. A review of the literature between the years 2007 and 2012 was conducted and included the search terms burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, intensive care, critical care, and nursing. The search was limited to the adult population, English language, and Western cultures. The results revealed that nurse managers play a crucial role in preventing burnout by creating a supportive work environment for critical care nurses. Strategies for nurse managers to accomplish this include being accessible to critical care nurses, fostering collegial relationships among the different disciplines, and making a counsellor or grief team available to facilitate debriefing after stressful situations, such as a death. In addition, critical care nurses can help prevent burnout by being a support system for each other and implementing self-care strategies.

  10. Clinical placements in mental health: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Byrne, Louise; Welch, Anthony; Gellion, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Gaining experience in clinical mental health settings is central to the education of health practitioners. To facilitate the ongoing development of knowledge and practice in this area, we performed a review of the literature on clinical placements in mental health settings. Searches in Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO databases returned 244 records, of which 36 met the selection criteria for this review. Five additional papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those papers included from the initial search. The evidence suggests that clinical placements may have multiple benefits (e.g. improving students' skills, knowledge, attitudes towards people with mental health issues and confidence, as well as reducing their fears and anxieties about working in mental health). The location and structure of placements may affect outcomes, with mental health placements in non-mental health settings appearing to have minimal impact on key outcomes. The availability of clinical placements in mental health settings varies considerably among education providers, with some students completing their training without undertaking such structured clinical experiences. Students have generally reported that their placements in mental health settings have been positive and valuable experiences, but have raised concerns about the amount of support they received from education providers and healthcare staff. Several strategies have been shown to enhance clinical placement experiences (e.g. providing students with adequate preparation in the classroom, implementing learning contracts and providing clinical supervision). Educators and healthcare staff need to work together for the betterment of student learning and the healthcare professions. PMID:25397660

  11. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ping; Lu, Hai-Wen; Jiang, Sen; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease with insidious onset and nonspecific manifestations. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical manifestations and features of PLCH by retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients with PLCH in addition to simultaneous review of literature. A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of patients with PLCH (n = 7), whose conditions were diagnosed by biopsy from pulmonary tissue (n = 6) or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck (n = 1) and confirmed by PLCH typical radiological features on computed tomography (CT) scan, between January 2001 and September 2012 at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. The review of published reports was made to further emphasize the clinical manifestation and radiological features of PLCH. Long history of cigarette smoking was found in 6 patients. Two patients had recurrent pneumothorax and the other 2 had pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization group 5 pulmonary hypertension), diagnosed through ultrasonic cardiogram. The nodular shadows were revealed by chest CT scan in 5 patients, cystic shadows in 5 patients, and reticular shadows in 2 patients, as major manifestations, respectively; most of the lesions were located in the middle or upper segments of the lung. The obvious shrank of lesion was found in 1 patient after completely quitting smoking. The pathogenesis of PLCH might be closely associated with smoking. The cystic or nodular lesion was the typical radiological features. Further prospective studies with large sample size are required to further validate the study results and understand the clinical characteristics of PLCH to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25415669

  12. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession. PMID:27352001

  13. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  14. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  15. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  16. Families of Children with Disabilities: A Review of Literature and Recommendations for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Dia, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Children with disabilities receive most of their support from families. While most family caregivers are mothers or fathers, grandparents are increasingly providing care for children with disabilities. In addition, family caregivers come from diverse cultural backgrounds that impact their views on disability. This paper reviews the literature on…

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Mycotic Aneurysm: A Review of the Literature and Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zanaty, Mario; Starke, Robert M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L. Fernando; Hasan, David; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The management of mycotic aneurysm has always been subject to controversy. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the intracranial infected aneurysm from pathogenesis till management while focusing mainly on the endovascular interventions. This novel solution seems to provide additional benefits and long-term favorable outcomes. PMID:24383049

  18. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  19. Odontogenic Myxoma in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dalbo Contrera Toro, Mariana; Siqueira Barreto, Icléia; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid; Takahiro Chone, Carlos; Nizam Pfeilsticker, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Benign odontogenic lesions are rare entities but are very important due to their locally aggressive nature. Odontogenic myxoma is even rarer in children than in adults. There is no evidence in the literature in regard to the best treatment approach, in terms of conservative or aggressive surgery, for this type of tumor. This paper reports a case of odontogenic myxoma in a child treated with a compromised approach through bone osteotomies and a review of the literature about this disease, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27064694

  20. [Histometric study of meat products. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Koolmees, P A; Bijker, P G

    1983-05-01

    In the present paper, the literature on the development of methods for histometric monitoring the quality of meats is reviewed. The value of specific techniques, statistical interpretation of results and the practicability of automation of histometric analysis are examined more closely. It is concluded from the study of the literature that histometric examination of meats allows an objective assessment of volume percentages of tissue components. When a distinct difference in contrast between various tissues is achieved by specific staining methods, developments in the field of image analysis systems will allow automation of the quantitative histological examination of meats.

  1. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  2. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings.

  3. [Literature review of the subject of a research project].

    PubMed

    Vilanova, J C

    2012-01-01

    It can be very complicated to obtain relevant information through searching the medical literature if you do not know how it is organized and indexed or if you do not know how to use the specialized databases. For a successful review of the literature, you need to know what you are looking for and the key words for an effective search of the specialized databases and libraries and especially of the internet. It is essential to critically evaluate the information selected. Finally, using a reference manager can facilitate the gathering, organization, systematization, and integration of the bibliographic references in the documents generated in the study. This article aims to provide guidelines for efficient searching for information and for accurate, critical use of the literature. It makes recommendations about strategies for managing references to help to ensure the success of a research project.

  4. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field.

  5. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings. PMID:27501651

  6. Cigarette ignition of soft furnishings: A literature review with commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasny, John F.

    1987-04-01

    Literature pertinent to the ignition by smoldering cigarettes of upholstered furniture and mattresses (soft furnishings) was searched through early 1986. This included literature on the smoldering behavior of cigarettes in air; their behavior on a variety of substrates simulating soft furnishings; mechanism of smoldering in substrates; relative cigarette ignition resistance of substrates; and relative propensity of commercial cigarette packings to ignite substrates. According to the reviewed literature, the smoldering behavior of cigarettes on substrates differs from that of cigarettes burning in air: on substrates, cigarette temperatures tend to be lower, and burning rates slower. These differences seem to be larger for substrates which ignite than for those which self-extinguish after the cigarette burns out. The characteristics of soft furnishings which insure resistance to cigarette ignition have been established, but those of cigarettes with low propensity to ignite furnishings have not. No mathematical model has been reported for the interaction of cigarette and substrate, but some empirical data do exist.

  7. Hypodermoclysis: a literature review to assist in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Vanessa Galuppo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the information available in the literature about the drugs that can be administered through hypodermoclysis and the resulting impact that this information may have on the routine of the pharmacist working at a hospital. The study was based on a review of the literature. The results showed positive points of the procedure, but little specific information about medications such as routes of administration, standard dilutions, optimal doses, etc. Thus, it was possible to verify that there is no definite information as to the correct way to administer the drugs in this route, even though this is an effective and safe option, according to the literature. The lack of information has a negative impact on the support provided by the pharmacist to the nursing staff to ensure that the drug actually reaches its therapeutic goals safely. PMID:25807246

  8. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  9. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  10. Subdiaphragmatic bronchogenic cysts: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mike K; Yee, Herman T; Song, Jae W; Marks, Jenifer L

    2005-12-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived developmental anomalies most commonly encountered in the mediastinum and rarely in the abdomen or retroperitoneally. A comprehensive review of the English-language literature of subdiaphragmatic bronchogenic cysts (sBCs) revealed only 48 reported cases of sBC. Although most cases are incidentally discovered, preoperative differential diagnosis often includes tumors with malignant potential and necessitates surgical resection to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Herein, we describe a case of a 46-year-old female presenting with intermittent left flank pain, upon which computed tomography demonstrated a retroperitoneal mass. Upon resection, histopathology revealed the mass to be a thin-walled cystic mass lined by ciliated columnar cells and cartilage, consistent with a subdiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst. A comprehensive literature review of sBC was also performed.

  11. Irritative and sensory disturbances in oral implantology. Literature review.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carrió, Cristina; Balaguer-Martínez, Jose; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review irritative and sensory disturbances following placement of dental implants. A literature search was made of PubMed for articles published between 2000 and 2010. Studies that reported sensory disturbances directly caused by the placement of dental implants were included. Sensory deficits or trigeminal neuropathy are caused by damage to the third branch of the trigeminal nerve during surgery. This manifests in the immediate postoperative period as a sensory deficit not usually associated with pain and generally transient. The literature reviewed reported irritative and sensory disturbances caused during surgery, after surgery, and as a result of complications. Postoperative pain appears after oral surgery as a result of inflammation associated with damage to tissue during surgery. Pain due to postoperative complications following implant placement was classified as neurogenic pain, peri-implant pain and bone pain.

  12. [Problematic online gaming. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kun, Bernadette; Griffiths, Mark; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with the increasing popularity of online games, researchers have reported an increasing number of problematic users. For this reason there is a growing amount of literature analyzing the effects of online games. The present review described the evolution of online games as well as their types and specific characteristics of these types. This review examines (i) the question of definition, (ii) symptoms of problematic use, (iii) the measurement instruments (iv) prevalence data, (v) issues of etiology, (vi) the results of comorbidity, and (vii) the main trends and results in the area of prevention and treatment. PMID:23880511

  13. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  14. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  15. Moral distress experienced by nurses: a quantitative literature review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Younjae; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-02-01

    Nurses are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in their nursing practice. As a consequence, nurses report experiencing moral distress. The aim of this review was to synthesize the available quantitative evidence in the literature on moral distress experienced by nurses. We appraised 19 articles published between January 1984 and December 2011. This review revealed that many nurses experience moral distress associated with difficult care situations and feel burnout, which can have an impact on their professional position. Further research is required to examine worksite strategies to support nurses in these situations and to develop coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

  16. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably. PMID:26016259

  17. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  18. Childhood obesity in Taiwan: review of the Taiwanese literature.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; FitzGerald, Mary

    2005-06-01

    In a number of countries, including Taiwan, the prevalence of childhood obesity has been steadily increasing. A study to assess school nurses' perspective on their role in supporting children and preventing childhood obesity in Taiwan is currently being undertaken. A search of the literature reveals that most research publications come from the West and these studies have been useful. However, it is important to isolate the research and policy materials that take into account the contextually and culturally relevant factors in Taiwan and neighboring countries. Findings from a review of the Taiwanese literature are presented in this paper. The literature reveals the factors associated with the prevalence of childhood obesity and prevention strategies. A significant proportion of the research is medical and focuses on cardiovascular disease rather than health promotion and education. However, there are findings in this review that generally support health promotion activities and programs that are school based. There appears to be an urgent need for investment in research that assesses the long-term effectiveness of interventions designed to promote the maintenance of healthy weight during childhood in the Taiwanese society. Western literature is referred to occasionally in this paper in order to introduce an issue or to compare with a Taiwanese paper.

  19. International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2010.

    PubMed

    Aschkenasy, Miriam; Arnold, Kris; Foran, Mark; Lippert, Suzanne; Schroeder, Erika D; Bertsch, Karina; Levine, Adam C

    2011-08-01

    The International Emergency Medicine (IEM) Literature Review aims to highlight and disseminate high-quality global EM research in the fields of EM development, disaster and humanitarian response, and emergency care in resource-limited settings. For this review, we conducted a Medline search for articles published between January 1 and December 31, 2010, using a set of international and EM search terms and a manual search of journals that have produced large numbers of IEM articles for past reviews. This search produced 6,936 articles, which were divided among 20 reviewers who screened them using established inclusion and exclusion criteria to select articles relevant to the field of IEM. Two-hundred articles were selected by at least one reviewer and approved by an editor for scoring. Two independent reviewers using a standardized and predetermined set of criteria then scored each of the 200 articles. The 27 top-scoring articles were chosen for full review. The articles this year trended toward evidence-based research for treatment and care options in resource-limited settings, with an emphasis on childhood illness and obstetric care. These articles represent examples of high-quality international emergency research that is currently ongoing in high-, middle-, and low-income countries alike. This article is not intended to serve as a systematic review or clinical guideline but is instead meant to be a selection of current high-quality IEM literature, with the hope that it will foster further growth in the field, highlight evidence-based practice, and encourage discourse.

  20. [Hospitalization and dementia: what was new in 2012?: literature review].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W

    2013-04-01

    The present work provides a review of literature published in 2012 that were found in a PubMed search with the terms "hospitalization and dementia. Further information was obtained from personal contacts. The rate of publications was ten times higher in 2012 as in previous years. Frequency of dementia, hospital admission, acute coronary syndrome, femoral neck fracture, stroke, complications during hospital stay, outcomes after hospitalization, prediction, rehabilitation, and training are the common topics.

  1. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  2. Seafarers' fatigue: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul; Wadsworth, Emma; Smith, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of mis-recorded working hours shows how cultural and commercial pressures are universally shared. PMID:19227741

  3. Amputee fetishism and genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wise, T N; Kalyanam, R C

    2000-01-01

    A case is presented of a 49-year-old man who amputated his penis following instructions that he had obtained from the Internet. The patient had a long-standing amputee fetish, which evolved into eroticized genital mutilation. The transformation of the preferred fetish occurred in a setting of depression due to environmental stressors. The literature about amputee fetishism, also called "apotemnophilia," is reviewed, and possible connections with the genital mutilation are discussed.

  4. Violence at home: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lystad, M H

    1975-04-01

    Studies on family violence have analyzed the phenomenon from psychological, social, and cultural perspectives. A review of the literature shows that the available evidence is not contradictory, leading to the conclusion that a comprehensive theory of violence at home must take into account factors at these several levels, placing individual functioning within the social group and within the culture norms by which the group operates. A theory of violence at home, and suggestions for further research, are offered.

  5. Intracerebral fibroma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Stephen E.; McGinity, Michael J.; Henry, James M.; Vecil, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral fibromas are among the most rare neoplasms found in the central nervous system. Ten previously reported cases have been documented in the literature including only two reported cases since 1985. As a result, little is known about these uncommon intracerebral fibrous tumors. We report a case of an intracerebral fibroma without dural or leptomeningeal attachment, discuss the pertinent diagnostic findings and briefly review all prior reports of this entity. PMID:27194681

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma—Etiologic Considerations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, Roger G.; Moazami, Mohamad; Worrell, Louise A.

    1981-01-01

    There are an estimated 120 million hepatitis B virus carriers worldwide. More than 200,000 of these are in the United States. A higher incidence of active hepatitis B virus infection has been observed in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma than in controls, in all geographical regions. This paper reviews the world literature on the relationship of hepatitis B virus to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:6267318

  7. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  8. Natal teeth: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Mathad, Sudha V

    2009-01-01

    The presence of teeth at birth or within a month post-delivery is a rare condition. A newborn, a 2 days old female, with two mandibular incisor natal teeth was examined. The teeth were mobile and were extracted because of the fear of aspiration and refusal to feed. The purpose of this report is to review the literature related to natal teeth epidemiology and discuss their possible etiology and treatment. PMID:21886998

  9. Chondroblastoma of the temporal bone. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Varvares, M A; Cheney, M L; Goodman, M L; Ceisler, E; Montgomery, W W

    1992-09-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare tumor of bone that represents approximately 1% of all primary bone tumors. In the temporal bone, only 33 have been reported. We present a case of chondroblastoma of the temporal bone, followed by a literature review and analysis of reported cases. We conclude that the best chance for a prolonged disease-free interval is total excision using a combined otolaryngologic and neurosurgical approach. PMID:1514755

  10. Compound Odontoma: Differential Diagnosis and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, R; Müftüoğlu, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine radiography. Compound odontomas are regularly calcified tissue that bear similarity to teeth or appear as a collection of small teeth. We report a rare case of compound odontoma in the mandible of an adult patient with clinical and radiological features and a review of the literature. PMID:25867569

  11. A literature review of air medical work hazards and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    An increased percentage of miscarriages among coworkers at one air medical transport company in 2008 prompted a literature review of selected hazards relevant to the profession of rotor wing air medical flight crew. Because of a lack of known research specific to this population, relevant studies from 1990 to 2008 were chosen to investigate pregnancy risks associated with exposure to vibration, jet fuel, noise, altitude, and fatigue in other occupations. Findings were summarized and recommendations made for future research. PMID:20123310

  12. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  13. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, Saravana C; Senthilnathan, S; Kumar, Lokesh D; Mohan, Anand C S; Taranath, M

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle 'differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  14. Fibroelastoma: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohammad, A; Pambakian, H; Young, C

    1998-01-01

    A 64 year old woman presented with right hemianaesthesia and was found to have a pansystolic apical murmur with systolic and diastolic posture related plops. Echocardiography revealed a mobile mass on the mitral valve apparatus that was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This was successfully excised and was proven on histopathological examination to be a fibroelastoma. Other cases of fibroelastoma from the literature are reviewed.

 Keywords: fibroelastoma;  mitral valve;  transient ischaemic attack PMID:9602667

  15. Subpontic osseous hyperplasia: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Connie A; Lee, Michael B; Matthews, Chad R; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    A subpontic osseous hyperplasia (SOH) is a slow-growing, non-neoplastic bone growth that uniquely affects mandibular posterior edentulous ridges underneath pontics of fixed partial dentures. An SOH can result in significant periodontal and restorative complications, however, it is usually corrected by surgical excision. This report presents a series of SOH cases, illustrates SOH management approaches, and reviews the literature on SOH clinical presentations.

  16. Melorheostosis and a review of the literature in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Tang, Qi; Yao, Zhenjun

    2013-01-01

    Summary Melorheostosis is an uncommon, non-genetic, non-developmental, sclerosing dysplasia of bone and adjacent soft tissues, with deformity of the extremity, pain, limb stiffness and limitation of motion. The characteristic radiographic appearance consists of irregular hyperostotic changes of the cortex resembling melted wax dripping down the side of a candle. In this review, clinical characteristics of Melorheostosis are discussed and reports in the Chinese literature are summarized. PMID:25343102

  17. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus for General Practitioners: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Karrar, Ali; AI-Dalaan, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology or etiologies. The disease may be acute or chronic. A wide clinicopathological spectrum is expressed in each organ involved which is induced through multiple antibodies that result in. imnunologically mediated tissue injury. In this literature review, the clinical and pathological features as well as laboratory abnormalities, measures /or diagnosis, outlines of management, and prognosis are discussed. PMID:23008531

  18. Aquatic organisms in acidic environments: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.M.; Lien, G.J.; Berg, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH, in order to define the tolerance limits of various species in acidified waters and predict how acidification would alter distributions.

  19. HISTOPLASMOSIS MYOSITIS: A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Nimitvilai, S; Thammaprasert, W; Vinyuvat, S

    2015-07-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining illness that can affect multiple organ systems. Myositis due to histoplasmosis is rare in HIV infected patients. We report here an HIV-infected patient who presented with myositis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Her HIV was under poor control and her CD4 cell count was only 11 cells/mm3. She responded well to treatment but later succumbed to another opportunistic infection. The literature on disseminated histoplasmosis is reviewed. PMID:26867394

  20. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  1. Malarial pancreatitis: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Agarwal, Ritesh; Behera, Digambar; Dhooria, Sahajal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to multiorgan failure. Pancreatitis is a rare complication of malaria with only a few reported cases. Herein, we describe a case of acute pancreatitis with multiorgan failure due to Plasmodium falciparum managed successfully with antimalarials and conservative treatment. We also perform a systematic review of literature for reports of acute pancreatitis due to Plasmodium infection. PMID:26816452

  2. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Insights on Management and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alshikho, Mohamad J; Talas, Joud M; Noureldine, Salem I; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by a dilatation of the intestinal lymphatics and loss of lymph fluid into the gastrointestinal tract leading to hypoproteinemia, edema, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and immunological abnormalities. Iron, calcium, and other serum components (e.g., lipids, fat soluble vitamins) may also be depleted. A literature search revealed more than 200 reported cases of IL. Herein, we report our observations of a patient diagnosed with IL; we also present our conclusion for our review of the published literature. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old male was admitted to Aleppo University Hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, fever, and rigors. His past medical history was remarkable for frequent episodes of diarrhea, recurrent infections, and swelling in the lower limbs. In addition, he had been hospitalized several times in non-academic hospitals due to edema in his legs, cellulitis, and recurrent infections. In the emergency department, a physical examination revealed a patient in distress. He was weak, dehydrated, pale, and had a high-grade fever. His lower extremities were edematous, swollen, and extremely tender to touch. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. Moreover, the patient was tachycardic, tacypneic, and moderately hypotensive. The patient was resuscitated with IV fluids, and Tylenol was administered to bring the temperature down. Blood tests showed anemia and high levels of inflammatory markers. The patient's white blood cell count was elevated with an obvious left shift. However, subsequent investigations showed that the patient had IL. Suitable diet modification plans were applied as a long-term management plan. CONCLUSIONS IL is a rare disease of challenging nature due to its systematic effects and lack of comprehensive studies that can evaluate the effectiveness of specific treatments in a large cohort of patients. MCT (medium-chain triglyceride

  3. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Insights on Management and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alshikho, Mohamad J.; Talas, Joud M.; Noureldine, Salem I.; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 24 Final Diagnosis: Intestinal lymphangiectasia Symptoms: Frequent episodes of diarrhea • recurrent infections • swelling in the lower limbs Medication: Octreotide • MCT oils Clinical Procedure: Endoscopic exam • Doppler ultrasound study • abdominal CT scan Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by a dilatation of the intestinal lymphatics and loss of lymph fluid into the gastrointestinal tract leading to hypoproteinemia, edema, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and immunological abnormalities. Iron, calcium, and other serum components (e.g., lipids, fat soluble vitamins) may also be depleted. A literature search revealed more than 200 reported cases of IL. Herein, we report our observations of a patient diagnosed with IL; we also present our conclusion for our review of the published literature. Case Report: A 24-year-old male was admitted to Aleppo University Hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, fever, and rigors. His past medical history was remarkable for frequent episodes of diarrhea, recurrent infections, and swelling in the lower limbs. In addition, he had been hospitalized several times in non-academic hospitals due to edema in his legs, cellulitis, and recurrent infections. In the emergency department, a physical examination revealed a patient in distress. He was weak, dehydrated, pale, and had a high-grade fever. His lower extremities were edematous, swollen, and extremely tender to touch. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. Moreover, the patient was tachycardic, tacypneic, and moderately hypotensive. The patient was resuscitated with IV fluids, and Tylenol was administered to bring the temperature down. Blood tests showed anemia and high levels of inflammatory markers. The patient’s white blood cell count was elevated with an obvious left shift. However, subsequent

  4. Literature Review: ADHD in Adults--A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Megan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…

  5. Locked doors in acute inpatient psychiatry: a literature review.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K

    2009-04-01

    Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry.

  6. Review of the epidemiologic literature on residential exposure to perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John A

    2011-10-01

    Perchloroethylene is a solvent that is widely used for dry cleaning. There has been considerable interest in the toxicity of this chemical because of the potential for low-level exposure among a large portion of the US population. Although substantial epidemiologic literature exists on high-level occupational exposure to perchloroethylene, there are relatively few studies dealing with lower-level residential exposure. In the current paper, the author reviews this limited residential literature, with special emphasis on strengths, limitations, and consistency. Reviewed studies primarily address neurobehavioral, cancer, and reproductive endpoints. Most studies used an ecological or cross-sectional design, with exposure defined by either drinking-water contamination or proximity to dry cleaning. In general, reviewed studies were highly exploratory, with inconsistencies and potential for bias that detract from interpretation of study findings. The magnitudes of reported effects are frequently incompatible with the effects reported from much higher occupational and human-chamber exposures. Overall, few reliable conclusions can be drawn from this sparse and highly limited body of literature.

  7. Citicoline in Addictive Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Nicholas D.; Brown, E. Sherwood

    2014-01-01

    Background Citicoline is a dietary supplement that has been used as a neuroprotective agent for neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia. Citicoline influences acetylcholine, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmitter systems; serves as an intermediate in phospholipid metabolism; and enhances the integrity of neuronal membranes. Interest has grown in citicoline as a treatment for addiction since it may have beneficial effects on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and cognitive functioning, as well as the ability to attenuate the neurotoxic effects of drugs of abuse. Objectives To review the literature on citicoline’s use in addictive disorders. Methods Using PubMed we conducted a narrative review of the clinical literature on citicoline related to addictive disorders from the years 1900 to 2013 using the following keywords: citicoline, CDP-choline, addiction, cocaine, alcohol, substance abuse, and substance dependence. Out of approximately 900 first hits, nine clinical studies have been included in this review. Results Most addiction research investigated citicoline for cocaine use. The findings suggest that it is safe and well tolerated. Furthermore, citicoline appears to decrease craving and is associated with a reduction in cocaine use, at least at high doses in patients with both bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence. Limited data suggest citicoline may also hold promise for alcohol and cannabis dependence and in reducing food consumption. Conclusions Currently, there is limited research on the efficacy of citicoline for addictive disorders, but the available literature suggests promising results. Future research should employ larger sample sizes, increased dosing, and more complex study designs. PMID:24950234

  8. Locked doors in acute inpatient psychiatry: a literature review.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K

    2009-04-01

    Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry. PMID:19291159

  9. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347

  10. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing <1000 g when the fortified milk is fed <170-190 ml/kg per d, and the protein:energy ratio of the fortified milk is inadequate. This study aimed to provide additional information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes. PMID:27522863

  11. Primary cauda equina lymphoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroaki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ukai, Junichi; Muramoto, Akio; Shinjyo, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Ippei; Satou, Akira; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    The central nervous system, in particular the spinal cord, is a rare site for primary lymphoma occurrence, with very few published cases. We report an extremely rare primary lymphoma in the cauda equina in a single case with literature review. An immunocompetent 59-year-old male, who complained of progressive low back and bilateral leg pain for 7 months, was studied. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural space-occupying lesion from T12 to S1, poorly demarcated to the normal cauda equina. The intradural lesion showed T1 low intensity, T2 low isointensity, and marked homogeneous enhancement with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid on MRI. We performed spinal tap to obtain additional information about the intradural lesion. Large-sized atypical lymphoid cells were found during pathological examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation was found only in the lumbar area, which corresponded with the MRI findings, and the primary lymphoma site was defined as the cauda equina area. For further detailed pathological diagnosis, we performed surgical biopsy of the cauda equina. Morphological and immunohistochemical assessment made a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the cauda equina. The patient received radiotherapy to the lumbosacral area (50 Gy) and methotrexate (MTX) therapy after surgery. The patient was able to walk without help after the therapies. Follow-up MRI performed 1 year after biopsy showed remission of the lesion. MRI and spinal tap were effective tools for the early definitive diagnosis of cauda equina lymphoma. Combined treatment with radiotherapy and MTX should be performed as early as possible.

  12. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing <1000 g when the fortified milk is fed <170-190 ml/kg per d, and the protein:energy ratio of the fortified milk is inadequate. This study aimed to provide additional information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes.

  13. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and

  14. Systematic literature review of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management

    PubMed Central

    Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and describe the content of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management. Design Systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Grey literature was also searched. Eligibility criteria for selected studies Templates published after 1 January 1990 and up to 19 March 2012. Non-English language literature, except Scandinavian; literature without an available abstract; and literature reporting only psychological aspects were excluded. Results The main database search identified 8497 articles, among which 8389 were excluded based on title and abstract. An additional 96 were excluded based on the full-text. The remaining 12 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 107 articles were identified in the grey literature and excluded. The reference lists for the included articles identified five additional articles. A relevant article published after completing the search was also included. In the 18 articles included in the study, 10 different templates or sets of data are described: 2 methodologies for assessing major incident responses, 3 templates intended for reporting from exercises, 2 guidelines for reporting in medical journals, 2 analyses of previous disasters and 1 Utstein-style template. Conclusions More than one template exists for generating reports. The limitations of the existing templates involve internal and external validity, and none of them have been tested for feasibility in real-life incidents. Trial registration The review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051). PMID:23906946

  15. International emergency medicine: a review of the literature from 2007.

    PubMed

    Levine, Adam C; Becker, Joseph; Lippert, Suzanne; Rosborough, Stephanie; Arnold, Kris

    2008-09-01

    The subspecialty of international emergency medicine (IEM) continues to grow within the United States, just as the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to spread to both developed and developing countries around the world. One of the greatest obstacles, however, faced by IEM researchers and practitioners alike, remains the lack of a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence-base of literature. In response to this perceived need, members of the Emergency Medicine Resident Association (EMRA) International Emergency Medicine Committee, in conjunction with members of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) International Health Interest Group, have embarked on the task of creating a recurring review of IEM literature. This publication represents the third annual review, covering the top 30 IEM research articles published in 2007. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that included both methodologic quality and perceived impact of the research. It is hoped that this annual review will act as a forum for disseminating best practices, while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM.

  16. Social capital and health: Does egalitarianism matter? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M Kamrul; Merlo, Juan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lindström, Martin; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to critically review the notion of social capital and review empirical literature on the association between social capital and health across countries. The methodology used for the review includes a systematic search on electronic databases for peer-reviewed published literature. We categorize studies according to level of analysis (single and multilevel) and examine whether studies reveal a significant health impact of individual and area level social capital. We compare the study conclusions according to the country's degrees of economic egalitarianism. Regardless of study design, our findings indicate that a positive association (fixed effect) exists between social capital and better health irrespective of countries degree of egalitarianism. However, we find that the between-area variance (random effect) in health tends to be lower in more egalitarian countries than in less egalitarian countries. Our tentative conclusion is that an association between social capital and health at the individual level is robust with respect to the degree of egalitarianism within a country. Area level or contextual social capital may be less salient in egalitarian countries in explaining health differences across places. PMID:16597324

  17. A literature review: polypharmacy protocol for primary care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to critically evaluate published protocols on polypharmacy in adults ages 65 and older that are currently used in primary care settings that may potentially lead to fewer adverse drug events. A review of OVID, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed databases was completed using the following key words: protocol, guideline, geriatrics, elderly, older adult, polypharmacy, and primary care. Inclusion criteria were: articles in medical, nursing, and pharmacology journals with an intervention, protocol, or guideline addressing polypharmacy that lead to fewer adverse drug events. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Exclusion criteria were: publications prior to the year 1992. A gap exists in the literature. No standardized protocol for addressing polypharmacy in the primary care setting was found. Mnemonics, algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical strategies for addressing polypharmacy in a variety of health care settings were found throughout the literature. Several screening instruments for use in primary care to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of medications in the elderly, such as the Beers Criteria and the STOPP screening tool, were identified. However, these screening instruments were not included in a standardized protocol to manage polypharmacy in primary care. Polypharmacy in the elderly is a critical problem that may result in adverse drug events such as falls, hospitalizations, and increased expenditures for both the patient and the health care system. No standardized protocols to address polypharmacy specific to the primary care setting were identified in this review of the literature. Given the growing population of elderly in this country and the high number of medications they consume, it is critical to focus on the utilization of a standardized protocol to address the potential harm of polypharmacy in the primary care setting and evaluate its effects on

  18. Rehabilitation of Glossectomy Cases with Tongue Prosthesis: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthu Kumar; Shanmugam, Gokul; Tah, Rajdeep

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is the only movable muscular organ without any bone in the human body. It has very important role in perception of taste and sensations like touch, pressure, heat and cold. The purpose of the article is to review various types of tongue prosthesis and their clinical applications. This review helps the clinician to choose the appropriate type of tongue prosthesis for different clinical situations, retention of tongue prosthesis and material selection for each type of prosthesis. A broad search of published literature was performed using the keyword glossectomy, glossal prosthesis and tongue prosthesis from 1980 to 2014 in Medline, Google scholar, internet and text book. This review gives basic knowledge of glossal prosthesis and selection of the same for various clinical conditions. PMID:27042596

  19. A Systematic Literature Review of Agents Applied in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Isern, David; Moreno, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Intelligent agents and healthcare have been intimately linked in the last years. The intrinsic complexity and diversity of care can be tackled with the flexibility, dynamics and reliability of multi-agent systems. The purpose of this review is to show the feasibility of applying intelligent agents in the healthcare domain and use the findings to provide a discussion of current trends and devise future research directions. A review of the most recent literature (2009-2014) of applications of agents in healthcare is discussed, and two classifications considering the main goal of the health systems as well as the main actors involved have been investigated. This review shows that the number of published works exhibits a growing interest of researchers in this field in a wide range of applications.

  20. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. Methods The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure levels are not measured