Science.gov

Sample records for additional literature sources

  1. Sources of Anesthesia Literature for Medical Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Patrick P.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses various sources of anesthesia literature that warrants the attention of medical librarians in their services of acquisition and reference and includes a list of serials in anesthesiology and related fields. (FM)

  2. Russian Literature: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    An annotated bibliography of general and specialized reference works for Russian and Soviet literature is intended for both students and researchers. English language and Russian language sources in the McGill University (Canada) libraries are included. Subject headings include guides (to the literature and to archival resources), encyclopedias,…

  3. Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manit; Chan, Edward KS; Gupta, Sunil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement technology has progressed from industrial Plexiglass administration in the 1950s to the recent advent of nanoparticle additives. Additives have been trialed to address problems with modern bone cements such as the loosening of prosthesis, high post-operative infection rates, and inflammatory reduction in interface integrity. This review aims to assess current additives used in PMMA bone cements and offer an insight regarding future directions for this biomaterial. Low index (< 15%) vitamin E and low index (< 5 g) antibiotic impregnated additives significantly address infection and inflammatory problems, with only modest reductions in mechanical strength. Chitosan (15% w/w PMMA) and silver (1% w/w PMMA) nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity with no significant reduction in mechanical strength. Future work on PMMA bone cements should focus on trialing combinations of these additives as this may enhance favourable properties. PMID:23610754

  4. Modern British Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, intended to help students find sources of criticism on Modern British Literature (long fiction, short fiction, poetry, and drama). The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and…

  5. African-American Literature: Finding Biographical and Critical Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide is intended to help library patrons of the Atkins Library (at the University of North Carolina Charlotte) find sources of criticism on African-American literature. The guide explains important reference sources in the reference collection of the library and how to find biographical and critical information in books and periodicals. The…

  6. Selective Guide to Literature on Software Review Sources. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Margaret H., Ed.

    This selective literature guide serves as a directory to software evaluation sources for all sizes of microcomputers. Information is provided on review sources and guides which deal with a variety of applications such as library, engineering, school, and business as well as a variety of systems, including DOS and CP/M. This document is intended to…

  7. 17 CFR 38.801 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional sources for compliance. 38.801 Section 38.801 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Governance Fitness Standards § 38.801 Additional sources for...

  8. 17 CFR 38.258 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional sources for compliance. 38.258 Section 38.258 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Prevention of Market Disruption § 38.258 Additional sources for...

  9. Romantic American Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of Romantic (19th century) American literature. The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and how to find biographical and critical information in books and…

  10. Use of information sources by family physicians: a literature survey.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, A A; Boerma, E J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the use of information sources by family physicians is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. First, analysis of the ways in which family physicians handle information may point to opportunities for improvement. Second, such efforts may lead to improvements in the methodology of literature research in general. This article reports on a survey of the literature on information use by family physicians. Eleven relevant research publications could be found. The data showed that family physicians used colleagues most often as information sources, followed by journals and books. This outcome corresponded with results in other professions. Several factors influenced the use of information sources by family physicians, including the physical, functional, and intellectual accessibility of the source; the physician's age; participation by the physician in research or education; the social context of the physician; practice characteristics; and the stage of the information-gathering process. The publications studied suggested ways to improve information gathering in the areas of computerization, education, library organization, and journal articles. PMID:7703946

  11. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  12. Literary Research and Canadian Literature: Strategies and Sources. Literary Research--Strategies and Sources #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznowski, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Canada's rich literary heritage, dominated by a multicultural and multilingual presence, reflects the country's unique history and experience. In addition, an emerging body of new writers is redefining both the geographic and metaphorical boundaries of Canadian literature. Coupled with the propagation of digital technologies, Canada's burgeoning…

  13. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability. PMID:27415234

  14. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p . Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R1 and R2 of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R1-R2 plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is pc(sq) , the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R ∈{0 ,R0} and a percolation transition is observed with R0 as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  15. Agrarian Literature: Overlooked Source for Rural Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Argues that preparation for rural teaching should include a seminar focusing on the literature about rural schooling and rural community dynamics. Suggests a curriculum of agrarian literature to help the future rural teacher deal with xenophobia, differing aspirations, and common illusions about rural life. (DHP)

  16. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regional Offices. In addition, NRC Functional Organization Charts, NUREG-0325, contains...

  17. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  18. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  19. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  20. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3 Sources..., assignments of responsibility, and delegations of authority is in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  1. Women's Literature, Women in Literature and Feminist Literary Criticism: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauve, Diane, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is an introduction to reference material in Western languages on women's writers, women in literature, and feminist literary criticism available in the Humanities and Social Sciences Library at McGill University in Montreal. The titles cover a wide variety of national, cultural and linguistic groups within all…

  2. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. 5 CFR 3601.103 - Additional exceptions for gifts from outside sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional exceptions for gifts from outside sources. 3601.103 Section 3601.103 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 3601.103 Additional exceptions for gifts from outside sources. In addition...

  5. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  6. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Wina, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins

  7. 36 CFR 1290.3 - Sources of assassination records and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... records and additional records and information. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Sources of assassination records and additional records and information. Assassination records and additional records and information may be located at, or under the control of, without limitation:...

  8. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  9. 5 CFR 3601.103 - Additional exceptions for gifts from outside sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gifts from outside sources. In addition to the gifts which come within the exceptions set forth in 5 CFR 2635.204, and subject to all provisions of 5 CFR 2635.201 through 2635.205, a DoD employee may accept gifts from outside sources otherwise prohibited by 5 CFR 2635.202(a) as follows: (a) Events sponsored...

  10. Literature review and need for additional study of surface-water quality in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area encompasses about 24 miles of the middle reach of the Cuyahoga River and parts of four major tributaries -- Furnace Run, Brandywine Creek, Chippewa Creek, and TInkers Creek. Water quality in this reach does not meet Ohio water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen, fecal bacteria, ammonia, and lead. Point sources of effluent contribute contaminants. On the basis of a review of scientific and technical literature, National Park Service management goals, and water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, three subject areas for future study are suggested: (1) The dissolved oxygen regime, (2) chemical quality of base flow, and (3) quality of storm-water runoff.

  11. HUMAN HEALTH DAMAGES FROM MOBILE SOURCE AIR POLLUTION: ADDITIONAL DELPHI DATA ANALYSIS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the results of additional analyses of the data generated by a panel of medical experts for a study of Human Health Damages from Mobile Source Air Pollution (hereafter referred to as HHD) conducted by the California Air Resources Board in 1973-75 for the U.S. E...

  12. 5 CFR 3601.103 - Additional exceptions for gifts from outside sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsor in accordance with 5 CFR 2635.204(g)(5); and (3) The gift of free attendance meets the definition... gifts from outside sources. In addition to the gifts which come within the exceptions set forth in 5 CFR 2635.204, and subject to all provisions of 5 CFR 2635.201 through 2635.205, a DoD employee may...

  13. RAINFALL AND RUNOFF AS A SOURCE OF ORGANIC CARBON ADDITIONS TO BAYOU TEXAR, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall and Runoff as a Source of Organic Carbon Additions to Bayou Texar, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R852).

    T...

  14. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  15. Effects of additional HONO sources on visibility over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; An, Junling; Gultepe, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to better understand the impacts of the additional sources of nitrous acid (HONO) on visibility, which is an aspect not considered in current air quality models. Simulations of HONO contributions to visibility over the North China Plain (NCP) during August 2007 using the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were performed, including three additional HONO sources: (1) the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO * 2) with water vapor; (2) the NO2 heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces; and (3) HONO emissions. The model generally reproduced the spatial patterns and diurnal variations of visibility over the NCP well. When the additional HONO sources were included in the simulations, the visibility was occasionally decreased by 20%-30% (3-4 km) in local urban areas of the NCP. Monthly-mean concentrations of NO{3/-}, NH{4/+}, SO{4/2-} and PM2.5 were increased by 20%-52% (3-11 μg m-3), 10%-38%, 6%-10%, and 6%-11% (9-17 μg m-3), respectively; and in urban areas, monthly-mean accumulationmode number concentrations (AMNC) and surface concentrations of aerosols were enhanced by 15%-20% and 10%-20%, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that increases in concentrations of PM2.5, its hydrophilic components, and AMNC, are key factors for visibility degradation. A proposed conceptual model for the impacts of additional HONO sources on visibility also suggests that visibility estimation should consider the heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces and the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity due to additional HONO sources, especially in areas with high mass concentrations of NO x and aerosols.

  16. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. PMID:23247259

  17. Addition Laws for Intensities of Radiation Emerging from Scattering Atmospheres Containing Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.; Kapanadze, N. G.

    2016-03-01

    A group theoretical approach is developed for solving astrophysical radiative transfer problems described in a previous series of papers. Addition laws for observed radiative intensities are derived for the case in which atmospheres not only absorb and scatter radiation incident on them, but radiate themselves because of energy sources contained within them. As an illustration of the application of these laws, several special radiative transfer problems which we believe are of practical interest are discussed.

  18. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in childhood: A systematic review of the literature and an additional case report

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Magne, Miguel Garcia; Salemme, Marianna; Cheli, Maurizio; Boroni, Giovanni; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment in children with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (AMG). METHODS: AMG is a degenerative disease characterized by a proliferation of the mucosal epithelium which deeply invaginates and extends into the thickened muscular layer of the gallbladder, causing intramural diverticula. Although AMG is found in up to 5% of cholecystectomy specimens in adult populations, this condition in childhood is extremely uncommon. Authors provide a detailed systematic review of the pediatric literature according to PRISMA guidelines, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic assessment. An additional case of AMG is also presented. RESULTS: Five studies were finally enclosed, encompassing 5 children with AMG. Analysis was extended to our additional 11-year-old patient, who presented diffuse AMG and pancreatic acinar metaplasia of the gallbladder mucosa and was successfully managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean age at presentation was 7.2 years. Unspecific abdominal pain was the commonest symptom. Abdominal ultrasound was performed on all patients, with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Five patients underwent cholecystectomy, and at follow-up were asymptomatic. In the remaining patient, completely asymptomatic at diagnosis, a conservative approach with monthly monitoring via ultrasonography was undertaken. CONCLUSION: Considering the remote but possible degeneration leading to cancer and the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy even in small children, evidence suggests that elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy represent the treatment of choice. Pre-operative evaluation of the extrahepatic biliary tree anatomy with cholangio-MRI is strongly recommended. PMID:27170933

  19. Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut: case report and in-depth review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, R M; Saleh, M; Kaiser, S; Lierz, M; Hafez, H M; Bragulla, H H

    2012-08-01

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed. PMID:22250842

  20. Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (cerebello-trigeminal-dermal dysplasia): description of an additional case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schell-Apacik, Chayim Can; Cohen, Monika; Vojta, Stepan; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Klopocki, Eva; Heinrich, Uwe; von Voss, Hubertus

    2008-01-01

    Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with a distinct phenotype (OMIM 601853). To our knowledge there have been seven cases documented to date. We report on an additional male patient now aged 15 8/12 years with synostosis of the lambdoid suture, partial scalp alopecia, corneal opacity, mental retardation and striking phenotypic features (e.g., brachyturricephaly, hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia and low-set ears) consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In early childhood the patient demonstrated aggressive behavior and raging periods. He also had seizures that were adequately controlled by medication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, i.e., a rare fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, also consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In addition a lipoma of the quadrigeminal plate was observed, a feature not previously described in the seven patients reported in the literature. Cytogenetic and subtelomere analyses were inconspicuous. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) testing revealed five aberrations (partial deletions of 1p21.1, 8q24.23, 10q11.2, Xq26.3 and partial duplication of 19p13.2), which, however, have been classified as normal variants. Array-CGH has not been published in the previously reported children. The combination of certain craniofacial features, including partial alopecia, and the presence of rhombencephalosynapsis in the MRI are suggestive of Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. Children with this syndrome should undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investingation, psychological testing, management of behavioral problems and genetic counseling. PMID:17483961

  1. A study of the effects of an additional sound source on RASS performance

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program continuously operates a nine panel 915 MHz wind profiler with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS), measuring wind profiles for 50 minutes and virtual temperature profiles for the remaining 10 minutes during each hour. It is well recognized that one of the principal limits on RASS performance is high horizontal wind speed that moves the acoustic wave front sufficiently to prevent the microwave energy produced by the radar and scattered from the acoustic wave from being reflected back t the radar antenna. With this limitation in mind, the ARM program purchased an additional, portable acoustic source that could be mounted on a small trailer and placed in strategic locations to enhance the RASS performance (when it was not being used for spare parts). A test of the resulting improvement in RASS performance was performed during the period 1995--1997.

  2. Styrofoam Debris as a Source of Hazardous Additives for Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2016-05-17

    There is growing concern over plastic debris and their fragments as a carrier for hazardous substances in marine ecosystem. The present study was conducted to provide field evidence for the transfer of plastic-associated chemicals to marine organisms. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), brominated flame retardants, were recently detected in expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) marine debris. We hypothesized that if styrofoam debris acts as a source of the additives in the marine environment, organisms inhabiting such debris might be directly influenced by them. Here we investigated the characteristics of HBCD accumulation by mussels inhabiting styrofoam. For comparison, mussels inhabiting different substrates, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), metal, and rock, were also studied. The high HBCD levels up to 5160 ng/g lipid weight and the γ-HBCD dominated isomeric profiles in mussels inhabiting styrofoam strongly supports the transfer of HBCDs from styrofoam substrate to mussels. Furthermore, microsized styrofoam particles were identified inside mussels, probably originating from their substrates. PMID:27100560

  3. Drug repositioning in SLE: crowd-sourcing, literature-mining and Big Data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; Ryals, M M; Heuer, S E; Robl, R D; Madamanchi, S; Davis, L S; Lauwerys, B; Catalina, M D; Lipsky, P E

    2016-09-01

    Lupus patients are in need of modern drugs to treat specific manifestations of their disease effectively and safely. In the past half century, only one new treatment has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2014-2015, the FDA approved 71 new drugs, only one of which targeted a rheumatic disease and none of which was approved for use in SLE. Repositioning/repurposing drugs approved for other diseases using multiple approaches is one possible means to find new treatment options for lupus patients. "Big Data" analysis approaches this challenge from an unbiased standpoint whereas literature mining and crowd sourcing for candidates assessed by the CoLTs (Combined Lupus Treatment Scoring) system provide a hypothesis-based approach to rank potential therapeutic candidates for possible clinical application. Both approaches mitigate risk since the candidates assessed have largely been extensively tested in clinical trials for other indications. The usefulness of a multi-pronged approach to drug repositioning in lupus is highlighted by orthogonal confirmation of hypothesis-based drug repositioning predictions by "Big Data" analysis of differentially expressed genes from lupus patient samples. The goal is to identify novel therapies that have the potential to affect disease processes specifically. Involvement of SLE patients and the scientists that study this disease in thinking about new drugs that may be effective in lupus though crowd-sourcing sites such as LRxL-STAT (www.linkedin.com/in/lrxlstat) is important in stimulating the momentum needed to test these novel drug targets for efficacy in lupus rapidly in small, proof-of-concept trials conducted by LuCIN, the Lupus Clinical Investigators Network (www.linkedin.com/in/lucinstat). PMID:27497259

  4. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  5. OT2_jalcolea_2: Additional Hpoint observations of large post-AGB sources from HIFIStars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, J.

    2011-09-01

    One of the most spectacular phases in the evolution of intermediate mass stars takes place at the end of their lives. At the end of the AGB, the central star dashes across the HR diagram from the red giant to the blue dwarf region. At the same time, the spherically symmetric and slowly expanding circumstellar envelopes around AGB stars become planetary nebulae (PNe), displaying a large variety of shapes and structures far more complex. This transformation takes place at the very end of the AGB, and it is due to the interaction of fast and bipolar molecular winds with the fossil AGB circumstellar envelope. The origin of these post-AGB winds is still unclear, but we know that the resulting two-wind interactions are only active during a very short period of time, ~ 100 yr, but still they are able to strongly modify the kinematics of the nebulae and re-shape them. To better understand these processes we must study the warm molecular gas component of early post-AGB sources, both pre-planetary nebulae (pPNe) and young PNe. Herschel/HIFI is very well suited at this, because its spectral coverage, high velocity resolution, and superb sensitivity. For these reasons, 10 pPNe and young PNe were included in the KPGT HIFISTARS, were a large number of spectral lines are observed in a moderate number of frequency setups, but just at the central point. In many cases this is simply enough, since most post-AGB sources in HIFIStars are compact. However there are three cases in which the non spherically symmetric structures seen in the warm gas are larger than the telescope beam: OH231.8+4.2, NGC7027 and NGC6302. Therefore we propose to perform some additional points in these three sources in a selected sample of HIFISTARS frequency setups, were we have detected strong lines of CO, H2O, NH3 and OH. These observations are crucial to understand the kinematics and interactions traced by these warm gas probes, and gain insight in the intricate problem of the post-AGB dynamics.

  6. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  7. An Indexed Bibliography of Secondary Sources in English for the Study of Urdu Literature in India and Pakistan Since Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentink, Linda, Comp.

    This indexed, annotated bibliography of 337 English language secondary sources for the study of Urdu literature since 1947 (excluding translations and words on Urdu language) attempts to give comprehensive coverage for periodicals, monographs, and compilations published since 1947. With a few exceptions, citations from weekly or daily publications…

  8. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  9. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  10. Coping with Male Mid-Life: A Systematic Analysis Using Literature as a Data Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    This paper uses twentieth century American fictional literature to examine middle-age male development. Two historical periods, post World War I and post World War II, were chosen to provide a wide data base which could be analyzed over time. With seven American literature professors' aid, works of literary merit with a middle-aged male…

  11. Solar neutrinos and the influences of opacity, thermal instability, additional neutrino sources, and a central black hole on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Ezer, D.

    1972-01-01

    Significant quantities that affect the internal structure of the sun are examined for factors that reduce the temperature near the sun's center. The four factors discussed are: opacity, central black hole, thermal instability, and additional neutrino sources.

  12. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  13. The effect of selected alloying element additions on properties of Mg-based alloy as bioimplants: A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Xu, Zhao-Bin; Bai, Xue-Ling; Shang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This review investigates the current application limitations of Mg and Mg alloys. The key issues hindering the application of biodegradable Mg alloys as implants are their fast degradation rate and biological consideration. We have discussed the effect of some selected alloying element additions on the properties of the Mg-based alloy, especially the nutrient elements in human (Zn, Mn, Ca, Sr). Different grain sizes, phase constituents and distributions consequently influence the mechanical properties of the Mg alloys. Solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening are enhanced by the addition of alloying elements, generally improving the mechanical properties. Besides, the hot working process can also improve the mechanical properties. Combination of different processing steps is suggested to be adopted in the fabrication of Mg-based alloys. Corrosion properties of these Mg-based alloys have been measured in vitro and in vivo. The degradation mechanism is also discussed in terms of corrosion types, rates, byproducts and response of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the clinical response and requirements of degradable implants are presented, especially for the nutrient elements (Ca, Mn, Zn, Sr). This review provides information related to different Mg alloying elements and presents the promising candidates for an ideal implant.

  14. Teaching Assistants' Self-Efficacy in Teaching Literature: Sources, Personal Assessments, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Byrnes (2001) has suggested that the disconnection between language and literature instruction within many foreign language departments has consequences on the professionalization of graduate students. These structural issues lead to questions about graduate students' development. How do teaching assistants (TAs) perceive their competency as…

  15. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... reporting rule on October 7, 2010, and it was not published until October 28, 2010, 75 FR 66434, three weeks... electronics, fluorinated GHG production, and electrical equipment use on April 12, 2009 (74 FR 16448) as part... October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56260). EPA deferred action on these source categories because EPA received...

  16. 75 FR 18651 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is revising and supplementing its initial proposed actions to require reporting of fluorinated greenhouse gas (fluorinated GHG) emissions from certain source categories. Specifically, EPA is revising and supplementing its initial proposal to require reporting of fluorinated GHG emissions from electronics manufacturing, production of fluorinated gases, and use of electrical transmission and......

  17. Food additives and environmental chemicals as sources of childhood behavior disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Feingold hypothesis postulates that many children who exhibit disturbed behavior improve on a diet devoid of certain food additives. Its validity has been examined on the basis of controlled trails. The total evidence, although not wholly consistent, nevertheless suggests that the hypothesis is, in principle, correct. Such a conclusion poses difficult problems and new issues for etiology, treatment, toxicology, and regulation.

  18. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  19. BREEDING PIERCE'S DISEASE RESISTANT TABLE AND RAISIN GRAPES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARKERS FOR ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen BC3 and two BC2 crosses between V. arizonica source of Pierce’s disease (PD) resistance and seedless table and raisin selections were made and produced 3,396 berries, 4,459 ovules and 1,840 embryos. Two additional seedless and two seeded crosses were made. Ten 2006 BC2 families (V. arizoni...

  20. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  1. Effects of noise from non-traffic-related ambient sources on sleep: review of the literature of 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Sarah; Bauer, Georg F; Brink, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature about the effects of specific non-traffic-related ambient noise sources on sleep that appeared in the last two decades. Although everybody is faced with noise of non-traffic and non-industry origin (e.g. sounds made by neighbors, talk, laughter, music, slamming doors, structural equipment, ventilation, heat pumps, noise from animals, barking dogs, outdoor events etc.), little scientific knowledge exists about its effects on sleep. The findings of the present extensive literature search and review are as follows: Only a small number of surveys, laboratory and field studies about mainly neighborhood, leisure and animal noise have been carried out. Most of them indicate that ambient noise has some effect on human sleep. However, a quantitative meta-analysis and comparison is not possible due to the small number of studies available and at times large differences in quality. PMID:21768734

  2. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Muench, Marcus O.; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Gormley, Matthew; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an essential element of medical therapy, leading to cures of previously incurable disease for hematological and non-hematological pathologies. Many patients do not find matched donors in a timely manner, which has driven efforts to find alternative pools of transplantable HSCs. The use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of transplantable HSCs began more than two decades ago. However, the use of UCB as a reliable source of HSCs for transplantation still faces crucial challenges: the number of HSCs present in a unit of UCB is usually sufficient for younger children but not for adults and the persistent delayed engraftment often seen can result in high rates of infection and mortality. Study Design and Methods We propose a new approach to a solution of these problems: a potential increase of the limited number of UCB–HSCs available by harvesting HSCs contained in the placenta and the fetal chorionic membrane available at birth. Results We investigated the presence of hematopoietic progenitors/HSC in human placenta and chorion at different gestational ages. The characterization of these cells was performed by flow cytometry and immunolocalization and their functional status was investigated by transplanting them into immunodeficient mice. Conclusion HSCs are present in extraembryonic tissues and could be banked in conjunction to the UCB-HSCs. This novel approach could have a large impact on the field of HSC banking and more crucially, on the outcome of patients undergoing this treatment by greatly improving the use of life-saving hematopoietic transplants. PMID:22074633

  3. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources of Ethylene and the potential for human exposure: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Morgott, David A

    2015-11-01

    This review examines available published information on ethylene emission sources, emission magnitudes, and inhalation exposures in order to assess those factors and circumstances that can affect human contact with this omnipresent gas. The results reveal that airborne ethylene concentrations at the ppb levels are commonplace and can arise in the vicinity of traffic corridors, forest fires, indoor kitchens, horticultural areas, oil fields, house fires, and petrochemical sites. The primary biogenic sources of ethylene derive from microbial activity in most soil and marine environments as well as its biological formation in wide variety of plant species. Sizable amounts of ethylene can also result from the burning of fossil fuels, forest and savanna fires, and crop residue combustion. Motor vehicle exhaust is the largest contributor to urban ethylene levels under most circumstances, but industrial flare releases and fugitive emissions may also be of relevance. Occupational exposures generally range up to about 50-100 ppm and have been documented for those working in the horticultural, petrochemical, and fire and rescue industries. Continuous personal monitoring at the community level has documented exposures of 3-4 ppb. These levels are more closely associated with the ethylene concentrations found indoors rather than outdoors indicating the importance of exposure sources found within the home. Indoor air sources of ethylene are associated with environmental tobacco smoke, wood or propane fuel use, fruit and vegetable storage, and cooking. Ethylene is not found in any consumer or commercial products and does not off-gas from building products to any appreciable extent. The review indicates that outdoor sources located some distance from the home do not make an appreciable contribution to personal exposures given the strength and variety of sources found in the immediate living environment. PMID:26296759

  4. Impacts of Additional HONO Sources on Concentrations and Deposition of NOy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; An, Junling; Kajino, Mizuo; Li, Jian; Qu, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen-containing compounds (NOy) are involved in many important chemical processes in the atmosphere, including aerosol formation as well as ozone (O3) production and destruction. As NOy deposition was increasing rapidly in China during 1980s ~ 2000s, great effort is urgently needed to reduce N deposition. HONO, an important component of NOy, is a significant precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) that drives the formation of O3 and fine particles (PM2.5). Nevertheless, the detailed formation mechanisms of HONO and strength of its sources remain unclear. Unknown HONO sources and their potential impacts on air quality have gained extensive interests but to our current knowledge, the impact of HONO sources on regional-scale deposition of NOy has not been quantified up to date. The goal of this work is to evaluate the effects of the additional HONO sources on concentrations and deposition of individual NOy species as well as the NOy budget in the northern Chinese regions being affected by heavy pollution. Simulations of HONO contributions over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH) during summer and winter periods of 2007 using the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting /Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model are performed by including three additional HONO sources: 1) the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO2*) with water vapor, 2) NO2 heterogeneous reaction at the aerosol surfaces, and 3) HONO emissions. The model results show that the three additional HONO sources produce a 20%~40% (> 100%) increase in monthly-mean OH concentrations in many urban areas in August (February), leading to a 10%~40% (10%~100%) variation in monthly-mean concentrations of NOx, nitrate and PAN, a 5%~10% (10%~40%) increase in the total dry deposition of NOy, and an enhancement of 1.4 Gg N (1.5 Gg N) in the total of dry and wet deposition of NOy over this region in August (February). These results suggest that the additional HONO sources aggravate regional-scale acid deposition

  5. Wood decomposition in Amazonian hydropower reservoirs: An additional source of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Parize, Marcelo; Pérez, Marcela A. P.; Filizola, Naziano

    2013-07-01

    Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirs produce abundant carbon dioxide and methane from large quantities of flooded biomass that decompose anaerobically underwater. Emissions are extreme the first years after impounding and progressively decrease with time. To date, only water-to-air fluxes have been considered in these estimates. Here, we investigate in two Amazonian reservoirs (Balbina and Petit Saut) the fate of above water standing dead trees, by combining a qualitative analysis of wood state and density through time and a quantitative analysis of the biomass initially flooded. Dead wood was much more decomposed in the Balbina reservoir 23 years after flooding than in the Petit Saut reservoir 10 years after flooding. Termites apparently played a major role in wood decomposition, occurring mainly above water, and resulting in a complete conversion of this carbon biomass into CO2 and CH4 at a timescale much shorter than reservoir operation. The analysis of pre-impounding wood biomass reveals that above-water decomposition in Amazonian reservoirs is a large, previously unrecognized source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, representing 26-45% of the total reservoir flux integrated over 100 years. Accounting for both below- and above-water fluxes, we could estimate that each km2 of Amazonian forest converted to reservoir would emit over 140 Gg CO2-eq in 100 years. Hydropower plants in the Amazon should thus generate 0.25-0.4 MW h per km2 flooded area to produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than gas power plants. They also have the disadvantage to emit most of their greenhouse gases the earliest years of operation.

  6. Elinor M. Brent-Dyer's Chalet School Series: Literature as an Historical Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidbury, Clare

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether Elinor M. Brent-Dyer's Chalet School books--a series of girls' school stories spanning the late 1920s to the early 1970s--can be regarded as historical sources for the study of physical education and dance in girls' boarding schools during this period. An overview of her experience as teacher and…

  7. Enhancement of Identifying Cancer Specialists through the Linkage of Medicare Claims to Additional Sources of Physician Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Lori A; Adamache, Walter; Eheman, Christie R; Ryerson, A Blythe; Richardson, Lisa C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the number of cancer specialists identified in three national datasets, the effect of combining these datasets, and the use of refinement rules to classify physicians as cancer specialists. Data Sources 1992–2003 linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data and a cancer-free comparison population of Medicare beneficiaries, Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Registry, and the American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile. Study Design We compared differences in counts of cancer specialists identified in Medicare claims only with the number obtained by combining data sources and after using rules to refine specialty identification. Data Extraction We analyzed physician specialty variables provided on Medicare claims, along with the specialties obtained by linkage of unencrypted UPINs on Medicare claims to the UPIN Registry, the AMA Masterfile, and all sources combined. Principle Findings Medicare claims identified the fewest number of cancer specialists (n=11,721) compared with 19,753 who were identified when we combined all three datasets. The percentage increase identified by combining datasets varied by subspecialty (187 percent for surgical oncologists to 50 percent for radiation oncologists). Rules created to refine identification most affected the count of radiation oncologists. Conclusions Researchers should consider taking the additional effort and cost to refine classification by using additional data sources based on their study objectives. PMID:19207588

  8. Ultrasound scan as a potential source of nosocomial and crossinfection: a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Miyague, André Hadyme; Mauad, Fernando Marum; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Benedetti, Augusto César Garcia; Ferreira, Ana Elizabeth Gomes de Melo Tavares; Mauad-Filho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the main concepts regarding the importance of cleaning/disinfection of ultrasonography probes, aiming a better comprehension by practitioners and thus enabling strategies to establish a safe practice without compromising the quality of the examination and the operator productivity. In the context of biosafety, it is imperative to assume that contact with blood or body fluids represents a potential source of infection. Thus, in order to implement cleaning/disinfection practice, it is necessary to understand the principles of infection control, to consider the cost/benefit ratio of the measures to be implemented, and most importantly, to comprehend that such measures will not only benefit the health professional and the patient, but the society as a whole. PMID:26543284

  9. Ultrasound scan as a potential source of nosocomial and crossinfection: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Miyague, André Hadyme; Mauad, Fernando Marum; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Benedetti, Augusto César Garcia; Ferreira, Ana Elizabeth Gomes de Melo Tavares; Mauad-Filho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the main concepts regarding the importance of cleaning/disinfection of ultrasonography probes, aiming a better comprehension by practitioners and thus enabling strategies to establish a safe practice without compromising the quality of the examination and the operator productivity. In the context of biosafety, it is imperative to assume that contact with blood or body fluids represents a potential source of infection. Thus, in order to implement cleaning/disinfection practice, it is necessary to understand the principles of infection control, to consider the cost/benefit ratio of the measures to be implemented, and most importantly, to comprehend that such measures will not only benefit the health professional and the patient, but the society as a whole. PMID:26543284

  10. Are healthcare workers' mobile phones a potential source of nosocomial infections? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-10-01

    Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed. PMID:26517478

  11. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source. PMID:26783836

  12. Experimental investigations of the swirling flow in the conical diffuser using flow-feedback control technique with additional energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tǎnasǎ, C.; Bosioc, A. I.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.

    2012-11-01

    The previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water injection along to the axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated to the precessing vortex rope [1]. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the water jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, it was introduced a new approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser [2]. This is called flow-feedback control technique (FFCT) and it was investigated experimentally in order to assess its capability [3]. The FFCT approach not requires additional energy to supply the jet. Consequently, the turbine efficiency is not diminished due to the volumetric losses injected even if around 10% of the main flow is used. However, the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope decreases with 30% if 10% jet discharge is applied [3]. Using 12% water jet discharge from upstream then the equivalent amplitude of the pressure pulsations is mitigated with 70% according to Bosioc et al. [4]. In our case, an extra 2% jet discharge is required in order to obtain similar results with FFCT. This extra discharge is provided using an additional energy source. Therefore, the paper presents experimental investigation performed with FFCT with additional energy source. The experimental results obtained with this technique are compared against FFCT and the swirling flow with vortex rope, respectively.

  13. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: The Addition of Systemic Chemotherapy to Radiotherapy Led to an Observed Improvement in Survival—A Single Centre Experience and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Natalie M.; Loughran, Sean; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Yap, Beng K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare yet accounts for up to 50% of all thyroid cancer deaths. This study reviews outcomes of patients with confirmed ATC referred to a tertiary oncology centre plus reviews the literature to explore how poor outcomes may be improved. Materials and Methods. The management and outcomes of 20 patients with ATC were reviewed. Results. Median age at diagnosis was 69.5 years. 19 patients died due to ATC, 40% of whom died from asphyxiation. Median survival for all cases was 59 days. Patients who had previous surgery prior to other treatment modalities had a longer median survival overall compared to those who had not had previous surgery (142 days compared to 59 days) and produced the one long-term survivor. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (without previous surgery) was associated with longer median survival (220 days). Palliative radiotherapy alone did not decrease the rate of death by asphyxiation when compared to other single modality treatments. Conclusion. Multimodality treatment including surgery when feasible remains the best strategy to improve survival and prevent death from asphyxiation in the management of ATC. The addition of chemotherapy to our institutional protocol led to improved survival but prognosis remains very poor. PMID:25184150

  15. Botanical identity of plant sources of Daśamūla drugs through an analysis of published literature

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, S.; Ved, Devendra Kumar; Lalitha, S.; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Daśamūla (DM) is a top-traded group of medicinal plants used by the Ayurvedic industry. Through literature survey and analysis, this article has enlisted the botanical sources of DM, as correlated by several scholars. Such a list is not available from any single, earlier publication. It brings to light the confusion that exists in terms of botanical sources correlated to Ayurvedic entities. There is quite a bit of difference in the botanical correlation, parts, and substitutes reported in the different scholarly works, particularly for Pṛṣṇiparṇī, and Agnimantha. For e.g., is Uraria picta the original intended Pṛṣṇiparṇī, as the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) stipulates or is it U. lagopoidiodes or Desmodium gangeticum as other scholars report? While AFI provides two botanical correlations to Agnimantha in its two editions, namely Premna integrifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis, other scholars correlate it to other Premna and Clerodendrum species. Why has AFI provided stem bark and whole plant as substitutes for roots of DM? Are substitutes recommended by AFI only for ecological or practical convenience or is there an Ayurvedic or pharmacological explanation for the same? Aim: There are many species used in the name of Daśamūla,, in this article all the species are listed out to find the differences in the usage of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ayurveda texts and lexicons along with the texts which have done correlation work were considered to arrive at a list of various species used as Dasmula. Results and Conclusion: Since neither the methodology nor the logic behind the correlation have been discussed in these scholarly works, including the AFI, the same is not available for analysis or scrutiny. Such a list as provided in this article can form an essential base for a much needed systematic approach at etymological analysis, botanical correlation, and further scientific work to establish legitimacy of substitutes

  16. Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rosales, S.; de L. Angeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water. PMID:25557817

  17. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford.

  18. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  19. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S...

  20. PROJECT SUMMARY -CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/SR-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources ofindoor air pollution. It covers (1) market information and (2) a scientific literature review. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the US,...

  1. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of... use of electron beam and x- ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed...

  2. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  3. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  4. A Source-based Measurement Database for Occupational Exposure Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields in the INTEROCC Study: A Literature Review Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Javier; Bowman, Joseph D.; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Conover, Dave L.; McLean, Dave; Mann, Simon; Vecchia, Paolo; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To date, occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has relied on occupation-based measurements and exposure estimates. However, misclassification due to between-worker variability remains an unsolved challenge. A source-based approach, supported by detailed subject data on determinants of exposure, may allow for a more individualized exposure assessment. Detailed information on the use of occupational sources of exposure to EMF was collected as part of the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study. To support a source-based exposure assessment effort within this study, this work aimed to construct a measurement database for the occupational sources of EMF exposure identified, assembling available measurements from the scientific literature. Methods: First, a comprehensive literature search was performed for published and unpublished documents containing exposure measurements for the EMF sources identified, a priori as well as from answers of study subjects. Then, the measurements identified were assessed for quality and relevance to the study objectives. Finally, the measurements selected and complementary information were compiled into an Occupational Exposure Measurement Database (OEMD). Results: Currently, the OEMD contains 1624 sets of measurements (>3000 entries) for 285 sources of EMF exposure, organized by frequency band (0 Hz to 300 GHz) and dosimetry type. Ninety-five documents were selected from the literature (almost 35% of them are unpublished technical reports), containing measurements which were considered informative and valid for our purpose. Measurement data and complementary information collected from these documents came from 16 different countries and cover the time period between 1974 and 2013. Conclusion: We have constructed a database with measurements and complementary information for the most common sources of exposure to EMF in the workplace, based on the responses to the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study questionnaire. This

  5. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Case, C L; Carlson, M S

    2002-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn), from organic and inorganic sources, on growth performance, plasma and tissue Zn accumulation, and Zn excretion of nursery pigs. Blood from all pigs was collected for plasma Zn determination on d 14 in Exp. 1, d 7 and 28 in Exp. 2, and d 15 in Exp. 3. In Exp. 1, 2, and 3, 90, 100, and 15 crossbred (GenetiPorc USA, LLC, Morris, MN) pigs were weaned at 24+/-0.5, 18, and 17 d of age (6.45, 5.47, and 5.3 kg avg initial BW), respectively, and allotted to dietary treatment based on initial weight, sex, and litter. A Phase 1 nursery diet was fed as crumbles from d 0 to 14 in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, and a Phase 2 nursery diet was fed as pellets from d 15 to 28 in Exp. 1 and 2. The Phase 1 and Phase 2 basal diets were supplemented with 100 ppm Zn as ZnSO4. Both dietary phases contained the same five dietary treatments: 150 ppm additional Zn as zinc oxide (ZnO), 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn 100), 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-polysaccharide complex (SQM-Zn), and 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. Overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed 500 ppm added Zn as SQM-Zn or 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater ADG (P < 0.05) than pigs fed 150 ppm, 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, or 500 ppm added Zn as Availa-Zn 100 (0.44 and 0.46 kg/d vs 0.35, 0.38, and 0.33 kg/d respectively). Overall in Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed any other dietary treatment. On d 14 of Exp. 1 and d 28 of Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had higher (P < 0.05) plasma Zn concentrations than pigs on any other treatment. In Exp. 3, fecal, urinary, and liver Zn concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. On d 10 to 15 of Exp. 3, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had the most negative Zn balance (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the other four dietary Zn treatments. In conclusion, feeding

  6. Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in U. S. Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2009-01-01

    Higher Education institutions in the United States are considering Open Source software applications such as the Moodle and Sakai course management systems and the Kuali financial system to build integrated learning environments that serve both academic and administrative needs. Open Source is presumed to be more flexible and less costly than…

  7. 26 CFR 31.6001-5 - Additional records in connection with collection of income tax at source on wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employment Taxes (Selected Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6001-5 Additional... (Forms W-4 and W-4E) filed with the employer by the employee. (14) The agreement, if any, between...

  8. 26 CFR 31.6001-5 - Additional records in connection with collection of income tax at source on wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment Taxes (Selected Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6001-5 Additional... (Forms W-4 and W-4E) filed with the employer by the employee. (14) The agreement, if any, between...

  9. 26 CFR 31.6001-5 - Additional records in connection with collection of income tax at source on wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment Taxes (Selected Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6001-5 Additional... (Forms W-4 and W-4E) filed with the employer by the employee. (14) The agreement, if any, between...

  10. 26 CFR 31.6001-5 - Additional records in connection with collection of income tax at source on wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employment Taxes (Selected Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6001-5 Additional... (Forms W-4 and W-4E) filed with the employer by the employee. (14) The agreement, if any, between...

  11. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  12. Kinetics and bioenergetics of Spirulina platensis cultivation by fed-batch addition of urea as nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Sassano, Carlos E N; Carvalho, João C M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Sato, Sunao; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio

    2004-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was cultivated in bench-scale miniponds on bicarbonate/carbonate solutions using urea as nitrogen source. To minimize limitation and inhibition phenomena, urea was supplied semicontinuously using exponentially increasing feeding rates. The average growth rates obtained alternately varying the total mass of urea added per unit reactor volume (275 < mT < 725 mg/L) and the total feeding time (9 < tT < 15 d) clearly evidenced nitrogen limitation for mT< 500 mg/L and excess nitrogen inhibition above this threshold. The time behavior of the specific growth rate at variable urea feeding patterns allowed estimation of the time-dependent Gibbs energy dissipation for cell growth under the actual depletion conditions of fed-batch cultivations. Comparison of the yield of growth on Gibbs energy obtained using either urea or KNO3 pointed to the preference of S. platensis for the former nitrogen source, likely owing to more favorable bioenergetic conditions. PMID:15007182

  13. In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction of tobermorite formation in autoclaved aerated concrete: Influence of silica source reactivity and Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kunio; Kikuma, Jun; Tsunashima, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuji; Matsuno, Shin-ya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sato, Masugu

    2011-05-15

    The hydrothermal formation of tobermorite during the processing of autoclaved aerated concrete was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. To investigate the effects of the silica source, reactive quartz from chert and less-reactive quartz from quartz sand were used as starting materials. The effect of Al addition on tobermorite formation was also studied. In all cases, C-S-H, hydroxylellestadite and katoite were clearly observed as intermediates. Acceleration of tobermorite formation by Al addition was clearly observed. However, Al addition did not affect the dissolution rate of quartz. Two pathways, via C-S-H and katoite, were also observed in the Al-containing system. These results suggest that the structure of initially formed C-S-H is important for the subsequent tobermorite formation reactions.

  14. Sources of lunar magnetic anomalies and their bulk directions of magnetization - Additional evidence from Apollo orbital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    A relatively high-amplitude magnetic anomaly directly detected with the Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetometer and centered near the crater Gerasimovich on the southeastern lunar far side is found to correlate with the location of a conspicuous Reiner Gamma-type swirl marking visible on a Zond 8 photograph. Examinations of available direct and indirect orbital magnetics measurements demonstrate that most strong anomalies occur in areas where morphologically similar markings are concentrated. Even though photogeologic studies indicate an impact-related origin for the swirls, both the swirls and their associated strong anomalies tend to exist preferentially in or near areas that have been seismically modified. Modeling of improved vector magnetic anomaly maps is used to infer 28 independent bulk directions of magnetization for relatively strong and isolated lunar magnetic anomaly sources.

  15. Effect of cycle time on fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity during pulsed addition of limiting carbon source.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Swapnil; Wenger, Kevin S; Rane, Kishore; Rising, Vanessa; Marten, Mark R

    2005-03-01

    For many years, high broth viscosity has remained a key challenge in large-scale filamentous fungal fermentations. In previous studies, we showed that broth viscosity could be reduced by pulsed addition of limiting carbon during fed-batch fermentation. The objective in this study was to determine how changing the frequency of pulsed substrate addition affects fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity. To accomplish this, a series of duplicate fed-batch fermentations were performed in 20-L fermentors with a recombinant glucoamylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The total cycle time for substrate pulsing was varied over a wide range (30-2,700 s), with substrate added only during the first 30% of each cycle. As a control, a fermentation was conducted with continuous substrate feeding, and in all fermentations the same total amount of substrate was added. Results show that the total biomass concentration remained relatively unaltered, while a substantial decrease in the mean projected area of fungal elements (i.e., average size) was observed with increasing cycle time. This led to reduced broth viscosity and increased oxygen uptake rate. However, high values of cycle time (i.e., 900-2,700 s) showed a significant increase in fungal conidia formation and significantly reduced recombinant enzyme productivity, suggesting that the fungi channeled substrate to storage compounds rather than to recombinant protein. In addition to explaining the effect of cycle time on fermentation performance, these results may aid in explaining the discrepancies observed on scale-up to larger fermentors. PMID:15643626

  16. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Kroeger, K.D.; Tang, J.; Chao, W.C.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.; Green, A.; Shelton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4, and CO2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N2O, CH4 and respiratory CO2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m-2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N2O and CH4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N2O in July 2009 averaged -33 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 ??mol N2O m-2 day-1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N2O and CH4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N2O and CH4 fluxes observed, exceeded half the magnitude of typical

  17. Short-term nitrogen additions can shift a coastal wetland from a sink to a source of N 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Tang, Jianwu; Chao, Wei Chun; Crusius, John; Bratton, John; Green, Adrian; Shelton, James

    2011-08-01

    Coastal salt marshes sequester carbon at high rates relative to other ecosystems and emit relatively little methane particularly compared to freshwater wetlands. However, fluxes of all major greenhouse gases (N 2O, CH 4, and CO 2) need to be quantified for accurate assessment of the climatic roles of these ecosystems. Anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (via run-off, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater) impact coastal marshes. To test the hypothesis that a pulse of nitrogen loading may increase greenhouse gas emissions from salt marsh sediments, we compared N 2O, CH 4 and respiratory CO 2 fluxes from nitrate-enriched plots in a Spartina patens marsh (receiving single additions of NaNO 3 equivalent to 1.4 g N m -2) to those from control plots (receiving only artificial seawater solutions) in three short-term experiments (July 2009, April 2010, and June 2010). In July 2009, we also compared N 2O and CH 4 fluxes in both opaque and transparent chambers to test the influence of light on gas flux measurements. Background fluxes of N 2O in July 2009 averaged -33 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1. However, within 1 h of nutrient additions, N 2O fluxes were significantly greater in plots receiving nitrate additions relative to controls in July 2009. Respiratory rates and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected. N 2O fluxes were significantly higher in dark than in transparent chambers, averaging 108 and 42 μmol N 2O m -2 day -1 respectively. After 2 days, when nutrient concentrations returned to background levels, none of the greenhouse gas fluxes differed from controls. In April 2010, N 2O and CH 4 fluxes were not significantly affected by nitrate, possibly due to higher nitrogen demands by growing S. patens plants, but in June 2010 trends of higher N 2O fluxes were again found among nitrate-enriched plots, indicating that responses to nutrient pulses may be strongest during the summer. In terms of carbon equivalents, the highest average N 2O and CH 4 fluxes observed, exceeded half

  18. Development of wide band gap p- a-SiOxCy:H using additional trimethylboron as carbon source gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Janthong, Bancha; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal; Niikura, Chisato; Konagai, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    We report p-type a-SiOxCy:H thin films which were fabricated by introducing additional Trimethylboron (TMB, B(CH3)3) doping gas into conventional standard p-type a-SiOx:H films. The TMB addition into the condition of p-a-SiOx:H improved optical bandgap from 2.14 to 2.20 eV without deterioration of electrical conductivity, which is promising for p-type window layer of thin film solar cells. The suggested p-a-SiOxCy:H films were applied in amorphous silicon solar cells and we found an increase of quantum efficiency at short wavelength regions due to wide bandgap of the new p-layer, and thus efficiency improvement from 10.4 to 10.7% was demonstrated in a-Si:H solar cell by employing the p-a-SiOxCy:H film. In case of a-SiOx:H cell, high open circuit voltage of 1.01 V was confirmed by using the suggested the p-a-SiOxCy:H film as a window layer. This new p-layer can be highly promising as a wide bandgap window layer to improve the performance of thin film silicon solar cells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Selective hydrogenation of furan-containing condensation products as a source of biomass-derived diesel additives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R; Bell, Alexis T

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that while the energy density and lubricity of the C15 and C16 products of furan condensation of biomass-derived aldehydes with 2-methylfuran are consistent with requirements for diesel, these products do not meet specifications for cetane number and pour point due to their aromatic furan rings. However, a novel class of products that fully meet or exceed most specifications for diesel can be produced by converting the furan rings in these compounds to cyclic ether moieties. Full hydrodeoxygenation of furan condensation products to alkanes would require 55-60% higher hydrogen demand, starting from biomass, compared to the products of furan ring saturation, providing an additional incentive to support the saturated products. We also report here on a tunable class of catalysts that contain Pd nanoparticles supported on ionic liquid-modified SiO2 that can achieve complete saturation of the furan rings in yields of 95% without opening these rings. PMID:25169952

  20. The addition of strain in uniaxially strained transistors by both SiN contact etch stop layers and recessed SiGe sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Cooper, David; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2012-11-01

    SiN contact etch stop layers (CESL) and recessed SiGe sources/drains are two uniaxial strain techniques used to boost the charge carriers mobility in p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (pMOSFETs). It has already been shown that the electrical performances of the devices can be increased by combining both of these techniques on the same transistor. However, there are few experimental investigations of their additivity from the strain point of view. Here, spatially resolved strain mapping was performed using dark-field electron holography (DFEH) on pMOSFETs transistors strained by SiN CESL and embedded SiGe sources/drains. The influence of both processes on the strain distribution has been investigated independently before the combination was tested. This study was first performed with non-silicided devices. The results indicated that in the channel region, the strain induced by the combination of both processes is equal to the sum of the individual components. Then, the same investigation was performed after Ni-silicidation of the devices. It was found that in spite of a slight reduction of the strain due to the silicidation, the strain additivity is approximately preserved. Finally, it was also shown that DFEH can be a useful technique to characterize the strain field around dislocations.

  1. Solid sampling determination of lithium and sodium additives in microsamples of yttrium oxyorthosilicate by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczai, Nikoletta; Kovács, László; Péter, Ágnes; Bencs, László

    2016-03-01

    Solid sampling high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-HR-CS-GFAAS) methods were developed and studied for the fast and sensitive quantitation of Li and Na additives in microsamples of cerium-doped yttrium oxyorthosilicate (Y2SiO5:Ce) scintillator materials. The methods were optimized for solid samples by studying a set of GFAAS conditions (i.e., the sample mass, sensitivity of the analytical lines, and graphite furnace heating programs). Powdered samples in the mass range of 0.099-0.422 mg were dispensed onto graphite sample insertion boats, weighed and analyzed. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were optimized by the use of single-element standard solutions of Li and Na (acidified with 0.144 mol/L HNO3) at the Li I 610.353 nm and Na I 285.3013 nm analytical lines. For calibration purposes, the method of standard addition with Li and Na solutions was applied. The correlation coefficients (R values) of the calibration graphs were not worse than 0.9678. The limit of detection for oxyorthosilicate samples was 20 μg/g and 80 μg/g for Li and Na, respectively. The alkaline content of the solid samples were found to be in the range of 0.89 and 8.4 mg/g, respectively. The accuracy of the results was verified by means of analyzing certified reference samples, using methods of standard (solution) addition calibration.

  2. Children Experience Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.

    This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children's…

  3. Dual-source dual-energy CT with additional tin filtration: Dose and image quality evaluation in phantoms and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Primak, Andrew N.; Giraldo, Juan Carlos Ramirez; Eusemann, Christian D.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kantor, B.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect on radiation dose and image quality of the use of additional spectral filtration for dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Materials and Methods A commercial DSCT scanner was modified by adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube, and radiation output and noise measured in water phantoms. Dose values for equivalent image noise were compared among DE-modes with and without tin filtration and single-energy (SE) mode. To evaluate DECT material discrimination, the material-specific DEratio for calcium and iodine were determined using images of anthropomorphic phantoms. Data were additionally acquired in 38 and 87 kg pigs, and noise for the linearly mixed and virtual non-contrast (VNC) images compared between DE-modes. Finally, abdominal DECT images from two patients of similar sizes undergoing clinically-indicated CT were compared. Results Adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube improved the DE contrast between iodine and calcium as much as 290%. Pig data showed that the tin filtration had no effect on noise in the DECT mixed images, but decreased noise by as much as 30% in the VNC images. Patient VNC-images acquired using 100/140 kV with added tin filtration had improved image quality compared to those generated with 80/140 kV without tin filtration. Conclusion Tin filtration of the high-kV tube of a DSCT scanner increases the ability of DECT to discriminate between calcium and iodine, without increasing dose relative to SECT. Furthermore, use of 100/140 kV tube potentials allows improved DECT imaging of large patients. PMID:20966323

  4. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  5. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  6. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. PMID:19809898

  7. A Student's Guide to British Literature; A Selective Bibliography of 4,128 Titles and Reference Sources from the Anglo-Saxon Period to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Aliki Lafkidou

    This work provides students of English Literature with a selective guide to important writers and their works from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present. The first chapter presents reference materials on English literature in general; each entry includes complete bibliographic information. A chronological arrangement is used in chapters two…

  8. Estimating PM2.5 Concentrations in Xi'an City Using a Generalized Additive Model with Multi-Source Monitoring Data.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Ze; Yang, Hong-Lei; Peng, Jun-Huan; Song, Yi-Rong; Sun, Qian; Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) represents a severe environmental problem and is of negative impact on human health. Xi'an City, with a population of 6.5 million, is among the highest concentrations of PM2.5 in China. In 2013, in total, there were 191 days in Xi'an City on which PM2.5 concentrations were greater than 100 μg/m3. Recently, a few studies have explored the potential causes of high PM2.5 concentration using remote sensing data such as the MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) product. Linear regression is a commonly used method to find statistical relationships among PM2.5 concentrations and other pollutants, including CO, NO2, SO2, and O3, which can be indicative of emission sources. The relationships of these variables, however, are usually complicated and non-linear. Therefore, a generalized additive model (GAM) is used to estimate the statistical relationships between potential variables and PM2.5 concentrations. This model contains linear functions of SO2 and CO, univariate smoothing non-linear functions of NO2, O3, AOT and temperature, and bivariate smoothing non-linear functions of location and wind variables. The model can explain 69.50% of PM2.5 concentrations, with R2 = 0.691, which improves the result of a stepwise linear regression (R2 = 0.582) by 18.73%. The two most significant variables, CO concentration and AOT, represent 20.65% and 19.54% of the deviance, respectively, while the three other gas-phase concentrations, SO2, NO2, and O3 account for 10.88% of the total deviance. These results show that in Xi'an City, the traffic and other industrial emissions are the primary source of PM2.5. Temperature, location, and wind variables also non-linearly related with PM2.5. PMID:26540446

  9. Estimating PM2.5 Concentrations in Xi'an City Using a Generalized Additive Model with Multi-Source Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong-Ze; Yang, Hong-Lei; Peng, Jun-Huan; Song, Yi-Rong; Sun, Qian; Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) represents a severe environmental problem and is of negative impact on human health. Xi'an City, with a population of 6.5 million, is among the highest concentrations of PM2.5 in China. In 2013, in total, there were 191 days in Xi’an City on which PM2.5 concentrations were greater than 100 μg/m3. Recently, a few studies have explored the potential causes of high PM2.5 concentration using remote sensing data such as the MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) product. Linear regression is a commonly used method to find statistical relationships among PM2.5 concentrations and other pollutants, including CO, NO2, SO2, and O3, which can be indicative of emission sources. The relationships of these variables, however, are usually complicated and non-linear. Therefore, a generalized additive model (GAM) is used to estimate the statistical relationships between potential variables and PM2.5 concentrations. This model contains linear functions of SO2 and CO, univariate smoothing non-linear functions of NO2, O3, AOT and temperature, and bivariate smoothing non-linear functions of location and wind variables. The model can explain 69.50% of PM2.5 concentrations, with R2 = 0.691, which improves the result of a stepwise linear regression (R2 = 0.582) by 18.73%. The two most significant variables, CO concentration and AOT, represent 20.65% and 19.54% of the deviance, respectively, while the three other gas-phase concentrations, SO2, NO2, and O3 account for 10.88% of the total deviance. These results show that in Xi'an City, the traffic and other industrial emissions are the primary source of PM2.5. Temperature, location, and wind variables also non-linearly related with PM2.5. PMID:26540446

  10. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Noise characteristics of aerosols, application of generalized standard additions method, and Mach disk as an emission source

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Luan

    1995-10-06

    This dissertation is focused on three problem areas in the performance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. The noise characteristics of aerosols produced by ICP nebulizers are investigated. A laser beam is scattered by aerosol and detected by a photomultiplier tube and the noise amplitude spectrum of the scattered radiation is measured by a spectrum analyzer. Discrete frequency noise in the aerosol generated by a Meinhard nebulizer or a direct injection nebulizer is primarily caused by pulsation in the liquid flow from the pump. A Scott-type spray chamber suppresses white noise, while a conical, straight-pass spray chamber enhances white noise, relative to the noise seen from the primary aerosol. Simultaneous correction for both spectral interferences and matrix effects in ICP atomic emission spectrometry (AES) can be accomplished by using the generalized standard additions method (GSAM). Results obtained with the application of the GSAM to the Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 ICP atomic emission spectrometer are presented. The echelle-based polychromator with segmented-array charge-coupled device detectors enables the direct, visual examination of the overlapping lines Cd (1) 228.802 nm and As (1) 228.812 nm. The slit translation capability allows a large number of data points to be sampled, therefore, the advantage of noise averaging is gained. An ICP is extracted into a small quartz vacuum chamber through a sampling orifice in a water-cooled copper plate. Optical emission from the Mach disk region is measured with a new type of echelle spectrometer equipped with two segmented-array charge-coupled-device detectors, with an effort to improve the detection limits for simultaneous multielement analysis by ICP-AES.

  11. The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Simon K. G.; Andreatta, Matthew E.; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Danku, John; Salt, David E.; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have generally been used to detect individual loci contributing to the phenotypic diversity in a population by the effects of these loci on the trait mean. More rarely, loci have also been detected based on variance differences between genotypes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the possible genetic mechanisms leading to such variance signals. However, little is known about what causes these signals, or whether this genetic variance-heterogeneity reflects mechanisms of importance in natural populations. Previously, we identified a variance-heterogeneity GWA (vGWA) signal for leaf molybdenum concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, fine-mapping of this association reveals that the vGWA emerges from the effects of three independent genetic polymorphisms that all are in strong LD with the markers displaying the genetic variance-heterogeneity. By revealing the genetic architecture underlying this vGWA signal, we uncovered the molecular source of a significant amount of hidden additive genetic variation or “missing heritability”. Two of the three polymorphisms underlying the genetic variance-heterogeneity are promoter variants for Molybdate transporter 1 (MOT1), and the third a variant located ~25 kb downstream of this gene. A fourth independent association was also detected ~600 kb upstream of MOT1. Use of a T-DNA knockout allele highlights Copper Transporter 6; COPT6 (AT2G26975) as a strong candidate gene for this association. Our results show that an extended LD across a complex locus including multiple functional alleles can lead to a variance-heterogeneity between genotypes in natural populations. Further, they provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of ion homeostasis in A. thaliana, and empirically confirm that variance-heterogeneity based GWA methods are a valuable tool to detect novel associations of biological importance in natural populations. PMID:26599497

  12. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  13. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  14. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1997-07-01

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  15. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  18. Patterns of characterization in folktales across geographic regions and levels of cultural complexity : Literature as a neglected source of quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jonathan; Berkey, Rachel; Cawson, Mitchell; Drown, Carly; Fleischner, Matthew; Glotzbecker, Melissa; Kernan, Kimberly; Magnan, Tyler; Muse, Kate; Ogburn, Celeste; Patterson, Stephen; Skeels, Christopher; Joseph, Stephanie St; Weeks, Shawna; Welsh, Alison; Welch, Erin

    2003-12-01

    Literary scholars are generally suspicious of the concept of universals: there are presently no candidates for literary universals that a high proportion of literary scholars would accept as valid. This paper reports results from a content analysis of patterns of characterization in folktales from 48 culture areas, aimed at identifying patterns of characterization that apply across regions of the world and levels of cultural complexity. The search for these patterns was guided by evolutionary theory and the findings are consistent with previous research on patterns of altruism, sex differences in mate preferences, sex differences in reproductive strategy, and differing emphases on male and female physical attractiveness. World literature, especially originally oral literature, represents a vast and neglected repository of information that researchers can use to more precisely map the contours of human nature. PMID:26190271

  19. Nonpoint Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  20. Breeding Pierce’s disease resistant table and raisin grapes and the development of markers for additional sources of resistance 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two seedless x seedless crosses to develop additional BC2 and BC3 V. arizonica and BC1 SEUS BD5-117 families were made in 2008. Powdery mildew resistance was included in five of these crosses. These crosses produced 5,148 berries, 8,824 ovules and 1,861 embryos. Nine seeded BC1 crosses bas...

  1. Mapping the literature of health care chaplaincy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emily; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Tartaglia, Alexander; McDaniel, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined citation patterns and indexing coverage from 2008 to 2010 to determine (1) the core literature of health care chaplaincy and (2) the resources providing optimum coverage for the literature. Methods: Citations from three source journals (2008–2010 inclusive) were collected and analyzed according to the protocol created for the Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Professions Project. An analysis of indexing coverage by five databases was conducted. A secondary analysis of self-citations by source journals was also conducted. Results: The 3 source journals—Chaplaincy Today, the Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, and the Journal of Pastoral Care and Counseling—ranked as the top 3 journals in Zone 1 and provided the highest number of most frequently cited articles for health care chaplaincy. Additional journals that appeared in this highly productive zone covered the disciplines of medicine, psychology, nursing, and religion, which were also represented in the Zones 2 and 3 journals. None of the databases provided complete coverage for the core journals; however, MEDLINE provided the most comprehensive coverage for journals in Zones 1 and 2, followed by Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ATLA. Self-citations for the source journals ranged from 9% to 16%. Conclusions: Health care chaplaincy draws from a diverse body of inter-professional literature. Libraries wishing to provide access to journal literature to support health care chaplaincy at their institutions will be best able to do this by subscribing to databases and journals that cover medical, psychological, nursing, and religion- or spirituality-focused disciplines. PMID:23930090

  2. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  3. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

  4. Teacher Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Three articles are included in this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Form Is Not Enough: Thinking the Unthinkable about Teaching Literature," John Milstead recommends a reading program for high school English courses which emphasizes the quantity (rather than quality) of reading material according to individual student interest so…

  5. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  6. EFFECT OF VITAMIN C ADDITION TO GROUND BEEF FROM GRASS-FED OR GRAIN-FED SOURCES ON COLOR AND LIPID STABILITY, AND PREDICTION OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION BY NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of postmortem vitamin C addition (VITC) versus no VITC (CONTROL) to ground beef from grass-fed (GRASS) or grain-fed (GRAIN) sources on color and lipid stability during 8 d of illuminated display at 4°C. The use of near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectro...

  7. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  8. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  9. Music Literature for Band and Wind Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Derald

    1977-01-01

    Provides some music literature sources for band and wind ensembles. Since music literature is crucial to both musical groups and the music curriculum evolves from music, these references are most important. (RK)

  10. Decoupling of unpolluted temperate forests from rock nutrient sources revealed by natural 87Sr/86Sr and 84Sr tracer addition

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Martin J.; Hedin, Lars O.; Derry, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental tracer addition of 84Sr to an unpolluted temperate forest site in southern Chile, as well as the natural variation of 87Sr/86Sr within plants and soils, indicates that mechanisms in shallow soil organic horizons are of key importance for retaining and recycling atmospheric cation inputs at scales of decades or less. The dominant tree species Nothofagus nitida feeds nearly exclusively (>90%) on cations of atmospheric origin, despite strong variations in tree size and location in the forest landscape. Our results illustrate that (i) unpolluted temperate forests can become nutritionally decoupled from deeper weathering processes, virtually functioning as atmospherically fed ecosystems, and (ii) base cation turnover times are considerably more rapid than previously recognized in the plant available pool of soil. These results challenge the prevalent paradigm that plants largely feed on rock-derived cations and have important implications for understanding sensitivity of forests to air pollution. PMID:12119394

  11. Superconducting Properties of MgB2 with Addition of Other AlB2-type Diborides and Carbon Sources, Prepared Using High Energy Ball Milling and HIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Durval; Silva, Lucas B. S. da; Metzner, Vivian C. V.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    In the present work it is described the production of MgB2 samples by using the mixture of MgB2 with other diborides, (TaB2, VB2, and AlB2) which have the same C32 hexagonal structure as the MgB2, and simultaneous addition with the diborides and SiC, that contribute with C, to replace B in the crystalline structure of the matrix. As an important result, the critical current density (Jc) was improved at low magnetic fields when just the diborides are added. However, when SiC is added simultaneously with the diborides, the result is the improvement of Jc at high fields. The critical temperature (Tc) was maintained high.

  12. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. PMID:24665070

  13. CROSSFLOW FILTRATON: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Filtration task EM-31, WP-2.3.6, which is a joint effort between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), tests were planned to evaluate crossflow filtration in order to the improve the use of existing hardware in the waste treatment plants at both the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. These tests included experiments to try different operating conditions and additives, such as filter aids, in order to create a more permeable filter cake and improve the permeate flux. To plan the SRNL tests a literature review was performed to provide information on previous experiments performed by DOE laboratories, and by academia. This report compliments PNNL report (Daniel, et al 2010), and is an attempt to try and capture crossflow filtration work performed in the past that provide a basis for future testing. However, not all sources on crossflow filtration could be reviewed due to the shear volume of information available. In this report various references were examined and a representative group was chosen to present the major factors that affect crossflow filtration. The information summarized in this review contains previous operating conditions studied and their influence on the rate of filtration. Besides operating conditions, other attempted improvements include the use of filter aids, a pre-filtration leaching process, the backpulse system, and various types of filter tubes and filter coatings. The results from past research can be used as a starting point for further experimentation that can result in the improvement in the performance of the crossflow filtration. The literature reviewed in this report indicates how complex the crossflow issues are with the results of some studies appearing to conflict results from other studies. This complexity implies that filtration of mobilized stored waste cannot be explained in a simple generic sense; meaning an empirical

  14. Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

    2011-11-01

    Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively. PMID:21908187

  15. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Discovery of a Plains Caldera Complex and Extinct Lava Lake in Arabia Terra, Mars: Implications for the Discovery of Additional Highland Volcanic Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob; Michalski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped topographic depressions occur near the dichotomy boundary in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. The geomorphology of these features suggests that they formed by collapse, opposed to meteor impact. At least one depression (approx.55 by 85 km) displays geologic features indicating a complex, multi-stage collapse history. Features within and around the collapse structure indicate volcanic processes. The complex occurs within Hesperian ridged plains of likely volcanic origin and displays no crater rim or evidence for ejecta. Instead the depression consists of a series of circumferential graben and down-dropped blocks which also display upper surfaces similar to ridged plain lavas. Large blocks within the depression are tilted towards the crater center, and display graben that appear to have originally been linked with circumferential graben outside of the complex related to earlier collapse events. A nearly 700 m high mound exists along a graben within the complex that might be a vent. The deepest depression displays two sets of nearly continuous terraces, which we interpret as high-stands of a drained lava lake. These features appear similar to the black ledge described during the Kilauea Iki eruption in 1959. A lacustrine origin for the terraces seems unlikely because of the paucity of channels found in or around the depression that could be linked to aqueous surface processes. In addition, there is no obvious evidence for lacustrine sediments within the basin. Together with the presence of significant faulting that is indicative of collapse we conclude that this crater complex represents a large caldera formed in the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian. Other linear and irregular depressions in the region also might be linked to ancient volcanism. If that hypothesis is correct, it suggests that northern Arabia Terra could contain a large, previously unrecognized highland igneous province. Evacuation of magma via explosive and effusive activity

  17. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  18. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications. PMID:23656613

  19. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  20. Procurement of Literature Searching Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jonathan G.; McCann, Anne

    1979-01-01

    A project for the cyclic review of the safety of food additives initiated by the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Foods is outlined, and contractual arrangements and procedures for procuring the necessary literature searches are discussed. (CWM)

  1. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  2. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood. PMID:26481852

  3. Reconstructive remembering of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Vicente, K J; Brewer, W F

    1993-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of reconstructive memory in citation errors that occur in the scientific literature. We focus on the case of de Groot's (1946) studies of the memory for chess positions by chess experts. Previous work has shown that this research is very often cited incorrectly. In Experiment 1 we show that free recall of this work by research psychologists replicates most of the errors found in the published literature. Experiment 2 shows that undergraduates reading a correct account of the de Groot study also make the same set of errors in recall. We interpret these findings as showing that consistent errors in secondary accounts of experimental findings are frequently reconstructive memory errors due to source confusion and schema-based processes. Analysis of a number of other examples of scientific literature that have been frequently cited incorrectly add additional support to the reconstructive account. We conclude that scientists should be aware of the tendency of reconstructive memory errors to cause violations of the scientific norm of accurate reporting of the scientific literature. PMID:8432092

  4. Colonial American Literature: A Guide to Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the study of colonial American literature. The guide is intended to help readers find sources of criticism on colonial and revolutionary literature. It explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference…

  5. Safety signal detection: the relevance of literature review.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects. PMID:24895178

  6. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. PMID:26655791

  7. Talking Shop: On Literature and ELT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdowson, H. G.

    1983-01-01

    The value of literature as instructional material in English as a second language is related to the fact that to understand literature, not only the language system but also the contextual meaning must be understood. In addition, the fictional element of literature can add interest for students. (MSE)

  8. Engaged Music Learning through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppink, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Children's literature is a wonderful addition to the general music classroom. Stories and poems can be key strategic tools for teaching musical concepts and skills while leading students to further experience writing, vocabulary, and literature. Children's literature and music provide an opportunity to increase the love of music and reading within…

  9. Exposure to chemical additives from polyvinyl chloride polymer extrusion processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, C.S.

    1989-12-01

    The report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. Data on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was studied in the laboratory, process variables were estimated from an equipment manufacturer survey, and worker-activities and possible exposure sources were observed in an industrial survey. The purpose of the study was to develop a theoretical model to predict worker inhalation exposure to additives used during PVC extrusion processing. A model to estimate the generation rate of the additive from the polymer extrudate was derived from the mass transport equations governing diffusion. The mass flow rate, initial additive volatile weight fraction, off-gassing time, diffusivity, and slab thickness are required to determine the generation rate from the model.

  10. Screening of additives in plastics with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and different ionization sources: direct probe injection (DIP)-APCI, LC-APCI, and LC-ion booster ESI.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Jonkers, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Plastics are complex mixtures consisting of a polymer and additives with different physico-chemical properties. We developed a broad screening method to elucidate the nature of compounds present in plastics used in electrical/electronic equipment commonly found at homes (e.g., electrical adaptors, computer casings, heaters). The analysis was done by (a) solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high accuracy/resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with different ionization sources or (b) direct analysis of the solid by ambient mass spectrometry high accuracy/resolution TOFMS. The different ionization methods showed different selectivity and sensitivity for the different compound classes and were complementary. A variety of antioxidants, phthalates, UV filters, and flame retardants were found in most samples. Furthermore, some recently reported impurities or degradation products derived from flame retardants were identified, such as hydroxylated triphenyl phosphate and tetrabromobisphenol A monoglycidyl ether. PMID:26758596

  11. Assessing the Impact of Security Behavior on the Awareness of Open-Source Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of IT Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Daniel B., III

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of literature linking end-user behavior to the availability of open-source intelligence (OSINT). Most OSINT literature has been focused on the use and assessment of open-source intelligence, not the proliferation of personally or organizationally identifiable information (PII/OII). Additionally, information security studies have…

  12. Effect of protein source and protease addition on performance, blood metabolites and nutrient digestibility of turkeys fed on low-protein diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch.

    PubMed

    Shahir, M H; Rahimi, R; Taheri, H R; Heidariniya, A; Baradaran, N; Asadi Kermani, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a monocomponent protease and dietary inclusion of canola meal (CM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of turkeys fed on low crude protein (CP) diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch. Experimental treatments included control, maize-soybean meal diet including 258.3 g/kg CP; negative control 1 (NC1), maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg); NC2, control diet (CP, 258.3 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg); NC3, maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg). Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets were created by addition of protease enzyme (30 000 units/kg of diet) to the NC1 and NC3 diets, respectively. The NC3 group had lower body weight gain (BWG) compared to those fed on the control diet, and no improvement with enzyme addition (NC3 + P) was achieved. The protease addition to the NC1 diet (NC1 + P) improved BWG to the level of the control diet. The NC1 group had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control and NC3 + P, but protease addition to the NC1 diet improved FCR. Protease addition to the low CP diets resulted in higher nitrogen (N) retention than in the control and NC2 groups. Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP compared to the control group. It was concluded that addition of CM (up to 80 g/kg) and PBM (up to 80 g/kg) to turkey diets had no negative effect on growth performance from 28 to 55 d of age. The NC1 + P group achieved the BWG of the control group which was partially due to increases in N retention and AID of CP, but the NC3 + P group failed to recover the growth losses. This difference implies that the efficacy of the protease may depend upon the protein source in the ration. PMID:27074290

  13. The Literature of City Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rob

    The research literature on city magazines can be divided into five primary sources: books on magazines, popular magazines/journals and newspapers, business magazines, scholarly journals, and unpublished theses. "The New Yorker," founded in 1925 specifically for a sophisticated, metropolitan audience, is considered a precursor of the current glossy…

  14. Grey Literature and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  15. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals. PMID:26048505

  16. Environmental audits: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, P; Atkinson, S F

    1987-05-01

    This paper presents a literature review focused on predictive technique audits, one of the types of audit considered to have the greatest potential role in improving environmental impact assessment practice. The literature review is limited to US literature with the exception of a few UK audits, one undertaken by Tomlinson at the University of Aberdeen. The authors are, however, aware that literature from other countries exists on this subject, for example from Canada and South Africa.In the review, predictive technique audits performed for or by the US Bureau of Land Management, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Corps of Engineers, together with the Wisconsin Power Plant Impact Study are described. In addition, articles describing the auditing of models designed to predict environmental change are reviewed, before details of auditing activity in the UK are presented. PMID:24253996

  17. Using Literature in Reading English as Second/Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amer, Aly Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Literature has long been used as a source for reading materials in English as a first language (L1). In recent years, there has been a growing interest in utilizing literature in second language (L2) classrooms. The present article assumes that using literature in L2 reading can have the same effect as in L1. Integrating literature into L2…

  18. World Literature Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Robert J.

    The development of a curriculum for graduate-level education in world literature, a logical extension of comparative literature, poses many problems. Among these is the misinterpretation and misuse of the term "world literature," which should be defined as literature from all over the world that is taught by those who read it in the original…

  19. Fantasy in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, John

    This report discusses the opposition to fantasy, as well as the support for it, both as an activity of the mind and as literature, and concludes that fantasy literature is useful in promoting language development and literature appreciation. The report then discusses characteristics of fantasy literature, lists works suitable for class use, and…

  20. Literature Circles: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Literature Circles are a great way to supplement a reading program in a literature-based classroom. In this lesson plan, students create and answer comprehension questions, discover new vocabulary, and examine elements of literature. The students feel ownership in Literature Circles, because they are responsible for the meeting. Any genre of…

  1. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  2. Stepfamily Strengths: A Review of Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed popular literature (self-help books, magazines, adolescent fiction) that identified stepfamily strengths. Potential strengths of stepfamily life were identified in all three sources. The primary focus of self-help literature and magazine articles, however, was on stepfamily problems. Concludes that adolescent fiction may be used to good…

  3. Truth & Beauty: Mathematics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Today there are many categories of mathematics literature, including fiction and poetry. Mathematics fiction appears in such anthologies as "Fantasia Mathematica" (Fadiman 1958, 1997) and "The Mathematical Magpie" (Fadiman 1962, 1997). In addition, mathematics fiction is featured at http://kasmana.people.cofc.edu/MATHFICT.…

  4. Exploring Algebraic Patterns through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Richard A.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods for using literature to develop algebraic thinking in an environment that connects algebra to various situations. Activities are based on the book "Anno's Magic Seeds" with additional resources listed. Students express a constant function, exponential function, and a recursive function in their own words as well as writing about…

  5. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  6. Mapping the literature of occupational therapy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study updated Reed's 1999 “Mapping the Literature of Occupational Therapy.” An analysis of citation patterns and indexing coverage was undertaken to identify the core literature of occupational therapy and to determine access to that literature. Methods: Citations from three source journals for the years 2006 through 2008 were studied following the common methodology of the “Mapping the Literature of Allied Health Project.” Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to analyze the productivity of cited journals. A comparative analysis of indexing was conducted across three bibliographic databases. Results: A total of 364 articles cited 10,425 references. Journals were the most frequently cited format, accounting for 65.3% of the references, an increase of 4.1% over the 1999 study. Approximately one-third of the journal references cited a cluster of 9 journals, with the American Journal of Occupational Therapy dominating the field. An additional 120 journals were identified as moderately important based on times cited. CINAHL provided the most comprehensive indexing of core journals, while MEDLINE provided the best overall coverage. Conclusions: Occupational therapy is a multidisciplinary field with a strong core identity and an increasingly diverse literature. Indexing has improved overall since 1999, but gaps in the coverage are still evident. PMID:20648258

  7. Literature or Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or experience-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's experience of language. (RL)

  8. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Material and methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed. Results In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described. Conclusions The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression PMID:24421998

  9. Writing from Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to writing for junior high through college writing and literature classes is presented in this brief article. AUTHOR'S COMMENT (excerpt): Writing from literature, instead of only about literature, can provide creative approaches to the study of literary works. The activities listed can be done in conjunction with the study of a single…

  10. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  11. What's Your Literature Quotient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouzts, Dan T.

    Because a teacher who demonstrates a love of literature and reading is a valuable model for children, a study determined the knowledge of children's and adolescent literature of students enrolled in a graduate reading methods course. A questionnaire entitled "What's Your Literature Quotient?" was administered to 72 teachers concerning knowledge of…

  12. Living with Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The 32 articles in this special journal issue are intended to familiarize teachers with recent, good young adult literature and to provide them with ways of integrating it into the literature curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include: (1) the changing hero in young adult literature, (2) book clubs, (3) the place of young adult fiction…

  13. Focus on World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the "Indiana English Journal" contains four articles: "Value Clarification through World Literature" by R. Baird Shuman; "Polynesian Literature: Coming to Life in the Classroom" (with bibliography) by Barbara M. Elkington and Ruth P. Smith; "The Deirdre Legend in Three Irish Plays" by Ronald L. Baker; and "Teaching Asian Literature"…

  14. Literature Circles. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Hui

    The use of literature circles has been discussed in a variety of academic journals, conference papers, and workshops. Teachers at all grade levels use literature circles as a vehicle through which students learn to: think critically about literature; express their thoughts in oral and written forms; and better enjoy their literacy experiences.…

  15. The "New" Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth L.

    1970-01-01

    The "new" teaching of literature which is enjoyable and relevant to the lives of students, and which reflects the excitement of the teacher, should (1) make less use of anthologies, more use of paperbacks; (2) involve less common reading, more individualized reading; (3) use less adult literature, more good adolescent literature; (4) consist of…

  16. Psychology and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  17. Children's Literature and the Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    A quality children's literature program needs to be correlated with ongoing science lessons and units of study. It can enhance and enrich the science curriculum. Pupils tend to enjoy reading library books and the the literature may assist pupils to explore topics in greater depth. In addition to science experiments, demonstrations, and…

  18. Syllabus for Use in Russian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernonok, Jevgenij

    This syllabus outlines a two semester course to accompany the basic textbook: THE EPIC OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE by Marc Slonim. An introduction to the guide gives a brief summary of the history of Russian literature and objectives of the course are stated, defining concepts and understandings to be developed. In addition, teaching techniques are…

  19. Enhancing Musical Response with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Phyllis M.

    2004-01-01

    There has been increased interest during the past decade in combining music and children's literature in the elementary school. In addition to the apparent cognitive benefits, the current school climate has encouraged cross-curricular interactions, and many music specialists and classroom teachers see the music-literature connection as an…

  20. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc. PMID:15982956

  2. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E., Jr.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  3. Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop: Improving Access to Foreign Gray Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop was the acquisition of and access to foreign (non-U.S.) gray literature. Individual presentations addressed general topics related to the value and scope of gray literature, specialized and foreign gray-literature sources, intellectual property issues, and U.S. Federal Agency activities. Additional topics focused on electronic access and evaluation techniques and the current and potential uses of networking technology. The workshop papers are presented in their entirety or in abstract or outline form. Appendices include a listing of databases that include foreign gray literature, a bibliography, and a report on U.S.-Japan cooperation in the use of scientific and technical information.

  4. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  5. Changing Patterns of Limnology Literature, 1966-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milby, T. H.

    Literature citations were analyzed to identify periodical literature used in the field of limnology. Journals published in four different countries during 1976 were selected as source journals of cited literature. The results of this analysis were compared to those of a similar study conducted in 1968 using conference proceedings as source…

  6. Systematic literature review of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management

    PubMed Central

    Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Reierth, Eirik; Wisborg, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify and describe the content of templates for reporting prehospital major incident medical management. Design Systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines. Data sources PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Grey literature was also searched. Eligibility criteria for selected studies Templates published after 1 January 1990 and up to 19 March 2012. Non-English language literature, except Scandinavian; literature without an available abstract; and literature reporting only psychological aspects were excluded. Results The main database search identified 8497 articles, among which 8389 were excluded based on title and abstract. An additional 96 were excluded based on the full-text. The remaining 12 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 107 articles were identified in the grey literature and excluded. The reference lists for the included articles identified five additional articles. A relevant article published after completing the search was also included. In the 18 articles included in the study, 10 different templates or sets of data are described: 2 methodologies for assessing major incident responses, 3 templates intended for reporting from exercises, 2 guidelines for reporting in medical journals, 2 analyses of previous disasters and 1 Utstein-style template. Conclusions More than one template exists for generating reports. The limitations of the existing templates involve internal and external validity, and none of them have been tested for feasibility in real-life incidents. Trial registration The review is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42012002051). PMID:23906946

  7. Reference Resources in German Literature: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Helga

    This guide is a selection of important reference sources for research in German literature. All major bibliographies and other German reference works, covering the earliest to the most recent literature are included. Important German reference works listing international materials are also included. With the exception of translation sources, the…

  8. LITERATURE SPARKS COMPOSITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANDLEBAUM, NAOMI

    LITERATURE, BEING READILY AVAILABLE AS PART OF THE CURRICULUM, IS A VALUABLE TOOL FOR INSTRUCTING STUDENTS IN COMPOSITION. THE USE OF LITERATURE CAN STIMULATE DISCUSSIONS AND EFFECTIVE WRITING AMONG STUDENTS OF VARIOUS GRADE AND ABILITY LEVELS. INTEREST IS GENERATED BY KEEPING THE CLASSWORK RELEVANT TO THE LIVES OF THE STUDENTS, AND THINKING IS…

  9. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  10. Teaching Literature to Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard W.; Appleman, Deborah; Hynds, Susan; Wilhelm, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This text for pre-service and in-service English education courses presents current methods of teaching literature to middle and high school students. The methods are based on social constructivist/socio-cultural theories of literacy learning, and incorporate research on literary response conducted by the authors. "Teaching Literature to…

  11. Black Literature? Of Course!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Donna

    1969-01-01

    The inclusion of Afro-American literature in high schools either as an elective course or as a unit within an American literature course provides opportunities for Black students to gain, from members of their own race, pride in themselves and belief in the possibility of personal achievement. Title selection should depend upon class make-up. For…

  12. Literature and Its Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" focuses on "Literature and Its Teaching." The 15 major articles are: "Response to Literature" (Robert C. Small and Ruth Fisher); "The Power of a Good Book" (Gayle Sterrett); "Some Plain Truths about Teaching English" (Coalition of English Associations); "Introducing High School Students to…

  13. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  14. History of Vietnamese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong Quang Ham

    This is the first of a two-volume textbook, covering the official program of the Ministry of Education, of the secondary curriculum for the history of Vietnamese literature. It is divided into three main sections. The first section "First Year of the Secondary Cycle (Grade 11)" deals with (1) popular literature; (2) the influence of China, (3)…

  15. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and Autobiography. By…

  16. Language Teaching through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uemichi, Isao S.

    Language teaching through literature is based on the principle that literary works of art can give students intellectual pleasure. It should be revived in English language teaching in Japan because (1) it has the power to motivate students to learn a language they might not learn otherwise, (2) literature is readily available and applicable to a…

  17. Elementary Science Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Brenda; MacDonald, Dougal; d'Entremont, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a literature review of elementary science and design technology education research. The review is intended to provide direction to the elementary science working groups charged with the responsibility to revise the "Alberta Elementary Science Program" (1996) by reflecting current ideas reported in research literature. The…

  18. Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  19. Rethinking American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Lil, Ed.; Greene, Brenda M., Ed.

    This volume, the fourth in a series, brings together the conversations of the profession that were explored during the 1993 and 1994 Summer Institute for Teachers of Literature. This anthology of essays considers what "American literature" is and how definitions of this category affect teaching practices. The essays argue for the recovery of often…

  20. Guilt in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lurene

    In this paper, guilt in literature is considered within the following four categories: private guilt, shared guilt, implied guilt, and public guilt. Among characters in literature that suffer from guilt as a private matter are Arthur Dimmesdale in "The Scarlet Letter," Pip in "Great Expectations," Edna in "The Awakening," and K. in "The Trial."…

  1. Miscellany South Asian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Carlo, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This volume contains articles about South Asian literature and poetry by G.M. Muktibodh, P. Naik, S. Chattopadhyay, M. Kureishi, and P.S. Rege. The articles and authors are: "The Hindi 'Riti' Tradition and the "Rasakapriya' of Keshavadasa: An Introductory Review" by K.C. Bahl; "Tradition and Modernity in Literature" by M.R. Anand; "The Novelist as…

  2. Defining a Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    As scholars and their audiences pursue standards of evidence, standards for literature reviews have also become salient. Many authors advocate "systematic" reviews and articulate standards for these. This article compares the bodies of literature derived from systematic and other types of review, which the author labels conceptual, and examines…

  3. Authentic Writing & Literature Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus in Change, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Reflecting some of the emerging issues sustaining debate in secondary school literature instruction and writing instruction, this newsletter presents articles that discuss the impact of E. D. Hirsch's book "Cultural Literacy,""authentic discourse," and collaborative classroom research. Articles in the newsletter are: "Rethinking Literature" (Anne…

  4. The Bible as Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvallis Senior High School, OR.

    This 9-week course outline (a weekly list of readings) is designed to acquaint students with the chief stories, characters, events, and passages from the Bible which are commonly referred to, alluded to, or used as themes, symbols, or motifs in Western literature. Using "The Bible, Selections from the King James Version for Study as Literature" as…

  5. Literature: Released Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    This volume contains 1970-71 Literature assessment exercises (all in the public domain) which have been selected for release at this time by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Information furnished for each exercise includes: the literature objective it was designed to measure, the theme (section) in which it appears, relevant…

  6. The Enjoyment of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelpi, Elsa

    The enjoyment of literature, as well as that of any other human endeavor, requires readiness. The literature teacher has two responsibilities--to discover the student's previous literary experiences, and to be thoroughly familiar with the problems involved in the development of literary appreciation in a second language. Assuming that the reader…

  7. Fuel cell applications literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochumson, D. H.; Altseimer, J. H.; Williamson, K. D., Jr.; Frank, J. A.; Peaslee, A. T.; Martinez, A. J.; Stroup, C. A.

    1985-03-01

    The fuel cell applications literature is reviewed and evaluated. The purpose is to identify those applications that show promise. Over 40 computerized data bases were queried, and over 4000 abstracts were screened, resulting in the selection of over 600 pertinent documents that were entered into a fuel cell applications computerized data base. These documents were reviewed and evaluated. Fuel cells will need to be manufactured at low cost in order to compete against internal combustion engines for land transportation applications. Further study is recommended to evaluate fuel cell use in both fixed applications (industrial, institutional, and military) and mobile applications (marine, aircraft, space, and military land transportation). In addition to the recommendations of this report, a computerized data base of literature covering fuel cell uses and applications has been established and is available for use.

  8. A New Look at Literature Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith

    The teaching of literature is not well understood in American schools, nor has there been any major change in conceptualizing secondary school literature instruction in the past 25 years. In addition, study of how students come to understand literature parallel to the study of the writing process is almost nonexistent. For the past few years,…

  9. Why Literature Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents 10 specific reasons in response to a student's question "Why should we read literature?" Answers the question from 10 angles: escape, empathy, mirror, time machine, cultural heritage, language, art, "lifesaver,""reading of life," and fear of change. (NH)

  10. Sexism in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Wilma J.

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature and school texts have reflected society's relegation of women to inferior, passive roles; while there is now an awareness that stereotypes and sexist terms should be eliminated, there is the danger that overreaction will diminish literary quality. (JD)

  11. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  13. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  14. Medical literature search dot com.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vivek; Raut, Deepak K

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides a quick access to a plethora of the medical literature, in the form of journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualized, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Commercial web resources (Medscape, MedConnect, MedicineNet) add to the list of resource databases providing some of their content for open access. Several web-libraries (Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. Availability of specific dermatology-related websites (DermIs, DermNet, and Genamics Jornalseek) is useful addition to the ever growing list of web-based resources. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature and levels of detail available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. PMID:21393941

  15. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    PubMed

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine. PMID:18626173

  16. Current Literature in Family Planning, Number 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…

  17. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  18. Providing a Background for British Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Diana Macintyre

    One consequence of teaching British literature far away from British shores is the loss of intimacy that comes from a shared culture. American teachers can help bring Britain into their classrooms by requesting audiovisual aids from the various museums and galleries in Britain that are willing to supply material. Among such sources are (1) Walton…

  19. Computer Literature Bibliography 1946 to 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youden, W.W.

    Over 6,100 references are contained in this bibliography of computer literature published from 1946 to 1963. The full title and all of the authors of every article published in 9 journals, 21 books, and over 100 proceedings are included. No articles from other sources are included. The books selected are those that have chapters by individual…

  20. Stereotyping of Native People in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Canadian Indians have long been represented by stereotypes presented by non-native writers. Only recently have Indians begun to create their own literature and re-examine historic sources of native speech and tales. This paper traces early European views of the bloodthirsty native and the noble savage, but contrasts them with recorded comments of…

  1. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  2. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  3. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  4. Leadership in literature.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Business students nowadays are not, for the most part, poets. A growing proportion come to business school with a background in investment banking or management consulting and an undergraduate business major, rather than a degree in the arts and sciences. MBA students are already very familiar with business. A number of scholars and businesspeople have begun to question the scientific model that dominates business research and teaching. Formalized management tools work well enough if you're studying techniques for financial valuation, but less so when you're studying leadership and organizational behavior. Some argue that students could learn a lot more about these subjects if they took a course in literature. Examples from fiction can be as instructive as any business textbook. HBR senior editor Diane Coutu recently met with Joseph Badaracco, Jr., for a wide-ranging discussion of what leaders can learn from literature. For the past decade, Badaracco, the John Shad Professor of Business Ethics at Harvard Business School, has used classical literature to provide well-rounded, complex pictures of leaders in all walks of life-particularly leaders whose psychological and emotional challenges parallel those of senior executives. Fiction provides some of the most powerful and engaging case studies ever written. Unlike contemporary management literature, which is relentlessly upbeat, classical literature is unsparingly realist. Leaders often struggle and sometimes fail-and the stakes are high. When business leaders read about the conflicts of literary characters, they can better understand their own circumstances. We pay far too little attention to the inner lives of leaders. Business school courses seem to suggest that you can treat executives like lab animals and control their behavior through their environment. But behaviorism is not enough. Literature suggests that leaders should learn more about themselves if they want to succeed. PMID:16515156

  5. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  6. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  7. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  8. Homework. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Although homework is assigned for a variety of academic and non-academic purposes, there is disagreement within the educational community about the value of homework and the amount of homework students should be assigned. This Literature Review summarizes the benefits and drawbacks of homework and examines how much time students should and…

  9. Let Strategies Serve Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2011-01-01

    When the teaching of strategies for understanding literature crowds out a close reading of literary works themselves, something is amiss in language arts instruction, and students lose out. This has become the case in too many elementary and even secondary classrooms today, Senechal believes. Using a strategy-based lesson proposed by Stephanie…

  10. Regionalist Art and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue highlights a style of U.S. art and literature generally referred to as regionalism and focuses on Iowa's historical role in its development. Compiled to encourage student understanding about how people lived in the Midwest during the 1920s and 1930s, the depression years are featured through presentations; the study of the…

  11. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  12. Academics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    2004-01-01

    Academic literature has magnitude when it presents a character so robust that he or she takes off from the page and lands to nest in ordinary parlance. Three contrasting examples described in this article are: (1) "Moo," by Jane Smiley; (2) "The Human Stain," by Philip Roth; and (3) "The Crazed," by Ha Jin. Significantly, all three of these…

  13. Physics in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Physics offers a cross-discipline perspective to understanding other subjects. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of physics in literature that physics and astronomy teachers can use to give students an indication of the relevance of science as depicted in the humanities. It is not possible to cite the thousands of examples…

  14. Language & Literature. Curriculum Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    The global education curriculum presented in this booklet is offered as a model, of integrated, interdisciplinary English studies, that involves participants in cultural, scientific, ecological, and economic issues while promoting student awareness of the nature and development of world literature, languages, the arts, and their…

  15. Literature: Summary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford G.

    This section of the 1970-1971 National Assessment of Educational Progress presents summary data for the responses to literature assessment. Data is presented in graph and tabular form and discussed in detail for the educational attainments of nine year olds, thirteen year olds, seventeen year olds, and adults (ages 26-35). The data is also…

  16. Ethics, Literature, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buganza, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author makes attempts to demonstrate that, from the educational standpoint, the relationship between philosophy and literature cannot be overlooked. Even the most remote cultures testify their transmission of moral teaching through literary accounts. In this sense, the author promotes this methodology hence argues that the…

  17. Literature: External Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by understanding its recurring external forms or genres, and includes (1) an overview describing the four literary genres of drama, narrative poetry, narrative fiction, and lyric poetry…

  18. Moving to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Connie

    2002-01-01

    Draws on current research to advocate the importance of children's need for physical activity and the benefits of teaming literature with movement and dramatic play. Focuses on: (1) brain research on movement; (2) poems and stories that highlight movement; and (3) movement and imagination. Contains 22 references and lists 39 children's books. (SD)

  19. Literature of Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, John M.

    This paper provides a brief description of the literature of Southeast Asia. This area, which embraces the region south of China and east of India, includes the modern nations of Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, The Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest historical influence came from India around the beginnings of the…

  20. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  1. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  2. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  3. Elective: African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kenneth V.

    The make-up of a course in African literature for high school students is discussed. It is pointed out that the course can be constructed on already familiar lines. High school students will be able to describe clearly, for example, the relationship between environment and character or the dilemma of characters caught between traditional values…

  4. African Literature as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  5. Christian Leadership Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Connie Chuen Ying

    2007-01-01

    Background: Christian leadership is distinctively different from other major leadership conceptions such as instructional, transactional, and transformational leadership conceptions. With few studies found, the author had to consult the Bible and also non-school Christian literature instead, focusing on Hong Kong principal leadership in Protestant…

  6. The Tension Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, A. B.

    This is a bibliography of literature on the subject of tension. Books, films, and periodicals with a bearing on stress, relaxation, anxiety, and/or methods of controlling stress are listed from the fields of physiology, psychology, and philosophy. New methods such as transcendental meditation and biofeedback are analyzed briefly and criteria are…

  7. Patterns in American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abair, Jacqueline M.; Cross, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school elective English course that matches books of American Literature, at least one classic and one contemporary, so that students can begin to see the patterns. Discusses some of these pairings, such as Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" with Toni Morrison's "Beloved" and B. Mukherjee's "The Holder of the World." (SR)

  8. Teaching Literature as Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Bruce K.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests an approach to literature (derived from post-structuralism and deconstructionism) which goes beyond the concept of "teacher as authority," without totally abandoning form or structure. Demonstrates this approach in a discussion of Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" and Philip Larkin's poem "High Windows." (MM)

  9. The Literature Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Reading, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents: the 1996/97 Texas Bluebonnet Award Master List of 19 children's books; a short essay about what she writes and why she writes it by Texas author Angela Shelf Medearis; an essay introducing Arte Publico Press in Houston, a publisher of contemporary and recovered literature by United States Hispanic authors; and the 1996/97 Texas Lone Star…

  10. Literature Circles Go Digital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen; Faughnan, Michelle; Ham, Susan; Miller, Melissa; Armstrong, Traci; Crandall, Cassandra; Garrison, Julia; Marrone, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a literature circle of seven pre-service teacher education students who read "Al Capone Shines My Shoes" (G. Choldenko, 2009). Students used the Internet to complete their roles, shared what they learned as they discussed the book, and then wrote about the digital experience. Four themes emerged from an analysis of…

  11. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  12. The Relevance of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  13. Philosophy as Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jim

    2008-01-01

    How best to introduce philosophical ideas? Is the best and only way by studying the history of philosophy and its rational arguments and discussions? But can literature, usually hived off from philosophy, be used instead and can this be as effective as rational argument? This paper explores these questions. First it considers a text which…

  14. Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    An examination of literature in translation is vital to literary interpretation and, ultimately, essential to mutual understanding among peoples from different cultures. Teaching translations requires consideration of linguistic, social, and temporal areas. Translations require alterations in language since languages never translate precisely from…

  15. Highlights of American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Carl

    Intended for high-intermediate/advanced level students of English as a foreign language, this book contains selections from the wide range of American literature, from its beginnings to the modern period. Each section begins with a general introduction to the literary period, and then presents essays about individual authors, selections from the…

  16. Literature and Creative Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    Films, records, and literature and technique books helpful in encouraging creativity and composition writing are listed and described under the following headings: Books on forms of poetry (4 items); Creative dramatics and puppetry (9); Masks and mask making (9); Oriental forms of poetry--Haiku (9), Tanka (2), and other Oriental verse patterns…

  17. Literature on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A teacher in the English education program at Buffalo State College describes her development of Web-based literature guides for preservice teachers to use in preparation and student teaching and for secondary-level English/language arts teachers to use in their classrooms. Discusses assembling materials for the web guide; an overview of site…

  18. The Chemical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course designed to acquaint students with making a search of chemical literature. The course presents various classes of chemical publication and the methods of using Beilstein and Chemical Abstracts. A follow-up project involves each student in a search for references for one or two organic compounds. (GS)

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus oral Chinese patent medicine literature metrology analysis].

    PubMed

    Cui, Tong-hua; Li, Yuan-yuan

    2012-09-01

    The CBM, CNKI database 1979-2012 included oral Chinese patent medicine treatment diabetes literature, and the literature published time, periodical distribution, sources of literature and statistical analysis, to explore the treatment of type 2 diabetes medicine clinical literature distribution law and development trend, as in diabetes research related to the clinical and scientific research personnel to provide reference. PMID:23236770

  2. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  3. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  4. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  5. Theory of Literature. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellek, Rene; Warren, Austin

    Methods of studying literature are defined and described. A section on definitions and distinctions investigates literature and literary study; the nature and function of literature; literary theory, criticism, and history; and general, comparative, and national literature. The ordering and establishing of evidence is described. The bulk of the…

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  8. HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

  9. Important Literature in Endocrinology: Citation Analysis and Historial Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study comparing two approaches to the identification of important literature in endocrinology reveals that association between ranking of cited items using the two methods is not statistically significant and use of citation or historical analysis alone will not result in same set of literature. Forty-two sources are appended. (EJS)

  10. Latin American Literature in Spanish: Notes for the Novice Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Directed at the novice selector of Latin American literature in Spanish, this article suggests a strategy and tools for collecting these titles. Sources consulted for selecting this literature; book dealers, vendors, and publishers with a strong literary focus, and useful World Wide Web sites are appended. (AEF)

  11. Role of Social Software Tools in Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of literature on the role of Web 2.0 or social software tools in education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a critical and comprehensive review of a range of literature sources (until January 2009) addressing the various issues related to the educator's perspective of pedagogical…

  12. Computer Literature Bibliography; Volume 2, 1964 - 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youden, W.W.

    In this second volume of a two-volume bibliography of computer literature approximately 5,200 references from 1964 to 1967 are listed. The full title and the names of all the authors of articles published in 17 journals, 20 books, and 43 conference proceedings are given. In addition, references to all items that were reviewed in the Institute of…

  13. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  14. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  15. 40 CFR 412.37 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.37 Section 412.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dairy Cows and Cattle Other Than Veal Calves § 412.37 Additional...

  16. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  17. Unit commitment literature synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Sheble, G.B. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Fahd, G.N. )

    1994-02-01

    Several optimization techniques have been applied to the solution of the thermal unit commitment problem. They range from heuristics such as complete enumeration to the more sophisticated ones such as Augmented LaGrangian. The heuristics have even reappeared as expert systems. The problem to solve is the optimal scheduling of generating units over a short-term horizon, typically 168 hours. This paper is an overview of the literature in the unit commitment field over the past twenty five years.

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Feelings in Literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article it is argued that feelings are all important to the function of literature. In contradiction to music that is concerned with the inwardness of humankind, literature has, because of language, the capacity to create fictional worlds that in many respects are similar to and related to the life world within which we live. One of the most important reasons for our emotional engagement in literature is our empathy with others and our constant imagining and hypothesizing on possible developments in our interactions with them. Hence, we understand and engage ourselves in fictional worlds. It is further claimed and exemplified, how poetic texts are very good at rhetorically engage and manipulate our feelings. Finally, with reference to the important work of Ellen Dissanayake, it is pointed out that the first kind of communication in which we engage, that between mother and infant, is a kind of speech that positively engages the infant in a dialogue with the mother by means of poetic devices. PMID:20162383

  20. Perspective of Postpartum Depression Theories: A Narrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Zarghami, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians' choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories. PMID:27500126

  1. Perspective of Postpartum Depression Theories: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Zarghami, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians’ choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories. PMID:27500126

  2. Imagens de Leitura na Literatura de Cordel (Images of Reading in "Cordel" Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, Luli

    1997-01-01

    Shows, in "Cordel" literature (a popular manifestation found in northeastern Brazil) an expressive source for the analysis of popular culture in Brazil. Uses this literature to discuss images of reading. (PA)

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  5. Polymer Literature for Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshenbaum, Gerald S.

    1987-01-01

    Lists eight sources of technical information suitable for classroom use which deal with polymer materials. Provides the names and addresses of these societies and associations and describes the type of information each has available. (TW)

  6. The Literature of Dance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownmiller, Sara N.; Dickinson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of information sources on dance includes bibliographies, dictionaries and encyclopedias, ballet plot summaries, journals, historical works, reviews, directories, and indexes and abstracts. A directory of professional dance associations is provided. (CLB)

  7. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  8. Historical Dictionary of Children's Literature. Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Emer

    2010-01-01

    Children's literature comes from a number of different sources--folklore (folk- and fairy tales), books originally for adults and subsequently adapted for children, and material authored specifically for them--and its audience ranges from infants through middle graders to young adults (readers from about 12 to 18 years old). Its forms include…

  9. Selective Guide to Literature on Agricultural Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Gayla Staples, Comp.

    Agricultural engineering overlaps many other disciplines. This document is a survey of information sources in agricultural engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians to find information about the discipline. Sections include: (1) "Guides to the Literature"; (2) "Bibliographies"; (3)…

  10. 17 CFR 38.1201 - Additional sources for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contract design meets the risk management needs of prospective users and promotes price discovery of the.../or price discovery functions. A designated contract market should provide a statement indicating that... submitted for the most recent three full calendar years and for as many of the current year's months...

  11. TLSpy: An Open-Source Addition to Terrestrial Lidar Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, J. D.; Weissmann, G. S.; Wawrzyniec, T. F.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial lidar scanners (TLS) that capture three dimensional (3D) geometry with cm scale precision present many new opportunities in the Earth Sciences and related fields. However, the lack of domain specific tools impedes full and efficient utilization of the information contained in these datasets. Most processing and analysis is performed using a variety of manufacturing, surveying, airborne lidar, and GIS software. Although much overlap exists, inevitably some needs are not addressed by these applications. TLSpy provides a plugin driven framework with 3D visualization capabilities that encourages researchers to fill these gaps. The goal is to free researchers from the intellectual overhead imposed by user and data interface design, enabling rapid development of TLS specific processing and analysis algorithms. We present two plugins as examples of problems that TLSpy is being applied to. The first plugin corrects for the strong influence of target orientation on TLS measured reflectance intensities. It calculates the distribution of incidence angles and intensities in an input scan and assists the user in fitting a reflectance model to the distribution. The model is then used to normalize input intensities, minimizing the impact of surface orientation and simplifying the extraction of quantitative data from reflectance measurements. Although reasonable default models can be determined the large number of factors influencing reflectance values require that the plugin be designed for maximum flexibility, allowing the user to adjust all model parameters and define new reflectance models as needed. The second plugin helps eliminate multipath reflections from water surfaces. Characterized by a lower intensity mirror image of the subaerial bank appearing below the water surface, these reflections are a common problem in scans containing water. These erroneous reflections can be removed by manually selecting points that lie on the waterline, fitting a plane to the points, and deleting points below that plane. This plugin simplifies the process by automatically identifying waterline points using characteristic changes in geometry and intensity. Automatic identification is often faster and more reliable than manual identification, however, manual control is retained as a fallback for degenerate cases.

  12. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  13. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  14. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  15. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  16. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  17. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  19. Pharmaceutical published literature databases: a survey.

    PubMed

    Hull, P

    1996-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies often maintain a bibliographic database of published articles on their products. Although such databases share the common purpose of providing the company with a centralized source of published information, the databases themselves vary in scope, uses, and technologies. In order to explore the current status of these databases, a survey was conducted in early 1995. This article provides an overview of pharmaceutical product literature databases and the results from that survey. PMID:10157847

  20. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  1. Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…

  2. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  3. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  4. Mapping the literature of hospital pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Ann; Helwig, Melissa; Neves, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study describes the literature of hospital pharmacy and identifies the journals most commonly cited by authors in the field, the publication types most frequently cited, the age of citations, and the indexing access to core journals. The study also looks at differing citation practices between journals with a wide audience compared to a national journal with a focus on regional issues and trends in the field. Method Cited references from five discipline-specific source journals were collected and analyzed for publication type and age. Two sets were created for comparison. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to both sets to determine the most frequently cited journals. Results Three-quarters of all cited items were published within the last 10 years (71%), and journal articles were the most heavily cited publication type (n=65,760, 87%). Citation analysis revealed 26 journal titles in Zone 1, 177 journal titles in Zone 2, and the remaining were scattered across 3,886 titles. Analysis of a national journal revealed Zone 1 comprised 9 titles. Comparison of the 2 sets revealed that Zone 1 titles overlapped, with the exception of 2 titles that were geographically focused in the national title. Conclusion Hospital pharmacy literature draws heavily from its own discipline-specific sources but equally from core general and specialty medical journals. Indexing of cited journals is complete in PubMed and EMBASE but lacking in International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Gray literature is a significant information source in the field. PMID:27076798

  5. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence, Micro-X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and Micro-X-Ray Diffraction Investigation of Lead Speciation after the Addition of Different Phosphorus Amendments to a Smelter-Contaminated Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stabilization of Pb on additions of P to contaminated soils and mine spoil materials has been well documented. It is clear from the literature that different P sources result in different efficacies of Pb stabilization in the same contaminated material. We hypothesized that...

  6. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  7. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  8. Response of hydrology to underground coal mine subsidence: Literature assessment and annotated bibliography. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.; Fejes, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This U.S. Bureau of Mines publication is intended to provide mining industry representatives and regulatory authorities with a reference package dealing with hydrology and underground mine subsidence related studies. An annotated bibliography and a list of additional sources are given and represent references published prior to June 1993. Ninety-seven references were identified and 75 obtained for assessment. Annotating the references included evaluating the study methodology and summarizing the basic results. Table 1 compiles the references based on geographic location and will aid the user in identifying articles of particular interest. Appendix A is an annotated bibliography of the literature listed in Table 1, and Appendix B is a listing of additional sources on the subject.

  9. Today's Students Need World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casement, William

    1988-01-01

    The most appropriate literature for study in general education is world literature from antiquity to the present, not limited to English-language works but expanded to include translated readings concerning basic moral and political issues. (MSE)

  10. Skills Training in Literature Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jie, Zou

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies some problems Chinese universities have when they offer English literature as a compulsory course to advanced level English majors. One constructive approach is discussed, and some suggestions on improving literature teaching are put forward.

  11. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  12. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  13. Strength of zirconia fixed partial dentures: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; CAPPELLO, A.; OTTRIA, L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The aim of this study is a systematic review of the literature on the strength and long-term behavior of zirconia FPDs. Methods The literature search was performed using as the primary source the Medline database. Were also imposed a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to narrow the search to differentiate the two distinct parts in which it was structured the review. In addition, MeSH terms were applied to further refine the choice of articles more relevant to the review. In the part of the review concerning the long-term behavior of zirconia fixed partial dentures were considered useful only those studies with a minimum follow-up of one year. Results The search provided a total of 813 articles, but only 25 were considered for the review because they were the only ones who satisfied search criteria. In particular, 13 items relate to the mechanical strength of zirconia prostheses and 12 regarding the long term behavior of zirconia FPDs. The resistance values also exceed the 2000 N while the survival rate reaches to almost 94%. Conclusions Based on this review, Zirconia FPDs can be considered reliable products in both the anterior and posterior fields with survival rates comparable to traditional metal-ceramic prostheses. PMID:23285392

  14. The Relevance of Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Geraldine E.

    1969-01-01

    Although summer writer's conferences have added adolescent literature to their programs and many professional educators have recommended a required course in adolescent literature for all high school English teachers, adolescent literature is still neglected, especially by English teachers. All students at some time in their literary growth enjoy…

  15. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  16. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  19. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  20. Building Arab Americans' Cultural Identity and Acceptance with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…

  1. Lysimeter literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Many reports have been published concerning the use of lysimeters to obtain data on the performance of buried radioactive waste. This document presents a review of some of those reports. This review includes lysimeter studies using radioactive waste forms at Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory; radionuclide tracer studies at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Los Alamos National Laboratory; and water movement studies at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Beltsville, Maryland site, at the Hanford Site, and at New Mexico State University. The tests, results, and conclusions of each report are summarized, and conclusions concerning lysimeter technology are presented from an overall analysis of the literature. 38 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. [The prescription as literature].

    PubMed

    Telle, Joachim

    2003-12-01

    In the medical writings of antiquity the recipe, a basic form of scientific writing, was considered a literary genre with conventions of its own. In texttype-linguistics, however, the recipe plays only a minor role; in studies on the history of literary short texts it is hardly ever mentioned and, furthermore, it has come to the conclusion that the recipe's function has lain solely in the curing of the sick. The present study focuses on its multifunctional character. A collection of widely scattered and hardly accessible recipes shows that the recipe adopted functions beyond giving technical directives. Its multifunctionality in the German literature of early modern times is manifest in medical and cooking jocular recipes, cooking recipes in minnesang, mock recipes aimed at physicians and astrologers, recipes of spiritual-religious content, recipes containing art and literary criticism as well as recipes in a moral-satirical or a political-agitative vein. PMID:14765522

  3. Physics in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Physics offers a cross-discipline perspective to understanding other subjects. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of physics in literature that physics and astronomy teachers can use to give students an indication of the relevance of science as depicted in the humanities. It is not possible to cite the thousands of examples available. I have tried to select authors whom students would be reading in high school and in college undergraduate English classes: in particular Joseph Conrad, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Shakespeare, H. G. Wells, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Norman Mailer, and an author currently in vogue, Dan Brown. I am sure many reading this article will come up with their own examples.

  4. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  5. Exciting E-Books: A New Path to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Considers ways to use electronic books (E-books) to involve students in literature. Highlights include E-book technology; costs; digital content; acquiring versus accessing information in libraries; title availability; storage capacity; sources of E-book content, especially Web sites; downloading software and E-books; sources for current,…

  6. Mapping the literature of nursing administration

    PubMed Central

    Galganski, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: As part of Phase I of a project to map the literature of nursing, sponsored by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association, this study identifies the core literature cited in nursing administration and the indexing services that provide access to the core journals. The results of this study will assist librarians and end users searching for information related to this nursing discipline, as well as database producers who might consider adding specific titles to their indexing services. Methods: Using the common methodology described in the overview article, five source journals for nursing administration were identified and selected for citation analysis over a three-year period, 1996 to 1998, to identify the most frequently cited titles according to Bradford's Law of Scattering. From this core of most productive journal titles, the bibliographic databases that provide the best access to these titles were identified. Results: Results reveal that nursing administration literature relies most heavily on journal articles and on those titles identified as core nursing administrative titles. When the indexing coverage of nine services is compared, PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide the most comprehensive coverage of this nursing discipline. Conclusions: No one indexing service adequately covers this nursing discipline. Researchers needing comprehensive coverage in this area must search more than one database to effectively research their projects. While PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL provide more coverage for this discipline than the other indexing services, none is sufficiently broad in scope to provide indexing of nursing, health care management, and medical literature in a single file. Nurse administrators using the literature to research current work issues need to review not only the nursing titles covered by CINAHL but should also include the major weekly medical titles, core titles in health care administration, and

  7. Basic Psychiatric Literature: II. Articles and Article Sources*†

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Joan B.; Pieper, Sam; Frazier, Shervert H.

    1968-01-01

    Widely varying reading lists for general psychiatry residents were obtained from 140 three-year approved training programs. The material recommended for reading was listed on index cards, and the number of programs recommending each item was posted on the cards. Approximately 4,000 articles, 2,800 books, and 200 serials were recommended. A statistical evaluation of the book list appeared in a previous paper (3).* Part II is a similar evaluation of the article list and the limited editions and serials in which the articles appear. PMID:4883158

  8. Musical Obsessions: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Jitender; Nebhinani, Naresh; Grover, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of musical obsessions is scantly researched and poorly established. Here we present a case with musical obsessions in addition to body dysmorphophia and severe depression and review the available literature for musical obsessions. PMID:25722524

  9. Scented memories of literature.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Krista; Cupchik, Gerald C

    2004-05-01

    This study examined the effects on recall of story details of congruity or incongruity between the hedonic valence of literary texts and odours inhaled while reading them. During the reading session, 24 undergraduates (12 males and 12 females) read two passages involving positive subject matter and two with negative subject matter while sniffing pleasant or unpleasant odours in a within-subject fully counterbalanced design. Subjects rated their experience of each text on eleven 7-point scales. During the test session 48 hours later, subjects read a two-word title associated with each of the passages and inhaled the odour that was paired with it in the reading session. They also rated their experience on six of the scales that had been used during the reading session. Results showed that hedonic congruence between the passage and the odour fostered enhanced recall during the test session. The combination of positive subject matter and positive odour was reflected in more accurate recall of character details, while pairing negative subject matter and negative odour resulted in more accurate recall of setting details. Regression analysis showed that overall recall accuracy was increased by identifying with the characters in the stories and for passages that were found pleasing and personally meaningful. Consistent with the literature on implicit learning involving odours, recall accuracy varied inversely with perceived odour intensity. Implicit learning involving odours and literary passages is therefore fostered by unity in the reading experience. PMID:15279438

  10. What's in the Literature?

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Nicholas J; Wolfe, Gil I; Bromberg, Mark; Lacomis, David

    2016-03-01

    In this issue, we review clinical features associated with an elevated serum creatine kinase level found in a percentage of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The treatment of ALS remains problematic, and issues with offerings on the internet for unregulated stem cell treatment and the movement for right-to-try experimental drugs are discussed. The last What's in the Literature? discussed information about recording from stimulating electrodes implanted in the diaphragm of ALS patients, and this issue discusses the results of a randomized trial using diaphragm pacing. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is important to diagnose, as it is one of the few treatable chronic neuropathies. However, the diagnosis can be challenging to make, and a review of diagnostic errors is discussed. Once diagnosed, treatment management can be difficult, and endpoint measures are discussed. Updates on the use of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of myasthenia gravis are reviewed, as they are the use of cell-based assays for detecting antibodies to clustered acetylcholine receptors. Factors associated with life-threatening events in myasthenia, ethnic differences in the course of the disease, and treatment in very elderly patients are also discussed. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a treatment of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy is reviewed. A natural history study in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy looking at the age of loss of ambulation and side effect profiles associated with corticosteroid treatments is discussed, as it is a comprehensive study looking at the clinical features and treatment of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. PMID:26905916

  11. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  12. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  13. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  14. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  15. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  16. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  17. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  18. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  19. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  20. 33 CFR 214.4 - Additional authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE EMERGENCY SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.4 Additional authority. Section 82(2), Pub. L. 93-251... of clean drinking water, on such terms as he determines to be advisable, to any locality which he finds is confronted with a source of contaminated drinking water causing or likely to cause...

  1. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  2. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a literature review.

    PubMed

    Verberg, M F G; Gillott, D J; Al-Fardan, N; Grudzinskas, J G

    2005-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition causing severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy often resulting in hospital admission. The incidence of HG is approximately 0.5% of live births, said to be higher in multiple pregnancies, hydatidiform mole and other conditions associated with increased pregnancy hormone levels. Both the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG remain unknown. We conducted a literature review (1966-now) to summarize the current evidence on the aetiology and pathogenesis of HG. The potential role of pregnancy-related hormones such as progesterone, estrogen and HCG has been widely studied; however, various other hormones such as leptin, placental growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid and adrenal cortical hormones have been implicated in the aetiology of HG. In addition to endocrinological hypotheses, the rationale and evidence considering infectious, immunological, psychological, metabolic and anatomical causes for HG have been analysed here. Many studies suffer from the low number of patients included, the variable definition used for HG and varying assay methodology used in studies of hormone measurement. This review highlights the need for more extensive studies addressing the pathogenesis and aetiology of HG. PMID:16006438

  3. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    PubMed Central

    Daugela, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. Results In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation. PMID:24422029

  4. Science and children's literature: Kindergarten teachers' attitudes and pedagogical content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hooli, Abeer Abdullah

    2001-10-01

    The present study, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, examined Kuwaiti kindergarten teachers' attitudes toward teaching science, their understanding of science content and pedagogical knowledge, and the role that using children's literature in science teaching plays in those relationships. Three hundred kindergarten teachers responded to the researcher-developed questionnaire entitled "Teaching Science and Using Children's Literature for Science Instruction." Additionally, six in-service teachers were purposely selected for the follow-up interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed through appropriate descriptive statistics including Pearson Product Moment correlations, ANOVA, Tukey Post Hoc tests, Eta, and Eta squared. The data analysis revealed that a large percentage of teachers reported high levels of comfort and enjoyment as well as little anxiety about teaching science. Teachers indicated that they had sufficient background and strong pedagogical knowledge to teach required kindergarten science themes. Moreover, teachers reported a positive perception of teaching science with children's literature, indicating its usefulness in science instruction. Fifty-five percent of the teachers indicated however, that there was a need for more training in how best to use children's literature for science instruction. The qualitative data was systematically analyzed through a process of content analysis. It revealed that the six selected Kuwaiti kindergarten teachers had varying interests and ideas about teaching of science with children's literature; these seemed to be linked to their principal-reported low, average, and high levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward science. Furthermore, the six case studies suggest a pattern of relationships between background and classroom success and the suggestions and complaints made by the teachers regarding their ongoing training and support. The interview data analysis suggested that that there

  5. Work Reintegration for Veterans With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review to Inform Research

    PubMed Central

    Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, JianLi; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. Data Sources The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. Study Selection In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). Data Extraction A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Data Synthesis Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Limitations Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Conclusions Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace. PMID:23043148

  6. No Generalization of Practice for Nonzero Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Beech, Leah C.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of converging evidence have suggested recently that skilled adults solve very simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 1, 4 + 2) using a fast, unconscious counting algorithm. These results stand in opposition to the long-held assumption in the cognitive arithmetic literature that such simple addition problems normally are solved by fact…

  7. EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL ADDITIVES FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYMER EXTRUSION PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model to predict worker inhalation exposure due to off-gassing of additives during polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extrusion processing. ata on off-gassing of additives were reviewed in the literature, the off-gassing at normal PVC processing temperatures was stud...

  8. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  9. How to keep up with medical literature.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-04-01

    All medical practice and research should aim to be evidence based, as far as this is possible. The first step to achieve this is to keep up with what is already known. With medical knowledge growing constantly, it has become necessary to possess a high level of information literacy to be able to keep up with the literature. Furthermore, as patients can now search for information on the internet, clinicians must be able to respond to this type of information in a professional way when needed. Here, the development of viable search strategies for journal articles, books, book chapters and similar sources, selection of appropriate databases, search tools and selection methods are described and illustrated with examples from rheumatology. Further, the up-keep of skills over time, and the acquisition of literature just in time, are discussed. PMID:19393571

  10. Laugh Lines: Exploring Humour in Children's Literature. Literature Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallan, Kerry

    Exploring the range and diversity of humorous literature for children, this book attempts to remedy the past neglect of children's humorous books by taking humor seriously. The first five chapters of the book discuss what children find funny and at what age, different kinds of humor found in children's literature, passages of humorous tone in…

  11. Source apportionment of sediment PAHs in Lake Calumet, Chicago: application of factor analysis with nonnegative constraints.

    PubMed

    Bzdusek, Philip A; Christensen, Erik R; Li, An; Zou, Qimeng

    2004-01-01

    A factor analysis model with nonnegative constraints (FA) was used to apportion the sources of PAHs found in sediments of Lake Calumet and surrounding wetlands in southeast Chicago. Source profiles and contributions, with uncertainties, are determined with no prior knowledge of sources. The model includes scaling and backscaling of data with average PAH concentrations without sample normalization. This work is a follow-up to a study that used a chemical mass balance (CMB8.2) model to apportion sources to the same data set. Literature source profiles, modified based on gas/particle partitioning of individual PAHs, from eight PAH sources were considered for comparison. FA results for a two-source solution indicate coke oven (45%) and traffic (55%) are the primary PAH sources to Lake Calumet sediments. A six-source FA solution indicates that coke oven (47%) and traffic (45%) related sources are major PAH sources and wood burning-coal residential (2.3%) is a minor PAH source. From the six-source solution, two coke oven profiles are observed, a standard coke oven profile (33%), and a degraded or second coke oven profile (14%) low in phenanthrene and pyrene. Observed traffic related sources include gasoline engine (36%) exhaust and traffic tunnel air (9.3%). This work supports the previous study of Lake Calumet PAHs by CMB model. In addition, FA provides new insights since wood burning and secondary coke oven profiles were not recognized in the CMB model. PMID:14740723

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is the definitive catalog of X-ray sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. When compared to all previous and current X-ray missions, Chandra breaks the resolution barrier with an arcsecond scale on-axis point spread function. The combination of excellent spatial resolution, a reasonable field of view, and low instrumental background translate into a high detectable-source density, with low confusion and good astrometry. The wealth of information that can be extracted from identified serendipitous sources is a powerful and valuable resource for astronomy. The aim of the CSC is to disseminate this wealth of information by characterizing the X-ray sky as seen by Chandra. The CSC provides simple access to Chandra data for individual sources or sets of sources matching user-specified search criteria. The catalog is intended to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. For each detected X-ray source, the catalog lists the source position and a detailed set of source properties, including multi-band aperture fluxes, X-ray colors and hardness ratios, spectra, temporal variability information, and source extent estimates. In addition to these traditional elements, the catalog includes file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra for each source individually from each observation in which a source is detected. The first release of the CSC includes information for 150,000 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public imaging observations from the first eight years of the Chandra mission. Only point sources, and compact sources with extents < 30 arcsec, are included. Highly extended sources, and sources located in selected fields containing bright, highly extended sources, are excluded from this release. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS

  13. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; (Helen He, Xiangqun; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  14. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  15. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  16. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  17. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  18. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  19. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  20. Nurturing Emotional Intelligence through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of literature in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom for enhancing development of children's emotional intelligence. Literature can foster emotional intelligence by providing vicarious emotional experiences that shape the brain circuits for empathy and help children gain insight into human behavior and can promote…

  1. Strategy and Focus: Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The six articles in this focused journal issue are concerned with literature teaching on the secondary and college level. The titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "Aesthetic Reading and Teaching: 'Candide' Revisited" (Michael G. Gauthier); (2) "Discovery: The Role of Subjective Response in Initiating the Literature Discussion"…

  2. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy, and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  3. Recent Literature on Government Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  4. Sex Stereotypes in Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Julia

    The problem of sex stereotyping in children's literature has been around for as long as the genre itself, but it was brought to the forefront because of the women's movement in the 1970s. From the 1700s, critics were aware of the problems that arose from children's literature and its portrayal of characters and ideas, including "Cinderella" and…

  5. Literature Instruction: Practice and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James, Ed.; Langer, Judith A., Ed.

    Discussing issues involved in the successful teaching of literature, this book presents essays that explore recent findings from research concerned with the teaching of literature in contemporary K-12 classrooms. The book is organized by age, special population, and special issues. Essays in the book address such issues as ability grouping,…

  6. Physicians in literature: three portrayals.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I A

    1986-02-01

    Literature can provide an objective glimpse of how the public perceives physicians. Physicians have been recipients of the full range of human response in literature, from contempt to veneration. This article examines the impressions of three authors: Mark Twain, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and Arthur Hailey. Their descriptions provide insight into the complex relationship physicians have with their colleagues and patients. PMID:21267273

  7. The Politics of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jean A.

    Politics and children's literature would seem to be two areas of thought which are incompatible; politics being the administration of power, control, government, and regulation, and children's literature embodying the freedom of the imagination at a period in life described as "literary innocence." Embedded political perspectives, whether…

  8. Bibliotherapy: "Literature as Exploration" Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justman, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration," a popular textbook used since 1938 (in five successive editions) in high school English classrooms across America. He discusses how the one-time college roommate of Margaret Mead managed to transform teaching literature into a form of student therapy that…

  9. Teaching Afro-American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Junemary

    1970-01-01

    An Afro-American literature course was established at Chicago City College to present a survey of writers who reflected the Black experience in America and to examine their works as artistic entities in their historical and sociological context. Background lectures on many aspects of Afro-American literature accompanied studies of material grouped…

  10. Teaching the Art of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce E.

    Working on the assumptions that literature should be presented to students in ways that will help them to experience the literary work rather than merely to think about it and that the teaching of literature ought to grow out of the teacher's and student's reading of it, this book is divided into two sections. The first section describes the…

  11. Teaching Mathematics through Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliev, Nevin; D'Angelo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating the use of children's literature when teaching mathematics to young children is a developmentally appropriate practice: "Literature … provides a means for children to encounter mathematical concepts and vocabulary in the context of something familiar, a story" (Fogelberg et al. 2008). Moreover, introducing culturally…

  12. Folk Literature of South Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadley, Susan S., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The collection of articles in this volume focuses on different kinds of folk literature from Bengal, Tamilnad, Bihar, Hindi-speaking North India, and Nepal. An introductory article by S.S. Wadley discusses types of folk literature in Karimpur. The remaining articles are organized according to cultural themes: "The Lustful Stepmother in the…

  13. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  14. Recruiting Literature: Is It Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stantial, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    College students seeking employment in today's work world, who have questions about work environments which might be consistent with personal skills, interests, and values, turn to company recruiting literature. A recent study reveals that the information students and college personnel want from recruiting literature is not the information they…

  15. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  16. Children's Literature-Some Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Shelton L., Jr.

    Ten reflections may be made regarding children's literature and its teaching. The reflections are as follows: (1) Teachers can make a profound difference in the lives of students and should attempt to do so. (2) Teachers of children's literature are a badly fragmented lot and need a common meeting ground where they can share their thinking. (3)…

  17. Imaginative Literature: Economics-Tonic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, Donn

    1967-01-01

    Literature used as collateral reading can add "sparkle and bounce" to a course in economics without harming the basic principles of the science. The novel, since it is "both lyric outcry and historical fact," is the most suitable vehicle for this endeavor, but poetry and drama may also be included. Many examples of works of literature can be found…

  18. The Old Ones in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1979-01-01

    The aged characters in Chicano literature are full of vitality, hope, creativity, and human warmth, in contrast to the portrayal of older people in English literature. The article analyzes the characterizations of older people in works by Rudolfo Anaya, Carlos Castaneda, Orlando Romero, and Sabine Ulibarri. (SB)

  19. Teaching Character through Sports Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minchew, Sue S.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how sports literature can be used in character education. Focuses on 10 ingredients for being a successful or "highly effective" person, and includes examples drawn from sports or sports literature. Discusses setting goals; proactive responses/positive thinking; a strong work ethic; a never-surrender attitude; physical and…

  20. "Retrospect" from "Transactions with Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Louise M.

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, the author explains not only how she came to write her classic text "Literature as Exploration," but she also describes the path of her own professional journey. A conviction about the difference between "literary" and other reading led to her writing "Literature as Exploration" in the first place. In this book, she argued that…

  1. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) was published in 2009 March, and includes information about 94,676 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <˜30''.The CSC is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime.The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports medium sophistication scientific analysis on using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools; and (4) includes real X-ray sources detected with flux significance greater than a predefined threshold, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at an acceptable level. For each detected X-ray source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.

  2. Friendship and literacy through literature.

    PubMed

    Palincsar, A S; Parecki, A D; McPhail, J C

    1995-10-01

    The exploratory research reported in this article was designed to determine the processes and outcomes of planning thematic literacy instruction in a holistic and contextualized manner. The work was conducted in an upper-elementary, self-contained setting for students identified as learning disabled. Specifically, the instructional activities included (a) interactive readings from literature on friendship, (b) personal written responses to the literature, (c) supported retellings of the literature, (d) performance related to the literature, and (e) journal writing on the topic of friendship. The outcomes are reported in terms of the use of intertextuality over the course of the 6-week unit, the emergence of theme as a salient feature in literature, and a change in the children's conceptions of friendship. More specific literacy outcomes are captured in case studies of 3 children. PMID:7595041

  3. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in the Philippines (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Lulu; Roque, Vito G.; Brett, Jeremy; Dizon, Ruby; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    This literature analysis describes the available dengue epidemiology data in the Philippines between 2000 and 2011. Of 253 relevant data sources identified, 34, including additional epidemiology data provided by the National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Philippines, were reviewed. There were 14 publications in peer reviewed journals, and 17 surveillance reports/sources, which provided variable information from the passive reporting system and show broad trends in dengue incidence, including age group predominance and disease severity. The peer reviewed studies focused on clinical severity of cases, some revealed data on circulating serotypes and genotypes and on the seroepidemiology of dengue including incidence rates for infection and apparent disease. Gaps in the data were identified, and include the absence incidence rates stratified by age, dengue serotype and genotype distribution, disease severity data, sex distribution data, and seroprevalence data. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002292 PMID:25375119

  4. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  5. Additional auxiliary data for the GAIA-RVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crifo, F.; Chemin, L.; Jasniewicz, G.; Katz, D.; Marchal, O.; Sartoretti, P.; Soubiran, C.; Thévenin, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Gaia-RVS will measure some 10^8 stellar radial velocities using the correlation method with well-adapted template spectra for each individual case. Ground-based RV standards will be used to fix the zero-point. Gaia instruments are ``self-calibrating'' and no calibration device is available on board. But for the beginning of the mission, until the needed calibration parameters become available, the calibrations have to come from external sources, i.e. existing ground-based observations of already very well-known objects. Therefore beside the basic list of 1400 very stable and well-measured primary standards, several secondary RV lists have been built recently. The basic list itself will be extended with around 500 new "primary standard". The libraries of existing spectra have been carefully investigated: a lot of high-quality material is available for the start of the reductions and for the validation of the pipeline results. In addition, as the data expected from the photometric instrument are not available at the beginning, very large lists with atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, metallicity) have been produced from the literature. Grids of 3D atmospheric models have been calculated, in order to select the best template for the correlation; they will be used in the future and will automatically take into account the stellar convective shift across the HR diagram.

  6. MERALGIA PARESTHETICA: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.; Salamh, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Meralgia Paresthetica (MP) is a nerve entrapment which may cause pain, paresthesias, and sensory loss within the distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. When the differential diagnosis of lateral or anterolateral thigh pain is inconclusive, MP should be considered as a potential source. MP produces similar signs and symptoms as those associated with more common diagnoses such as lumbar spine pathology. This clinical commentary will review the most relevant literature on MP with an emphasis on recognition and management of this condition. Description of Topic with Related Evidence: The authors reviewed the most relevant published literature on MP from 1970 to 2013 located using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Proquest. Discussion/Relation to Clinical Practice: MP still remains a diagnostic challenge since it can mimic other common diagnoses. Understanding the current literature surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of MP is essential for clinicians practicing in the outpatient environment. The consensus on the most effective non‐surgical and surgical interventions is still limited, as is the research on physical therapy interventions for this condition. Perhaps the lack of research and global consensus represents a knowledge deficit that makes MP a challenge to diagnose and successfully treat. Future collaborative studies are needed to improve the clinical diagnostics and understanding of interventions for this pathology. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24377074

  7. Mapping the literature of occupational therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, K L

    1999-01-01

    Occupational therapy, formally organized in the United States in 1917, is considered an allied health field. Mapping occupational therapy literature is part of a bibliometric project of the Medical Library Association's Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's project for mapping the literature of allied health. Three core journals were selected from the years 1995 and 1996 and a determination was made of the extent to which the cited journal references were covered by standard indexing sources. Using Bradford's Law of Scattering three zones were created, each containing approximately one-third of the cited journal references. The results showed that three journals made up the first zone, 117 journals the second, and 657 the third. The most cited journal was the American Journal of Occupational Therapy. In the second zone, journals from twelve disciplines were identified. While MEDLINE provided the best overall indexing, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was the only database that indexed the three most cited journals plus nine of the currently active titles in occupational therapy. MEDLINE could improve its coverage of occupational therapy by indexing the journals of the British, Canadian, and Australian national associations. PMID:10427431

  8. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahlam A.; Ratajeski, Melissa A.; Bertolet, Marnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. Conclusions This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged. PMID:25914722

  9. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  10. Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Poor health is a source of impoverishment among households in low -and middle- income countries (LMICs) and a subject of voluminous literature in recent years. This paper reviews recent empirical literature on measuring the economic impacts of health shocks on households. Key inclusion criteria were studies that explored household level economic outcomes (burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, labour supply responses and non-medical consumption) of health shocks and sought to correct for the likely endogeneity of health shocks, in addition to studies that measured catastrophic and impoverishment effects of ill health. The review only considered literature in the English language and excluded studies published before 2000 since these have been included in previous reviews. We identified 105 relevant articles, reports, and books. Our review confirmed the major conclusion of earlier reviews based on the pre-2000 literature - that households in LMICs bear a high but variable burden of OOP health expenditure. Households use a range of sources such as income, savings, borrowing, using loans or mortgages, and selling assets and livestock to meet OOP health spending. Health shocks also cause significant reductions in labour supply among households in LMICs, and households (particularly low-income ones) are unable to fully smooth income losses from moderate and severe health shocks. Available evidence rejects the hypothesis of full consumption insurance in the face of major health shocks. Our review suggests additional research on measuring and harmonizing indicators of health shocks and economic outcomes, measuring economic implications of non-communicable diseases for households and analyses based on longitudinal data. Policymakers need to include non-health system interventions, including access to credit and disability insurance in addition to support formal insurance programs to ameliorate the economic impacts of health shocks. PMID:24708831

  11. Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Poor health is a source of impoverishment among households in low -and middle- income countries (LMICs) and a subject of voluminous literature in recent years. This paper reviews recent empirical literature on measuring the economic impacts of health shocks on households. Key inclusion criteria were studies that explored household level economic outcomes (burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, labour supply responses and non-medical consumption) of health shocks and sought to correct for the likely endogeneity of health shocks, in addition to studies that measured catastrophic and impoverishment effects of ill health. The review only considered literature in the English language and excluded studies published before 2000 since these have been included in previous reviews. We identified 105 relevant articles, reports, and books. Our review confirmed the major conclusion of earlier reviews based on the pre-2000 literature--that households in LMICs bear a high but variable burden of OOP health expenditure. Households use a range of sources such as income, savings, borrowing, using loans or mortgages, and selling assets and livestock to meet OOP health spending. Health shocks also cause significant reductions in labour supply among households in LMICs, and households (particularly low-income ones) are unable to fully smooth income losses from moderate and severe health shocks. Available evidence rejects the hypothesis of full consumption insurance in the face of major health shocks. Our review suggests additional research on measuring and harmonizing indicators of health shocks and economic outcomes, measuring economic implications of non-communicable diseases for households and analyses based on longitudinal data. Policymakers need to include non-health system interventions, including access to credit and disability insurance in addition to support formal insurance programs to ameliorate the economic impacts of health shocks. PMID:24708831

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2010-03-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents < 30". The catalog (1) provides access to estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources with good scientific fidelity; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of < 1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics. In addition, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra. Support for development of the CSC is provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS 8-03060.

  13. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  14. Occupational Roles in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Judith Stevinson

    1976-01-01

    Compares children's literature of the 1930s and that of recent times in terms of occupational roles and sex typing. Little change was found in number or type of women's occupations despite the recent political, social and economic changes. (MS)

  15. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  16. Teaching EFL/ESL Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amer, Aly Anwar

    2003-01-01

    Discusses two pedagogically effective approaches to teaching first language narrative texts that have been gaining popularity in English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language literature: the story grammar approach and the reader response approach. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  18. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  19. Identifying plausible adverse drug reactions using knowledge extracted from the literature.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance involves continually monitoring drug safety after drugs are put to market. To aid this process; algorithms for the identification of strongly correlated drug/adverse drug reaction (ADR) pairs from data sources such as adverse event reporting systems or Electronic Health Records have been developed. These methods are generally statistical in nature, and do not draw upon the large volumes of knowledge embedded in the biomedical literature. In this paper, we investigate the ability of scalable Literature Based Discovery (LBD) methods to identify side effects of pharmaceutical agents. The advantage of LBD methods is that they can provide evidence from the literature to support the plausibility of a drug/ADR association, thereby assisting human review to validate the signal, which is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. To do so, we draw upon vast repositories of knowledge that has been extracted from the biomedical literature by two Natural Language Processing tools, MetaMap and SemRep. We evaluate two LBD methods that scale comfortably to the volume of knowledge available in these repositories. Specifically, we evaluate Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a model based on concept-level co-occurrence, and Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), a model that encodes the nature of the relationship between concepts to support reasoning analogically about drug-effect relationships. An evaluation set was constructed from the Side Effect Resource 2 (SIDER2), which contains known drug/ADR relations, and models were evaluated for their ability to "rediscover" these relations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both RRI and PSI can recover known drug-adverse event associations. However, PSI performed better overall, and has the additional advantage of being able to recover the literature underlying the reasoning pathways it used to make its predictions. PMID:25046831

  20. Identifying plausible adverse drug reactions using knowledge extracted from the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Cohen, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance involves continually monitoring drug safety after drugs are put to market. To aid this process; algorithms for the identification of strongly correlated drug/adverse drug reaction (ADR) pairs from data sources such as adverse event reporting systems or Electronic Health Records have been developed. These methods are generally statistical in nature, and do not draw upon the large volumes of knowledge embedded in the biomedical literature. In this paper, we investigate the ability of scalable Literature Based Discovery (LBD) methods to identify side effects of pharmaceutical agents. The advantage of LBD methods is that they can provide evidence from the literature to support the plausibility of a drug/ ADR association, thereby assisting human review to validate the signal, which is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. To do so, we draw upon vast repositories of knowledge that has been extracted from the biomedical literature by two Natural Language Processing tools, MetaMap and SemRep. We evaluate two LBD methods that scale comfortably to the volume of knowledge available in these repositories. Specifically, we evaluate Reflective Random Indexing (RRI), a model based on concept-level co-occurrence, and Predication-based Semantic Indexing (PSI), a model that encodes the nature of the relationship between concepts to support reasoning analogically about drug-effect relationships. An evaluation set was constructed from the Side Effect Resource 2 (SIDER2), which contains known drug/ADR relations, and models were evaluated for their ability to “rediscover” these relations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both RRI and PSI can recover known drug-adverse event associations. However, PSI performed better overall, and has the additional advantage of being able to recover the literature underlying the reasoning pathways it used to make its predictions. PMID:25046831

  1. W4 - Science in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsler, Karen Jo

    2012-10-01

    We are never too young or too old to enjoy a good piece of literature. Integrating science and literature results in the development of reading skills while helping students discover the wonders of science. This session will focus on learning activities for The Very Lonely Firefly and Why Mosquitoes Buzz in Your Ear. The lessons are designed for upper elementary but could be adapted for any grade level.

  2. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  3. Selection Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library collection development by school library media specialists and describes selection sources for new books and materials; retrospective selection sources for materials published in preceding years; and an acquisition source. Provides an overview of the selection process and includes 10 suggestions for selection. (LRW)

  4. How to keep up with the medical literature: IV. Using the literature to solve clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R B; McKibbon, K A; Fitzgerald, D; Guyatt, G H; Walker, C J; Sackett, D L

    1986-10-01

    Ideally, searches for published articles to solve clinical problems should lead to the best evidence on a given topic quickly and at reasonable expense. This goal can be achieved with modern information skills, sources, and services. In this article, we describe and compare various means, from textbooks to computers, that provide access to information of potential value in addressing clinical problems as they arise. Using the problem of understanding and controlling the risk for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among personnel of a community hospital, we examined the following sources for their utility in locating journal literature: general and specialty medical texts, personal reprint collections, expert clinicians, recent journal issues, library textbook collections, the Index Medicus "Bibliography of Reviews" and subject index, and MEDLINE computer searching. For this problem, Index Medicus and MEDLINE were the best sources of up-to-date articles, but MEDLINE was three times as fast. PMID:3530083

  5. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  6. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z>4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Rocco; Frey, Sándor; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here we report on observations of an additional ten z > 4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN), thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50 per cent. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z > 4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis (unbeamed) radio sources with rest-frame self-absorption peaks at or below GHz frequencies and that these sources can be classified as gigahertz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and megahertz peaked-spectrum (MPS) sources.

  7. Dissolution of an emplaced source of DNAPL in a natural aquifer setting.

    PubMed

    Rivett, Michael O; Feenstra, Stanley

    2005-01-15

    Field-scale dissolution of a multicomponent DNAPL (dense nonaqueous-phase liquid) source intentionally emplaced below the water table is evaluated in a well-characterized natural aquifer setting. The block-shaped source contained 23 kg of a trichloromethane, trichloroethene, and perchloroethene mixture homogeneously distributed at 5% saturation of pore space. Dissolution was monitored for 3 yr via down-gradient samplers (1-m fence) and occasional intra-source sampling. Although intra-source equilibrium dissolution was shown and endorsed by supporting modeling and literature lab data, less than equilibrium concentrations were predominantly monitored in the 1-m fence. This was ascribed to significant by-passing of the source by groundwater flow due to its low permeability relative to the aquifer and associated dilution of concentrations emitted from the source. Heterogeneous source dissolution occurred despite the relative homogeneity of the source and aquifer and was ascribed to dissolution fingering, which has not been previously field-demonstrated. Bulk bypass of groundwater flow around the source zone caused slow dissolution rates, with 77% of the source remaining after 3 yr and a projected longevity of approximately 25 yr. Observed dissolution fingering would have significantly increased longevity as it increasingly caused intra-source bypass of remaining DNAPL. Our dissolution interpretations were endorsed by additional data collected after 6 yr during source remediation via permanganate oxidation. PMID:15707043

  8. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. PMID:26227138

  9. 26 CFR 31.3402(i)-1 - Additional withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional withholding. 31.3402(i)-1 Section 31.3402(i)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(i)-1 Additional withholding. (a) In addition to the tax...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(i)-1 - Additional withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional withholding. 31.3402(i)-1 Section 31.3402(i)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(i)-1 Additional withholding. (a) In addition to the tax...

  11. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  12. Sociology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffin, Meredith

    Sociology, the study of the organization and activities of human societies, encompasses many fields of inquiry and consequently the literature of the discipline is vast. In providing access to some of this literature, this guide concentrates on reference sources which may be found in McLennan Library of McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Areas…

  13. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  14. Dedos de Luna. Children's Literature in Spanish: Bilingual Edition. Guia para maestros en espanol e ingles. Elementary Literature Series, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dana; Huerta, Mario

    This curriculum unit is designed to give primary school students foreign language experiences and also to support the cultural literacy strand of the California State History-Social Science Framework. The unit is part of an elementary literature series which utilizes quality primary source literature from various world regions and countries and…

  15. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  16. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  17. ACTFL Workshop Proceedings: Black Literature of French Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geno, Thomas H., Ed.; Bostick, Herman F., Ed.

    This compilation of working papers is part 1 of the proceedings of the ACTFL 1972 preconference workshop on black francophone literature. Part 2, to be completed in the future, will be a bibliography containing primary and secondary sources, textbooks, articles, a glossary of African terms, and resource materials useful in language classrooms. The…

  18. Toothdrawers in English popular literature prior to 1700.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, A S

    1993-07-01

    Historical evidence about toothdrawers in England can be supplemented by references to these men in popular contemporary literature. Poetic and dramatic sources from the late medieval period to the close of the 17th century have been examined to this end, with some attempt made to distinguish satire from historical fact. PMID:8118177

  19. Taking Stock of the Developmental Literature on Shame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, R.S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Shame plays a central role in social and self development. This review presents an overview of the existing state of the developmental literature on shame, describing the major developmental theories of shame, research on the sources of individual differences in proneness to shame, and implications for mental and physical health. By toddlerhood,…

  20. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 1: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddique, Abu Bakr

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of scientific and technological libraries and document centers in Bangladesh and describes the problems of acquiring scientific literature through purchase, gift, and exchange programs. The effectiveness of cooperative acquisition programs and international sources of document supply are examined, and plans for future…

  1. Peer Assisted Learning in Clinical Education: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Jolene M.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Marty, Melissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, benefits, and preferences for peer assisted learning (PAL) in medical and allied health clinical education, and to identify areas in athletic training which need further research. Data Sources: Using relevant terms, five databases were searched for the period 1980-2006 regarding literature on the use of PAL in…

  2. Countries: General, Electricity, Geography, Health, Literature: Children's, Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of Web site educational resources kindergarten through eighth grade. The Web sites this month cover the following subjects: countries (general); electricity; geography; health; children's literature; and plants. Includes a list of "Calendar Connections" to Web site sources of information on Earth Day in April and other…

  3. Changes to the English Literature GCSE: A Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morby, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Various sociological frameworks strongly suggest that recent changes to the English literature GCSE syllabus content will have a detrimental effect on those individuals who come from an environment with few sources of educationally exchangeable literary and linguistic cultural capital. In an attempt to provide a more sociological position from…

  4. Counselors' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Selective Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James

    1988-01-01

    Presents review of counselors' and psychotherapists' attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports analysis of the patterns emerging from published survey literature which revealed considerable division and contradiction in the attitudes reported. Proposes the source of such inconsistency to be the mixed messages mental health personnel receive from…

  5. Communication and the Dual-Career Couple: A Literature Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Diane; Spicer, Christopher H.

    To assess the role of communication in scholarly research and writing about dual careers, a review was made of 89 articles on dual careers that were listed in the bibliographic source, "The Inventory of Marriage and Family Literature," Volumes V-IX. Articles were assessed on three dimensions. First, every article was categorized as addressing…

  6. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has

  7. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  8. Linking genes to literature: text mining, information extraction, and retrieval applications for biology

    PubMed Central

    Krallinger, Martin; Valencia, Alfonso; Hirschman, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    Efficient access to information contained in online scientific literature collections is essential for life science research, playing a crucial role from the initial stage of experiment planning to the final interpretation and communication of the results. The biological literature also constitutes the main information source for manual literature curation used by expert-curated databases. Following the increasing popularity of web-based applications for analyzing biological data, new text-mining and information extraction strategies are being implemented. These systems exploit existing regularities in natural language to extract biologically relevant information from electronic texts automatically. The aim of the BioCreative challenge is to promote the development of such tools and to provide insight into their performance. This review presents a general introduction to the main characteristics and applications of currently available text-mining systems for life sciences in terms of the following: the type of biological information demands being addressed; the level of information granularity of both user queries and results; and the features and methods commonly exploited by these applications. The current trend in biomedical text mining points toward an increasing diversification in terms of application types and techniques, together with integration of domain-specific resources such as ontologies. Additional descriptions of some of the systems discussed here are available on the internet . PMID:18834499

  9. A knowledge-driven approach to extract disease-related biomarkers from the literature.

    PubMed

    Bravo, À; Cases, M; Queralt-Rosinach, N; Sanz, F; Furlong, L I

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical literature represents a rich source of biomarker information. However, both the size of literature databases and their lack of standardization hamper the automatic exploitation of the information contained in these resources. Text mining approaches have proven to be useful for the exploitation of information contained in the scientific publications. Here, we show that a knowledge-driven text mining approach can exploit a large literature database to extract a dataset of biomarkers related to diseases covering all therapeutic areas. Our methodology takes advantage of the annotation of MEDLINE publications pertaining to biomarkers with MeSH terms, narrowing the search to specific publications and, therefore, minimizing the false positive ratio. It is based on a dictionary-based named entity recognition system and a relation extraction module. The application of this methodology resulted in the identification of 131,012 disease-biomarker associations between 2,803 genes and 2,751 diseases, and represents a valuable knowledge base for those interested in disease-related biomarkers. Additionally, we present a bibliometric analysis of the journals reporting biomarker related information during the last 40 years. PMID:24839601

  10. Coffee and Depression: A Short Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic. PMID:26303345

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment and revision of specifications for food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and intake data on various specific food additives (alpha-amylase from Bacillus lichenformis containing a genetically engineered alpha-amylase gene from B. licheniformis, annatto extracts, curcumin, diacetyl and fatty acid esters of glycerol, D-tagatose, laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, mixed xylanase, beta-glucanase enzyme preparation produced by a strain of Humicola insolens, neotame, polyvinyl alcohol, quillaia extracts and xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus expressed in Fusarium venenatum), flavouring agents, a nutritional source of iron (ferrous glycinate, processed with citric acid), a disinfectant for drinking-water (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) and contaminants (cadmium and methylmercury). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives, recommendations on the flavouring agents considered, and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications and further information requested or desired. PMID:15354533

  12. Value Streams in Microgrids: A literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Mashayekh, Salman; Forget, Thibault; DeForest, Nicholas; Agarwal, Ankit; Schönbein, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Microgrids are an increasingly common component of the evolving electricity grids with the potential to improve local reliability, reduce costs, and increase penetration rates for distributed renewable generation. The additional complexity of microgrids often leads to increased investment costs, creating a barrier for widespread adoption. These costs may result directly from specific needs for islanding detection, protection systems and power quality assurance that would otherwise be avoided in simpler system configurations. However, microgrids also facilitate additional value streams that may make up for their increased costs and improve the economic viability of microgrid deployment. This paper analyses the literature currently available on research relevant to value streams occurring in microgrids that may contribute to offset the increased investment costs. A review on research related to specific microgrid requirements is also presented.

  13. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Intended for secondary teachers of English, this bulletin contains teaching techniques and instructional materials for practicing classroom teachers. Contents include "The Real Theme of Aiken's 'Impulse,'" which suggests that the theme of Aiken's short story is that actions have consequences; "Robinson's 'Richard Cory,'" which examines the theme…

  14. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  15. Finding Your Literature Match - A Recommender System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn; Thompson, Donna; Bohlen, Elizabeth; Di Milia, Giovanni; Luker, Jay; Murray, Stephen S.

    The universe of potentially interesting, searchable literature is expanding continuously. Besides the normal expansion, there is an additional influx of literature because of interdisciplinary boundaries becoming more and more diffuse. Hence, the need for accurate, efficient and intelligent search tools is bigger than ever. Even with a sophisticated search engine, looking for information can still result in overwhelming results. An overload of information has the intrinsic danger of scaring visitors away, and any organization, for-profit or not-for-profit, in the business of providing scholarly information wants to capture and keep the attention of its target audience. Publishers and search engine engineers alike will benefit from a service that is able to provide visitors with recommendations that closely meet their interests. Providing visitors with special deals, new options and highlights may be interesting to a certain degree, but what makes more sense (especially from a commercial point of view) than to let visitors do most of the work by the mere action of making choices? Hiring psychics is not an option, so a technological solution is needed to recommend items that a visitor is likely to be looking for. In this presentation we will introduce such a solution and argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this approach into a useful addition to any information retrieval system with enough usage.

  16. Textile dermatitis: an update. (I). Resins, additives and fibers.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

    1995-06-01

    Cases of textile-related dermatitis reported in the medical literature after the mid-1980s are reviewed. Part I focuses on cases in which textile resins, fiber additives, or fibers were the causal agent. Studies which provide insight into understanding fabric-induced prickle and itch are included. PMID:7554877

  17. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  18. Renaissance and Italian Literature in World Literature Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolucci, Anne

    1977-01-01

    Shows how the giants of the Renaissance, from Dante to Shakespeare and Cervantes, can be taught so that they illustrate the dialectic of the cultural experience that produced them, and how the masterpieces of Italian literature can be used to suggest both national and universal qualities. (Editor/RK)

  19. Developing Critical Consciousness: Resistance Literature in a Chicano Literature Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Starting from a framework that emphasizes indigenous heritage, high school teacher Curtis Acosta and students in the Chicano/Raza Studies classes engage with literature that reflects the students' lives, families, and histories. Doing so encourages students to visualize and affirm academic identities while they confront current issues of…

  20. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  1. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  2. A literature review on optimum and preferred joint angles in automotive sitting posture.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Amereller, Maximilian; Franz, Matthias; Kaiser, Ralf; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a survey of the scientific literature in the field of optimum and preferred human joint angles in automotive sitting posture was conducted by referring to thirty different sources published between 1940 and today. The strategy was to use only sources with numerical angle data in combination with keywords. The aim of the research was to detect commonly used joint angles in interior car design. The main analysis was on data measurement, usability and comparability of the different studies. In addition, the focus was on the reasons for the differently described results. It was found that there is still a lack of information in methodology and description of background. Due to these reasons published data is not always usable to design a modern ergonomic car environment. As a main result of our literature analysis we suggest undertaking further research in the field of biomechanics and ergonomics to work out scientific based and objectively determined "optimum" joint angles in automotive sitting position. PMID:23664245

  3. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  4. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  5. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  8. Mechanistic investigations reveal that dibromobimane extrudes sulfur from biological sulfhydryl sources other than hydrogen sulfide† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, pH stability data for BTE, NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01875c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Leticia A.; Shen, Xinggui; McDermott, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule in the last decade. During the growth of this field, significant controversy has arisen centered on the physiological concentrations of H2S. Recently, a monobromobimane (mBB) method has been developed for the quantification of different biologically-relevant sulfide pools. Based on the prevalence of the mBB method for sulfide quantification, we expand on this method to report the use of dibromobimane (dBB) for sulfide quantification. Reaction of H2S with dBB results in formation of highly-fluorescent bimane thioether (BTE), which is readily quantifiable by HPLC. Additionally, the reaction of sulfide with dBB to form BTE is significantly faster than the reaction of sulfide with mBB to form sulfide dibimane. Using the dBB method, BTE levels as low as 0.6 pM can be detected. Upon use of the dBB method in wild-type and CSE–/– mice, however, dBB reports significantly higher sulfide levels than those measured using mBB. Further investigation revealed that dBB is able to extract sulfur from other sulfhydryl sources including thiols. Based on mechanistic studies, we demonstrate that dBB extracts sulfur from thiols with α- or β-hydrogens, thus leading to higher BTE formation than from sulfide alone. Taken together, the dBB method is a highly sensitive method for H2S but is not compatible for use in studies in which other thiols are present. PMID:25632344

  9. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  10. 48 CFR 207.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Competitive prototyping. (ii) Dual-sourcing. (iii) Unbundling of contracts. (iv) Funding of next-generation...) Licensing of additional suppliers. (x) Periodic system or program reviews to address long-term...

  11. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  12. Helping Children Cope through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Danielle F.

    2009-01-01

    As a primary educator, I have witnessed the impact literature can have on a child's life. Unfortunately, in our society children are exposed to a much higher level of violence, instability, and death than in previous years. To assist children through these difficult times, it is best to provide them with an outlet of expression. "Bibliotherapy",…

  13. Overcoming Ageism through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupetz, Barbara N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that adults can provide and demonstrate to children a model for better understanding of the elderly and the aging process. Describes factors that interfere with intergenerational relationships, children's views of aging, and why biases exist. Contains tips for adults to bridge the gap by providing balanced views via children's literature.…

  14. Children's Literature in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Children's literature and the social studies need to be integrated so that holism is involved in pupil learning. A variety of kinds of reading materials should be available to learners so that each social studies unit might be meaningful and interesting. Individual differences among pupils' abilities and achievements must be adequately provided…

  15. Exploring Children's Literature. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Nikki; Yates, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This book is based on the belief that deep subject knowledge of language and literature provides a foundation for effective teaching and learning. It provides a guide to the range of genres and characteristic features of English language fiction written for children. It is designed to help readers to develop their understanding of literature…

  16. Sentence Combining: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sylvia E.

    Sentence combining--a technique of putting strings of sentence kernels together in a variety of ways so that completed sentences possess greater syntactic maturity--is a method offering much promise in the teaching of writing and composition. The purpose of this document is to provide a literature review of this procedure. After defining the term…

  17. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  18. Teaching Worldmindedness through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ann H.

    Children's literature is an excellent medium to introduce global concepts and bridge multicultural understanding. Through the use of books, children can be helped to appreciate the commonalities and differences among cultures, to become aware of a relationship with self, others, and the environment, and to identify with the human condition. An…

  19. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  20. Chicano Literature: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Frank, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled as a reference tool to familiarize students, faculty, and community patrons with the contributions made by Chicano writers to the literary world, the bibliography is intended as a guide to Chicano literature holdings in the University of Texas at El Paso Library. The 246 entries are organized into general works; fiction--novels, short…

  1. Coping with Change through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornburger, Jane M.

    One of the greatest values of literature is its power to help children understand change as a natural way of life and adjust to the different situations it brings. This paper presents an annotated bibliography of eighteen children's books that deal with change: "Wilson's World,""The Only Earth We Have,""Hills End,""The Little Fishes,""Two on an…

  2. Digital Storytelling: Reinventing Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Maryann Tatum

    2012-01-01

    New literacies in reading research demand the study of comprehension skills using multiple modalities through a more complex, multi-platform view of reading. Taking into account the robust roll of technology in our daily lives, this article presents an update to the traditional literature circle lesson to include digital storytelling and…

  3. Classic African American Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  4. Teach Mathematics with Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsh, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that children's literature offers possibilities for helping children learn about a variety of mathematical (prenumber) concepts. Two books, FREIGHT TRAINS and THE VERY HUNGRY CATERPILLAR, and their related concrete-level learning center activities are presented to illustrate ways of dealing with prenumber skills using children's…

  5. Teaching Reading Through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, David C.

    Papers presented suggest a variety of views aimed at helping the teacher become more proficient in using children's literature in teaching reading. David C. Davis points out the need for developing programs in which books are selected on their literary quality, not on tastes or personal points of view. William G. McCarthy discusses the…

  6. Ecology, Literature and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsekos, Christos A.; Tsekos, Evangelos A.; Christoforidou, Elena I.

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article refers to the initial attempt to relate Nature to Literature since the age of Hellenistic Alexandria in Egypt. Alexandria was a metropolis of its time with a quite lively character of urban life. Influenced by that character Theocritus was the first to lay the foundations of what is defined as pastoral poetry. In the…

  7. Children's Literature. Adams State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Susan L.

    This is one of a series of eight Teacher Education Modules developed by Adams State College Teacher Corps Program. The dual purpose of these modules is stated as follows: trying to understand children and their needs and becoming familiar with and developing criteria for evaluating children's literature. The objectives of the modules, which are…

  8. Literature for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The 11 articles in this publication discuss many topics regarding literature for children and adolescents, including the following: the major problems facing teachers and writers alike as they strive to communicate with the young; E.B. White's "Charlotte's Web"; two views of the American Revolution found in "Johnny Tremain" and "My Brother Sam Is…

  9. Teaching Literature as Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake Yancey, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This book speaks to all those teachers who teach the "gen ed" literature course that their students must take to complete a general education or core curriculum requirement. These students--the 95 percent who are not English majors--are the students educators hope will become active and reflective members of a reading public. Given this goal,…

  10. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Katherine L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual’s life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches. Results The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm. Conclusions Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology. PMID:26014671

  11. The Burden of Influenza B: A Structured Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Glezen, W.; Kuehn, Carrie M.; Ryan, Kellie J.; Oxford, John

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and economic burden of influenza B as reported in the peer-reviewed published literature. We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed, English-language literature published between 1995 and 2010. Widely variable frequency data were reported. Clinical presentation of influenza B was similar to that of influenza A, although we observed conflicting reports. Influenza B–specific data on hospitalization rates, length of stay, and economic outcomes were limited but demonstrated that the burden of influenza B can be significant. The medical literature demonstrates that influenza B can pose a significant burden to the global population. The comprehensiveness and quality of reporting on influenza B, however, could be substantially improved. Few articles described complications. Additional data regarding the incidence, clinical burden, and economic impact of influenza B would augment our understanding of the disease and assist in vaccine development. PMID:23327249

  12. Mapping the literature of health education.

    PubMed Central

    Schloman, B F

    1997-01-01

    Health education is a relatively new multidisciplinary field concerned with educational programs that empower individuals and communities to play active roles in achieving, protecting, and sustaining their health. Its practitioners have bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees and work in educational, worksite, health facility, or agency settings. This bibliometric study was part of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's Project for Mapping the Literature of Allied Health. It sought to identify the core journals in health education and to determine the extent to which these titles are covered by the standard indexing sources. Cited references appearing from 1991 through 1993 in articles of four journals published by the major professional associations in the field were analyzed. It was found that only thirteen journals supply one-third of all references in the study. Another eighty journals provide the second third. MEDLINE gives the best indexing coverage with nearly 69% of the journals receiving indexing for at least half of their articles, followed by EMBASE (52%) and PsycINFO (43%). Limited coverage is given by the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (16%) and ERIC (14%). The findings name titles that should be added by indexing services and those that should have more complete coverage. PMID:9285128

  13. Predicting the effects of nanoscale cerium additives in diesel fuel on regional-scale air quality.

    PubMed

    Erdakos, Garnet B; Bhave, Prakash V; Pouliot, George A; Simon, Heather; Mathur, Rohit

    2014-11-01

    Diesel vehicles are a major source of air pollutant emissions. Fuel additives containing nanoparticulate cerium (nCe) are currently being used in some diesel vehicles to improve fuel efficiency. These fuel additives also reduce fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and alter the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbon (HC) species, including several hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). To predict their net effect on regional air quality, we review the emissions literature and develop a multipollutant inventory for a hypothetical scenario in which nCe additives are used in all on-road and nonroad diesel vehicles. We apply the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to a domain covering the eastern U.S. for a summer and a winter period. Model calculations suggest modest decreases of average PM2.5 concentrations and relatively larger decreases in particulate elemental carbon. The nCe additives also have an effect on 8 h maximum ozone in summer. Variable effects on HAPs are predicted. The total U.S. emissions of fine-particulate cerium are estimated to increase 25-fold and result in elevated levels of airborne cerium (up to 22 ng/m3), which might adversely impact human health and the environment. PMID:25271762

  14. Open source electronic health records and chronic disease management

    PubMed Central

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and report on the use of open source electronic health records (EHR) to assist with chronic care management within safety net medical settings, such as community health centers (CHC). Methods and Materials The study was conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to CHC that currently use an open source EHR. Results Two of the sites chosen by NORC were actively using an open source EHR to assist in the redesign of their care delivery system to support more effective chronic disease management. This included incorporating the chronic care model into an CHC and using the EHR to help facilitate its elements, such as care teams for patients, in addition to maintaining health records on indigent populations, such as tuberculosis status on homeless patients. Discussion The ability to modify the open-source EHR to adapt to the CHC environment and leverage the ecosystem of providers and users to assist in this process provided significant advantages in chronic care management. Improvements in diabetes management, controlled hypertension and increases in tuberculosis vaccinations were assisted through the use of these open source systems. Conclusions The flexibility and adaptability of open source EHR demonstrated its utility and viability in the provision of necessary and needed chronic disease care among populations served by CHC. PMID:23813566

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  16. Acoustic emission source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promboon, Yajai

    The objective of the research program was development of reliable source location techniques. The study comprised two phases. First, the research focused on development of source location methods for homogeneous plates. The specimens used in the program were steel railroad tank cars. Source location methods were developed and demonstrated for empty and water filled tanks. The second phase of the research was an exploratory study of source location method for fiber reinforced composites. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of wave propagation were carried out. This data provided the basis for development of a method using the intersection of the group velocity curves for the first three wave propagation modes. Simplex optimization was used to calculate the location of the source. Additional source location methods have been investigated and critically examined. Emphasis has been placed on evaluating different methods for determining the time of arrival of a wave. The behavior of wave in a water filled tank was studied and source location methods suitable for use in this situation have been examined through experiment and theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem caused by leaky Lamb waves. A preliminary study into the use of neural networks for source location in fiber reinforced composites was included in the research program. A preliminary neural network model and the results from training and testing data are reported.

  17. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  18. Discovering semantic features in the literature: a foundation for building functional associations

    PubMed Central

    Chagoyen, Monica; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Shatkay, Hagit; Carazo, Jose M; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Background Experimental techniques such as DNA microarray, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and mass spectrometry proteomics, among others, are generating large amounts of data related to genes and proteins at different levels. As in any other experimental approach, it is necessary to analyze these data in the context of previously known information about the biological entities under study. The literature is a particularly valuable source of information for experiment validation and interpretation. Therefore, the development of automated text mining tools to assist in such interpretation is one of the main challenges in current bioinformatics research. Results We present a method to create literature profiles for large sets of genes or proteins based on common semantic features extracted from a corpus of relevant documents. These profiles can be used to establish pair-wise similarities among genes, utilized in gene/protein classification or can be even combined with experimental measurements. Semantic features can be used by researchers to facilitate the understanding of the commonalities indicated by experimental results. Our approach is based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), a machine-learning algorithm for data analysis, capable of identifying local patterns that characterize a subset of the data. The literature is thus used to establish putative relationships among subsets of genes or proteins and to provide coherent justification for this clustering into subsets. We demonstrate the utility of the method by applying it to two independent and vastly different sets of genes. Conclusion The presented method can create literature profiles from documents relevant to sets of genes. The representation of genes as additive linear combinations of semantic features allows for the exploration of functional associations as well as for clustering, suggesting a valuable methodology for the validation and interpretation of high-throughput experimental

  19. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  20. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  1. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  2. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice. PMID:24212041

  3. Multicultural Folktales: A Golden Mine of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Lila

    This paper asserts that multicultural literature must not be set aside as "other" literature, or worse, be dismissed as second class literature. The paper argues the intrinsic value of multicultural literature, and outlines class and individual activities that show the vast possibilities of stories from around the world. The following materials…

  4. Literature-Based Instruction: Reshaping the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E., Ed.; Au, Kathryn H., Ed.

    Making a case for the value of literature-based instruction, this book presents an overview of the extensive knowledge base supporting literature-based approaches to literacy instruction. It notes that literature-based instruction goes beyond simply changing the kinds of texts children read--also required in literature-based instruction are an…

  5. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  6. Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The integrative literature review is a distinctive form of research that generates new knowledge about the topic reviewed. Little guidance is available on how to write an integrative literature review. This article discusses how to organize and write an integrative literature review and cites examples of published integrative literature reviews…

  7. NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Richmond, J.L.; Wells, C.E.

    1963-01-15

    A neutron source is obtained without employing any separate beryllia receptacle, as was formerly required. The new method is safer and faster, and affords a source with both improved yield and symmetry of neutron emission. A Be container is used to hold and react with Pu. This container has a thin isolating layer that does not obstruct the desired Pu--Be reaction and obviates procedures previously employed to disassemble and remove a beryllia receptacle. (AEC)

  8. Tracking medical genetic literature through machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Aaron T; McLoughlin, Matthew H; Aguilar, Jesus; Wong, Wendy S W; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2016-08-01

    There has been remarkable progress in identifying the causes of genetic conditions as well as understanding how changes in specific genes cause disease. Though difficult (and often superficial) to parse, an interesting tension involves emphasis on basic research aimed to dissect normal and abnormal biology versus more clearly clinical and therapeutic investigations. To examine one facet of this question and to better understand progress in Mendelian-related research, we developed an algorithm that classifies medical literature into three categories (Basic, Clinical, and Management) and conducted a retrospective analysis. We built a supervised machine learning classification model using the Azure Machine Learning (ML) Platform and analyzed the literature (1970-2014) from NCBI's Entrez Gene2Pubmed Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) using genes from the NHGRI's Clinical Genomics Database (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/CGD/). We applied our model to 376,738 articles: 288,639 (76.6%) were classified as Basic, 54,178 (14.4%) as Clinical, and 24,569 (6.5%) as Management. The average classification accuracy was 92.2%. The rate of Clinical publication was significantly higher than Basic or Management. The rate of publication of article types differed significantly when divided into key eras: Human Genome Project (HGP) planning phase (1984-1990); HGP launch (1990) to publication (2001); following HGP completion to the "Next Generation" advent (2009); the era following 2009. In conclusion, in addition to the findings regarding the pace and focus of genetic progress, our algorithm produced a database that can be used in a variety of contexts including automating the identification of management-related literature. PMID:27268407

  9. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  10. Cooperation in Japan. Grades Kindergarten-Third. Elementary Literature Series, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    The Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE) represents a long-term effort by Stanford University to improve international and cross-cultural education in elementary and secondary schools. This volume of the elementary literature series focuses on the primary grades; utilizes primary source literature from Japan;…

  11. What Difference Do Local Schools Make? A Literature Review and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salant, Priscilla; Waller, Anita

    This paper reviews the literature on the noneducational impacts of rural schools on their communities and provides an annotated bibliography of sources. Taken as a whole, the literature suggests that the school-community relationship is multifaceted. Community schools have positive economic impacts related to local employment, retail sales, and…

  12. Missing Mirrors, Missing Windows: Children's Literature Textbooks and LGBT Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkin, Laura B.; Young, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns for the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and the children of families who so self-identify suggest that teachers may need additional support in fostering classrooms that welcome all students. The field of children's literature has long-standing interests in multiple cultures and the literature…

  13. Pattern-Based Extraction of Argumentation from the Scientific Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of publications in the biomedical field continues its exponential increase, techniques for automatically summarizing information from this body of literature have become more diverse. In addition, the targets of summarization have become more subtle; initial work focused on extracting the factual assertions from full-text papers,…

  14. The Multi-Missionary Eleanor Roosevelt of American Indian Literatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Kenneth M.

    2005-01-01

    In this tribute to LaVonne Ruoff, the author describes Ruoff as the "Eleanor Roosevelt of Native American Literature," noting her enormous amount of committee and administrative work done to ensure that the infant American Indian studies discipline was saved and would thrive. In addition to Ruoff's own literary works in the field, she furthered…

  15. Acquaintance Rape on College Campuses: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.

    Although research on acquaintance, or date rape, dates back to the late 1950's, only recently has the literature in this area focused on prevention. In addition, although research has shown that, conservatively, 1 out of 10 women on university campuses has been raped by someone with whom she is familiar, little appears to have been done about the…

  16. Chicorel Index to Film Literature. Volumes 22 and 22A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicorel, Marietta, Ed.

    This index to film literature comprises approximately 15,000 entries under roughly 150 different alphabetically-arranged subject headings, in addition to a complete author index of the works listed. All entries contain complete bibliographic and acquisition data. The entries include listings of works on individual films, film stars, film and show…

  17. AgeLine: a database of social gerontology literature.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Linares, Brenda M

    2013-01-01

    AgeLine, an EBSCO host database, focuses on literature on topics relating to people over the age of 50. AgeLine is geared to professionals in aging-related fields, such as health care professionals, social workers, and caregivers, as well as consumers. This column includes a sample search and a discussion of additional AgeLine features. PMID:23869638

  18. Afro-American Writers. Goldentree Bibliographies in Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Darwin T., Comp.

    This bibliography offers a selective list of the major literary works of black American writers and of scholarship dealing with them and their works. In addition to a listing of drama, fiction, and poetry by Afro-Americans, those works significant to the life and culture of black people in America and to the study of Afro-American literature are…

  19. A Literature Review of the Psychosocial Development of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…

  20. Literature in our medical schools.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B H

    1998-01-01

    Despite many relevant benefits, the study of literature has been rejected by medical schools this century. However, the role of literature and the arts is coming to the fore again in many branches of medicine, including education, leading to a broader approach to medical practice than the purely scientific approach. This is likely to enrich the profession and individuals therein. As well giving as a wider general education, areas of medical training and practice that a literary education will benefit directly include critical reading and appraisal, communication skills, history taking, 'surrogate experience', understanding the role of the physician, ethics, and self-expression. Many of these are central to our understanding of good medical practice. PMID:9747554