Science.gov

Sample records for additional minor components

  1. Effect of Feed Melting, Temperature History and Minor Component Addition on Spinel Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Izak, Pavel; Hrma, Pavel R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Plaisted, Trevor J.

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to help design mathematical models for high-level waste (HLW) glass melter that simulate spinel behavior in molten glass. Spinel, (Fe,Ni,Mn) (Fe,Cr)2O4, is the primary solid phase that precipitates from HLW glasses containing Fe and Ni in sufficient concentrations. Spinel crystallization affects the anticipated cost and risk of HLW vitrification. To study melting reactions, we used simulated HLW feed, prepared with co-precipitated Fe, Ni, Cr, and Mn hydroxides. Feed samples were heated up at a temperature-increase rate (4C/min) close to that which the feed experiences in the HLW glass melter. The decomposition, melting, and dissolution of feed components (such as nitrates, carbonates, and silica) and the formation of intermediate crystalline phases (spinel, sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6(NO2)2], and Zr-containing minerals) were characterized using evolved gas analysis, volume-expansion measurement, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Nitrates and quartz, the major feed components, converted to a glass-forming melt by 880C. A chromium-free spinel formed in the nitrate melt starting from 520C and Sodalite, a transient product of corundum dissolution, appeared above 600C and eventually dissolved in glass. To investigate the effects of temperature history and minor components (Ru,Ag, and Cu) on the dissolution and growth of spinel crystals, samples were heated up to temperatures above liquidus temperature (TL), then subjected to different temperature histories, and analyzed. The results show that spinel mass fraction, crystals composition, and crystal size depend on the chemical and physical makeup of the feed and temperature history.

  2. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Prakash, Indra

    2011-08-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, two additional new diterpenoid glycosides were isolated and their structures were characterized as 13-[(2-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 13-[(2-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2) on the basis of extensive spectral data (NMR and MS) and chemical studies. PMID:21922898

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. Bulkier glass formability enhanced by minor alloying additions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.; Cao, H.; Ding, L.; Chang, Y.A.; Hsieh, K.C.; Pan, Y.

    2005-10-24

    In this study, we present a computational thermodynamic strategy to obtain a minor but optimum amount of additional element into a base alloy to improve its glass-forming ability, through thermodynamically calculating the maximum liquidus depressions caused by various alloying addition (or replacement) schemes. We demonstrate the successful use of Zr{sub 56.2}Cu{sub 31.3}Ni{sub 4.0}Al{sub 8.5} as the base alloy with the addition of 4.9% Ti, by observing a significant increase in the glass-forming ability of more than 100% in terms of the diameter of the glass formed from the base alloy to the one with the addition of 4.9% Ti. The approach presented here can be considered as a universal method to synthesize novel and bulkier metallic glasses not only of scientific interest but also potential technological applications.

  5. Surface components of chylomicrons from rats fed glyceryl or alkyl esters of fatty acids: minor components.

    PubMed

    Yang, L Y; Kuksis, A; Myher, J J; Pang, H

    1992-08-01

    The lipid class, fatty acid and molecular species composition of the minor polar surface components of rat lymph chylomicrons were determined during absorption of menhaden oil and corn oil or of the corresponding fatty acid ethyl esters. In addition to the previously reported minor polar lipids (sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine), we identified phosphatidylglycerol, dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and cholesteryl sulfate in the chylomicrons from both oil and ester feeding. The dietary fatty acids were found to be incorporated to a variable extent into the different phospholipid classes, the proportions of which remained the same during both types of feeding. No evidence was obtained for the presence of the minor glycerophospholipids characteristic of the lysosomal membranes (e.g., bis-phosphatidic, lysobisphosphatidic and semilysobis-phosphatidic acids), although special efforts were made to identify them. These results indicate that the chylomicrons arising from the monoacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid pathways of triacylglycerol biosynthesis become enveloped in closely similar monolayers of phospholipids. Hence, all triacylglycerols may be secreted from the villus cells via a common mechanism as suggested by the previously demonstrated convergence (at the 2-monoacylglycerol stage) of the monoacylglycerol and the phosphatidic acid pathways of mucosal triacylglycerol formation [Yang, Y.L., and Kuksis, A. (1991) J. Lipid Res. 32, 1173-1186]. PMID:1406072

  6. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-β-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{β-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies. PMID:24184820

  7. Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, H; Shahidi, F

    2008-11-15

    The antioxidative components of tree nut oils were extracted using a solvent stripping process. Tree nut oil extracts contained phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and tocopherols. The chloroform/methanol extracted oils had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than their hexane extracted counterparts. The antioxidant activity of tree nut oil minor component extracts were assessed using the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching test, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and photochemiluminescence inhibition assays. Results of these studies demonstrated that extracts of chloroform/methanol extracted oils possessed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of their hexane extracted counterparts. Meanwhile the extract of chloroform/methanol extracted pecan oil possessed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:26047445

  8. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  9. Additional new minor cucurbitane glycosides from Siraitia grosvenorii.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Continuous phytochemical studies of the crude extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii) furnished three additional new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, namely 11-deoxymogroside V, 11-deoxyisomogroside V, and 11-deoxymogroside VI. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral data as well as hydrolysis studies. The complete ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectral assignments of the three unknown compounds are reported for the first time based on COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data. PMID:24662081

  10. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  11. The 1991/92 graduate student researchers program, including the underrepresented minority focus component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) was expanded in 1987 to include the Underrepresented Minority Focus Component (UMFC). This program was designed to increase minority participation in graduate study and research, and ultimately, in space science and aerospace technology careers. This booklet presents the areas of research activities at NASA facilities for the GSRP and summarizes and presents the objectives of the UMFC.

  12. Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

  13. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  14. Application of Additively Manufactured Components in Rocket Engine Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Marty, Jr.; Hanks, Andrew; Schmauch, Preston; Delessio, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing technology has the potential to revolutionize the development of turbopump components in liquid rocket engines. When designing turbomachinery with the additive process there are several benefits and risks that are leveraged relative to a traditional development cycle. This topic explores the details and development of a 90,000 RPM Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump from which 90% of the parts were derived from the additive process. This turbopump was designed, developed and will be tested later this year at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  16. Material Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRCs Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  17. Materials Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRC's Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  18. Effects of the January 2005 GLE/SEP events on minor atmospheric components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storini, M.; Damiani, A.

    It is known from long ago that solar energetic charged particles, driven by the geomagnetic field, are able to produce ionization at different altitudes of the terrestrial atmosphere. Moreover, they can initiate catalytic cycles for the ozone depletion, involving NOx (N+NO+NO2) and HOx (H, OH, HO2) components. Nevertheless, only in recent years it was possible to compare chemical models involving atmospheric minor components with satellite data. In this work we looked for effects of the GLE/SEP events occurred during January 2005 on the OH and HNO3 species of the atmosphere. Results show that there is a response on the minor atmospheric components, which is different in the winter and summer terrestrial hemispheres. *: This topic is faced for COST 724 Action and supported by the Italian Antarctic Research Program in the frame of Solar-Terrestrial Relations and partly performed for a PhD thesis under development at Siena University/Dept. of Earth Science.

  19. Additive manufacturing method for SRF components of various geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rimmer, Robert; Frigola, Pedro E; Murokh, Alex Y

    2015-05-05

    An additive manufacturing method for forming nearly monolithic SRF niobium cavities and end group components of arbitrary shape with features such as optimized wall thickness and integral stiffeners, greatly reducing the cost and technical variability of conventional cavity construction. The additive manufacturing method for forming an SRF cavity, includes atomizing niobium to form a niobium powder, feeding the niobium powder into an electron beam melter under a vacuum, melting the niobium powder under a vacuum in the electron beam melter to form an SRF cavity; and polishing the inside surface of the SRF cavity.

  20. Effects of minor components in carbon dioxide capture using polymeric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Scholes, C.; Kentish, S.; Stevens, G.

    2009-07-01

    The capture of carbon dioxide by membrane gas separation has been identified as one potential solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, the application of membranes to CO{sub 2} capture from both pre- and post-combustion strategies is of interest. For membrane technology to become commercially viable in CO{sub 2} capture, a number of factors need to be overcome, one being the role of minor components in the process on membrane performance. This review considers the effects of minor components in both pre- and post-combustion use of polymeric membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. In particular, gases such as SOx, NOx, CO, H{sub 2}S, NH3, as well as condensable water and hydrocarbons are reviewed in terms of their permeability through polymeric membranes relative to CO{sub 2}, as well as their plasticization and aging effects on membrane separation performance. A major conclusion of the review is that while many minor components can affect performance both through competitive sorption and plasticization, much remains unknown. This limits the selection process for membranes in this application.

  1. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  2. Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

  3. Clock shifts in a Fermi gas interacting with a minority component: A soluble model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruun, G. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Yu Zhenhua

    2010-03-15

    We consider the absorption spectrum of a Fermi gas mixed with a minority species when majority fermions are transferred to another internal state by an external probe. In the limit when the minority species is much more massive than the majority one, we show that the minority species may be treated as static impurities and the problem can be solved in closed form. The analytical results bring out the importance of vertex corrections, which change qualitatively the nature of the absorption spectrum. It is demonstrated that large line shifts are not associated with resonant interactions in general. We also show that the commonly used ladder approximation fails when the majority component is degenerate for large mass ratios between the minority and majority species and that bubble diagrams, which correspond to the creation of many particle-hole pairs, must be taken into account. We carry out detailed numerical calculations, which confirm the analytical insights, and we point out the connection to shadowing phenomena in nuclear physics.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  5. Characterisation of minor components in vegetable oil by comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-12-01

    The profile of minor compounds, such as alcohols, sterols, free and alkyl fatty acids, waxes, etc., was investigated in different vegetable oils by a comprehensive gas chromatographic system, coupled with a simultaneous dual detection (flame ionisation detector and mass spectrometer) for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Such a system generated a unique two-dimensional chromatogram to be used as a chemical fingerprint. Multi-level information, due not only to a more "comprehensive" preparation technique, but also thanks to the exploitation of a more powerful and sensitive analytical determination allowed the extrapolation of diagnostic information from the minor components profile of different vegetable oils, along with their characteristic profile. Furthermore, an admixture of an extra virgin olive oil with a low amount of sunflower and palm oils was evaluated, attesting to the powerful diagnostic information provided by the proposed approach. PMID:27374590

  6. Neutron Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Thomas R.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-09-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of promising manufacturing methods that industry is beginning to explore and adopt. Macroscopically complicated and near net shape components are being built using AM, but how the material behaves in service is a big question for industry. Consequently, AM components/materials need further research into exactly what is made and how it will behave in service. This one and a half day workshop included a series of invited presentations from academia, industry and national laboratories (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda and list of talks). The workshop was welcomed by Alan Tennant, Chief Scientist, Neutron Sciences Directorate, ORNL, and opened remotely by Rob Ivestor, Deputy Director, Advanced Manufacturing Office-DOE, who declared AM adoptees as titans who will be able to create customized 3-D structures with 1 million to 1 billion micro welds with locally tailored microstructures. Further he stated that characterization with neutrons is key to be able to bring critical insight/information into the AM process/property/behavior relationship. Subsequently, the presentations spanned a slice of the current state of the art AM techniques and many of the most relevant characterization techniques using neutrons. After the talks, a panel discussion was held; workshop participants (see Appendix B for a list of attendees) providing questions and the panel answers. The main purpose of the panel discussion was to build consensus regarding the critical research needs in AM that can be addressed with neutrons. These needs were placed into three categories: modes of access for neutrons, new capabilities needed, new AM material issues and neutrons. Recommendations from the workshop were determined based on the panel discussion.

  7. Additively Manufactured Combustion Devices Components for LOX/Methane Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Protz, Christopher; Garcia, Chance; Goodman, Dwight; Baker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, fabricated, and hot-fire tested a variety of successful injectors, chambers, and igniters for potential liquid oxygen (LOX) and methane (CH4) systems since 2005. The most recent efforts have focused on components with additive manufacturing (AM) to include unique design features, minimize joints, and reduce final machining efforts. Inconel and copper alloys have been used with AM processes to produce a swirl coaxial injector and multiple methane cooled thrust chambers. The initial chambers included unique thermocouple ports for measuring local coolant channel temperatures along the length of the chamber. Results from hot-fire testing were used to anchor thermal models and generate a regeneratively cooled thruster for a 4,000 lbf LOX/CH4 engine. The completed thruster will be hot-fire tested in the summer of 2016 at MSFC. The thruster design can also be easily scaled and used on a 25,000 lbf engine. To further support the larger engine design, an AM gas generator injector has been designed. Hot-fire testing on this injector is planned for the summer of 2016 at MSFC.

  8. Identification of new synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors analogues found as minor components in a dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    A dietary supplement sold in erotic shops was analysed. It contains dithiodesmethylcarbodenafil as the major component, which was already reported as an adulterant in dietary supplements. Additionally three more compounds were found and their structures were elucidated after isolation using NMR and mass spectroscopy. They were designated as isonitrosoprodenafil, dithiodesethylcarbodenafil and norcarbodenafil. PMID:24726888

  9. Toxicity of the components of poly(vinylchloride) polymers additives.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, L

    1984-01-01

    The salient features of the toxicity of a number of additives used in polyvinyl chloride polymers were reviewed with primary emphasis on the toxicity of plasticizers (e.g., diethylhexyl phthalate and its metabolites, butylbenzylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate), heat stabilizers (e.g., organotin and lead stabilizers), blowing agents (e.g., azodicarbonamide), free-radical initiators (e.g., benzoylperoxide, lauroyl peroxide, ter.butylhydroperoxide and di-tert.butylperoxide, and flame retardants (e.g., decabromodiphenyl oxide). The paucity of toxicity data on the vast majority of PVC additives should be stressed. PMID:6371824

  10. Enhancing Magnesite Formation at Low Temperature and High CO2 Pressure: The Impact of Seed Crystals and Minor Components

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jia; Perea, Daniel E.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2015-02-24

    The formation of magnesite was followed in aqueous solution containing initially added Mg(OH)2 equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide (90 atm pressure, 50°C) in the presence of introduced magnesite particles and minor components, Co(II). As expected, the introduction of magnesite particles accelerated the formation of magnesite from solution. However, the formation rate of magnesite was even greater when small concentrations of Co(II) were introduced, indicating that the increased rate of magnesite formation in the presence of Co(II) was not solely due to the addition of a growth promoting surface. Detailed analysis of the magnesite particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atom probe tomography (APT) revealed that the originally added Co(II) was concentrated in the center but also present throughout the growing magnesite particles. Addition of the Co(II) in different chemical forms (i.e. as solid phase CoCO3 or Co(OH)2) could alter the growth rate of magnesite depending upon the addition of bicarbonate to the starting solution. Geochemical modeling calculations indicate that this difference is related to the thermodynamic stability of these different phases in the initial solutions. More broadly, these results indicate that the presence of even small concentrations of foreign ions that form carbonate compounds with a similar structure as magnesite can be incorporated into the magnesite lattice, accelerating the formation of anhydrous carbonates in natural environments.

  11. Motor stator using corner scraps for additional electrical components

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2004-03-16

    A method for making a motor and auxiliary devices with a unified stator body comprises providing a piece of material (10) having an area larger than a cross section of the stator (11), removing material from the piece of material (10) to form a pattern for a cross section of a core (11) for the stator, and removing material from the piece of material (10) outside the cross section of the core of the stator (11) to allow positioning of cores (22, 23, 24) for supporting windings (25, 26, 27) of least one additional electromagnetic device, such as a transformer (62) in a dc-to-dc converter (61, 62) that provides a low. voltage dc output. An article of manufacture made according to the invention is also disclosed and apparatus made with the method and article of manufacture are also disclosed.

  12. Minor component study for simulated high-level nuclear waste glasses (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Langowskim, M.H.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Vienna, J.D.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Hanford Site single-shell tank (SSI) and double-shell tank (DSI) wastes are planned to be separated into low activity (or low-level waste, LLW) and high activity (or high-level waste, HLW) fractions, and to be vitrified for disposal. Formulation of HLW glass must comply with glass processibility and durability requirements, including constraints on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, tendency for phase segregation on the molten glass surface, and chemical durability of the final waste form. A wide variety of HLW compositions are expected to be vitrified. In addition these wastes will likely vary in composition from current estimates. High concentrations of certain troublesome components, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chrome, raise concerns about their potential hinderance to the waste vitrification process. For example, phosphate segregation in the cold cap (the layer of feed on top of the glass melt) in a Joule-heated melter may inhibit the melting process (Bunnell, 1988). This has been reported during a pilot-scale ceramic melter run, PSCM-19, (Perez, 1985). Molten salt segregation of either sulfate or chromate is also hazardous to the waste vitrification process. Excessive (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) spinel crystal formation in molten glass can also be detrimental to melter operation.

  13. Controlling crystallization process and thermal stability of a binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass via minor element addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T. T.; Liu, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of minor element addition on the initial structural evolution during crystallization in a simple binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming liquid has been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Despite no changes in the completely crystallized products, the remarkable opposite impacts on the supercooled liquid region (SLR) and crystallization reaction rate constant Kcr are observed as a result of minor selective additions of an affine element, i.e., Sn and an immiscible element, i.e., Nb into the Cu-Zr BMG alloy, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the primary devitrification pathway and crystalline phases are simultaneously modified, which leads to significant changes in kinetics of atomic rearrangement and thus thermal stability of this material. Such a finding offers a promising way to control the type of primary crystalline phases of BMG-forming metallic supercooled liquids to synthesize novel BMGs or BMG matrix composites for structural or functional applications.

  14. Mutations in U4atac snRNA, a Component of the Minor Spliceosome, in the Developmental Disorder MOPD I

    PubMed Central

    He, Huiling; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Akagi, Keiko; Nagy, Rebecca; Li, Jingfeng; Dietrich, Rosemary C; Li, Wei; Sebastian, Nikhil; Wen, Bernard; Xin, Baozhong; Singh, Jarnail; Yan, Pearlly; Alder, Hansjuerg; Haan, Eric; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Albrecht, Beate; Puffenberger, Erik; Wang, Heng; Westman, Judith A.; Padgett, Richard A; Symer, David E; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are essential factors in mRNA splicing. By homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing, we show that a gene encoding U4atac snRNA, a component of the minor U12-dependent spliceosome, is mutated in individuals with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I (MOPD I), a severe developmental disorder characterized by extreme intrauterine growth retardation and multiple organ abnormalities. Functional assays show that mutations (30G>A, 51G>A, 55G>A, and 111G>A) associated with MOPD I cause defective U12-dependent splicing. Endogenous U12-dependent but not U2-dependent introns are poorly spliced in MOPD I patient fibroblast cells while introduction of wild type U4atac snRNA into MOPD I cells enhances U12-dependent splicing. These results illustrate the critical role of minor intron splicing in human development. PMID:21474760

  15. Minor Physical Anomalies and Learning Disability: What is the Prenatal Component?

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ronald V.; Scholl, Theresa O.; Karp, Robert J.; Yanoff, J.M.; Hetherington, James

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a case-control study of 60 school children who were examined for a constellation of anomalies suggestive of fetal alcohol exposure. Nonretarded learning disabled children were 7.25 times (95%, confidence interval, 1.05 to 50.0) more likely than controls to have signs consistent with alcohol exposure in fetal life. These data suggest an expanded spectrum of fetal alcohol effects. Early recognition of minor physical anomalies could result in prompt evaluation and treatment of these children. PMID:3820331

  16. Components of effective outreach and recruitment programs for underrepresented minority and low-income dental students.

    PubMed

    Brunson, W David; Jackson, Douglass L; Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W

    2010-10-01

    Dental schools in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program that increased the number of underrepresented minority (URM) and low-income (LI) students in their predoctoral programs used focused approaches in their outreach, recruitment, and retention initiatives. Various combinations of approaches were used by the fifteen schools that received funding during Phase I of the program, which spanned 2003 to 2007. URM enrollment in the Pipeline schools increased from 184 students in 2003 to 246 in 2007. These enrollment numbers represent 16 and 20 percent of the first-year class in the Pipeline schools in 2003 and 2007, respectively. If the historically minority-serving institutions--Howard University College of Dentistry and Meharry Medical College School of Dentistry--are removed from these totals, the numbers changed from 100 in 2003 to 144 in 2007, representing 10 and 13 percent of the first-year classes. This chapter describes the approaches used by the fifteen Pipeline schools to increase the number of URM and LI students recruited to and enrolled in their predoctoral programs. It describes the internal infrastructural and organizational approaches these dental schools used to increase awareness about oral health careers among URM and LI students and to recruit applicants from these populations to their educational programs. The effective partnerships and collaborations these dental schools established with each other and external stakeholders to bolster their career outreach and recruitment efforts and some of the informal efforts that supported increased diversity are also examined. PMID:20930232

  17. Effect of Minor al Addition on Glass-Forming Ability and Thermal Stability of Zr-Cu Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. H.; Ding, D.; Lu, T.; Xia, L.; Dong, Y. D.

    By adding 2 at.% Al element in Zr50Cu50 binary glass-forming alloy, we obtained Zr50Cu48Al2 glassy rods with diameter larger than 3 mm. The reduced glass transition temperature, parameter γ and the critical section thickness obtained from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces indicate the better glass-forming ability (GFA) of Zr50Cu48Al2 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The super-cooled liquid region and the continuous heating transformation diagram constructed from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann fitting of crystallization temperature illustrate the enhanced thermal stability of the Zr50Cu48Al2 BMG. The mechanism of effect of minor Al addition on GFA was investigated in more detail from Angell's fragility concept and from the thermodynamic point of view respectively.

  18. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality. PMID:27450674

  19. Critical Components of a Successful Undergraduate Research Experience in the Geosciences for Minority Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Chukuigwe, C.

    2013-12-01

    For the past five years, the New York City College of Technology has administered a successful National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. The program provides rich, substantive, academic and life-transformative STEM educational experiences for students who would otherwise not pursue STEM education altogether or would not pursue STEM education through to the graduate school level. The REU Scholars are provided with an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST). Candidates for the program are recruited from the City University of New York's twenty-three separate campuses. These students engage in a research experience that spans the summer and the fall and spring semesters. Eighty-four percent (84%) of the program participants are underrepresented minorities in STEM, and they are involved in a plethora of undergraduate research best practice activities that include: training courses in MATLAB programming, Geographic Information Systems, and Remote Sensing; workshops in Research Ethics, Scientific Writing, and Oral and Poster Research Presentations; national, regional, and local conference presentations; graduate school support; and geoscience exposure events at national laboratories, agencies, and research facilities. To enhance their success in the program, the REU Scholars are also provided with a comprehensive series of safety nets that include a multi-tiered mentoring design specifically to address critical issues faced by this diverse population. Since the inception of the REU program in 2008, a total of 61 undergraduate students have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. All the REU Scholars conducted individual satellite and ground-based remote sensing research projects that ranged from the study of

  20. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of the Fraser River, British Columbia: seasonal variation in major and minor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eion M.

    1996-07-01

    For several years Environment Canada (EC) has carried out a program of water sampling at four stations along the Fraser River and at one station on each of its two principal tributaries, the Thompson and the Nechako. Samples collected at bi-weekly intervals have been analyzed by EC for major and some trace components. Seasonal variation in water composition mainly relates to changes in discharge, this being low during winter and high during early summer snowmelt. Dissolved constituents, Mg, Si, K, Ca, Sr, HCO 3, SO 4 and (NO 3 + NO 2), show moderate variation, being least concentrated during maximum discharge, reflecting dilution of groundwater by melting snow. Factor analysis shows secondary seasonal variation for SO 4, that is related to the importance of deep groundwater as a source, and for (NO 3 + NO 2), precipitated with snow and released during snowmelt. Large amounts of Na and Cl are added in pulp mill effluent. A uniform flux of this effluent, superimposed on a highly variable river discharge, gives rise to greater seasonal variation for Na and Cl than other dissolved constituents. The trace constituents, Fe, Mn, Al, P and Sr, were analyzed by EC in unfiltered water samples by methods that extract the elements from suspended material. Except for Sr, these elements have a high partition factor in favor of suspended over dissolved phases; their results reflect seasonal changes in quantities of suspended material, which can vary by two orders of magnitude.

  2. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu Solders with Minor Addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, A. E.; El-Taher, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comparative evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical deformation behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders with the minor addition of 0.05 wt.% Ni. Test results showed that, by adding 0.05Ni element into SAC solders, generated mainly small rod-shaped (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) inside the β-Sn phase. Moreover, increasing the Ag content and adding Ni could result in the change of the shape and size of the IMC precipitate. Hence, a significant improvement is observed in the mechanical properties of SAC solders with increasing Ag content and Ni addition. On the other hand, the tensile results of Ni-doped SAC solders showed that both the yield stress and ultimate tensile strengths decrease with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. This behavior was attributed to the competing effects of work hardening and dynamic recovery processes. The Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni solder displayed the highest mechanical properties due to the formation of hard (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMCs. Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is suggested that the dominant deformation mechanism in SAC (205)-, SAC (0505)- and SAC (0505)-0.05Ni solders is pipe diffusion, and lattice self-diffusion in SAC (205)-0.05Ni solder. In view of these results, the Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.05Ni alloy is a more reliable solder alloy with improved properties compared with other solder alloys tested in the present work.

  3. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to...

  4. On- and offline ultrasonic characterization of components built by SLM additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Hans; Spies, Martin; Bamberg, Joachim; Henkel, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing processes have become commercially available and are particularly interesting for the production of free-formed parts. Selective laser melting allows for manufacturing components by localized melting of successive layers of metal powder. In this contribution, we report on investigations in view of the influence of the process parameter `laser power' on the microstructure of the manufactured component. It turned out that the online recorded A-scans allow inferring conclusions about the quality of the SLM process. We also report on offline measurements which have been performed to support the online results.

  5. Load-dependent Optimization of Honeycombs for Sandwich Components - New Possibilities by Using Additive Layer Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riss, Fabian; Schilp, Johannes; Reinhart, Gunther

    Due to their feasible geometric complexity, additive layer manufacturing (ALM) processes show a highpotential for the production of lightweight components.Therefore, ALM processes enable the realization of bionic-designedcomponents like honeycombs, which are optimized depending upon load and outer boundary conditions.This optimization is based on a closed-loop, three-steps methodology: At first, each honeycomb is conformed to the surface of the part. Secondly, the structure is optimizedfor lightweight design.It is possible to achieve a homogeneous stress distribution in the part by varying the wall thickness, honeycombdiameter and the amount of honeycombs, depending on the subjected stresses and strains. At last, the functional components like threads or bearing carriers are integrated directly into the honeycomb core.Using all these steps as an iterative process, it is possible to reduce the mass of sandwich components about 50 percent compared to conventional approaches.

  6. Exact solution of Smoluchowski's continuous multi-component equation with an additive kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Díaz, J. M.; Gómez-García, G. J.

    2007-06-01

    Smoluchowski's equation is used to analyse the dynamics of particulate systems under aggregation processes in aerosol physics, atmospheric physics, astrophysics, polymer chemistry, colloidal chemistry, etc. Here we provide an exact analytical solution for Smoluchowski's general, continuous, multi-component equation with additive kernel, for any initial particle size distribution (PSD). Once obtained the general solution, we apply it to a case with initial gamma PSD, which can be used to test numerical methods developed for solving more general cases. We have analysed the behaviour for large sizes and time, and a scaling approximation has been obtained as Vigil and Ziff conjectured. For bi-component mixtures we prove that as time increases, for the additive kernel, we cannot use the scaling solution to describe the behaviour of the number PSD on the whole. This fact contradicts a recent affirmation on the subject done by Matsoukas et al.

  7. Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Niti; Rai, A.K.; Kumari, Ratna; Bhat, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value. PMID:25125886

  8. Addition Formulae of Discrete KP, q-KP and Two-Component BKP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Li, Chuan-Zhong; He, Jing-Song

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we construct the addition formulae for several integrable hierarchies, including the discrete KP, the q-deformed KP, the two-component BKP and the D type Drinfeld–Sokolov hierarchies. With the help of the Hirota bilinear equations and τ functions of different kinds of KP hierarchies, we prove that these addition formulae are equivalent to these hierarchies. These studies show that the addition formula in the research of the integrable systems has good universality. Supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. LY15A010004, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11201251, 11571192 and the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo under Grant No. 2015A610157. Jingsong He is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11271210, K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  9. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  10. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  11. LOX/GOX sensitivity of fluoroelastomers. [effect of formulation components and addition of fire retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirshen, N.; Mill, T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of formulation components and the addition of fire retardants on the impact sensitivity of Viton B fluoroelastomer in liquid oxygen was studied with the objective of developing a procedure for reliably reducing this sensitivity. Component evaluation, carried out on more than 40 combinations of components and cure cycles, showed that almost all the standard formulation agents, including carbon, MgO, Diak-3, and PbO2, will sensitize the Viton stock either singly or in combinations, some combinations being much more sensitive than others. Cure and postcure treatments usually reduced the sensitivity of a given formulation, often dramatically, but no formulated Viton was as insensitive as the pure Viton B stock. Coating formulated Viton with a thin layer of pure Viton gave some indication of reduced sensitivity, but additional tests are needed. It is concluded that sensitivity in formulated Viton arises from a variety of sources, some physical and some chemical in origin. Elemental analyses for all the formulated Vitons are reported as are the results of a literature search on the subject of LOX impact sensitivity.

  12. Microstructure of Interpass Rolled Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Filomeno; Colegrove, Paul A.; Williams, Stewart W.; Meyer, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical property anisotropy is one of the issues that are limiting the industrial adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) Ti-6Al-4V components. To improve the deposits' microstructure, the effect of high-pressure interpass rolling was evaluated, and a flat and a profiled roller were compared. The microstructure was changed from large columnar prior β grains that traversed the component to equiaxed grains that were between 56 and 139 μm in size. The repetitive variation in Widmanstätten α lamellae size was retained; however, with rolling, the overall size was reduced. A "fundamental study" was used to gain insight into the microstructural changes that occurred due to the combination of deformation and deposition. High-pressure interpass rolling can overcome many of the shortcomings of AM, potentially aiding industrial implementation of the process.

  13. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  16. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  17. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  18. 4-Trifluoromethyl-p-quinols as dielectrophiles: three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jinhuan; Shi, Lou; Pan, Ling; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, numerous methods have emerged for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the late-stage introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an aryl ring. In sharp comparison, the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon has rarely been addressed. It has been found that 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers, the readily available and relatively stable compounds, can act as dielectrophiles to be applied to multi-component reactions for the synthesis of various trifluoromethylated arenes. Catalyzed by In(OTf)3, 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers react with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles, respectively, in a regiospecific 1,2-addition manner to generate the corresponding highly reactive electrophilic intermediates. Further reaction of the in-situ generated electrophiles with a C-nucleophile followed by spontaneous aromatization enables the construction of functionalized trifluoromethyl arenes. This three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reaction based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon provides a divergent strategy for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes under mild reaction conditions in a single operation.

  19. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Multifunctional Components Using High Density Carbon Nanotube Yarn Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kim, Jae-Woo; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for design freedom and part complexity not currently attainable using traditional manufacturing technologies. Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), for example, can yield novel component geometries and functionalities because the method provides a high level of control over material placement and processing conditions. This is achievable by extrusion of a preprocessed filament feedstock material along a predetermined path. However if fabrication of a multifunctional part relies only on conventional filament materials, it will require a different material for each unique functionality printed into the part. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an attractive material for many applications due to their high specific strength as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. The presence of this set of properties in a single material presents an opportunity to use one material to achieve multifunctionality in an additively manufactured part. This paper describes a recently developed method for processing continuous CNT yarn filaments into three-dimensional articles, and summarizes the mechanical, electrical, and sensing performance of the components fabricated in this way.

  1. 4-Trifluoromethyl-p-quinols as dielectrophiles: three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reactions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinhuan; Shi, Lou; Pan, Ling; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, numerous methods have emerged for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the late-stage introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an aryl ring. In sharp comparison, the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon has rarely been addressed. It has been found that 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers, the readily available and relatively stable compounds, can act as dielectrophiles to be applied to multi-component reactions for the synthesis of various trifluoromethylated arenes. Catalyzed by In(OTf)3, 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers react with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles, respectively, in a regiospecific 1,2-addition manner to generate the corresponding highly reactive electrophilic intermediates. Further reaction of the in-situ generated electrophiles with a C-nucleophile followed by spontaneous aromatization enables the construction of functionalized trifluoromethyl arenes. This three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reaction based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon provides a divergent strategy for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes under mild reaction conditions in a single operation. PMID:27246540

  2. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  3. Protective Effects of Minor Components of Curcuminoids on Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Human HaCaT Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuh-Hwa; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Huang, Yu-Wei; Fang, Sheng-Uei; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-05-11

    Hydrogen peroxide, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), can cause intracellular oxidative stress associated with skin aging and/or photoaging. Curcumin, a polyphenol in turmeric, has been reported to exhibit biological activity. In this study, five naturally occurring curcuminoids [curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), monohydroxy-DMC, and monohydroxy-BDMC] were used to investigate their protective roles against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in the immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT cells). These five curcuminoids at 10 μM, but not at 5 μM, were shown to exhibit cytotoxicities toward HaCaT keratinocytes. Therefore, a 5 μM concentration of the five curcuminoids was selected for further investigations. Cells were pretreated with or without curcuminoids for 2.5 h before 24-h hydrogen peroxide (150 μM) treatments. Pretreatments with the minor components monohydroxy-DMC or monohydroxy-BDMC, but not curcumin, DMC, and BDMC, showed protective activity, elevating cell viability compared to cells with direct hydrogen peroxide treatments. Pretreatments with monohydroxy-DMC and monohydroxy-BDMC showed the best protective effects, reducing apoptotic cell populations and intracellular ROS, as demonstrated by flow cytometry, as well as reducing the changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential compared to cells with direct hydrogen peroxide treatments. The pretreatments with monohydroxy-DMC and monohydroxy-BDMC reduced c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression and p53 tumor suppressor protein expression and increased HO-1 protein expression and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, respectively, compared to cells with direct hydrogen peroxide treatments. The five curcuminoids exhibited similar hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity in vitro. It was proposed that monohydroxy-DMC and monohydroxy-BDMC could induce antioxidant defense systems better than curcumin, DMC, or BDMC could against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative

  4. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  5. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  6. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  7. Lightweight custom composite prosthetic components using an additive manufacturing-based molding technique.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Michael T; Belter, Joseph T; Gemmell, Kevin D; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes higher quality and more inexpensive. The idea of 3D printed prosthetics components promises affordable, customizable devices, but these systems currently have major shortcomings in durability and function. In this paper, we propose a fabrication method for custom composite prostheses utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional prosthetics. The manufacturing process is completed using 3D printed molds in a multi-stage molding system, which creates a custom finger or palm with a lightweight epoxy foam core, a durable composite outer shell, and soft urethane gripping surfaces. The composite material was compared to 3D printed and aluminum materials using a three-point bending test to compare stiffness, as well as gravimetric measurements to compare weight. The composite finger demonstrates the largest stiffness with the lowest weight compared to other tested fingers, as well as having customizability and lower cost, proving to potentially be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses. PMID:26737367

  8. Components and Context: Exploring Sources of Reading Difficulties for Language Minority Learners and Native English Speakers in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Vukovic, Rose K.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on…

  9. Chemical Characteristics of Cold-Pressed Blackberry, Black Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils and the Role of the Minor Components in Their Oxidative Stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-07-01

    The chemical characteristics of cold-pressed blackberry, black raspberry, and blueberry seed oils were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, positional distribution of fatty acids, triacylglycerol (TAG) profile, and minor component profile. The role of minor components, including tocols and pigments, on the oxidative stability was also investigated using high-temperature- and fluorescent-lighting-induced oxidation before and after tested berry seed oils were stripped of their minor components. The results indicated that all tested berry seed oils contained significant levels of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (C18:2ω-6), and α-linolenic (C18:3ω-3) acids, along with a favorable ratio of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids (1.49-3.86); palmitic, stearic, oleic, and α-linolenic acids were predominantly distributed on the terminal positions. Six TAGs, namely, LnLnLn, LnLLn, LLLn, LLL, OLL, and OLLn, were the major species detected in the tested berry seed oils. Total tocol contents were 286.3-1302.9 mg/kg, which include α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols as well as δ-tocotrienol. Oxidative stability of the three berry seed oils was compromised after the removal of tocols under high-temperature-induced oxidation, while the loss of pigments (chlorophylls) led to weak oxidative stability when exposed to fluorescent lights. PMID:27203814

  10. Application of Optical Parametric Generator for Lidar Sensing of Minor Gas Components of the Atmosphere in 3-4 μm Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Shumskii, V. K.; Yakovlev, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Possibility of application of a laser system with parametric light generation based on a nonlinear KTA crystal for lidar sensing of the atmosphere in the 3-4 μm spectral range is investigated. A technique for lidar measurements of gas components in the atmosphere with the use of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is developed. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested for estimating the possibility of laser sensing of minor gas components in the atmosphere.

  11. The effect of minor additions of titanium on the fracture toughness of Fe-12Ni alloys at 77K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, H.; Yin, C.; Sargent, G.

    1978-01-01

    Titanium additions ranging from 0.18 to 0.99 atomic percent and heat treatments of 2 hours at 550, 685 and 820 C respectively followed by a water quench were considered. Cubic and rectangular shaped inclusions were noted in the SEM fractographs of the alloys with the Ti additions. A fine precipitate was observed by TEM for the Fe-12Ni-0.18Ti alloys heat treated at 550 C; this precipitate was not observed for the 685 and 820 C heat treatments of the same alloy. Auger mappings of the fracture surfaces indicated a weak to moderate association of the interstitials C, N and O with Ti, the degree of which depended on the particular interstitial and the heat treatment temperature.

  12. Isolation and identification of minor secoiridoids and phenolic components from thermally treated olive oil by-products.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Martos, Sergio; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2015-11-15

    The application of an industrial process based on the hydrothermal treatment of 160 °C/60 min of alperujo, a by-product of olive oil extraction, allows the formation of a liquid phase containing a high concentration of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds. Ethyl acetate was used to extract these phenolic compounds from the aqueous matrix. In this study, the isolation with polyamide and XAD resin allowed detection of the presence of phenolic compounds in minor concentrations. These minor phenols were several oleuropein derivatives that had not been identified in these phenolic extracts previously. The polar compounds, acteosides, secoiridoids, and flavonoids, that remain in the aqueous fraction after extraction with ethyl acetate were identified. We report the presence of known compounds and also detected a novel molecule in alperujo with a molecular weight of 408 whose structure was characterized for first time. This new secoiridoid glucoside was identified as 1-β-D-glucopyranosyl acyclodihydroelenolic acid. PMID:25977012

  13. Effects of Minor Alloying Additions on the Microstructure, Toughness, and Creep Strength of Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Salem, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the effects of small (0.25 to 1.0 at%) fifth element additions to the structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified (DS) NiAl-31Cr-3Mo has been undertaken. Essentially all the additions changed the as-DS'ed microstructure from lamellar eutectic grains to cells and, in some cases, introduced NiAl dendrites and/or third phases. In general the alloying additions did not improve strength or toughness over that possessed by the base composition; only Hf and, perhaps Ti, gave a minor increase in elevated temperature creep resistance. The lack of improvement in creep properties is probably due to inability to precipitation harden NiAl.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+XRE Magnesium Alloy with Minor Addition of Yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, S.; Babu, S. P. Kumaresh; Sundarrajan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    The effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental alloys were prepared by melting high-purity Mg, Al, Zn, and Y, respectively. Melting was carried out in a Inconel 718 crucible under SF6 and ultra pure Ar (99.999%) gas mixture environment using electric arc furnace. The corrosion behavior of Mg-6Al-1Zn+ xYttrium ( x = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt.% Y) magnesium alloy with different levels of yttrium additions was studied in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure of yttrium-added alloy shows that higher grainrefinement is obtained in Mg-6Al-1Zn+0.5wt.%Y. Increasing yttrium content reduces the size of α-grain and alters the distribution of the β-phase (Mg17Al12) from continuous network morphology to small and dispersive distribution. It forms secondary intermetallic phase Al2Y which has high melting point along the grain boundary. The corrosion resistance of Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy improved with addition of Yttrium. It was confirmed by the results of electrochemical polarization test. Based on the polarization curves, it is seen that fine precipitates of Al-Y intermetallic phase in Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy decrease the corrosion current density, thereby improving the corrosion resistance of the Mg-6Al-1Zn magnesium alloy.

  15. EFFECT OF MINOR ADDITIONS OF HYDROGEN TO ARGON SHIELDING GAS WHEN WELDING AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH THE GTAW PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-12-15

    This paper provides the technical basis to conclude that the use of hydrogen containing shielding gases during welding of austenitic stainless steels will not lead to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of the weld or weld heat affected zone. Argon-hydrogen gas mixtures, with hydrogen additions up to 35% [1], have been successfully used as the shielding gas in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of austenitic stainless steels. The addition of hydrogen improves weld pool wettability, bead shape control, surface cleanliness and heat input. The GTAW process is used extensively for welding various grades of stainless steel and is preferred when a very high weld quality is desired, such as that required for closure welding of nuclear materials packages. The use of argon-hydrogen gas mixtures for high-quality welding is occasionally questioned, primarily because of concern over the potential for HIC. This paper was written specifically to provide a technical basis for using an argon-hydrogen shielding gas in conjunction with the development, at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), of an ''optimized'' closure welding process for the DOE standardized spent nuclear fuel canister [2]. However, the basis developed here can be applied to other applications in which the use of an argon-hydrogen shielding gas for GTAW welding of austenitic stainless steels is desired.

  16. The atomic-scale mechanism for the enhanced glass-forming-ability of a Cu-Zr based bulk metallic glass with minor element additions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.; Liu, J. B.; Dong, Y. D.; Lu, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the glass forming-ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be greatly enhanced via minor element additions. However, direct evidence has been lacking to reveal its structural origin despite different theories hitherto proposed. Through the high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, here we show that the content of local crystal-like orders increases significantly in a Cu-Zr-Al BMG after a 2-at% Y addition. Contrasting the previous studies, our current results indicate that the formation of crystal-like order at the atomic scale plays an important role in enhancing the GFA of the Cu-Zr-Al base BMG. PMID:24721927

  17. Many QTLs with minor additive effects are associated with a large difference in growth between two selection lines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Lina; Park, Hee-Bok; Wahlberg, Per; Fredriksson, Robert; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Siegel, Paul B; Andersson, Leif

    2005-10-01

    Two growth-selected lines in chickens have been developed from a single founder population by divergent selection for body weight at 56 days of age. After more than 40 generations of selection they show a nine-fold difference in body weight at selection age and large differences in growth rate, appetite, fat deposition and metabolic characteristics. We have generated a large intercross between these lines comprising more than 800 F2 birds. QTL mapping revealed 13 loci affecting growth. The most striking observation was that the allele in the high weight line in all cases was associated with enhanced growth, but each locus explained only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance using a standard QTL model (1.3-3.1%). This result is in sharp contrast to our previous study where we reported that the two-fold difference in adult body size between the red junglefowl and White Leghorn domestic chickens is explained by a small number of QTLs with large additive effects. Furthermore, no QTLs for anorexia or antibody response were detected despite large differences for these traits between the founder lines. The result is an excellent example where a large phenotypic difference between populations occurs in the apparent absence of any single locus with large phenotypic effects. The study underscores the need for powerful experimental designs in genetic studies of multifactorial traits. No QTL at all would have reached genome-wide significance using a less powerful design (e.g. approx. 200 F2 individuals) regardless of the nine-fold phenotypic difference between the founder lines for the selected trait. PMID:16356285

  18. Superior critical current density obtained in MgB2 bulks via employing carbon-coated boron and minor Cu addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Junming; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Xin, Ying; Jin, Jianxun

    2016-09-01

    High performance Cu doped MgB2 bulks were prepared by an in-situ method with carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor. It was found that the usage of carbon-coated boron in present work leads to the formation of uniformly refined MgB2 grains, as well as a high level of homogeneous carbon doping in the MgB2 samples, which significantly enhance the Jc in both Cu doped and undoped bulks compared to MgB2 bulks with normal amorphous boron precursor. Moreover, minor Cu can service as activator, and thus facilitates the growth of MgB2 grains and improves crystallinity and grain connectivity, which can bring about the excellent critical current density (Jc) at self fields and low fields (the best values are 7 × 105 A/cm2 at self fields, and 1 × 105 A/cm2 at 2 T, 20 K, respectively). Simultaneously, minor Cu addition can reduce the amount of MgO impurity significantly, also contributing to the improvement of Jc at low fields. Our work suggests that Cu-activated sintering combined with employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor could be a promising technique to produce practical MgB2 bulks or wires with excellent Jc on an industrial scale.

  19. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  20. Additive Manufacturing Thermal Performance Testing of Single Channel GRCop-84 SLM Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Chance P.; Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The surface finish found on components manufactured by sinter laser manufacturing (SLM) is rougher (0.013 - 0.0006 inches) than parts made using traditional fabrication methods. Internal features and passages built into SLM components do not readily allow for roughness reduction processes. Alternatively, engineering literature suggests that the roughness of a surface can enhance thermal performance within a pressure drop regime. To further investigate the thermal performance of SLM fabricated pieces, several GRCop-84 SLM single channel components were tested using a thermal conduction rig at MSFC. A 20 kW power source running at 25% duty cycle and 25% power level applied heat to each component while varying water flow rates between 2.1 - 6.2 gallons/min (GPM) at a supply pressure of 550 to 700 psi. Each test was allowed to reach quasi-steady state conditions where pressure, temperature, and thermal imaging data were recorded. Presented in this work are the heat transfer responses compared to a traditional machined OHFC Copper test section. An analytical thermal model was constructed to anchor theoretical models with the empirical data.

  1. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Johnsen, Richard; Yuh, Chao-Yi; Farooque, Mohammad

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  2. Minor components of olive oil facilitate the triglyceride clearance from postprandial lipoproteins in a polarity-dependent manner in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Moruno, Rosana; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Montero, Emilio; Perona, Javier S

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are recognized as atherogenic particles whose lipid composition and function can be modified by the composition of dietary oils. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that minor components of pomace olive oil (POMACE) can not only change the composition of postprandial TRL but also affect the clearance of triglyceride (TG) molecular species of postprandial TRL. Meals enriched in either POMACE or refined olive oil (OLIVE) were administered to 10 healthy young men. TRL were isolated from serum at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially, and their fatty acid and TG molecular species compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography. The apolipoprotein B concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. POMACE and OLIVE, differing mainly in their unsaponifiable fraction, led to similar fatty acid and TG molecular species profiles in postprandial TRL. However, POMACE-TRL presented a higher particle size, estimated as TG to apolipoprotein B ratio, which was also found for the main TG molecular species (trioleoyl-glycerol, palmitoyl-dioleoyl-glycerol, palmitoyl-oeloyl-linoleoyl-glycerol, and dioleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol). TG from POMACE-TRL also showed higher clearance rates. In this regard, apolar TG (with a higher equivalent carbon number) disappeared more rapidly from TRL particles obtained after the ingestion of either POMACE or OLIVE. In conclusion, minor components of POMACE facilitated TG clearance from TRL by modifying their particle size and the hydrolysis of the most apolar species. PMID:24418245

  3. Determination of main and minor components of silicon based materials by a combustion with elemental fluorine. Separation of gaseous fluorination products by carrier gas distillation and gas mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Russe; Kipphardt; Broekaert

    2000-08-15

    For the determination of main and minor components in silicon-based ceramic powders, a decomposition by a combustion with elemental fluorine and separation of the volatile fluorination products by a carrier-gas distillation with a subsequent detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry is described. The necessity and success of the separation step is demonstrated for the determination of boron as a minor constituent in SiC, where the spectral interferences of silicon on the boron signals are decreased considerably. The method developed is shown to be directly applicable to determination of silicon in Si3N4, SiC, and SiO2. The determination of nitrogen in Si3N4 requires additional effort, to separate nitrogen from the excess of fluorine. For the determination of boron, a complete mobilization of BF3 is assured by the presence of an adequate amount of GeF4. Analysis results obtained with different types of calibration show a precision of 30 microg for boron at the milligram-per-gram level and a precision between 0.5 and 2% (m/m) for the main components, silicon and nitrogen. Within these standard deviations, the results agree well with the values expected from the stoichiometry, with the results for silicon and boron obtained by wet chemical decomposition and slurry techniques in combination with ICP-OES and with the results for nitrogen obtained by carrier gas heat extraction. PMID:10959976

  4. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P < 0.05). The differences may largely result from diverse responses of Ra to N addition among biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies. PMID:24323545

  5. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  6. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  7. Solvation effects with a photoresponsive two-component 12-hydroxystearic acid-azobenzene additive organogel.

    PubMed

    Delbecq, Frederic; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Endo, Hiroshi; Kawai, Takeshi

    2012-10-15

    A "light-triggerable" azobenzene amine derivative (additive 1) was synthesized and then introduced into organogels of 12-hydroxystearic acid (HSA) in the molar ratio of 1:3. The organogels (HSA/1) consisting of additive 1 and HSA were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The homogeneity of the gel networks was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Additive 1 formed a complex with HSA in HSA organogels due to salification between the terminal amine group of additive 1 and the carboxylic acid group of HSA. Additive 1 in the gels of HSA/1 showed the potential for photo-isomerization, and we achieved a reversible control of HSA/1 sol-gel transition in toluene by the alternating irradiation with UV and visible light. Interestingly, the opposite phenomenon was observed in CHCl(3) system, namely, the orange solution of HSA/1 in CHCl(3) was turned to a red-transparent gel by exposure to UV light. PMID:22819394

  8. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan. PMID:26726749

  9. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... the Federal Register of July 17, 2012 (77 FR 41953), we announced that food additive petition (FAP... assessment of BPA. (Response) As indicated in the filing notice (77 FR 41953), because the petition was based... assessing the safety of BPA (see 75 FR 17145; April 5, 2010; see also...

  10. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P.; Holovati, Jelena L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Methods Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Results Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 ± 0.83% vs. human 0.34 ± 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/µl and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 ± 0.68% vs. 0.87 ± 0.39%; p = 0.028). Conclusion Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs. PMID:26195928

  11. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Boundary changes, amendments to the... REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.33 Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and...

  12. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Boundary changes, amendments to the... REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.33 Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and...

  13. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Boundary changes, amendments to the... REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.33 Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and...

  14. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boundary changes, amendments to the... REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.33 Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and...

  15. 15 CFR 921.33 - Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Boundary changes, amendments to the... REGULATIONS Reserve Designation and Subsequent Operation § 921.33 Boundary changes, amendments to the management plan, and addition of multiple-site components. (a) Changes in the boundary of a Reserve and...

  16. Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation–selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. “Animal model” analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population. PMID:24963372

  17. Baldwin Effect and Additional BLR Component in AGN with Superluminal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño Álvarez, Víctor; Torrealba, Janet; Chavushyan, Vahram; Cruz González, Irene; Arshakian, Tigran; León Tavares, Jonathan; Popovic, Luka

    2016-06-01

    We study the Baldwin Effect (BE) in 96 core-jet blazars with optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data from a radio-loud AGN sample obtained from the MOJAVE 2cm survey. A statistical analysis is presented of the equivalent widths W_lambda of emission lines H beta 4861, Mg II 2798, C IV 1549, and continuum luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 angstroms. The BE is found statistically significant (with confidence level c.l. > 95%) in H beta and C IV emission lines, while for Mg II the trend is slightly less significant (c.l. = 94.5%). The slopes of the BE in the studied samples for H beta and Mg II are found steeper and with statistically significant difference than those of a comparison radio-quiet sample. We present simulations of the expected BE slopes produced by the contribution to the total continuum of the non-thermal boosted emission from the relativistic jet, and by variability of the continuum components. We find that the slopes of the BE between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN should not be different, under the assumption that the broad line is only being emitted by the canonical broad line region around the black hole. We discuss that the BE slope steepening in radio AGN is due to a jet associated broad-line region.

  18. The biodegradation of cable oil components: impact of oil concentration, nutrient addition and bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Towell, Marcie G; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T

    2011-12-01

    The effect of cable oil concentration, nutrient amendment and bioaugmentation on cable oil component biodegradation in a pristine agricultural soil was investigated. Biodegradation potential was evaluated over 21 d by measuring cumulative CO(2) respiration on a Micro-Oxymax respirometer and (14)C-phenyldodecane mineralisation using a (14)C-respirometric assay. Cable oil concentration had a significant effect upon oil biodegradation. Microbial respiratory activity increased with increasing cable oil concentration, whereas (14)C-phenydodecane mineralisation decreased. Bioaugmentation achieved the best cable oil biodegradation performance, resulting in increases in cumulative CO(2) respiration, and maximum rates and extents of (14)C-phenyldodecane mineralisation. Generally, nutrient amendment also enhanced cable oil biodegradation, but not to the extent that degrader amendment did. Cable oil biodegradation was a function of (i) cable oil concentration and (ii) catabolic ability of microbial populations. Bioaugmentation may enhance cable oil biodegradation, and is dependent upon composition, cell number and application of catabolic inocula to soil. PMID:21872976

  19. The effects of physical refining on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in relation to palm oil minor components.

    PubMed

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Latip, Razam Abdul; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Tan, Chin Ping

    2012-11-15

    The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation. PMID:22868161

  20. Effect of olive oil minor components on oxidative stress and arachidonic acid mobilization and metabolism by macrophages RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan J

    2003-11-01

    Minor components of virgin olive oil may explain the healthy effects of the Mediterranean diet on the cardiovascular system and cancer development. The uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and cancer, and inflammatory cells infiltrated in the atheroma plaque or tumor are a major source of ROS and eicosanoids. We aimed to determine the effects of squalene, beta-sitosterol, and tyrosol, which are representative of the hydrocarbons, sterols, and polyphenols of olive oil, respectively, on superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (*NO) levels. We also studied AA release and eicosanoid production by phorbol esters (PMA)-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7. beta-Sitosterol and tyrosol decreased the O2(-) and H2O2 production induced by PMA, and tyrosol scavenged the O2(-) released by a ROS generating system. These effects were correlated with the impairment of [3H]AA release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and prostaglandin E(2)/leukotriene B(4) synthesis in RAW 264.7 cultures stimulated by PMA. beta-Sitosterol exerted its effects after 3-6 h of preincubation. Tyrosol inhibited the [3H]AA release induced by exogenous ROS. beta-Sitosterol and tyrosol also reduced the *NO release induced by PMA, which was correlated with the impairment of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels. This may be correlated with the modulation of NF-kappaB activation. Further studies are required to gain more insight into the potential healthy effects of minor components of extra virgin olive oil. PMID:14572610

  1. Student Default Initiative Act of 1988. Report. Committee on Education and Labor. U.S. House of Representatives. 100th Congress, 2nd Session, Together with Supplemental Minority and Additional Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The report of the Committee on Education and Labor, together with supplemental minority and additional views is presented to accompany H.R. 4986 to amend the Higher Education Act 1965 to reduce the default rate on student loans under the Act. Topics include the following: committee action; background and need for the legislation; explanation of…

  2. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  3. Investigation of plasma arc welding as a method for the additive manufacturing of titanium-(6)aluminum-(4)vanadium alloy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinoha, Joe N.

    The process of producing near net-shape components by material deposition is known as additive manufacturing. All additive manufacturing processes are based on the addition of material with the main driving forces being cost reduction and flexibility in both manufacturing and product design. With wire metal deposition, metal is deposited as beads side-by-side and layer-by-layer in a desired pattern to build a complete component or add features on a part. There are minimal waste products, low consumables, and an efficient use of energy and feedstock associated with additive manufacturing processes. Titanium and titanium alloys are useful engineering materials that possess an extraordinary combination of properties. Some of the properties that make titanium advantageous for structural applications are its high strength-to-weight ratio, low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and good corrosion resistance. The most commonly used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, is typically used in aerospace applications, pressure vessels, aircraft gas turbine disks, cases and compressor blades, and surgical implants. Because of the high material prices associated with titanium alloys, the production of near net-shape components by additive manufacturing is an attractive option for the manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy components. In this thesis, the manufacturing of cylindrical Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens by wire metal deposition utilizing the plasma arc welding process was demonstrated. Plasma arc welding is a cost effective additive manufacturing technique when compared to other current additive manufacturing methods such as laser beam welding and electron beam welding. Plasma arc welding is considered a high-energy-density welding processes which is desirable for the successful welding of titanium. Metal deposition was performed using a constant current plasma arc welding power supply, flow-purged welding chamber, argon shielding and orifice gas, ERTi-5 filler metal, and Ti-6Al

  4. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    SciTech Connect

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  5. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  6. Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

  7. Minority Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    Stephanie Kwader is a white minority at the Bowie State University, a 5,500-student historically black university. Students like her belong to a small but growing group: minority students on the campuses of the nation's 105 historically black colleges and universities. HBCUs, as they are referred in the field, offer competitive academics with…

  8. Additive regulation of adiponectin expression by the mediterranean diet olive oil components oleic Acid and hydroxytyrosol in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 μmol/L OA, 0.1-20 μmol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-α. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-α-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-α alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-α alone). HT and OA also prevented-by 35%-TNF-α-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPARγ expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPARγ suppression by TNF-α, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-α-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPARγ suppression. PMID:26030149

  9. Polymyxin Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ Mutants Is Dependent on Additional Two-Component Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gutu, Alina D.; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina; Brannon, Mark K.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory systems, ColRS and CprRS. Deletion of the colRS genes, individually or in tandem, abrogated the polymyxin resistance of a ΔphoQ mutant, as did individual or tandem deletion of cprRS. Individual deletion of colR or colS in a ΔphoQ mutant also suppressed 4-amino-l-arabinose addition to lipid A, consistent with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-l-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for PhoPQ-mediated polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa. Episomal expression of colRS or cprRS in tandem or of cprR individually complemented the Pm resistance phenotype in the ΔphoQ mutant, while episomal expression of colR, colS, or cprS individually did not. Highly polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutants of P. aeruginosa isolated from polymyxin-treated cystic fibrosis patients harbored mutant alleles of colRS and cprS; when expressed in a ΔphoQ background, these mutant alleles enhanced polymyxin resistance. These results define ColRS and CprRS as two-component systems regulating polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa, indicate that addition of 4-amino-l-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance. PMID:23459479

  10. Towards functional proteomics of minority component of honeybee royal jelly: the effect of post-translational modifications on the antimicrobial activity of apalbumin2.

    PubMed

    Bíliková, Katarína; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Bukovská, Gabriela; Gobom, Johan; Lehrach, Hans; Simúth, Jozef

    2009-04-01

    This study illustrates multifunctionality of proteins of honeybee royal jelly (RJ) and how their neofunctionalization result from various PTMs of maternal proteins. Major proteins of RJ, designated as apalbumins belong to a protein family consisting of nine members with M(r) of 49-87 kDa and they are accompanied by high number of minority homologs derived from maternal apalbumins. In spite of many data on diversity of apalbumins, the molecular study of their individual minority homologous is still missing. This work is a contribution to functional proteomics of second most abundant protein of RJ apalbumin2 (M(r) 52.7 kDa). We have purified a minority protein from RJ; named as apalbumin2a, differ from apalbumin2 in M(r) (48.6 kDa), in N-terminal amino acids sequences - ENSPRN and in N-linked glycans. Characterization of apalbumin2a by LC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS revealed that it is a minority homolog of the major basic royal jelly protein, apalbumin2, carrying two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites, one with high-mannose structure, HexNAc2Hex9, and another carrying complex type antennary structures, HexNAc4Hex3 and HexNAc5Hex4. We have found that apalbumin2a inhibit growth of Paenibacillus larvae. The obtained data call attention to functional plasticity of RJ proteins with potential impact on functional proteomics in medicine. PMID:19322786

  11. Combined effects of elevated CO2 and Cd-contaminated water on growth, photosynthetic response, Cd accumulation and thiolic components status in Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Pietrini, F; Bianconi, D; Massacci, A; Iannelli, M A

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmium (Cd) treatments on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and phytoremediation ability in Lemna minor L. Plants of L. minor were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg L(-1) Cd) for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h at ambient (AC) and at elevated (EC) CO2 (350 and 700 ppm, respectively). Cadmium concentration, bioconcentration factor, enzyme activities and thiols content enhanced in plants with the increase of Cd treatments, time of exposure and at both CO2 levels. Glutathione levels increased only at AC. Growth, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio declined in plants with increasing exposure time, Cd treatments and at both CO2 levels. Our results suggested that the alleviation of toxicity, at low Cd doses, observed in L. minor grown at EC is dependent on both increased photosynthesis and an enhanced antioxidant capacity. PMID:26875143

  12. Minority scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute sponsors undergraduate and graduate geoscience scholarships for members of ethnic minority groups. U.S. citizens who are majoring in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary geology, or Earth science education, and who are Black, Hispanic or Native American are eligible. Undergraduate awards can be as large as $10,000 a year; graduate awards, $4000 a year. Application deadline is February 1, 1990. Contact AGI Minority Participation Program Scholarships, American Geological Institute, 4220 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22302-1507; tel. 703-379-2480.

  13. Effect of minor reactive metal additions on fracture toughness of iron: 12-percent nickel alloy at-196 deg and 25 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The slow bend precracked Charpy fracture toughness and tensile behavior of arc-melted and hot-rolled Fe-12Ni alloys containing up to 4 atomic percent reactive metal additions were determined at -196 C and 25 C after water quenching from three annealing temperatures. The fracture toughness of Fe-12Ni at -196 C was improved by small amounts of Al, Ce, Hf, La, Nb, Ta, Ti, V, Y, and Zr, but not by Si. Cryogenic toughness was improved up to 7.5 times that of binary Fe-12Ni and varied with the reactive metal, its concentration, and the annealing temperature.

  14. One component metal sintering additive for {beta}-SiC based on thermodynamic calculation and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect

    Noviyanto, Alfian; Yoon, Dang-Hyok

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: . Standard Gibbs formation free energies vs. temperature for various metal carbides. The heavy line represents the standard Gibbs free energy for {beta}-SiC. The hatched area denotes the typical liquid phase hot pressing temperature of {beta}-SiC (1973-2123 K). Highlights: {yields} Various metal elements were examined as a sintering additive for {beta}-SiC. {yields} Al and Mg enhanced the density significantly without decomposing {beta}-SiC, as predicted by thermodynamic simulation. {yields} Cr, Fe, Ta, Ti, V and W additives formed metal carbide and/or silicide compounds by decomposing {beta}-SiC. {yields} This approach would be useful for selecting effective sintering additive for high temperature ceramics. -- Abstract: Various types of metals were examined as sintering additives for {beta}-SiC by considering the standard Gibbs formation free energy and vapor pressure under hot pressing conditions (1973-2123 K), particularly for applications in nuclear reactors. Metallic elements having the low long-term activation under neutron irradiation condition, such as Cr, Fe, Ta, Ti, V and W, as well as widely used elements, Al, Mg and B, were considered. The conclusions drawn from thermodynamic considerations were compared with the experimental observations. Al and Mg were found to be effective sintering additives, whereas the others were not due to the formation of metal carbides or silicides from the decomposition of SiC under hot pressing conditions.

  15. Collaborative Technology Assessments Of Transient Field Processing And Additive Manufacturing Technologies As Applied To Gas Turbine Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Szabo, Attila; Ucok, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    ORNL partnered with GE Power & Water to investigate the effect of thermomagnetic processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GE Power & Water newly developed wrought Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. Exploration of the effects of high magnetic field process during heat treatment of the alloys indicated conditions where applications of magnetic fields yields significant property improvements. The alloy aged using high magnetic field processing exhibited 3 HRC higher hardness compared to the conventionally-aged alloy. The alloy annealed at 1785 F using high magnetic field processing demonstrated an average creep life 2.5 times longer than that of the conventionally heat-treated alloy. Preliminary results show that high magnetic field processing can improve the mechanical properties of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and potentially extend the life cycle of the gas turbine components such as nozzles leading to significant energy savings.

  16. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased demand... approved list of energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section 1.23-6 Internal... During A Taxable Year § 1.23-6 Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of...

  1. Improved stability of w/o/w multiple emulsions by addition of hydrophilic colloid components in the aqueous phases.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, A; Warburton, B

    1995-01-01

    To improve the stability of w/o/w multiple emulsions of arachis and olive oil the stabilizing effect of cherry gum, in combination with acacia and gelatin, was examined. The outstanding film-forming properties of this gum having already been noted; the effect of its addition to the aqueous phases was measured by the coalescence of emulsion globules. The enhanced stability, as compared to controls, was achieved at a minimum concentration which liquid crystal-bearing interfacial films seem to appear. Creation of more coherent interfaces, inhibiting transfer of phases, could be the basis of the improved stability of the emulsion. PMID:7730952

  2. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  3. TMEM16A Inhibitors Reveal TMEM16A as a Minor Component of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Conductance in Airway and Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) functions as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We developed pharmacological tools to investigate the contribution of TMEM16A to CaCC conductance in human airway and intestinal epithelial cells. A screen of ∼110,000 compounds revealed four novel chemical classes of small molecule TMEM16A inhibitors that fully blocked TMEM16A chloride current with an IC50 < 10 μm, without interfering with calcium signaling. Following structure-activity analysis, the most potent inhibitor, an aminophenylthiazole (T16Ainh-A01), had an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Two distinct types of inhibitors were identified. Some compounds, such as tannic acid and the arylaminothiophene CaCCinh-A01, fully inhibited CaCC current in human bronchial and intestinal cells. Other compounds, including T16Ainh-A01 and digallic acid, inhibited total CaCC current in these cells poorly, but blocked mainly an initial, agonist-stimulated transient chloride current. TMEM16A RNAi knockdown also inhibited mainly the transient chloride current. In contrast to the airway and intestinal cells, all TMEM16A inhibitors fully blocked CaCC current in salivary gland cells. We conclude that TMEM16A carries nearly all CaCC current in salivary gland epithelium, but is a minor contributor to total CaCC current in airway and intestinal epithelia. The small molecule inhibitors identified here permit pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A/CaCC function and are potential development candidates for drug therapy of hypertension, pain, diarrhea, and excessive mucus production. PMID:21084298

  4. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  5. Pairwise additivity of energy components in protein-ligand binding: the HIV II protease-Indinavir case.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Melek N; Dashti, Danial S; Faver, John C; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-08-28

    An energy expansion (binding energy decomposition into n-body interaction terms for n ≥ 2) to express the receptor-ligand binding energy for the fragmented HIV II protease-Indinavir system is described to address the role of cooperativity in ligand binding. The outcome of this energy expansion is compared to the total receptor-ligand binding energy at the Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and semiempirical levels of theory. We find that the sum of the pairwise interaction energies approximates the total binding energy to ∼82% for HF and to >95% for both the M06-L density functional and PM6-DH2 semiempirical method. The contribution of the three-body interactions amounts to 18.7%, 3.8%, and 1.4% for HF, M06-L, and PM6-DH2, respectively. We find that the expansion can be safely truncated after n=3. That is, the contribution of the interactions involving more than three parties to the total binding energy of Indinavir to the HIV II protease receptor is negligible. Overall, we find that the two-body terms represent a good approximation to the total binding energy of the system, which points to pairwise additivity in the present case. This basic principle of pairwise additivity is utilized in fragment-based drug design approaches and our results support its continued use. The present results can also aid in the validation of non-bonded terms contained within common force fields and in the correction of systematic errors in physics-based score functions. PMID:21895219

  6. Minority Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to increase the number of ethnic minorities on the faculties of American colleges and universities, the Ford Foundation is offering fellowships to members of six groups who have been severely underrepresented in academia.In a program administered by the National Research Council (NRC), the Ford Foundation is offering 50 three-year predoctoral fellowships ($14,000 per year, plus a $6000 annual institutional grant) and 25 one-year dissertation fellowships ($18,000 for one year) to Native American Indians, Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Aleuts), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians and Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, life sciences, or interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more of those disciplines. The predoctoral fellowships are intended for beginning graduate students; the dissertation fellowships are designed to provide support for students in their final year.

  7. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  8. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  9. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Methods Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. Results In bi-choice tests, significantly (P<0.05) higher preference was observed for baits containing 2% and 5% ESP and all the three concentrations of EA compared to plain bait by female rats and that of baits containing 5% and 10% EA by male rats. In no-choice test, non-significantly higher consumption, number of bouts made and time spent towards bait containing 2% EA was found by rats of both sexes. In poultry farm, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was significantly (P<0.05) more than 2% zinc phosphide bait without additive. No significant difference was, however, found in trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% concentration of EA and ESP placed in the poultry farm. Conclusions Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans. PMID:25183108

  10. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  11. Microstructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid and open-cellular copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Diana Alejandra

    The fabrication of Cu components were first built by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates leading to a novel example of precipitate-dislocation architecture. These microstructures exhibit cell-like arrays (1-3microm) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular to the build direction with columnar-like arrays extending from ~12 to >60 microm in length and corresponding spatial dimensions of 1-3 microm. These observations were observed by the use of optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness measurements were taken both on the atomized powder and the Cu components. The hardness for these architectures ranged from ~HV 83 to 88, in contrast to the original Cu powder microindentation hardness of HV 72 and the commercial Cu base plate hardness of HV 57. These observations were utilized for the fabrication of open-cellular copper structures by additive manufacturing using EBM and illustrated the ability to fabricate some form of controlled microstructural architecture by EBM parameter alteration or optimizing. The fabrication of these structures ranged in densities from 0.73g/cm3 to 6.67g/cm3. These structures correspond to four different articulated mesh arrays. While these components contained some porosity as a consequence of some unmelted regions, the Cu2O precipitates also contributed to a reduced density. Using X-ray Diffraction showed the approximate volume fraction estimated to be ~2%. The addition of precipitates created in the EBM melt scan formed microstructural arrays which contributed to hardening contributing to the strength of mesh struts and foam ligaments. The measurements of relative stiffness versus relative density plots for Cu compared very closely with Ti-6Al-4V open cellular structures - both mesh and foams. The Cu reticulated mesh structures exhibit a slope of n = 2 in contrast to a slope of n = 2

  12. Effect of Partition of Photo-Initiator Components and Addition of Iodonium Salt on the Photopolymerization of Phase-Separated Dental Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedin, Farhana; Ye, Qiang; Song, Linyong; Ge, Xueping; Camarda, Kyle; Spencer, Paulette

    2016-04-01

    The polymerization kinetics of physically separated hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases of a model dental adhesive have been investigated. The two phases were prepared from neat resin containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) in the ratio of 45:55 (wt./wt.). Neat resins containing various combinations of popular photo-initiating compounds, e.g., camphoquinone (CQ), ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDMAB), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP), were prepared. To obtain the two phases, 33 wt.% of deuterium oxide (D2O) was added to the neat resins. This amount of D2O exceeded the miscibility limit for the resins. The concentration of each component of the photo-initiating system in the two phases was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When combined with CQ, DMAEMA is less efficient as a co-initiator compared to EDMAB. The addition of DPIHP as the third component into either CQ/EDMAB or CQ/DMAEMA photo-initiating systems led to comparable performance in both the hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. The addition of the iodonium salt significantly improved the photopolymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase; the latter exhibited extremely poor polymerization when the iodonium salt was not included in the formulation. The partition concentration of EDMAB in the hydrophilic-rich phase was significantly lower than that of DMAEMA or DPIHP. This study indicates the need for a combination of hydrophobic/hydrophilic photosensitizer and addition of iodonium salt to improve polymerization within the hydrophilic-rich phase of the dental adhesive.

  13. Effectiveness of an additional individualized multi-component complementary medicine treatment on health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: a pragmatic randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Außerer, Oskar; Baier, Susanne; Heidegger, Herbert; Icke, Katja; Mayr, Oswald; Mitterer, Manfred; Roll, Stephanie; Spizzo, Gilbert; Scherer, Arthur; Thuile, Christian; Wieser, Anton; Schützler, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an additional, individualized, multi-component complementary medicine treatment offered to breast cancer patients at the Merano Hospital (South Tyrol) on health-related quality of life compared to patients receiving usual care only. A randomized pragmatic trial with two parallel arms was performed. Women with confirmed diagnoses of breast cancer were randomized (stratified by usual care treatment) to receive individualized complementary medicine (CM group) or usual care alone (usual care group). Both groups were allowed to use conventional treatment for breast cancer. Primary endpoint was the breast cancer-related quality of life FACT-B score at 6 months. For statistical analysis, we used analysis of covariance (with factors treatment, stratum, and baseline FACT-B score) and imputed missing FACT-B scores at 6 months with regression-based multiple imputation. A total of 275 patients were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012 to the CM group (n = 136, 56.3 ± 10.9 years of age) or the usual care group (n = 139, 56.0 ± 11.0). After 6 months from randomization, adjusted means for health-related quality of life were higher in the CM group (FACT-B score 107.9; 95 % CI 104.1-111.7) compared to the usual care group (102.2; 98.5-105.9) with an adjusted FACT-B score difference between groups of 5.7 (2.6-8.7, p < 0.001). Thus, an additional individualized and complex complementary medicine intervention improved quality of life of breast cancer patients compared to usual care alone. Further studies evaluating specific effects of treatment components should follow to optimize the treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:25555830

  14. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Vlielander, René; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2005-05-01

    The major components of oregano and thyme essential oils that had previously been shown to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E. coli O157: H7 phage type 34 isolated from bovine feces were determined by microdilution assay. The constituents were then tested in checkerboard assays to detect possible interactions. Carvacrol and thymol displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties with MICs of 1.2 mmol/liter and were additive in combination. p-Cymene and gamma-terpinene displayed no measurable antibacterial activity up to 50 mmol/liter, and neither influenced the activity of carvacrol or thymol. Growth curves in the presence of nonlethal concentrations of carvacrol with the addition of agar (0.05%, wt/vol) or carrageenan (0.125%, wt/vol) as stabilizer were produced by optical density measurement. The stabilizers agar and carrageenan both significantly improved the effectiveness of carvacrol in broth, possibly because of a delay in the separation of the hydrophobic substrate from the aqueous phase of the medium. When carvacrol was dissolved in ethanol before addition to broth, stabilizers were not needed. Carvacrol and thymol, particularly when used in combination with a stabilizer or in an ethanol solution, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing growth of E. coli O157:H7 in liquid foods. PMID:15895722

  15. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them. PMID:21645683

  16. Minority Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... migrant issues Access to health care Language barriers Human trafficking Taking care of your health Immunizations and screenings Sharing family health history Health before pregnancy More... Government in action on minority women's health Minority partnerships ...

  17. Minority Inclusion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the United States has a long, sad history of discrimination against minority rights. Discusses the origins and history of minority inclusion or affirmative action programs. Includes a special report on the "English Only" movement. (CFR)

  18. Retaining minorities in engineering: Assessment of a program prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Jennifer Marie (Phillips)

    Program assessment is an essential part of healthy program development. Assessment should include multiple considerations, dimensions, and outcomes that match the program's objectives. As a newly formed retention program, the Auburn University Minority Engineering Program, designed to help pre-engineering minority students make the transition into their freshman year of university studies, incorporated evaluation and assessment into all three components of the program (the interactive learning laboratory, critical-thinking workshops, and Sunday-evening tutorials) from the program's inception. If students successfully adapted to the university environment and the demands of the pre-engineering course of study, then retention of minority students in the College of Engineering should improve. Data were gathered on the students involved in the various program components. Students who entered the Minority Engineering Program were pre- and posttested on three standardized subtests (critical thinking, mathematics, and science reasoning) of the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency. The first-quarter grade-point averages of the students were also gathered to compare their grades to freshman students in previous quarters within the College of Engineering. Qualitative data were also gathered on this same group of students. An analysis of the data revealed that student achievement is affected by involvement in the Minority Engineering Program. Specifically, the first quarter grade point averages of students involved in the program exceeded those of their peers in earlier years of study prior to the program's existence. In addition, mathematics and science reasoning scores on standardized tests increased pre- to postintervention. Comments collected in journals and files also demonstrated use of critical-thinking and problem-solving skills employed by the students. Recommendations for alterations of the program were made based on the outcome of the program evaluation

  19. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  20. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  1. The NACA Three Component Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H J E

    1922-01-01

    A new instrument known as the NACA three component accelerometer is described in this note. This instrument was designed by the technical staff of the NACA for recording accelerations along three mutually perpendicular axes, and is of the same type as the NACA single component accelerometer with the addition of two springs and a few minor improvements such as a pump for filling the dash-pots and a convenient method for aligning the springs. This note includes a few records as well as photographs of the instrument itself.

  2. Advanced Placement: Do Minorities Have Equal Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfenstein, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Black and Hispanic high school students enroll in Advanced Placement (AP) courses at approximately half the rate of white students. This paper develops a microeconomic model of the AP participation decision and finds that low income is the single most important factor behind the minority AP participation gap. In addition, minority students enroll…

  3. Making the Computer Laboratory Accessible to Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert

    Research literature shows that current uses of computers in public school education are not reaching minority populations, and that females and ethnic minority students are less likely to have access to a computer at home. In addition, a study of computer use in the Learning Skills Center (LSC) at the University of Alabama supported the research…

  4. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  5. Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This paper explores the origin and historical background of the "model minority" stereotype. It includes evidence illustrating problems resulting from the artificial grouping of Asian Americans as one ethnic group and the stereotype's influence on young Asian Americans. In the 1960s, the U.S. media began to portray the model minority through…

  6. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  7. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  8. Gerontology Training for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Pill Jay

    The Grambling State University Minority Management Internship in Aging program described in this report was designed to provide internships to social work students to aid the minority elderly. The status of the elderly in the United States and the personnel and agencies that assist them are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "Introduction"…

  9. American Minorities in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jill S.; Hafer, Abigail A.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of articles that address the question of why minorities are still underrepresented in science after years of civil rights legislation and affirmative action. A variety of programs aimed at increasing minorities and women in the field of astronomy and other sciences are discussed. Personal accounts are also provided. (LZ)

  10. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  11. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  12. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  13. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  14. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  15. Minority Women's Health: Latinas

    MedlinePlus

    ... left navigation Minority Women's Health African-Americans Latinas Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/ ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin. Latinos may be any race. This ...

  16. Minority workers and communities.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973

  17. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  18. Multichoice minority game

    SciTech Connect

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-06-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

  19. Financial Management and Job Social Skills Training Components in a Summer Business Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were…

  20. Integrated software package STAMP for minor planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochetova, O. M.; Shor, Viktor A.

    1992-01-01

    The integrated software package STAMP allowed for rapid and exact reproduction of the tables of the year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets.' Additionally, STAMP solved the typical problems connected with the use of the year-book. STAMP is described. The year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets' (EMP) is a publication used in many astronomical institutions around the world. It contains all the necessary information on the orbits of the numbered minor planets. Also, the astronomical coordinates are provided for each planet during its suitable observation period.

  1. Biomedical Communication Skills for Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Betty Lou

    A course in communications skills for the biomedical sciences is a component unique to the New Mexico State University MARC Honors Undergraduate Program. The program seeks to identify and assist minority students who show evidence of having clear potential to perform at a high level in the biomedical sciences and who show a determination to enter…

  2. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  3. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr48Cu48 - x Al4M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr48Cu48Al4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Co0.5 and 6.2% in Zr48Cu47.5Al4Fe0.5) is considerably larger than for Zr48Cu48Al4 or the alloys with x = 1. Slight variations in the Young’s modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  4. The Roots of Minority Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbe, M. Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of ways to increase minority giving to colleges and universities debunks the myth of "minorities don't give," and reports a recent study of minority philanthropy, which details philanthropic characteristics of four minority cultures: blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians. Specific strategies recommended include…

  5. Genotoxicity assessment in patients with thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweedan, Suleimman A; Khabour, Omar; Isam, Ruba

    2012-05-15

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that affects both genders and results in reduced synthesis of hemoglobin, and thus causing anemia. Previous studies have shown that the severe form of this disease, thalassemia major, is associated with genotoxicity. This includes increases in the level of sister chromatid exchange (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei. In this study, we assessed genotoxicity in the lymphocytes of thalassemia minor subjects using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. In addition, we investigated the level of oxidative DNA damage by measuring 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) biomarker in urine samples. Eighteen thalassemia minor subjects and eighteen matched normal healthy controls were volunteered in the study. In addition, seven thalassemia major patients were recruited as positive controls. The results showed increases in the frequency of SCEs (P<0.05) in thalassemia minor compared to healthy controls. However, no difference in CAs frequency was detected between thalassemia minor and controls (P>0.05). Both SECs and CAs in thalassemia major patients were significantly higher compared to other groups (P<0.05). Regarding urine 8OHdG levels, the result showed a slight increase in thalassemia minor compared to healthy controls but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that thalassemia minor is associated with genotoxicity to blood lymphocytes as indicated by SCEs assay. PMID:22414564

  6. Yohimbine antagonises α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor mediated components in addition to the α2A-adrenoceptor component to pressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Docherty, James R

    2012-03-15

    We have recently shown that responses to pressor nerve stimulation in the pithed rat are mediated by α(1A)- and α(1D)-adrenoceptors, with no evidence for α(2)-adrenoceptor involvement, and that responses previously identified as α(2)-adrenoceptor mediated are actually α(1D)-adrenoceptor mediated. We have now re-examined the subtypes of α-adrenoceptor involved in pressor responses produced by exogenous agonists in the pithed rat preparation to confirm whether α(2)-adrenoceptors are involved in these responses. The α(2)-adrenoceptor and α(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1mg/kg) and the α(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist methoxy-idazoxan (5 mg/kg) significantly shifted, but the α(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspir o[4.5]decane-7,9-dione dihydrochloride) (1 mg/kg) did not affect, the pressor potency of the α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist xylazine. α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists showed low potency against pressor responses to xylazine. The pressor potency of the α(1)-adrenoceptor agonist amidephrine was not affected by BMY 3778 (1 mg/kg) but significantly shifted by prazosin (0.01 mg/kg) and by yohimbine (1 mg/kg). In contrast, the pressor potency of phenylephrine was significantly shifted by both yohimbine and BMY 7378 (1 mg/kg), but to a greater extent by the α(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist RS 100329 (5-Methyl-3-[3-[3-[4-[2-(2,2,2,trifluroethoxy) phenyl]-1-piperazinyl]propyl]-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione] hydrochloride) (0.1 mg/kg). In conclusion, we have identified and separated α(1A)-, α(1D)- and α(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist actions of yohimbine against pressor responses. Pressor responses to exogenous agonists in the pithed rat involve both α(1A)- and α(1D)-adrenoceptors and in addition, α(2A)-adrenoceptors. PMID:22290390

  7. Pilot Study of Enhanced Minor Planet Detection Using NEOWISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukrov, Greta; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Nugent, C.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Masci, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The solar system science component of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), known as NEOWISE, extracted detections of more than 158,000 asteroids and comets, including 34,000 new discoveries. These objects were detected through a search algorithm that actively rejected inertially fixed sources such as stars and galaxies and selected candidate moving objects through the construction of position-time pairs known as tracklets. A minimum of five detections were required in order to construct a tracklet; this system enabled the discovery of new minor planets as well as detection of previously known objects. However, many more asteroids are potentially recoverable in the NEOWISE data, such as objects that failed to appear in five or more images. Stacking of objects with well-known ephemerides at the observational epoch has allowed for the recovery of many objects that fell below the single-frame detection threshold. Additional objects were recovered by searching the NEOWISE source lists for objects that appeared fewer than five times in single frames. We present the results of a pilot study that has allowed for the recovery of minor planets from the NEOWISE data using both techniques, resulting in the derivation of diameters and albedos for the sample. This pilot study will be extended to the entire catalog of known minor planets by the NEOWISE project in the near future.

  8. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  9. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  10. Minority Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the community college's role in Native American education. Describes recruitment, counseling, assessment, remedial, and outreach programs developed by San Juan College to help minority students succeed, and specifically help Native Americans bridge the worlds of public school, reservation, and university. Identifies keys to the programs'…

  11. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  12. Spotlight on Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yous, Phakdey Chea; Mahamed, Hodman; Kost, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This article spotlights minority students in school psychology training programs. Three students from underrepresented backgrounds were asked to reflect on what aspects of their program made them feel welcome and supported. In their discussions, they took the task a step further and furnished ideas about ways in which school psychology training…

  13. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  14. Language, Literacy, and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    The ideal of a world where bilingualism or multilingualism is a normal and accepted feature is promoted in a commissioned report for International Literacy Year. It is noted that many minority groups are forced into bilingualism as a necessity for survival, but that those skills are rarely seen as an advantage and often seen as a cause of…

  15. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  16. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  17. The Year Ahead: Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

  18. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  19. Exemplary Programs for College-Bound Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, John J.

    This report, an early component of a forthcoming set of publications intended to assist colleges and universities in building more effective programs for minority undergraduate and graduate students, provides short descriptions of 18 exemplary efforts to enhance the participation and success of minority students in higher education (including the…

  20. Minor planet databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhlova, L.; Bakanas, E.

    We cast a retrospective look at the mankind's acquaintance with minor bodies of the Solar System, at the explosive growth in their discoveries resulting from the technological progress, and at gradual understanding of the danger to our very existence that some of them might actually pose. Then, we review current effort, of the astronomical community in general and of its Russian part in particular, to integrate our rapidly expanding knowledge of the potential Earth impactors and to make it readily available online.

  1. Traumatic medial displacement of Rotalok uncemented acetabular component. A case report.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G J; Ridge, J; Ribbans, W J

    1994-04-01

    The failure of uncemented acetabular components has been described in association with component wear, disassembly, and proximal migration. The authors report a case of medial displacement following minor trauma some 18 months after surgery. The component involved differs in design from both press-fit, porous-coated or screw-in, fully threaded acetabular cups. The authors suggest that additional screws should be inserted to enhance long-term stability. PMID:8014654

  2. Disproportionate minority contact.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2008-01-01

    For many years, notes Alex Piquero, youth of color have been overrepresented at every stage of the U.S. juvenile justice system. As with racial disparities in a wide variety of social indicators, the causes of these disparities are not immediately apparent. Some analysts attribute the disparities to "differential involvement"--that is, to differences in offending by minorities and whites. Others attribute them to "differential selection"--that is, to the fact that the justice system treats minority and white offenders in different ways. Still others believe the explanation lies in a combination of the two. Differential involvement may be important earlier in the judicial process, especially in youths' contacts with police, and may influence differential selection later as individuals make their way through the juvenile justice system. Adjudicating between these options, says Piquero, is difficult and may even be impossible. Asking how much minority overrepresentation is due to differences in offending and how much to differences in processing no longer seems a helpful way to frame the discussion. Piquero urges future research to move beyond the debate over "which one matters more" and seek to understand how each of the two hypotheses can explain both the fact of minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and how best to address it. Piquero cites many sizable gaps in the research and policy-relevant literature. Work is needed especially, he says, in analyzing the first stage of the justice system that juveniles confront: police contacts. The police are a critical part of the juvenile justice decision-making system and are afforded far more discretion than any other formal agent of social control, but researchers have paid surprisingly little attention to contacts between police and citizens, especially juveniles. Piquero notes that some states and localities are undertaking initiatives to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. He urges researchers and

  3. The Effectiveness of Minority Teachers on Minority Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jose P.

    This paper examines the shortage of minority teachers and explores the high priority that exists among parents, teachers, and the business community to work toward a diversified teaching force, focusing on the U.S. Hispanic population and investigating whether minority teachers in the classroom can result in minority student success in school. The…

  4. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Certain ethnic and racial minorities as well as other underserved populations experience ... disorders than do non-Hispanic whites, ethnic and racial disparities still exist for alcohol-related diseases, problems, ...

  5. DOE-NREL Minority University Research Associates Program

    SciTech Connect

    Posey Eddy, F.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE-NREL Minority University Research Associates Program (MURA) encourages minority students to pursue careers in science and technology. In this program, undergraduate students work with principal investigators at their universities to perform research projects on solar technology. Then, students are awarded summer internships in industry or at national laboratories, such as NREL, during the summer. Because of its success, the program has been expanded to include additional minority-serving colleges and universities and all solar energy technologies.

  6. Career Education: Implications for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; Witherspoon, Everette L.

    In general, minorities, especially blacks, approach career education warily, fearing it might turn out to be a new name for an old game. Statistics indicate the minority dilemma; for example, unemployment among minorities 16 and older is nearly twice the white unemployment rate. A number of critical questions about career education as related to…

  7. Minor meteor shower activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Video meteor observations provide us with data to analyze structures in minor meteor showers or weak features in flux profiles. Samples obtained independently by other techniques allow to calibrate the data sets and to improve the confidence of results as demonstrated with a few results. Both, the confirmation of events predicted by model calculation and the input of observational data to improve the modelling results may help to better understand meteoroid stream evolution processes. Furthermore, calibrated data series can be used for studies of the long-term evolution of meteor shower activity.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  9. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E. E-mail: sylvain.guiriec@lpta.in2p3.f E-mail: ohno@astro.isas.jaxa.j

    2010-06-20

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E{sub peak} = 3.9 {+-} 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 {+-} 0.03 that dominates the emission below {approx}20 keV and above {approx}100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by {approx}0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5{sup +5.8}{sub -2.6} GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, {Gamma}{approx_gt} 1200, using simple {gamma}{gamma} opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the {approx}100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply {Gamma} {approx_gt} 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  10. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-law Component from 10 keV TO GeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Dingus, B. L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Ritz, S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γgsim 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ >~ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  11. Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degrees. Report 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, H.; And Others

    The employment outcomes and career progress of ethnic minority members who graduated from four United Kingdom universities in 1993 were compared to those of their white counterparts. A final matched sample of 272 graduates (half were members of ethnic minorities) was achieved by filtering an initial sample of 3,421 graduates. Additional data were…

  12. Cytotoxicity of Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Farahanikia, Behnaz; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cerebral and memory disorders in European folk medicine. Furthermore, it contains more than 50 alkaloids, some of them having bisindole structure such as the antineoplastic alkaloids present in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae). In this study, the plant's alkaloid extract was divided into three fractions and the cytotoxic effects on cell proliferation of HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, and NIH/3T3 cell lines were examined. All alkaloid fractions showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on the cell lines. IC(50) values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were less affected in comparison to other cell lines. PMID:20645762

  13. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  14. Minority Education in China: From State's Preferential Policies to Dislocated Tibetan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chengzhi; Zhou, Quanhou

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of minority basic education in mainland China. Reports on the displacement of minority schooling, such as the Tibetan schools and classes. Concludes that the policy components of cultural responsiveness should be integrated into minority education development. Includes references. (CMK)

  15. The suitability of concentration addition for predicting the effects of multi-component mixtures of up to 17 anti-androgens with varied structural features in an in vitro AR antagonist assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    The risks associated with human exposures to chemicals capable of antagonising the effects of endogenous androgens have attracted considerable recent interest. Exposure is typically to large numbers of chemicals with androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity, yet there is limited evidence of the combined effects of multi-component mixtures of these chemicals. A few in vitro studies with mixtures of up to six AR antagonists suggest that the concept of concentration addition (CA) provides good approximations of experimentally observed mixture effects, but studies with larger numbers of anti-androgens, and with more varied structural features, are missing. Here we show that the mixture effects of up to 17 AR antagonists, comprising compounds as diverse as UV-filter substances, parabens, perfluorinated compounds, bisphenol-A, benzo({alpha})pyrene, synthetic musks, antioxidants and polybrominated biphenyls, can be predicted well on the basis of the anti-androgenicity of the single components using the concept of CA. We tested these mixtures in an in vitro AR-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, based on MDA-kb2 cells. The effects of further mixtures, composed of four and six anti-androgens, could be predicted accurately by CA. However, there was a shortfall from expected additivity with a ten-component mixture at two different mixture ratios, but attempts to attribute these deviations to differential expression of hormone-metabolising CYP isoforms did not produce conclusive results. CA provides good approximations of in vitro mixture effects of anti-androgens with varying structural features. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humans are exposed to a large number of androgen receptor antagonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is limited evidence of the combined effects of anti-androgenic chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modelled the predictability of combined effects of up to 17 anti-androgens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the

  16. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity

  17. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Victoria A; Stone, Valerie E

    2005-07-01

    HIV infection among racial and ethnic minorities is an ongoing health crisis. The disproportionate impact of HIV infection on racial and ethnic minorities has affected communities already struggling with many social and economic challenges, such as poverty, substance abuse, homelessness,unequal access to health care, and unequal treatment once in the health care system. Superimposed on these challenges is HIV infection, the transmission of which is facilitated by many of these factors. Although the epidemic is disproportionately affecting all racial and ethnic minorities, within these minority populations women are particularly affected. The care and management of racial and ethnic minorities who have HIV infection has been complicated by the unequal access to health care and the unequal treatment once enrolled in health care. Health insurance status, lack of concordance between the race of the patient and the provider, and satisfaction with the quality of their care all impact on treatment outcomes in this population. In addition, the provider must be aware of the many comorbid conditions that may affect the delivery of care to minority patients living with HIV infection: depression, substance and alcohol abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorders. The impact of these comorbid conditions on the therapeutic relationship, including treatment and adherence, warrants screening for these disorders and treating them when identified. Because the patient provider relationship has been repeatedly identified as a predictor of higher adherence, developing and maintaining a strong therapeutic alliance is critical. Participation of racial and ethnic minorities in HIV clinical trials, as in other disease states, has been very poor. Racial and ethnic minorities have been chronically underrepresented in HIV clinical trials, despite their overrepresentation in the HIV epidemiology. This underrepresentation seems to be the result of a combination of factors including (1) provider

  18. The IRAS Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Fowler, John W.; Chillemi, Joseph R.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the program and data used to identify known asteroids observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and to compute albedos and diameters from their IRAS fluxes. It also presents listings of the results obtained. These results supplant those in the IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey, 1986. The present version used new and improved asteroid orbital elements for 4679 numbered asteroids and 2632 additional asteroids for which at least two-opposition elements were available as of mid-1991. It employed asteroid absolute magnitudes on the International Astronomical Union system adopted in 1991. In addition, the code was modified to increase the reliability of associating asteroids with IRAS sources and rectify several shortcomings in the final data products released in 1986. Association reliability was improved by decreasing the position difference between an IRAS source and a predicted asteroid position required for an association. The shortcomings addressed included the problem of flux overestimation for low SNR sources and the systematic difference in albedos and diameters among the three wavelength bands (12, 25, and 60 micrometers). Several minor bugs in the original code were also corrected.

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  20. Full Employment and Economic Equality. Jobs and Minority Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bernard E.

    1976-01-01

    Traces some of the evidence that supports the full employment minority advancement thesis, and discusses some additional measures required to assist full employment in achieving racial equality. Most of the discussion focuses on black workers. (Author/AM)

  1. Research project for increasing pool of minority engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Decatur B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tennessee State University (TSU) Research Project for Increasing the Pool of Minority Engineers is designed to develop engineers who have academic and research experiences in technical areas of interest to NASA. These engineers will also have some degree of familiarity with NASA Lewis Research Center as a result of interaction with Lewis engineers, field trips and internships at Lewis. The Research Project has four components, which are: (1) Minority Introduction to Engineering (MITE), a high school precollege program, (2) engineering and technology previews, (3) the NASA LeRC Scholars program which includes scholarships and summer internships, and (4) undergraduate research experiences on NASA sponsored research. MITE is a two-week summer engineering camp designed to introduce minority high school students to engineering by exposing them to: (1) engineering role models (engineering students and NASA engineer), (2) field trips to engineering firms, (3) in addition to introducing youth to the language of the engineer (i.e., science, mathematics, technical writing, computers, and the engineering laboratory). Three MITE camps are held on the campus of TSU with an average of 40 participants. MITE has grown from 25 participants at its inception in 1990 to 118 participants in 1994 with participants from 17 states, including the District of Columbia, and 51 percent of the participants were female. Over the four-year period, 77 percent of the seniors who participated in MITE have gone to college, while 53 percent of those seniors in college are majoring in science, engineering or mathematics (SEM). This first Engineering and Technology Previews held in 1993 brought 23 youths from Cleveland, Ohio to TSU for a two-day preview of engineering and college life. Two previews are scheduled for 1994-1995. The NASA LeRC Scholars program provides scholarships and summer internships for minority engineering students majoring in electrical or mechanical engineering. Presently six

  2. Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R.

    2013-07-01

    The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction β) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. ECH Will Provide Minority Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the availability of information about minority status of all existing people-oriented data banks of the American Chemical Society, including data gathering and file search procedures. Contained is a chart illustrating unemployment statistics for minority groups as self-identified by the Employment Clearing House registrants. (CC)

  5. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  6. Growing Your Own: Minority Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    In the USA, the number of school age children who represent minority backgrounds is rapidly growing. However, despite several efforts, the teaching force remains primarily White. The purpose of this paper is to describe a residential future teachers program in Connecticut which recruits minority rising juniors and seniors from high schools across…

  7. College and the Minority Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Robert L.

    1974-01-01

    The crusade to recruit "minority" students has now progressed far enough to draw some conclusions from the results. This article summarizes the minority student recruitment program in general and outlines some of the areas most in need of revision. (Author/PC)

  8. What Minority Employees Really Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Stephanie N.

    2000-01-01

    Selections for this list of the nation's best companies for minorities were made based on the company's commitment to diversity at every level, paying particular attention to the upper ranks of the companies. In these companies, ethnic minorities make up 22 percent of the officials and managers. (JOW)

  9. Minority Students and Professional Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The role of professional associations in facilitating minority access to graduate and professional education is addressed. Information on minority applications, financial aid, recruitment, and support activities was requested from 29 associations; 16 responded. The general posture of the associations appears to be limited to expressions of support…

  10. Protecting Minors from Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joan Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Because the Supreme Court has put severe limits on the use of the concepts of national security and protection of women to justify censorship, the predominant strategy has become censorship to protect minors. This article examines the legal concepts of obscenity and material harmful to minors, restrictions on broadcasting, and challenges raised by…

  11. Introducing Literature of the Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Elizabeth

    This paper discusses a thematic approach to introduce high school or college students to fiction that deals with minority groups. The author discusses how this thematic arrangement of novels may be a useful method for organizing a study of minority groups as represented in major works of American fiction. She discusses the initiation motif as a…

  12. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  13. Supporting Women and Minority Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, JoAnn

    2004-01-01

    Good departmental practices can help women and minority faculty thrive and make the greatest possible contribution to the academic enterprise. Several recent books have explored what is wrong with the current way of doing business. In this article, the author outlines steps to bring U.S. minority and European American women faculty--at both the…

  14. Professional Societies of Minority Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2003-12-01

    This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

  15. Meckel diverticulum in exomphalos minor

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hee Ju; Park, Kwi-Won; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Mi-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    A congenital hernia into the base of the umbilical cord is known as an exomphalos and when the size of the defect is 5 cm or less and containing only bowel, it is called as exomphalos minor. We present a case of a newborn with an exomphalos minor within a Meckel diverticulum. He underwent surgical resection of the Meckel diverticulum and repair of the abdominal wall defect. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Meckel diverticulum in an exomphalos minor in Korea. PMID:27478815

  16. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  17. Linguistic Minority Students in Higher Education: Using, Resisting, and Negotiating Multiple Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oropeza, Maria Veronica; Varghese, Manka M.; Kanno, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    Linguistic minority students have been both under-researched and underserved in the context of research on minority students' access to and retention in higher education. The labels ascribed to them have typically failed to capture the complexity of their identities. Additionally, much of the literature in higher education on minority students'…

  18. Minority Enrollment Gains Show Region's Progress toward College Completion Goals. Fact Book Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, from 2005 to 2010, 1.6 minority (non-white) students enrolled in college for every additional white student who enrolled. In the SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) region that meant 700,312 more minority college students and 411,915 more white college students. Increases in minority student enrollment accounted for almost…

  19. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  20. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  1. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  2. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  3. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  4. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  5. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.60 Minor uses. (a) Minor...

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  9. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    PubMed

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled. Therefore related policies are hampered by a lack of accurate data. This paper provides more insight into the importance of minor bicycle accidents and reports the frequency, risk and resulting costs of minor bicycle accidents. Direct costs, including the damage to bike and clothes as well as medical costs and indirect costs such as productivity loss and leisure time lost are calculated. We also estimate intangible costs of pain and psychological suffering and costs for other parties involved in the accident. Data were collected during the SHAPES project using several electronic surveys. The weekly prospective registration that lasted a year, covered 1187 persons that cycled 1,474,978 km. 219 minor bicycle accidents were reported. Resulting in a frequency of 148 minor bicycle accidents per million kilometres. We analyzed the economic costs related to 118 minor bicycle accidents in detail. The average total cost of these accidents is estimated at 841 euro (95% CI: 579-1205) per accident or 0.125 euro per kilometre cycled. Overall, productivity loss is the most important component accounting for 48% of the total cost. Intangible costs, which in past research were mostly neglected, are an important burden related to minor bicycle accidents (27% of the total cost). Even among minor accidents there are important differences in the total cost depending on the severity of the injury. PMID:20728675

  10. Solar wind minor ions: Recent observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic studies show that the minor ions generally travel with a common bulk speed and have temperatures roughly proportional to their masses. It was determined that (3)He(++) content varies greatly; (3)He(++)/(4)He(++) ranges from as high as 10(-12) values to below 2 x 10(-4). In some solar wind flows which can be related to energetic coronal events, the minor ions are found in unusual ionization states containing Fe(16+) as a prominent ion, showing that the states were formed at unusually high temperatures. Unexpectedly, in a few flows substantial quantities of (4)He(+) were detected, sometimes with ions identifiable as O(2+) and O(3+). Surprisingly, in some of these examples the ionization state is mixed showing that part of the plasma escaped the corona without attaining the usual million-degree temperatures while other parts were heated more nearly in the normal manner. Additionally, detailed studies of the minor ions increased our understanding of the coronal expansion. For example, such studies contributed to identifying near equatorial coronal streamers as the source of solar wind flows between high speed streams.

  11. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. PMID:26944746

  12. Selected List of Postsecondary Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Postsecondary Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This brochure lists educational opportunities for minorities and women at the postsecondary level. In addition to specific loan, scholarship, and fellowship opportunities, it also provides some general information on how and where to seek out general assistance to prepare oneself to pursue additional education and career goals. The pamphlet was…

  13. Toward a Framework for Social Work Practice with Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Doman

    1982-01-01

    Uses case histories to support the need for a framework for social work practice with minorities--one that recognizes the value of being able to identify psychosocial components that affect practice problems. Suggests social workers be especially aware of the harmful effects of stereotyping individuals. (Author)

  14. Teacher Quality Variables and Efficacy for Teaching Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Porcia E.; Lunenburg, Fred C.; Hines, Mack T., III

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis of the extant literature, we examined teacher quality variables that have shown a relationship with teacher efficacy for instructing urban minority students. We focused on the following areas: (a) importance of teachers, (b) teacher quality defined, (c) components of teacher quality, (d) self-efficacy, and (e) teacher efficacy.

  15. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    PubMed

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made. PMID:23815632

  16. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    assisted college graduates in their quest to attain advanced degrees in STEM by providing fellowships. The EAA continued this effort by recruiting and providing fellowships to students who aspired to continue their education at the graduate level. The fellowships provided funding for tuition, fees, books, technology, and stipends to assist with room, board, and living expenses during the academic year and salary, transportation, and living expenses to those students who secured internships with the Department of Energy. Additionally the EAA designed and implemented needed support systems to ensure successful completion of the Masters degree programs, including but not limited to membership in professional associations, attendance at industry and academic conferences, and professional development workshops, and tutorial assistance if needed. This program assisted over 80 students directly and society-at-large by helping to educate and develop future physicists, engineers, biostatisticians, and researchers who will have the necessary skillsets to fill the increasing numbers of positions that require such expertise.

  17. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  18. Minor satellites and the Gaspra encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanflandern, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Observational evidence, especially from occultations and radar, indicate that satellites of minor planets are numerous and commonplace. This leads to the prediction that the Galileo spacecraft will find many such 'minor satellites' at the upcoming close encounter with minor planet 951 Gaspra. If such objects are found, this argues strongly against the current theory of minor planet origin from the primeval solar nebula.

  19. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  20. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

  1. Eliminating Behavioral Health Disparities and Improving Outcomes for Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katherine; Ybarra, Rick; Chapa, Teresa; Martinez, Octavio N

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care holds promise for reducing mental health disparities for racial and ethnic minority groups, but studies are lacking. The authors consider critical components of effective integrated models for minority populations, including cultural and linguistic competence and a diverse workforce, and describe emerging best practices. To successfully implement integrated models into practice with minority populations will require guidance from communities, consumers and family members, and national experts. PMID:26325461

  2. Information Services for Cultural Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masling, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Describes Houston Public Library's nontraditional programs for cultural minorities which address four areas of library services: outreach, information and referral, and neighborhood information centers; foreign language collection development; coordinated programming; and adult basic education. Ethnic groups that constitute the library's clientele…

  3. Office management of minor wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, S.; Patel, H.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review office interventions for minor wounds not requiring sutures, such as abrasions, bites, and lacerations. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most information on minor wound management comes from descriptive studies. Few comparative studies examine the effectiveness of topical antisepsis for minor wounds. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that tissue adhesives produce short- and long-term cosmetic results equivalent to those achieved with suture materials. MAIN MESSAGE: Sterile saline is the least toxic solution for wound irrigation. Chlorhexidine (2%) and povidone iodine (10%) have been the most investigated antiseptic solutions. Systemic antibiotics are unnecessary for wounds unlikely to be infected. All bite wounds require special attention. Primary closure of bite wounds is indicated in certain circumstances: less than 12-hour-old nonpuncture wounds, uninfected wounds, and low-risk lesions (such as on the face). In spite of their many advantages, skin tapes should be used for low-tension wounds only. The popularity of tissue adhesives has greatly increased. Since the advent of newer products (with increased bonding strength and flexibility), adhesives are used to manage most lacerations except those in areas of high tension (e.g., joints) and on mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSION: Minor wounds not requiring sutures can be managed easily in the office. PMID:11340758

  4. Obstacles to Financing Minority Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    In 1972, the District of Columbia Advisory Committee initiated an inquiry to determine the role that discrimination has played in limiting minority business enterprises in the Washington area. Meetings were held in which businessmen, representatives of technical assistance organizations, government officials, and bankers examined the question of…

  5. Language, Power, and Minority Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1991-01-01

    Ways are discussed that education and the discourse practices it authorizes can routinely repress, dominate, and disempower language users whose practices differ from the norms that it establishes. The ideas of two key theorists, Bourdieu and Bhaskar, are linked and applied to such issues as schooling, high status language, and minority discursive…

  6. Magic, Myth and Minority Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R.

    Optimum time for efforts to attract minority students to a science career is when the students are enrolled in grade school and junior high school rather than at undergraduate and graduate levels, where many present programs are aimed. Student population is at its maximum in grade school, and successful efforts will reduce the amount of remedial…

  7. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  8. Mainstreaming and the Minority Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    Provided are 16 author-contributed papers dealing with theoretical questions and practical concerns relating to the effect of mainstreaming on the minority child. The text is divided into five parts: overview and perspectives, educational assessment for mainstream placement, curriculum issues and teaching strategies, evaluation and research, and…

  9. Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

    Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

  10. Educating Language-Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara T.

    This ERIC Digest delineates problems posed by the increasing number of language-minority children in schools and offers suggestions for teaching children from different cultures. It is maintained that a group's language reflects its culture, and the uses to which that language is put are culturally determined. When children and adults do not share…

  11. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  12. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  13. Energy efficient engine low-pressure compressor component test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, C. J.; Halle, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical design description of the low pressure compressor component of the Energy Efficient Engine were used. The component was designed to meet the requirements of the Flight Propulsion System while maintaining a low cost approach in providing a low pressure compressor design for the Integrated Core/Low Spool test required in the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The resulting low pressure compressor component design meets or exceeds all design goals with the exception of surge margin. In addition, the expense of hardware fabrication for the Integrated Core/Low Spool test has been minimized through the use of existing minor part hardware.

  14. Recruitment and Retention of Minority Participants in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Ofstedal, Mary B.; Weir, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Minority oversamples of African Americans and Hispanics have been a key feature of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) design from its origins in 1992. The objective of this article was to assess the quality of the HRS with respect to the recruitment and retention of minority respondents. Design and Methods: To evaluate minority recruitment efforts, we examine baseline response rates for the early baby boom cohort that was added in the 2004 wave and the representativeness of this cohort with regard to demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. To evaluate retention, we focus on minority differentials in 2008 interview, nonresponse and mortality outcomes for the full HRS sample. We also examine minority differentials in participation in supplemental components of the HRS. Results: Minority response rates at baseline and in longitudinal follow-ups for the main HRS interview have been equal to or better than that of majority Whites. Conversely, response rates to some specific supplemental components have been lower for minority sample members. Implications: The oversample strategies that the HRS has employed have been successful at identifying and recruiting minority participants at response rates very comparable with that of Whites and others. Minority differentials in participation in supplemental components have been overcome to some extent through interviewer training and targeted follow-up strategies. The HRS experience suggests that well-trained interviewers can overcome most if not all of whatever race and ethnic differentials exist in willingness to participate in surveys, including those involving biological data collection. PMID:21565822

  15. Identification by GC-EAD of the two-component trail-following pheromone of Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae, Prorhinotermitinae).

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Kalinová, Blanka; Jiros, Pavel; Brezinová, Anna; Cvacka, Josef; Hanus, Robert; Sobotník, Jan; Bordereau, Christian; Valterová, Irena

    2009-08-01

    GC/MS analysis confirmed that neocembrene is the major component of the trail pheromone in the three species of the termite genus Prorhinotermes (P. simplex, P. canalifrons, P. inopinatus). In addition, EAG and GC-EAD experiments with P. simplex strongly suggest that dodecatrienol is a quantitatively minor component but a qualitatively important component of this trail pheromone. Trail-following bioassays confirmed the two-component nature of the trail pheromone. This is the first report of the use of the GC-EAD for the identification of trail pheromone in termites. These original results underline once again the special phylogenetic status of the Prorhinotermitinae among Rhinotermitidae. PMID:19394339

  16. In search of satellites of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, P. D.

    1980-12-01

    The detection of satellites of asteroids in observations of the occultation of stars is discussed. Anomalous occultation events recorded in addition to the possible discovery of a natural satellite of Herculina in 1978 are related, including the secondary occultation of Gamma Ceti by Hebe in March, 1977, a secondary occultation by Melpomene in December 1978, and unexplained occultations by Eros, Cybele and Metis. A procedure which may be used by amateur astronomers to provide reliable evidence for minor planet parasitic satellites is outlined, and the importance of multiple observations of stellar occultations by asteroids to the detection of parasitic satellites is emphasized. Additional observations supporting the existence of asteroid satellites are noted, and the factors casting doubt on the reality of the inferred satellites are pointed out.

  17. Binary Minor Planets V6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 242 companions in 229 systems are included. Data are presented in three tables: one for orbital and physical properties; one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values; and one giving full references for each reference code. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2013.

  18. Binary Minor Planets V7.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.

    2014-06-01

    The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the published literature as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 256 companions in 242 systems are included. Data are presented in three tables: one for orbital and physical properties; one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values; and one giving full references for each reference code. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2014.

  19. Binary Minor Planets V4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.

    2011-06-01

    The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 202 companions in 191 systems are included. Data are presented in two tables, one for orbital and physical properties and one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values. Data are ordered by permanent number, then provisional designation. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2011.

  20. Binary Minor Planets V5.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.

    2012-06-01

    The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 218 companions in 206 systems are included. Data are presented in two tables, one for orbital and physical properties and one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values. Data are ordered by permanent number, then provisional designation. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2012.

  1. Binary Minor Planets V9.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.

    2016-07-01

    The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the published literature as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 297 companions in 282 systems are included. Data are presented in three tables: one for orbital and physical properties; one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values; and one giving full references for each reference code. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2016.

  2. Effects of a recombinant complement component C3b functional fragment α2MR (α2-macroglobulin receptor) additive on the immune response of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the exposure to cold shock challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Ec-α2MR (Epinephelus coiodes-α2-macroglobulin receptor) on growth performance, enzymatic activity, respiratory burst, MDA level, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging percentage and immune-related gene expressions of the juvenile orange-spotted grouper were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with α2MR additive was used to feed the orange-spotted grouper for six weeks. Although a slight increase was observed in the specific growth rate, survival rate and weight gain, no significance was observed among different group. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to cold stress. Respiratory burst activity and MDA level decreased significantly in α2MR additive group by comparing with the control and additive control group, while a sharp increase of ACP activity, ALP activity, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radial scavenging percentage was observed in α2MR additive group. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that the up-regulated mRNA expressions of C3, TNF1, TNF2, IL-6, CTL, LysC, SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in α2MR additive group at 20 °C. These results showed that α2MR additive may moderate the immune response in grouper following cold shock challenge. PMID:25917969

  3. Observed positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, J.; Szczodrowska-Kozar, B.

    Photographic positions were determined for the six minor planets Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Flora, Eunomia, and Melromene, the observations being made from the Wroclaw Astronomical Observatory between February 1981 and February 1982. Tabulated data include UT of the observation, epoch-1950 topocentric positions, standard deviation of a reference star, the number of reference stars, and the exposure time. The AGK3, SAO, and Perth 70 catalogs were used for reference star positions.

  4. A Comparison of Major and Minor Species in Io's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, M. H.; Schneider, N.; Delamere, P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere of the volcanically active moon Io is continuously stripped away through interactions with Jupiter's magnetic field and replenished by volcanically supplied gas. Io's exosphere, the low density region consisting of bound and escaping, non-interacting neutrals, is dominated by oxygen and sulfur atoms formed from the dissociation of SO2. The radial distributions of oxygen and sulfur emissions exhibit an asymmetry between the intensity over Io's leading and trailing hemispheres (Wolven et al. 2001). Sodium, a minor but well studied exospheric component, shows a different asymmetry: the sub-Jupiter exosphere is denser than the anti-Jupiter exosphere (Burger et al. 2001). In addition, the sodium density decreases much faster with distance than the intensities of the oxygen and sulfur emissions. We explore possible sources for these. One possibility is the dependence of the observed emissions lines on plasma flowing through the exosphere. Variations in the electrons affect the excitation rates of the transitions, while leaving the resonantly scattered sodium emission unaffected. The observations may also point to differences in the loss mechanisms from Io's atmosphere: sodium is believed to be sputtered from the atmosphere and surface by high energy ions in the magnetosphere (reviewed Johnson et al 2004; Thomas et al. 2004). It is unclear whether oxygen and sulfur are lost in the same manner, or instead by the dissociation of SO2 near or above the exobase, which would produce a significantly different energy distribution than sputtering, producing the observed differences.

  5. Vincamine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Sun, Yu-Hong

    2011-06-15

    Vinca minor is a plant containing the alkaloid vincamine, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a cerebral stimulant and vasodilator. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from V. minor produce vincamine. Primary screening was carried out using Dragendorff's and Mayer's reactions, and strain re-selection was made by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify the fermentation products of the selected strain. We isolated 10 endophytic fungal strains from V. minor. An extract from one (Vm-J2), showed positive reactions with both Dragendorff's and Mayer's reagents. The strain had a component with the same TLC R(f) value and HPLC retention time as authentic vincamine. Therefore, the fungus appeared to produce the same bioactive ingredient, vincamine, as the host plant. The prospect of using endophytic fungi to produce the phytoactive compound by fungal fermentation is discussed. PMID:21315568

  6. Oscillatory flow in jet pumps: nonlinear effects and minor losses.

    PubMed

    Petculescu, A; Wilen, L A

    2003-03-01

    A nonresonant, lumped-element technique is used to investigate the behavior of tapered cylindrical flow constrictions (jet pumps) in the nonlinear oscillatory flow regime. The array of samples studied spans a wide range of inlet curvature radii and taper angles. By measuring the rectified steady pressure component developed across a jet pump as well as the acoustic impedance, the minor loss coefficients for flow into and out of the narrow end of the jet pump are determined. These coefficients are found to be relatively insensitive to all but the smallest curvature radii (i.e., sharp edges). For fixed radius of curvature, the inflow minor loss coefficient increases with increasing taper angle while the outflow coefficient remains relatively constant. For all of the samples, the steady flow minor loss coefficients are also measured and compared to their oscillatory flow counterparts. The agreement is good, confirming the so-called Iguchi hypothesis. PMID:12656363

  7. Effects of strongly selective additives on volume phase transition in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Yuki; Araki, Takeaki

    2012-07-01

    We investigate volume phase transition in gels immersed in mixture solvents, on the basis of a three-component Flory-Rehner theory. When the selectivity of the minority solvent component to the polymer network is strong, the gel tends to shrink with an increasing concentration of the additive, regardless of whether it is good or poor. This behavior originates from the difference of the additive concentration between inside and outside the gel. We also found the gap of the gel volume at the transition point can be controlled by adding the strongly selective solutes. By dissolving a strongly poor additive, for instance, the discontinuous volume phase transition can be extinguished. Furthermore, we observed that another volume phase transition occurs far from the original transition point. These behaviors can be well explained by a simplified theory neglecting the nonlinearity of the additive concentration.

  8. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  9. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  10. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  11. Accessibility of cigarettes to minors in suburban Cook County, Illinois.

    PubMed

    McDermott, S R; Scott, K L; Frintner, M P

    1998-04-01

    This study assessed the problem of under age sale of cigarettes, educated vendors about the law restricting the sale of tobacco to minors, and determined the effectiveness of a vendor education intervention. Twenty-one teen volunteers, 14 to 17 years in age, attempted to purchase cigarettes in suburban Cook County from over-the-counter merchants and vending machines. Of the 347 vendors that were checked, the minors were successful in 37.2% of their attempts to purchase cigarettes. After information was sent to each vendor about the State of Illinois law, follow up visits were made to all the vendors who were willing to sell cigarettes to the minors during the first visits. Approximately 50% of the vendors were again willing to sell cigarettes to minors. This study's findings suggest that minors can easily purchase cigarettes in suburban Cook County. The education intervention component of the study had a limited but promising effect on compliance rates of the vendors. PMID:9591206

  12. Minority Retention and Success through Professional Development Initiatives"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalera, J.; Howard, J.; Johnson, A.; Padilla, E.; Renta, I.; Rogers, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Whitney-Williamson, V.

    2007-12-01

    There are several programs at the undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral, and junior faculty levels all around the United States that are designed and implemented to improve the participation of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). One of such programs, The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science Professional Development Program (MS PHD'S PDP) is a community of talented minorities from across the Earth system science and engineering disciplines that fosters a nurturing environment for undergraduate and graduate students. Since it's inception in 2003, its mission to facilitate increased and sustained participation in the STEM fields has gained a tremendous amount of support and participation. Despite the need for more support, the program has continued to grow and aide in increasing the academic retention of minority students. Past participants of this program have successfully completed their degree programs and have obtained positions both in academia and at governmental agencies. Receiving approximately 70 applications per year, the MS PHD'S program has succeeded in providing professional development programs that have promoted a great support system through participation in distinguished conferences, constant interaction/communication with meeting mentors as well as MS PHD mentors, and a family of peers. Since formal evaluations and academic tracking are critical components to assessing the effectiveness of the MS PHD'S program, it has been revealed that by participation in the MS PHD'S PDP program minority participation and retention in the STEM fields has grown.

  13. The Counseling of Minority Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Dwane R.; Collins, Myrtle T.

    1974-01-01

    This article maintains that the counseling of minority students is complicated and demands a high level of professional competence. Discusses needs, mores, and life styles of certain minority groups and includes suggestions for improving the counseling relationship. (HMV)

  14. Component fragility research program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  16. Women and Minority Faculty: A Synthesis of Extant Empirical Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin J.

    The current status of women and minority faculty is briefly reviewed, and alternative explanations for patterns of differences that exist are identified. Although female faculty have gained in their proportionate representation during the 1970s, they still lag behind their strength of a half century ago. In addition, female scholars tend to be…

  17. Classroom Composition and Language Minority Students' Motivation in Language Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rjosk, Camilla; Richter, Dirk; Hochweber, Jan; Lüdtke, Oliver; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated effects of the proportion of language minority students in classrooms on the development of students' intrinsic motivation in language lessons and the mediating role of instructional climate (e.g., teacher support, focus on student interests). In addition, we explored the interaction between the proportion of…

  18. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  19. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  20. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  1. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  2. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  3. Ethnic Minorities in America: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marion Therese

    This paper investigates the nature of ethnic prejudice and examines the treatment of four ethnic minorities in the United States--American Indians, blacks, Chinese Americans, and Mexican Americans. The hypothesis is that, despite inequality, ethnic minorities in the United States enjoy a better lot than ethnic minorities elsewhere. Two forms of…

  4. Social Studies: Minorities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Grace G.; Schmidt, Frances

    This guide describes and outlines a course that focuses on a historical view of the ethnic, racial, and religious composition of our society with emphasis on how minorities have contributed to the makeup of America. The problems and progress of the major minority groups are also examined. The concept that everyone is part of a minority and that…

  5. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of... office. For the purposes of 11 CFR 9002.7, candidate means with respect to any preceding Presidential... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7...

  6. 11 CFR 9002.7 - Minor party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor party. 9002.7 Section 9002.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.7 Minor party. Minor party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential...

  7. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  8. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  9. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  10. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  11. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as...

  12. Gleanings: The Minority Student Success Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara Leigh; MacGregor, Jean

    The Minority Student Success Project (MSSP) initiated in 1989 was designed to improve the recruitment and retention of minority students on campuses in the state of Washington. The results of a questionnaire on minority students administered to all of Washington's community colleges, and data from follow-up interviews, were used to design working…

  13. Divided Opportunities: Minorities, Poverty, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Gary D., Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    A healthy economy is the best offense against poverty, but economic growth alone cannot close the wide gap between the poverty rates of minorities and whites. This collection examines the socioeconomic status of racial and ethnic minorities, their experiences with poverty, and the effects of federal social policies toward minority groups from 1787…

  14. A Hidden Minority Amidst White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Miriam J.

    2008-01-01

    It seems rather amusing to say that the author belongs to a minority, no less a hidden minority. After all, at first glance, she appears to be just another white girl (or woman). She grew up in the mid-west in a predominantly white community, middle class, and well educated. The paradox comes in their definition of minority. Today, as they seek to…

  15. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  16. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term...

  17. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  18. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor. As used in these regulations the term “minor” means a person who has not attained the age of majority... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minor patients. 2.14 Section 2.14 Public...

  19. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of...

  20. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to assist applicants for registration of products for minor uses as described in 40 CFR 180.34. (b... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS... policy. A minor use of a pesticide is a use on a “minor crop” (a crop which is planted on a small...

  1. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  2. Assessing Cigarette Sales Rates to Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 24 adolescents, observation of minors using cigarette vending machines, and studies of the attempts of 20 minors to purchase cigarettes over the counter all confirm that it is easy for minors to gain access to cigarettes in Chicago (Illinois). Implications for tobacco purchase laws are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  4. Minor Allele Frequency Changes the Nature of Genotype by Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    In the classical twin study, phenotypic variation is often partitioned into additive genetic (A), common (C) and specific environment (E) components. From genetical theory, the outcome of genotype by environment interaction is expected to inflate A when the interacting factor is shared (i.e., C) between the members of a twin pair. We show that estimates of both A and C can be inflated. When the shared interacting factor changes the size of the difference between homozygotes' means, the expected sibling or DZ twin correlation is .5 if and only if the minor allele frequency (MAF) is .5; otherwise the expected DZ correlation is greater than this value, consistent (and confounded) with some additional effect of C. This result is considered in the light of the distribution of minor allele frequencies for polygenic traits. Also discussed is whether such interactions take place at the locus level or affect an aggregated biological structure or system. Interactions with structures or endophenotypes that result from the aggregated effects of many loci will generally emerge as part of the A estimate. PMID:27105628

  5. AGI doubles minority geoscience scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Va., has had a significant increase in funds available for minority geoscience scholarships for the 1990-1991 academic year. The number of scholarships awarded this year has more than doubled from a total of 36 in 1989-90 to 80 available for 1990-1991.The increase is due largely to a grant from the National Science Foundation. Total value of the awards, which will be given to undergraduate and graduate geoscience students, will be $221,000. For 1989--990 the total value was $36,750.

  6. Minor elements in Marjalahti olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1984-06-01

    Precise microprobe determinations of minor elements in olivine from Marjalahti show averages of 0.0267 percent CaO; 0.0211 percent Cr2O3; less than 0.0045 percent TiO2; 0.288 percent MnO; and 30 ppm Ni. The calcium is as high as in some terrestrial plutonic olivines (e.g. Stillwater) but lower than in terrestrial nodule (high-temperature mantle?) olivines, consistent with very slow cooling to low temperatures. The chromium is discrepant with some earlier determinations, and possibly chromium is zoned in most pallasitic olivines. The Ti, Mn, and Ni data are consistent with previous determinations.

  7. In vitro analysis of the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of antioxidant compounds used as additives in ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene in total joint replacement components

    PubMed Central

    Bladen, C L; Tzu-Yin, L; Fisher, J; Tipper, J L

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remains the most commonly used material in modern joint replacement prostheses. However, UHMWPE wear particles, formed as the bearing articulates, are one of the main factors leading to joint replacement failure via the induction of osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening. Previous studies have shown that the addition of antioxidants such as vitamin E to UHMWPE can improve wear resistance of the polymer and reduce oxidative fatigue. However, little is known regarding the biological consequences of such antioxidant chemicals. This study investigated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a variety of antioxidant compounds currently being tested experimentally for use in hip and knee prostheses, including nitroxides, hindered phenols, and lanthanides on U937 human histocyte cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in vitro. After addition of the compounds, cell viability was determined by dose response cytotoxicity studies. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined by quantitation of TNF-α release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. This study has shown that many of these compounds were cytotoxic to U937 cells and PBMNCs, at relatively low concentrations (micromolar), specifically the hindered phenol 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (HPAO1), and the nitroxide 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO). Lanthanides were only cytotoxic at very high concentrations and were well tolerated by the cells at lower concentrations. Cytotoxic compounds also showed reduced anti-inflammatory effects, particularly in PBMNCs. Careful consideration should therefore be given to the use of any of these compounds as potential additives to UHMWPE. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 101B: 407–413, 2013. PMID:22915524

  8. Minority Summer Research Program in the Plant Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Poff, Kenneth L.

    2004-08-12

    Gutierrez and Larcom (2000) suggest that ''According to the National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies in 1997, the percentage distribution of scientists and engineers in the labor force by race/ethnicity changed little between 1993 and 1997''. According to this report, Black, non-Hispanic went from 3.6 in 1993 to 3.4 in 1997. Hispanic went from 3.0 in 1993 to 3.1 in 1997; and American Indian/Alaskan Native stayed the same at 0.3 during the same period. The only exceptions were a slight increase in the percentage of Asian from 9.2 in 1993 to 10.4 in 1997, while a slight decrease in percentage White from 83.9 in 1993 to 82.8 in 1997. Overall, no major changes in minorities were present in the science and engineering fields during that period. These data shows that major efforts are needed in order to improve and achieve better results for diversity in the workplace (Gutierrez & Larcom, 2000). This does not mean that major steps have not been taken over this period. For example, the Minority Summer Research Program in Plant Sciences (also funded in part by NSF under the title, ''Undergraduate Researchers in Plant Sciences Program'') was established in an effort to enhance the diversity of the plant science community. The Minority Summer Research Program in Plant Sciences was designed to encourage members of underrepresented groups to seek career opportunities in the plant sciences. To achieve this end, the program contained several components with the primary focus on mentored research for undergraduate students. The research experience was provided during the summer months on the campus of Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. At the end of the summer experience, each participant presented an oral report on their research, and submitted a written paper on the same topic. This was deliberately designed to mimic the plant science professions in which research leads to presentations in the form of reports, papers, etc. In addition

  9. Attenuation of Glass Dissolution in the Presence of Natural Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Jing C.; Barkatt, Aaron; OKeefe, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The study described here explored the dissolution kinetics of glasses in aqueous environments in systems which included a variety of natural crystalline solids in addition to the glass itself and the aqueous phase. The results demonstrated the possibility of a dramatic decrease in the rate of dissolution of silicate glass in the presence of certain varieties of olivine-based materials. This decrease in dissolution rate was shown to be due to the fact that these additives consist mostly of Mg-based material but also contain minor amounts of Al and Ca. The combined presence of Mg with these minor species affected the corrosion rate of the glass as a whole, including its most soluble components such as boron. The study has potentially important implications to the durability of glasses exposed to natural environments. The results may be relevant to the use of active backfill materials in burial sites for nuclear waste glasses as well as to better understanding of the environmental degradation of natural and ancient glasses.

  10. Minorities in medicine: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Petersdorf, R G; Turner, K S; Nickens, H W; Ready, T

    1990-11-01

    Since 1970 the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has had two key policies about minorities in medicine: (1) special attention should be paid to minority groups underrepresented in medicine, and (2) minority groups should be represented in medicine in the same proportions as in the population as a whole. Despite strong gains in the 1970s in increasing the number of black trainees and graduates, the proportion of minorities in medicine now is declining in relation to the total population. The paper discusses this situation, changes in U.S. minority populations, factors that affected the attempt to achieve parity in medicine, the current status of minorities in medical training (including educational debt) and on medical faculties, and remedies for institutions' lack of success in achieving parity. Three successful programs are described, as are the broader social issues that underlie academic medicine's attempt to increase the proportion of minorities in medicine. PMID:2102089

  11. Characterization and Computational Modeling of Minor Phases in Alloy LSHR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng; Olson, Gregory; Gabb, Timothy; Garg, Anita; Miller, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The minor phases of powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR were studied. Samples were consistently heat treated at three different temperatures for long times to approach equilibrium. Additional heat treatments were also performed for shorter times, to assess minor phase kinetics in non-equilibrium conditions. Minor phases including MC carbides, M23C6 carbides, M3B2 borides, and sigma were identified. Their average sizes and total area fractions were determined. CALPHAD thermodynamics databases and PrecipiCalc(TradeMark), a computational precipitation modeling tool, were employed with Ni-base thermodynamics and diffusion databases to model and simulate the phase microstructural evolution observed in the experiments with an objective to identify the model limitations and the directions of model enhancement.

  12. Mapping of minority carrier diffusion length and heavy metal contamination with ultimate surface photovoltage method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J.; Aleynikov, A.; Savtchouk, A.; Edelman, P.

    2004-07-01

    The Ultimate surface photovoltage method of minority carrier diffusion length measurements reffered to as Ultimate SPV, replaces a sequential “one wavelength at a time” approach with simultaneous illumination with the entire set of wavelengths. In this multiwavelength beam, each monochromatic component is chopped with slightly different frequency. This enables simultaneous monitoring of all component SPV signals corresponding to different wavelengths using multi-frequency signal processing. The amplitude and phase of each component signals are then analyzed and used to calculate the diffusion length and surface lifetime. In-flight Ultimate SPV measurement, whereby the wafer continuously moves under SPV probe, is used for fast whole wafer mapping. In addition to speed advantages, Ultimate SPV offers a fundemental accuracy advantage due to elimination of differences in wafer condition during sequential illumination with individual wavelengths. High-speed measurements make it possible to add additional wafer treatments and perform multi-mapping required for separation of Fe and Cu in the silicon bulk. Wafer mapping in time of 2 minutes realized with Ultimate SPV is critical for monitoring of cobalt in silicon.

  13. Two Approaches to Tailoring Treatment for Cultural Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Wray, Alisha M.; Mead, Hilary K.; Adams, Sue K.

    2012-01-01

    At this time, compared with mainstream (Caucasian) youth, cultural minority adolescents experience more severe substance-related consequences and are less likely to receive treatment. While several empirically supported interventions (ESIs), such as motivational interviewing (MI), have been evaluated with mainstream adolescents, fewer published studies have investigated the fit and efficacy of these interventions with cultural minority adolescents. Additionally, many empirical evaluations of ESIs have not explicitly attended to issues of culture, race, and socioeconomic background in their analyses. As a result, there is some question about the external validity of ESIs, particularly in disadvantaged cultural minority populations. This review seeks to take a step towards filling this gap, by addressing how to improve the fit and efficacy of ESIs like MI with cultural minority youth. Specifically, this review presents the existing literature on MI with cultural minority groups (adult and adolescent), proposes two approaches for evaluating and adapting this (or other) behavioral interventions, and elucidates the rationale, strengths, and potential liabilities of each tailoring approach. PMID:22301086

  14. Enhancement of minority involvement in DOE nuclear physics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of continuing efforts to interact with a large number of minority students, the Minority Program in the ANL Physics Division has succeeded in attracting many highly qualified students to apply for participation in the programs of the Physics Division and other ANL divisions. The program is directed toward the identification of institutions with relatively strong physics programs and with faculty interested in stimulating their students to pursue research activities, particularly summer programs. During visits to colleges, lectures are presented and are followed by discussion of activities in physics, at Argonne and other national laboratories, and the possibilities for graduate study, employment, etc. Additional activities included attending meetings of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science and of the Society of Black Physics Students. As a result of these efforts, 42 applications were received for the summer program in 1994. A total of 24 offers were made for the Summer Research Participation program in conjunction with Argonne`s Department of Educational Programs. A number of former participants are currently enrolled in graduate programs in physics; one student is working on his Ph.D. thesis in Nuclear Physics in the Physics Division. Various institutions will be visited during this year and several meetings of minority groups will be attended. These ongoing interactions are generating institutional relationships that will enrich the physics programs in minority institutions and substantially enhance minority involvement not only in nuclear physics, but in other branches of physics and science.

  15. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  16. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities: The Role of Discrimination and Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2008-01-01

    For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life satisfaction. Using data from two studies the…

  17. Socio-legal protection of minorities -- a study of Indian educational cases.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S

    1992-01-01

    Many Muslim families do not enroll their children in school. This is so because material in school syllabi sometimes goes against Islamic beliefs or adversely affects the Muslim self-image, orthodox parents will not send their daughters to coeducational academic institutions, some adults do not realize the benefits of education with regard to the welfare of their children, and many Muslim localities remain resource-deficient slums. The government, local authorities, and Muslims should band together to encourage and enable backward Muslim minorities to uplift themselves academically. Steps to that end could include adding minority representation to the bodies which approve the syllabi in order to monitor the potential inclusion of offensive material, continuing to upgrade teachers in Muslim schools, optimizing available space in Muslim educational institutions, empowering minorities commissions in states to help backward minorities to garner education, eliminating the rules of discretion to avoid corruption and nepotism, simplifying the rules and procedures governing grants to educational institutions, conducting a scientific survey to obtain accurate baseline information for use in planning the education of Muslim minorities, giving special preference to localities populated predominantly with minorities when establishing educational institutions, and providing scholarship to bright and needy minority students. Additionally, the National Minorities Commission should be empowered by the central government to collect information and report on the educational, social, and economic conditions of minorities across the country. Autonomy in management must also be respected, with regulatory measures applicable to minority institutions being reasonable and appropriate. PMID:12319103

  18. Exploration of the lived experiences of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics minority students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead-McDaniel, Kimberly

    An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of this trend are not quite evident; one variable to consider is that undergraduate minority students are failing in STEM disciplines at various levels of education from elementary to postsecondary. The failure of female and minority students to enter STEM disciplines in higher education have led various initiatives to establish programs to promote STEM disciplines among these groups. Additional funding for minority STEM programs have led to a increase in undergraduate minority students entering STEM disciplines, but the minority students' graduation rate in STEM disciplines is approximately 7% lower than the graduation of nonminority students in STEM disciplines. This phenomenological qualitative research study explores the lived experiences of underrepresented minority undergraduate college students participating in an undergraduate minority-mentoring program. The following nine themes emerged from the study: (a) competitiveness, (b) public perception, (c) dedication, (d) self-perception, (e) program activities, (f) time management, (g) exposure to career and graduate opportunities, (h) rigor in the curriculum, and (i) peer mentoring. The themes provided answers and outcomes to better support a stronger minority representation in STEM disciplines.

  19. Cybersex with minors: forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M E; Sharma, K K

    2001-11-01

    This paper is designed to assist forensic psychiatrists/psychologists who evaluate adults who commit sexual crimes against children on the Internet. The typical offender is an adult male who logs onto the Internet and enters a chat room in which children congregate. Unbeknownst to the offender, undercover police officers are posing as minors in the chat rooms. The undercover officer (pretend kid) and offender engage in increasingly explicit, sexual conversation; the offender may transmit erotic photographs to the undercover officer and/or arrange to meet at a motel in order to have sexual intercourse. The authors will discuss the relevant legal, clinical, and ethical aspects of examining these offenders, and describe specific cases that the author (2) evaluated. PMID:11714151

  20. New NMR spectroscopic probe of the absolute stereoselectivity for metal-hydride and metal-alkyl additions to the carbon-carbon double bond. Demonstration with a single-component, isospecific Ziegler-Natta {alpha}-olefin polymerization catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, J.H.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1996-12-04

    Optically active (98% ee) (R)-1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-octadeutero-1-pentene (1) was prepared and used to evaluate the stereoselectivity of Y-H and Y-n-pentyl additions for the optically pure C{sub 2}-symmetric (R,S)-(BnBp)Y-R/(S,R)-(BnBp)Y-R and racemic ({+-})-(BnBp)Y-R isospecific polypropylene catalysts (BnBp = [(OC{sub 10}H{sub 6}C{sub 10}H{sub 6}O)Si(C{sub 5}H{sub 2}-2-SiMe{sub 3}-4-CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}]). Deuteration and deuterodimerization of 1 mediated by (R,S)-, (S,R)-, and ({+-})-(BnBp)Y-D provide alkanes whose {sup 1}H NMR spectra indicate the sense and magnitude of olefin facial selectivity for insertions into metal-hydride and metal-n-pentyl bonds. It is shown that useful information concerning the stereochemistry of olefin insertion can be deduced from the {sup 2}H NMR spectra of 1-pentene deuterodimers without the requirement of a stereochemically labeled pentene or a resolved catalyst. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  1. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  2. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  3. Minority Aging and Endogenous Pain Facilitatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W.; Goodin, Burel R.; McNew, Myriah; Gossett, Ethan W.; Bradley, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships among age, ethnicity, and endogenous pain facilitation using temporal summation (TS) responses to mechanical and heat stimuli. Design The present study assessed hyperalgesia and pain facilitation to thermal and mechanical stimuli at the knee and distal sites in 98 pain-free men and women. Participants were drawn from two ethnic (African-Americans, AA; and non-Hispanic whites, NHW) and age groups (19-35 and 45-85). Results Significant main effects of ethnicity were demonstrated for both mechanical and heat modalities (all p’s≤0.05), suggesting that AA participants, relative to NHW counterparts, demonstrated enhanced hyperalgesia. Age differences (older > younger) in hyperalgesia were found in mechanical pain ratings only. Results indicated that mechanical pain ratings significantly increased from first to maximal pain as a function of both age group and ethnicity (all p’s≤0.05), and a significant ethnicity by age interaction for TS of mechanical pain was found at the forearm (p<0.05) and trended towards significance at the knee (p=0.071). Post-hoc tests suggested that results were primarily driven by the older AA participants, who demonstrated the greatest mechanical TS. Additionally, evidence of differences in heat TS due to both ethnicity alone (all p’s≤0.05) and minority aging was also found. Conclusions This study provides evidence suggesting that older AAs demonstrate enhanced pain facilitatory processes, which is important because this group may be at increased risk for development of chronic pain. These results underscore the necessity of testing pain modulatory mechanisms when addressing questions related to pain perception and minority aging. PMID:26814250

  4. Adding Value: A GIS Minor to Complement the Geology Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has proven to be a valuable addition to the geology curriculum at Georgia Southern University. The Department of Geology and Geography offers course work in GIS required for the geography major and has used these courses to create a minor in GIS. Approximately half the students graduating with degrees in geology during the last 5 years have taken the GIS minor. A working knowledge of GIS has helped students secure summer employment and internships. For some of them it was the key to immediate employment upon graduation and for others it was a valuable additional skill to present as part of graduate school applications. Although once daunting in the financial and intellectual capital required to create a program, GIS software has become much more user friendly and standard PCs are now the platform on which most GIS work is conducted. Georgia Southern's GIS minor is based on five courses taught by four members of the faculty (3 geographers and 1 geologist). The foundation of the minor is two courses integrating the fundamentals of GIS and cartography. The other three courses cover data bases and web-based applications of GIS, remote sensing, and a semester long project in applied GIS. Although missing topics that are part of the curriculum for certificates or degrees in GIS, this five-course sequence provides a sound basis for introductory level positions in government and industry and graduate programs in geology.

  5. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems. PMID:26883398

  6. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  7. Sub-typing CFS patients on the basis of 'minor' symptoms.

    PubMed

    Janal, Malvin N; Ciccone, Donald S; Natelson, Benjamin H

    2006-08-01

    The diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), an illness characterized by medically unexplained fatigue, depends on a clinical case definition representing one or more pathophysiological mechanisms. To prepare for studies of these mechanisms, this study sought to identify subtypes of CFS. In 161 women meeting 1994 criteria for CFS, principal components analysis of the 10 'minor' symptoms of CFS produced three factors interpreted to indicate musculoskeletal, infectious and neurological subtypes. Extreme scores on one or more of these factors characterized about 2/3 of the sample. Those characterized by the neurological factor were at increased risk of reduced scores on cognitive tests requiring attention, working memory, long-term memory or rapid performance. In addition, the neurological subtype was associated with reduced levels of function. Those characterized by the musculoskeletal factor were at increased risk for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia (chronic widespread pain and mechanical allodynia) and reduced physical function. Those characterized by the infectious factor were less likely to evidence co-occurring fibromyalgia, and showed lesser risk of functional impairment. The prevalence of disability was increased in those with the highest scores on any of the subtypes, as well as in those with high scores on multiple factors. Depression and anxiety, while frequently present, were not more prevalent in any particular subtype, and did not increase with the severity of specific symptom reports. Results suggest that subtypes of CFS may be identified from reports of the minor diagnostic symptoms, and that these subtypes demonstrate construct validity. PMID:16473456

  8. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... health, or the conservation of grant funds....

  9. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH... health, or the conservation of grant funds....

  10. Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. J.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2004-03-01

    We have measured minor element concentrations in spinels from type B CAIs in Efremovka and Allende. We find a correlation of V and Ti that supports previous interpretations of additional remelting and crystallization events for these objects.

  11. LSU Geoscience Alliance to Enhance Minority Participation: Building Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. C.; Ferrell, R. E.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Tomkin, J. H.; Bart, P. J.

    2004-12-01

    The LSU GAEMP (Geoscience Alliance to Enhance Minority Participation) program seeks to increase the number of under-represented minorities in the geosciences by targeting students at minority-serving institutions (MSIs) who have an undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math) major that is not geology. The program, sponsored by a 5-year NSF award through the OEDG program, is administered by Geology and Geophysics faculty at LSU in collaboration with key science faculty at nine regional minority serving institutions (MSIs; seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and two Hispanic Serving Institutions). These MSIs, especially several physics programs, provide well-trained, highly motivated graduates who compile excellent records in highly ranked graduate programs. These students also have strong potential because they have knowledge and skills relevant to graduate work in interdisciplinary areas. Forging collaborations with MSIs is crucial to exposing these talented students to geoscience education and career opportunities because most of these institutions do not have geoscience degree programs. The point of entry into GAEMP is a summer course that focuses on research to introduce basic geoscience concepts. Targeted recruits into GAEMP are MSI juniors that show high academic achievement and have non-geoscience STEM majors. Summer course participants are encouraged to, and supported in, cooperative research projects that are completed during the following academic year at the home institution. On receiving their baccalaureate degree, GAEMP participants are encouraged to apply to graduate school, especially at LSU where GAEMP graduate fellowships are available at both the M.S. and Ph.D. level. We use a variety of recruiting efforts to attract students into GAEMP including print media, a webpage, visits by LSU faculty and students to MSIs, and workshops at LSU for MSI faculty and students. With all these efforts, the enthusiastic

  12. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. PMID:26763500

  13. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  14. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  15. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  16. Minority Ownership of Small Businesses: Instructional Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to provide supplementary instruction on basic business techniques for adult minority students in business education. Relevant information on how to start a business is provided by means of actual business situations and problems encountered in 30 recent minority business ventures. Focusing on business procedures and…

  17. Photographic observations of minor planets at Pulkovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Eva, T. A.; Kiseleva, T. P.; Orlova, O. N.

    Results of photographic positional observations of minor planets at the normal astrograph of the Pulkovo observatory are reported. The AGK-3 catalog is used as a reference catalog. The study involves the reduction of 88 plates with six minor planets, a list of which, as well as opposition dates, number of plates, and rms observational errors, is given.

  18. Helping Minorities Read Better: Problems and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Garcia, Ricardo L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses reading instruction in non-English languages and describes the use of reading materials and methods based on students' cultural background. Describes three exemplary reading programs for minority students and offers a model of a responsive reading teacher who meets the needs of minority background students through locally appropriate…

  19. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  20. Venturing into Scary Places: The Minority Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Students who have lived as part of a majority for their entire life may find it frightening to be asked to visit a place where they will be in the minority. In this article, the author uses this assignment to demonstrate to his students how some people feel everyday. The Minority Experience assignment challenges students to actively participate in…

  1. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely…

  2. New Minority Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    This study was a follow-up investigation of five minority first-year teachers who were 1992 graduates of the Peabody Internship/Induction Teaching Program. The study was designed to examine the socialization of new minority group teachers. Structured interview protocols for the teachers and their principals were the primary means of data…

  3. The Gender Gap in Minority Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NACME Research Letter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document presents data collected from all American engineering colleges for the academic year 1990-91 on minority enrollment and graduation rates by gender. The objective in analyzing the data was to determine what gender-specific engineering education issues should be considered in pursuing the goal of increased minority participation. To…

  4. Needed: Minorities in Educational R&D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Stanley C.

    "This paper addresses the need to open opportunities in educational research so that more minority researchers can contribute their personal experiences and acquired expertise to the development of excellent, equitable, and effective school programs and practices for all children. It captures the perspectives of a young minority (African American)…

  5. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guardianship showing the minor's name, date and place of birth, and the names of the parent or parents or legal... following: (A) A birth certificate providing the minor's name, date and place of birth and the name of only the applying parent; (B) A Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States...

  6. Minority Business Export Initiatives: Final Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhra, Lourdene

    The Minority Business Export Initiatives Program was developed by Harold Washington College and Chicago City-Wide College (two schools in the City Colleges of Chicago system) to assist minority business owners in developing and implementing international business strategies that would strengthen their economic viability within today's complex…

  7. Minorities and Community Colleges: Data and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Fontelle, Ed.

    The purpose of this report is to provide insight into the accomplishments of community colleges in serving minority populations. Observations are drawn from the literature in relation to open admissions, the extent to which minority educational needs are met, actions that would help community college programs benefit the individual and the…

  8. Minority Health in Michigan: Closing the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing.

    The wide and growing discrepancy in mortality rates between the minority populations of Blacks, Hispanics, Arab Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans and the White population of the State of Michigan make improving minority health status a matter of simple justice. Section I, "Introduction and Overview," comprises chapter 1,…

  9. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor... or drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of...

  10. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  11. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  12. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  13. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of June...

  14. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April...

  15. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  16. Disability and People from Minority Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSERS New in Print, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This U.S. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) quarterly issue contains six papers describing development of services for minority individuals with disabilities. "Goals for Improving Services to Minority Individuals with Disabilities" (Robert R. Davila) discusses the need to increase high-school graduation rates,…

  17. Facts on Women Workers of Minority Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet on women workers of minority races includes all races in a minority other than white, Negroes constituting about 90 percent of all persons other than white in the United States; Spanish-speaking persons are included in the white population. The following topics are encompassed; labor force participation; unemployment; marital status;…

  18. Minority Scholars--Diversity and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Minority students made up approximately 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. The composition of Central's honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity, however, few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking AP courses as seniors. In fall…

  19. Arizona Minority Student Success Report, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Tonya M.; Forester, Christine A.

    The Arizona Minority Education Policy Analysis Center (AMEPAC) is a policy center of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education. AMEPAC's mission is to stimulate, through studies, statewide discussion, and debate, constructive improvement of Arizona minority students' early awareness, access, and achievement throughout all sectors of…

  20. Fostering Minority Enterprise in Construction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Robert W.

    An empirical study of minority business enterprise in construction, the paper is based on interviews with 340 general and specialty contractors (out of 1,275 identified minority contractors) in Atlanta, Houston, Chicago, and San Francisco-Oakland, as well as 300 other individuals including civil rights officials, and other knowledgeable…

  1. Sexism and Its Impact on Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sylvia Crudup

    1979-01-01

    Minority men and women are often reluctant to address the issue of sex bias, perceiving that this will cause intragroup conflict. However, sex stereotypes themselves have negative effects on individuals' personal lives. Understanding and rejecting these stereotypes will enable minority men and women to work together on other priority issues.…

  2. The Linguistic Minorities of New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCamp, Suzanne

    This report describes the major linguistic minority groups residing in New York (New York). Hispanics are the largest language minority in the city. In 1990, nearly one-quarter of the city's population was of Hispanic origin, and 35% of school children were Hispanic. The Latino population continues to grow through natural increase and immigration.…

  3. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acting in loco parentis. (i) A person may apply in loco parentis on behalf of a minor under age 16 by... person acting in loco parentis executes the application, in cases of exigent or special family... loco parentis who is applying for a passport for a minor under age 16 under this paragraph must...

  4. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acting in loco parentis. (i) A person may apply in loco parentis on behalf of a minor under age 16 by... person acting in loco parentis executes the application, in cases of exigent or special family... loco parentis who is applying for a passport for a minor under age 16 under this paragraph must...

  5. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acting in loco parentis. (i) A person may apply in loco parentis on behalf of a minor under age 16 by... person acting in loco parentis executes the application, in cases of exigent or special family... loco parentis who is applying for a passport for a minor under age 16 under this paragraph must...

  6. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acting in loco parentis. (i) A person may apply in loco parentis on behalf of a minor under age 16 by... person acting in loco parentis executes the application, in cases of exigent or special family... loco parentis who is applying for a passport for a minor under age 16 under this paragraph must...

  7. Retention Models for Minority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris-Obiakor, Pauline

    This paper discusses retention techniques that can be used with minority students at predominantly white colleges, focusing on four phases that are critical to the retention and academic achievement of minority students: acceptance, acclimatization, responsibility, and productivity. In the acceptance phase, the college community should attempt to…

  8. Pocket Guide to Minority Health Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Minority Health (PHS/DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This pocket-size directory lists federal, state, and private agencies; clearinghouses; and organizations that address the general and specific health needs of minority groups. The guide has seven sections. Part 1 describes the Office of Minority Health (OMH), its activities, and the OMH Resource Center. Parts 2 and 3 list Public Health Service…

  9. I.Q. Tests and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deAvila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara

    Test publishers and the users of standardized IQ and summary-score achievement tests have failed to consider the problems associated with testing the minority child. Since the results of these tests are used to determine the education, economic, and social future of children, a harder look at the minority child's cultural background is essential.…

  10. The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene Occurs on a Minichromosome with Extensive Heteroplasmy in Two Species of Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Pietan, Lucas L; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W

    2016-01-01

    In animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typically occurs as a single circular chromosome with 13 protein-coding genes and 22 tRNA genes. The various species of lice examined previously, however, have shown mitochondrial genome rearrangements with a range of chromosome sizes and numbers. Our research demonstrates that the mitochondrial genomes of two species of chewing lice found on pocket gophers, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor, are fragmented with the 1,536 base-pair (bp) cytochrome-oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene occurring as the only protein-coding gene on a 1,916-1,964 bp minicircular chromosome in the two species, respectively. The cox1 gene of T. minor begins with an atypical start codon, while that of G. aurei does not. Components of the non-protein coding sequence of G. aurei and T. minor include a tRNA (isoleucine) gene, inverted repeat sequences consistent with origins of replication, and an additional non-coding region that is smaller than the non-coding sequence of other lice with such fragmented mitochondrial genomes. Sequences of cox1 minichromosome clones for each species reveal extensive length and sequence heteroplasmy in both coding and noncoding regions. The highly variable non-gene regions of G. aurei and T. minor have little sequence similarity with one another except for a 19-bp region of phylogenetically conserved sequence with unknown function. PMID:27589589

  11. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  12. The Minority Graduate Fellowship Program: A Program for Initiating Minorities into the Professoriate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, John S.; Leary, Paul A.

    This paper provides a description of the Minority Graduate Fellowship Program created by the School of Education, Human Services and Humanities at the West Virginia Graduate College. The program's purpose is to increase the minority presence within its faculty, recruit minorities to this geographical area, and to assist young professionals with…

  13. Differences in Autism Symptoms between Minority and Non-Minority Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about whether early symptom presentation differs in toddlers with ASD from ethnic minority versus non-minority backgrounds. Within a treatment study for toddlers with ASD, we compared 19 minority to 65 Caucasian children and their parents on variables obtained from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Autism Diagnostic Observation…

  14. Choosing techniques for analysis of food components and additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter compares the methods that can be used by scientists and food processors to determine various quality traits of food. The properties of food include mechanical, physical, physicochemical, and kinetic characteristics. Investigating these properties not only involves deciding on the most...

  15. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using the following equation: LRV = LOG10(Cf)−LOG10(Cp) Where: LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the... filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection limit. (8) Each filter tested must...

  16. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using the following equation: LRV = LOG10(Cf)−LOG10(Cp) Where: LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the... filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection limit. (8) Each filter tested must...

  17. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using the following equation: LRV = LOG10(Cf)−LOG10(Cp) Where: LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the... filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection limit. (8) Each filter tested must...

  18. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using the following equation: LRV = LOG10(Cf)−LOG10(Cp) Where: LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the... filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection limit. (8) Each filter tested must...

  19. 40 CFR 141.719 - Additional filtration toolbox components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using the following equation: LRV = LOG10(Cf)−LOG10(Cp) Where: LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the... filtrate, then the term Cp must be set equal to the detection limit. (8) Each filter tested must...

  20. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  1. Effects of laser ablated silver nanoparticles on Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Üçüncü, Esra; Özkan, Alper D; Kurşungöz, Canan; Ülger, Zeynep E; Ölmez, Tolga T; Tekinay, Turgay; Ortaç, Bülend; Tunca, Evren

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates and models the effect of laser ablated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the development of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor. Toxic effects of five different AgNP concentrations (8, 16, 32, 96 and 128 μg L(-1)) on L. minor were recorded over seven days under simulated natural conditions. Biosorption of AgNPs by L. minor was modeled using four sorption isotherms, and the sorption behavior was found to agree most closely with the Langmuir-Freundlich model (R(2)=0.997). While toxic effects of AgNPs could be observed in all models and concentrations, the greatest increase in toxicity was in the 8-32 μg L(-1) range. Dry weight- and frond number-based inhibition experiments suggest that growth inhibition does not necessarily scale with AgNP concentration, and that slight fluctuations in inhibition rates exist over certain concentration ranges. Very close fits (R(2)=0.999) were obtained for all removal models, suggesting that the fluctuations are not caused by experimental variation. In addition, L. minor was found to be a successful bioremediation agent for AgNPs, and displayed higher removal rates for increasing AgNP doses. FT-IR spectroscopy suggests that carbonyl groups are involved in AgNP remediation. PMID:24529395

  2. Research Project for Increasing the Pool of Minority Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, Susan F. (Technical Monitor); Rogers, Decatur B.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) funded the 2001-2002 Tennessee State University (TSU) Research Project for increasing the pool of minority engineers. The NASA GRC/TSU Research Project is designed to develop a cadre of SMET professionals who have academic and research expertise in technical areas of interest to NASA, in addition to having some familiarity with the mission of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The goal of increasing minority participation in SMET disciplines was accomplished by: (1) introducing and exposing 96 minority youth to Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET) careers and to the required high school preparation necessary to make high school graduation, college attendance and engineering careers a reality through the campus based pre-college SMET program: Minority Introduction to Engineering (MITE); (2) by providing financial support through scholarships for four (4) TSU engineering students to NASA; (3) familiarization with the SMET profession and with NASA through summer internships at NASA GRC for two TSU NASA Glenn Research Scholars; and experiences through research internships at NASA GRC.

  3. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  4. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  5. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10−5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  6. Ecotoxicological experiences on Lemna minor test system.

    PubMed

    Szamosi-Hernádi, D; Oláh, B; Gáty, S; Pap, L

    2000-07-01

    Are plants generally less sensitive to toxicity than aquatic animals as indicated by some authors (1)? The use of phytotoxicity (higher plant) tests as a part of ecotoxicology is relatively underdeveloped. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the OECD Lemna Growth Inhibition Test with other mainly used test systems. Three toxicants were tested applying the Alga Growth Inhibition Test (Seleneastrum capricornutum), the Daphnia Immobilization Test (Daphnia magna) and the MICROTOX-test (Photobacterium phosphoreum). Duckweed plants were found to be sensitive to the chemicals tested, with nearly 100% inhibition of frond production occurring in the highest concentrations. The plants in some samples showed lesions (break up of the colony structure) and loss of green pigments (chlorosis), others showed localized dead tissues (necrosis). In addition to the morphological deviations (appearance) there is a wide range of characteristics to be observed on the test plants: number of fronds, number of plants, biomass, dry weight, mortality, CO2 and O2 exchange, concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. It is consistent that the number of fronds is slightly more sensitive than or the same as the number of plants and that the biomass tend to be somewhat more tolerant than those for the number of plants (2). Applying the simplest way of observation, changes in the frond number were recorded. As Lemna minor show a characteristical sensitivity to the different kind of chemicals, it is a promising indicator of aquatic toxicity. PMID:10943492

  7. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  8. Perceived health concerns among sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Rodriguez, Israel; Mengele, Shruta Rawat; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Dange, Alpana; Anand, Vivek

    2016-07-01

    The experiences of sexual minority women (i.e., women who do not identify as 'heterosexual') in India have largely been absent in scientific literature. In partnership with India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, the Humsafar Trust, our study used community-based participatory research principles to explore the lived experiences and health concerns of sexual minority women in Mumbai. Study methodologies included interviews with key informants, a focus group comprised of six women, and an additional 12 in-person interviews with sexual minority women to identify important physical, mental, social and other health priorities from these women's perspectives. Thematic data are organised within the framework offered by the social ecological model, including individual, interpersonal, micro and macro levels. Findings from this study are important in providing the groundwork for future research and intervention involving sexual minority women in India, a dramatically underserved population. PMID:26873141

  9. Question 9: Minority Control and Genetic Takeover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2007-10-01

    As an issue of constructive biology, we study how molecules carrying heredity appear in a reproduction system that consists of mutually catalytic reactions. Molecules that are minority in number are shown to be preserved over generations, and control the behavior of the system. Life-critical information is then expected to be packed into such molecules and transferred over generations, leading to kinetic origin of genetic information. Relevance of this minority control to genetic takeover from loose reproduction is discussed, as a general consequence of any reproducing system with evolvability. Appropriate cell size to achieve both for reproduction and evolvability is also estimated based on this minority control mechanism.

  10. Recuiting minority students into your REU program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, David

    2009-03-01

    It is important for the field of physics that we draw our talent from the broadest pool. However, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans are substantially underrepresented in physics. Since summer research experiences are a useful tool to assist students in gaining entrance into graduate school, it is particularly important that underrepresented minority students are fully able to participate. The NSF REU program at Vanderbilt University is historically comprised of one half minority students. How this comes about and how we pro-actively recruit minority students will be described.

  11. Fuel and physical properties of biodiesel components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used oils. Specifically, biodiesel is the methyl or other alkyl esters of these oils or fats. Biodiesel also contains minor components such as free fatty acids and acylglycerols. Important fuel properties of biodi...

  12. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of

  13. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  14. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  15. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  16. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that FDA..., or prevention of the disease or condition for which the drug is being developed, including...

  17. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source...

  18. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source...

  19. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source...

  20. 40 CFR 49.158 - Synthetic minor source permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Synthetic minor source permits. 49.158... Federal Minor New Source Review Program in Indian Country § 49.158 Synthetic minor source permits. You may obtain a synthetic minor source permit under this program to establish a synthetic minor source...

  1. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  2. Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  3. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... Subjects 21 CFR Part 73 Color additives, Cosmetics, Drugs, Medical devices. 21 CFR Part 172 Food...

  4. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  5. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  6. Multiple sclerosis in US minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mitzi J.; Amezcua, Lilyana; Javed, Adil; Larsen, Kristin E.; Smrtka, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis (MS) characteristics among various ethnic minority populations is a topic of recent interest. However, these populations are consistently underrepresented in clinical trials, leading to limited data on the effectiveness of treatments in these groups of patients and lack of an evidence-based approach to treatment. In order to achieve optimal disease management in the ethnic minority MS populations, a better understanding of the regional, socioeconomic, and cultural influences that result in underrepresentation of these groups in clinical trials is needed. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to identify the genetic factors that influence disease disparity in these minority populations. Suggestions for the identification and implementation of best practices for fostering the trust of ethnic minority patients with MS and enhancing their participation in clinical trials are offered. PMID:26137421

  7. Linguistic Minorities in Canada and Health

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  8. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  9. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  10. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  11. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...\\ See 75 FR 10446, March 8, 2010. FHFA received 23 comment letters to the proposed rule from individuals... FHFA should not require the creation of Offices of Minority and Women Inclusion and should let...

  12. Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Minor Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Isolde; Dorn, Frederic; Fomin, Fedor V.; Sau, Ignasi; Thilikos, Dimitrios M.

    The theory of Graph Minors by Robertson and Seymour is one of the deepest and significant theories in modern Combinatorics. This theory has also a strong impact on the recent development of Algorithms, and several areas, like Parameterized Complexity, have roots in Graph Minors. Until very recently it was a common belief that Graph Minors Theory is mainly of theoretical importance. However, it appears that many deep results from Robertson and Seymour's theory can be also used in the design of practical algorithms. Minor containment testing is one of algorithmically most important and technical parts of the theory, and minor containment in graphs of bounded branchwidth is a basic ingredient of this algorithm. In order to implement minor containment testing on graphs of bounded branchwidth, Hicks [NETWORKS 04] described an algorithm, that in time O(3^{k^2}\\cdot (h+k-1)!\\cdot m) decides if a graph G with m edges and branchwidth k, contains a fixed graph H on h vertices as a minor. That algorithm follows the ideas introduced by Robertson and Seymour in [J'CTSB 95]. In this work we improve the dependence on k of Hicks' result by showing that checking if H is a minor of G can be done in time O(2^{(2k +1 )\\cdot log k} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{2h^2} \\cdot m). Our approach is based on a combinatorial object called rooted packing, which captures the properties of the potential models of subgraphs of H that we seek in our dynamic programming algorithm. This formulation with rooted packings allows us to speed up the algorithm when G is embedded in a fixed surface, obtaining the first single-exponential algorithm for minor containment testing. Namely, it runs in time 2^{O(k)} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{O(h)} \\cdot n, with n = |V(G)|. Finally, we show that slight modifications of our algorithm permit to solve some related problems within the same time bounds, like induced minor or contraction minor containment.

  13. Minor Consent and Delivery of Adolescent Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; Skiles, Martha P.; English, Abigail; Cai, Jianwen; Agans, Robert P.; Stokley, Shannon; Markowitz, Lauri; Koumans, Emilia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. Methods A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Results Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. Conclusions The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines. PMID:24074605

  14. Minority carrier lifetime in indium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Weinberg, Irving; Kneisel, Keith

    1991-01-01

    Transient photoluminescence is used to measure the minority carrier lifetime on n-type and p-type InP wafers. The measurements show that unprocessed InP wafers have very high minority carrier lifetimes. Lifetimes of 200 ns and 700 ns were observed for lightly-doped p- and n-type material respectively. Lifetimes over 5 ns were found in heavily doped n-type material.

  15. 76 FR 71438 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY... Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee (MDIAC or Committee) formerly administered by the... preserve the present number of minority depository institutions and encourage the creation of new...

  16. Minority Students at Risk: An Interview with Professor Shirley Chisholm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeter, Larry

    1987-01-01

    Professor Shirley Chisholm responds to questions concerning the decline in minority higher education enrollments, student financial aid considerations, ways of fostering a climate of support for minority students, faculty behaviors, racism on campus, and family pressures on minority students. (DMM)

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  18. The truth about mentoring minorities. Race matters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D A

    2001-04-01

    Diversity has become a top priority in corporate America. Despite corporations' best intentions, however, many have failed to achieve a racial mix at the top levels of management. Some have revolving doors for talented minorities, recruiting the best and brightest, only to see them leave, frustrated by their experiences. Others are able to retain high-potential professionals of color but find them mired in middle management. To understand the different career trajectories of whites and minorities, David Thomas studied the progression of racial minorities at three large U.S. corporations. Here, he explains the three career stages that all professionals advance through, and he discusses why promising white professionals tend to enter fast tracks early in their careers, whereas high-potential minorities typically take off after they have reached middle management. Thomas's research shows that minorities who advance the furthest share one characteristic: a strong network of mentors and corporate sponsors. He found that minorities who plateaued in middle management received mentoring that was basically instructional; it helped them to develop skills. By contrast, minorities who became executives enjoyed fuller developmental relationships with their mentors. Thomas explains the types of support mentors provide for their protégés and outlines the challenges of mentoring across racial lines. Specifically, he addresses negative stereotypes, public scrutiny, difficulty with role modeling, and peer resentment. Finally, Thomas challenges the notion that the job of mentors begins and ends with their one-on-one relationships with their protégés. He offers concrete advice on how mentors can support broader initiatives at their organizations to create and enhance conditions that foster the upward mobility of professionals of color. PMID:11299697

  19. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  20. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  1. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  2. Three components of 'Taurids'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    Observations and the estimated activity profile both show the 'Taurids' are not a single entity but consist of three showers. It is necessary to study ecliptic streams such as 'Taurids' very carefully, because they are located near the ANT area, where sporadic or minor activities continue the whole year round. Nevertheless, photographic and CCD observations show a clear dip in the activity against the background and further analysis permits the discrimination of three components at the following solar longitudes and with the following radiants and geocentric velocities: SE activity (36.5 deg, +98 deg) Vgeo 28.6, mean solar longitude 202.6 deg SF activity (53.0 deg, +139 deg) Vgeo 27.0, mean solar longitude 223.4 deg Northern activity (55.5 deg, +213 deg) Vgeo 28.7, mean solar longitude 226.3 deg Observations might suggest other weaker activities exist but they are buried in the background activity. It is said that the 'Taurid' activity interval may extend from September to December, but the observations and analysis presented here argue against a single stream and in favor of a mixture of three independent streams and sporadic activities.

  3. Trends in stratospheric minor constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Chu, W. P.; Coffey, M. T.; Heaps, W. S.; Kaye, J. A.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Photochemical models predict that increasing source gas concentrations are also expected to lead to changes in the concentrations of both catalytically active radical species (such as NO2, ClO, and OH) and inactive reservoir species (such as HNO3, HCl, and H2O). For simplicity, we will refer to all these as trace species. Those species that are expected to have increasing concentration levels are investigated. Additionally, the trace species concentration levels are monitored for unexpected changes on the basis of the measure increase in source gases. Carrying out these investigations is difficult due to the limited data base of measurements of stratospheric trace species. In situ measurements are made only infrequently, and there are few satelliteborne measurements, most over a time space insufficient for trend determination. Instead, ground-based measurements of column content must be used for many species, and interpretation is complicated by contributions from the troposphere or mesosphere or both. In this chapter, we examine existing measurements as published or tabulated.

  4. Serving the Information Needs of the International and Minority Students at the Small College Library: A Librarian's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhans, Skip

    International and minority students often pose additional challenges due to cultural, linguistic, or socio-economic differences with the mostly white, middle class, highly educated (and predominantly female) public service librarians with whom they come into contact. Such differences can range from minor speech/articulation problems to major…

  5. Hamstring Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Zachazewski, James; Silvers, Holly J.; Li, Bernard; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Insler, Stephanie; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2016-01-01

    (IR: .025 INT vs .068 CON, p < 0.05); constituting a 25% reduction in HS injury. In the minors, there were 7 HS injuries in the INT vs. 297 in the CON (IR: .039 INT vs. .065 CON, p < 0.05), constituting a 40% reduction in the minor league HS injuries. There was a significant reduction in time loss due to injury for both the major and minor league INT players compared to the CON. For the Major League INT, there were 9 vs. 25.9 days lost in the CON group, resulting in a 65.3% reduction in time loss (p<0.05). The Minor League INT reported a similar finding: 11.63 vs. 21.3 days lost to injury in the CON group, resulting in a 45.3% reduction in time loss (p<0.05). Conclusion: The reduction in hamstring injury in the major and minor league intervention teams is consistent what researchers have reported with respect to the efficacy and value of utilizing a this intervention program in other sports. The intervention is a time and cost efficient means to reduce hamstring injury incidence and time loss in professional baseball players. This study is continuing in a prospective manner for an additional competitive season.

  6. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; W. J. Carmack; H. Tsai

    2009-07-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR-II as part of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data, and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few minor actinide-bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MA’s. Of primary interest are the affect of the MA’s on fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995-1996, and currently represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior. This paper provides a summary of the X501 fabrication, characterization, irradiation, and post irradiation examination.

  7. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; S. L. Hayes; M. K. Meyer; H. Tsai

    2008-06-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR-II as part of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data, and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few minor actinide-bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MA’s. Of primary interest are the affect of the MA’s on fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995-1996, and currently represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior.

  8. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

  9. Magnetic Levitators With Superconductive Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic noncontact levitators that include superconductive components provide vibration-damping suspension for cryogenic instruments, according to proposal. Because superconductive components attached to levitated cryogenic instruments, no additional coolant liquid or refrigeration power needed. Also because vibration-damping components of levitators located outside cold chambers, in ambient environment, not necessary to waste coolant liquid or refrigeration power on dissipation of vibrational energy. At least three levitating magnets and three superconductors necessary for stable levitation.

  10. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  11. The Minority Voice in Educational Reform: An Analysis by Minority and Women College of Education Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castenell, Louis A., Ed.; Tarule, Jill M., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the issue of minority and female deans in colleges of education, offering the current thinking by a group of minority and female deans of education. Part 1, "Changing Leadership: Tensions within Academic and Social Roles," presents the first four chapters: (1) "Surviving the Middle Passage: The Absent Legacy of…

  12. Disadvantages of Minority Group Membership: The Perspective of a "Nondeprived" Minority Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Abraham D.

    1975-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of Jewish undergraduate students, evidence is presented to indicate that a minority group which is not deprived materially can nonetheless perceive itself as receiving disadvantages from its minority group status. The most frequently perceived disadvantages (as well as advantages) are enumerated and discussed. (EH)

  13. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  14. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  15. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  16. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  17. Minorities in the Graduate Education Pipeline. A Research Report of the Minority Graduate Education (MGE) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shirley Vining

    Findings on the nature and extent of minority underrepresentation in higher education are presented, and the status of minority students at various transition points from high school through graduate school is described. The primary data source was the Higher Education General Information Survey. The racial/ethnic differences in the extent to…

  18. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  19. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  20. Minority Students in Special Education: A School System, Parent Advocacy and State Department Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Ronda A.; Williams, Idola J.

    The report examines the achievements of 4 years (from 1979 to 1983) of the Over/Under Representation Project, a plan to address inequity in special education placement of minority students in Boston. Eight components of the model are described and progress to date discussed: (1) special education placement criteria, (2) data base information…

  1. Urban Minority Ninth-Grade Students' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Chen, Li; Guan, Jianmin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Dauenhauer, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Hispanic and other minority ninth-grade students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge, using FitSmart, a standardized test for high school students. The test consisted of 50 weighted multiple choice items, measuring six subcontent components. Means and standard deviations of the overall scores and the…

  2. Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

  3. A Summer Pre-Entry Program for Minority Students Incorporating Problem-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickell, Garfield C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The University of California, Davis, medical school's intensive summer preentry program for disadvantaged minority students, which previews the first year curriculum, has incorporated a problem-based learning component to augment and prolong its effects. Objective measures of course effectiveness are unavailable; however, self-esteem, study…

  4. Mentorship and the Socialization of Underrepresented Minorities into the Professoriate: Examining Varied Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the mentoring component of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation's (CIC) Summer Research Opportunity Program (SROP). The national initiative, implemented on various campuses throughout the United States, seeks to establish a diverse faculty by encouraging the enrollment and completion rates of minority doctoral candidates.…

  5. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  6. Addressing The Achievement Gap Between Minority And Nonminority Children By Increasing Access To Gifted Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Lee, Seon-Young; Ngoi, Mephie; Ngoi,Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Project EXCITE is a collaborative program of a university-based gifted center and local school districts designed to prepare gifted minority elementary and middle school students for advanced tracks in math and science in high school. This paper describes the characteristics and components of the EXCITE program and gives data regarding the…

  7. The Role of Minority-Serving Institutions in National College Completion Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Noel

    2012-01-01

    A central component in the dialogue on how to accomplish national college completion goals is the role of minority-serving institutions (MSIs). MSIs include Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Tribal College and Universities (TCUs), and most recently Asian American Native American Pacific…

  8. [Minor Head Injury – a Silent Epidemic].

    PubMed

    Stocker, Reto; Letta, Claudio

    2016-05-11

    The vast majority out of the 20 000 patients annually hospitalized after sustaining a head injury belong to the minor head injury/cerebral concussion continuum. Fortunately, most of the patients show full recovery after days to weeks. However, about 15 % of these patients suffer from prolonged up to permanent sequels potentially impairing their quality of life to a considerable extent. This especially holds true for those who suffer from recurrent minor head injuries (i.e. victims from contact sport accidents). Unfortunately, many of these patients are never diagnosed in an appropriate way and therefore looked at as hypochondriacs or simulants. This prevents adequate rehabilitation and support. This review aims to present current knowledge about pathophysiology and clinical features of minor head injuries and to give some information about diagnostics and treatment according to current guidelines. PMID:27167479

  9. Problems of minority fuel-oil dealers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, Joseph P.; Lee, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Claims that minority fuel oil dealers are hampered by severe impediments in the competition for contracts for oil, loan funds from banks, and assistance from the Federal government are explored. Possible remedial actions are recommended. The study focused on the metropolitan areas of Boston, Providence, and New York City. Following the introductory section, the evolving role of minority oil retailers in the Northeast market is reviewed in the second section. The third section examines the specific problems confronting minority dealers, including obtaining start-up capital and finding sources of supply. The fourth section addresses the problems associated with serving the inner-city markets. The fifth section introduces specific recommendations to meet the problems outlined.

  10. Recruiting Underrepresented Minorities to Chiropractic Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Alana

    2006-01-01

    Background: Admissions departments at chiropractic colleges across the United States are under continual pressure to recruit students. The underrepresented minority populations in the United States are potential markets for chiropractic patients, students, and doctors. Objective: To assess the current diversity recruiting practices of the chiropractic colleges. Methods: Directors of admissions of the chiropractic colleges were polled to identify recruiting programs and their success. Results: Sixteen of the 17 colleges were polled. Nine of the respondents had no program for targeted underserved populations and seven did have such a program. Five colleges employed several methods to work with universities to recruit underserved populations. Other strategies included outreach via student groups and alumni recruiters. Conclusion: Programs to attract minority students can be created and infrastructure can be provided but they are nearly useless without role models. Encouraging alumni participation to raise awareness of chiropractic in minority communities may be a step toward a profession more reflective of America’s population. PMID:18483633

  11. Improving Prenatal Care for Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; OʼConnor, Caitlin; Gibeau, Anne M; Nadel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of prenatal care in the early 1900s, the focus of care has been on risk reduction rather than on health promotion. Prenatal care began as individualized care, but more recently group prenatal care has been shown to be very successful in improving birth outcomes. For all women, an emphasis on improving health behaviors is important at this critical time while women are engaging regularly with the healthcare system. An emphasis on mental health promotion may decrease some of the disparities in birth outcomes that are well documented between minority and majority women, as minority women are known to experience increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Providing support for pregnant women and incorporating knowledge and skills through prenatal care may promote both physical and mental health in minority women. PMID:26854915

  12. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain. PMID:23221269

  13. A Minority Health Careers Exposure Program

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eldridge F.; Fedinec, Alexander A.; Woodson, Roland T.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Tennessee-Memphis (UT-M) Health Careers Exposure Program was initiated in response to the complaint of minority college students that basic medical science laboratories and clinical centers at private and state-supported health-science organizations in Tennessee were inaccessible to them as career-motivating, summer work experiences. The preceptor-apprentice relationship was the means utilized to expose and stimulate minority college students to enter health careers in this study. The formal activity was usually conducted for eight to ten weeks of summer vacation in the basic science and clinical facilities on the UT-M campus. A survey of the current career activities of former apprentices suggests that direct exposure of academically talented, minority college students to health careers is a factor that increases the number entering the health professions. PMID:3560251

  14. Deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care for ethnic minority children: a qualitative assessment among care providers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma outcomes are generally worse for ethnic minority children. Cultural competence training is an instrument for improving healthcare for ethnic minority patients. To develop effective training, we explored the mechanisms in paediatric asthma care for ethnic minority patients that lead to deficiencies in the care process. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on care for ethnic minority children with asthma (aged 4-10 years) with paediatricians (n = 13) and nurses (n = 3) in three hospitals. Interviews were analysed qualitatively with a framework method, using a cultural competence model. Results Respondents mentioned patient non-adherence as the central problem in asthma care. They related non-adherence in children from ethnic minority backgrounds to social context factors, difficulties in understanding the chronic nature of asthma, and parents’ language barriers. Reactions reported by respondents to patients’ non-adherence included retrieving additional information, providing biomedical information, occasionally providing referrals for social context issues, and using informal interpreters. Conclusions This study provides keys to improve the quality of specialist paediatric asthma care to ethnic minority children, mainly related to non-adherence. Care providers do not consciously recognise all the mechanisms that lead to deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care they provide to ethnic minority children (e.g. communicating mainly from a biomedical perspective and using mostly informal interpreters). Therefore, the learning objectives of cultural competence training should reflect issues that care providers are aware of as well as issues they are unaware of. PMID:22551452

  15. Reproductive health care and minors' rights.

    PubMed

    Paul, E W; Klassel, D

    1984-01-01

    The right of minors under the US Constitution to reproductive health care services has been established and supersedes any state laws that may conflict with federal constitutional priciples. It has been ruled by the US Supreme Court that minors as well as adults possess a constitutional right to privacy, including the right to choose abortion without 3rd party consent. However, the states of Indiana, Lojisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Dakota, and Rhode Island have enacted judicial bypass schemes that require parental consent for minors' abortions if an alternative procedure is also provided whereby the minor receives a confidential hearing before a neutral 3rd party. Several states further require parental notification for abortion, although legal challenges have been directed against these statutes. In terms of contraception, a New York statute that prohibited the sale of nonprescription contraceptives to those under 16 years of age was ruled to constitute an unconstitutional burden on minors' right to privacy. Moreover, parental consent to contraception cannot be imposed as a requirement in a federally funded family planning program. Attempts are being made to attach a parental consent requirement to family planning services provided under Title X, but this provision is considered to undercut desired adolescent participation in such programs and will be challenged on constitutional grounds. Claims by parents that the provision of contraceptive services to their children on a confidential basis violates parents' right to the care, custody, and nurture of their children have been rejected. Finally, standards promulgated by the American Bar Association provide that a minor of any age consent to medical services or counseling for family planning, contraception, or sexually transmitted diseases, excluding sterilization, and treatment related to pregnancy, including abortion. PMID:12339889

  16. Universalism, conservation and attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Beierlein, Constanze; Kuntz, Anabel; Davidov, Eldad

    2016-07-01

    Findings from previous studies corroborate the hypothesis that universalism and conservation values are associated with negative attitudes toward immigration. In the current study we examine whether universalism and conservation values also play a critical role in the explanation of attitudes toward other minority groups. Drawing on previous research on group-focused enmity, we explore its relations with universalism and conservation values in a German sample. Employing structural equation modeling, we find that individuals who prioritize universalism values approve of various minorities more whereas those who prioritize conservation values exhibit more disapproval. PMID:27194652

  17. Minor planets and other solar system objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec-Borsenberger, A.

    1989-06-01

    The work performed to include observable planets and planet satellites in the Hipparcos input catalog is presented. The preparatory astrometric and photometric work needed to prepare the observations, and the considerations applied to their selection, are discussed. The magnitude of the minor planets proposed for observation by Hipparcos is analyzed, and those retained for observation are given. The position of minor planets in the input catalog is given by using their ephemerides, and examples of plots for Hebe and Flora planets, are given. Moreover, it is shown that Europa and Titan satellites can be adequately modulated by the Hipparcos main grid.

  18. Communicating with older ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Likupe, Gloria

    2014-06-10

    In a time of increasing cultural diversity, it is essential that healthcare professionals respond by providing culturally competent care. Healthcare professionals must recognise the diverse needs of people from ethnic minority communities to ensure that they receive equal standards of care. This is particularly pertinent when providing care for older ethnic minority patients who may not be fluent in English. This article focuses on the need to communicate effectively with this group of patients to meet their health and social care needs, with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes. PMID:24894254

  19. Zero minors of the neutrino mass matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Lashin, E. I.; Chamoun, N.

    2008-10-01

    We examine the possibility that a certain class of neutrino mass matrices, namely, those with two independent vanishing minors in the flavor basis, regardless of being invertible or not, is sufficient to describe current data. We compute generic formulas for the ratios of the neutrino masses and for the Majorana phases. We find that seven textures with two vanishing minors can accommodate the experimental data. We present an estimate of the mass matrix for these patterns. All of the possible textures can be dynamically generated through the seesaw mechanism augmented with a discrete Abelian symmetry.

  20. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Documentation of minor use status. 516.21 Section 516.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that...

  1. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Documentation of minor use status. 516.21 Section 516.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that...

  2. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Documentation of minor use status. 516.21 Section 516.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that...

  3. 21 CFR 516.21 - Documentation of minor use status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Documentation of minor use status. 516.21 Section 516.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.21 Documentation of minor use status. So that...

  4. 7 CFR 1753.80 - Minor construction procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor construction procedure. 1753.80 Section 1753.80... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Minor Construction § 1753.80 Minor construction procedure. (a) If the borrower performs minor construction financed with loan funds, the...

  5. Effects on Fuel Properties of Various Biodiesel Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is generally defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. As a result, the fatty acid composition of biodiesel corresponds to that of the parent oil or fat. Besides the fatty esters as the major components of biodiesel, minor components such as free fatty acids as w...

  6. Perceived Barriers to Success for Minority Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student's face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was identified. This body of literature focuses solely on successful minority students' experiences, revealing a significant gap in the research. The findings of this paper highlight the need to create and maintain nursing programs capable of aggressively supporting minority student needs. Recommendations for future research are included. PMID:22701183

  7. Reproductive Health Disparities: A Focus on Family Planning and Prevention Among Minority Women and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Cynthia; Donenberg, Geri; Geller, Stacie

    2013-01-01

    Minority women and adolescent females of all races and ethnicities are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy in the United States. Adolescents also experience an additional proportion of the burden compared to other age groups, as 82% of pregnancies among women 19 years old and younger are unintended. Moreover, minority and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for having preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and other complications. Unintended pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in the United States, and prevention through family planning is urgently needed. This review presents an overview of the US demographics for unintended pregnancy among both minority and adolescent women and identifies current and past eüorts to reduce unintended pregnancy, specifically among minority and adolescent females, through contraception and family-planning programs. PMID:24416701

  8. Minority Achievement Report, 1996, Data Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Higher Education Commission, Annapolis.

    Each Maryland public campus submits annual minority achievement reports as part of the state-mandated accountability process. This is a report of the 1995 data. In 1995, Prince George's Community College had the largest number of African-American undergraduate students (7,623) followed by Morgan (5,337), Baltimore City Community College (4,877),…

  9. Positive Health Practices of Urban Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…

  10. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  11. Role of Minorities in Science Boosted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Announces the establishment of two research centers by the National Science Foundation under its new Minority Research Centers of Excellence (MRCE) program. Describes the goals of these centers at Meharry Medical College (Nashville, TN) and at Howard University (Washington, DC). (TW)

  12. Minor Maintenance. A Resource Manual for Custodians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    Areas of minor maintenance covered by this manual are--(1) electrical, (2) carpentry, (3) plumbing, (4) painting, and (5) masonry. Each area is defined, tools and equipment for maintenance are listed, and the job procedure is given. The description of electrical work also covers sources of electricity and power transmission. The description of…

  13. Minorities and Mentoring: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jerusalem T.

    An ethnographic pilot study explored mentor/protege relationships within the corporate setting of a consumer pharmaceutical firm to determine how minorities were affected. An unstructured interview format was used with 17 individuals in 4 groups: white and Afro-American, male and female. Interviews focused around the history and advantages of…

  14. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  15. Minority Contributions to Science, Engineering, and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funches, Peggy; And Others

    Offering an historical perspective on the development of science, engineering, medicine, and technology and providing current role models for minority students, the bulletin lists the outstanding contributions made by: (1) Blacks - medicine, chemistry, architecture, engineering, physics, biology, and exploration; (2) Hispanos - biomedical…

  16. Sexual Minority Students. Technical Assistance Sampler On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…

  17. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  18. The Educational Isolation of Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrey-Camino, Renee

    Sexual minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning) function in a society that condones homophobia. Results of a research study conducted by J. Sears (1991) indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be more proactive, supportive, and committed to the welfare of all their students, but the realities of…

  19. The Black Minority in Early New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, David

    Contents of this booklet include the following chapters: (1) Dutch New York: urbane, but not tolerant; (2) How and why Africans came to New York; (3) The largest slave population north of the plantations; (4) Defining the relationship: restrictive legislation; (5) White attitudes toward the black minority: rationale for discrimination; (6) White…

  20. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  1. Minority Language Education Rights in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar N.

    1994-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada has ensured that provincial legislatures are under a compulsory obligation to take measures to provide whatever type and level of rights and services are appropriate for minority-language education for the particular number of pupils involved. (MLF)

  2. Readings in Minority-Group Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, David L., Jr., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this book are to provide a background on how minority group members adapt and accommodate to various types of organizational circumstances, and to help the reader understand the differences in behaviors and job-related outcomes for white and nonwhite group members. The book is stated to be designed for present and…

  3. Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

  4. Cultural Representations of Minorities in Hungarian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Williams, J. Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research analyzing cultural representations of minorities in Hungarian elementary school textbooks currently used throughout the country. A convenient sample representing more than 75% of first and fourth grade reading books was collected from three academic and public libraries in Hungary. Using content analysis techniques,…

  5. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  6. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  7. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.106 - Minor delays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor delays. 1214.106 Section 1214.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General Provisions Regarding Space Shuttle Flights of Payloads for Non-U.S. Government, Reimbursable Customers § 1214.106...

  9. The Unexpected Minority: Handicapped Children in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gliedman, John; Roth, William

    The book takes a civil rights perspective to the problems of handicapped children and adults and points out that no other minority group has its social and political oppression so thoroughly masked as the disabled in America. Part I looks at why American society has traditionally failed to view the handicapped as an oppressed social group. Three…

  10. Language Minority Children's Linguistic and Cognitive Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Carolyn; Quinn, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses findings from an empirical investigation of the effects of bilingualism (Spanish-English) on the creativity of language minority children in terms of the cognitive processes of divergent and convergent thinking, and the linguistic process of metaphorizing in the context of formulating scientific hypotheses. (Author/CB)

  11. Astrometric positions of minor planets in 1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehogne, H.; Houziaux, L.

    1980-04-01

    Minor planets 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 146 Lucina, 310 Margarita, 389 Industria, 407 Arachne, 582 Olympia, 608 Adolfina, 704 Interamnia, 1201 Strenua, 1257 Mora, 1649 = 1951 DE, and 1964 = 2007 P-L have been observed between 11 and 15 April 1978. 1950.0 astrometric positions are given.

  12. Predicting Adult Personality from Minor Physical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy; Martin, Carol

    While minor physical anomalies (MPAs), a set of 17 non-obvious but measurable characteristics of the hands, face and feet, have been linked to a number of behavioral syndromes in children, such personality correlates of MPAs in adults have not been studied. To explore the relationshp between MPAs and temperament in a college sample, 114 students…

  13. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA or agency) is issuing notice and opportunity for the public to comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, requiring FHFA, the Federal National Mortgage Association,......

  14. Environmental Influences on Minority Degree Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.

    1992-01-01

    Reports findings to date from a study under the auspices of the National Center for Postsecondary Governance and Finance concerning environmental actors relating to minority degree achievement in predominantly white four-year colleges and universities. Examines whether research results can really be linked to specific suggestions to improve campus…

  15. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2740 Section 51.2740 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2762 Section 51.2762 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor defects. 51.2720 Section 51.2720 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES...

  18. NHS failing its black and minority workforce.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    The findings are in and are far from surprising. The first report of the NHS Workforce Race Equality Standard (WRES) was published on June 2 and contains a highly predictable litany of woe: black and minority ethnic (BME) staff are more likely than white staff to be bullied or abused, wherever they work. PMID:27286582

  19. Library Censorship and the Permissive Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    1981-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 2,486 American adults, conducted for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in 1970, is reanalyzed to permit new comparisons of the large majority who favored library censorship of erotica with the minority who opposed it. Sixteen references are cited. (Author/FM)

  20. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…