Science.gov

Sample records for additional objectives included

  1. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  2. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  3. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes. PMID:26967014

  4. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  5. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  6. Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Shirvanyants, David; Ermoshkin, Nikita; Janusziewicz, Rima; Johnson, Ashley R; Kelly, David; Chen, Kai; Pinschmidt, Robert; Rolland, Jason P; Ermoshkin, Alexander; Samulski, Edward T; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-03-20

    Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

  7. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  8. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  11. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  12. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy.

  13. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  14. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating the design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  15. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low-cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating that design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  16. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  17. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  18. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  19. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  20. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  1. Subjective and objective components of resource value additively increase aggression in parasitoid contests

    PubMed Central

    Stockermans, Bernard C.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Two major categories of factors are predicted to influence behaviour in dyadic contests; differences in the abilities of the contestants to acquire and retain resources (resource holding potential), and the value of the contested resource (resource value, RV; which comprises objective and subjective components). Recent studies indicate that subjective components affect contest behaviour in several animal taxa but few have simultaneously investigated objective RV components. We find that both an objective (host size) and a subjective (contestant age) component of RV affect contest intensity in the parasitoid wasp Goniozus legneri. These additively influence aggressiveness, with a larger effect from the subjective component than the objective component. The greater influence of subjective RV adds weight to the recent surge of recognition of this RV component's importance in contest behaviour. PMID:23697643

  2. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  3. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  4. Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets - a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.

  5. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  6. Accelerometry-based gait analysis, an additional objective approach to screen subjects at risk for falling.

    PubMed

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether the Tinetti scale, as a subjective measure for fall risk, is associated with objectively measured gait characteristics. It is studied whether gait parameters are different for groups that are stratified for fall risk using the Tinetti scale. Moreover, the discriminative power of gait parameters to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale is investigated. Gait of 50 elderly with a Tinneti>24 and 50 elderly with a Tinetti≤24 was analyzed using acceleration-based gait analysis. Validated algorithms were used to derive spatio-temporal gait parameters, harmonic ratio, inter-stride amplitude variability and root mean square (RMS) from the accelerometer data. Clear differences in gait were found between the groups. All gait parameters correlated with the Tinetti scale (r-range: 0.20-0.73). Only walking speed, step length and RMS showed moderate to strong correlations and high discriminative power to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale. It is concluded that subtle gait changes that have previously been related to fall risk are not captured by the subjective assessment. It is therefore worthwhile to include objective gait assessment in fall risk screening.

  7. Objective assessment of corticosteroid effect in plantar fasciitis: additional utility of ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Asmaa Mahmoud Ali; Hassanein, Eshrak; Foti, Calogero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background although plantar fascia thickening is well documented as a sonographic criterion for the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis (PF), however it was less evaluated as an objective measure of response to treatment. It is unknown to what extent if any different responses to different treatments are related to the ultrasound (US) morphology changes. We aimed to evaluate changes in US findings in correlation to pain reported. Methods this prospective observational trial included 21 plantar fasciitis patients (26 feet), resistant to conservative treatment for at least 2 months. Plantar fascia thickness and echogenicity were evaluated, compared to asymptomatic feet and correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) and Heel Tenderness Index (HTI), before and after dexam-ethasone (DXM) iontophoresis in group I, and DXM injection in group II. Results increased thickness and reduced echogenicity were constant in symptomatic feet, with high statistical significant difference compared to asymptomatic side. Correlation between plantar fascia thickness with VAS and HTI before and after treatment showed statistically significant positive correlation (p<0.05). ROC curve test showed that reduction of plantar fascia thickness by US in response to DXM had 100% sensitivity, 65.2% specificity and 69% accuracy, with higher specificity and accuracy than VAS. Conclusion US changes showed concurrent validity correlated with self-reported clinical improvement. Accordingly, ultrasound can be considered an objective useful tool for monitoring response to corticosteroid in patients with plantar fasciitis. PMID:26958538

  8. New VACUUM: towards an object oriented version of the code with additional physics capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, M. S.; Pletzer, A.; Okabayashi, M.; Chu, M. S.; Turnbull, A. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    2001-10-01

    The VACUUM Code^a which was initially created to provide the outer boundary conditions and diagnostics to the PEST and NOVA Fourier codes has been substantially modified to be interfaced to a variety of other stability codes, including DCON, the finite element GATO code as well as the nonlinear NIMROD and M3D codes. It now also includes the ability to model the feedback stabilization of external MHD modes in tokamaks so that the effects of a thin resistive shell and the feedback circuitry together with the associated sensor loops and feedback coils are incorporated. To improve the interface to an increasing number of codes, structural changes addressing portability and memory management are under development: A Fortran 90 version of the code using dynamic memory allocation is in progress, and furthermore, VACUUM will be transformed from a standalone code using I/O files to one using a set of library calls where input and output data are communicated through "set" and "get" calls. The benefit of such an application programming interface (API) layout is to allow VACUUM to be embedded in large packages (e.g. TRANSP) , scripting environments (e.g. Python, Matlab, IDL) or wrapped into C++ code to provide object oriented features. ^aM.S. Chance, Phys. Plasmas 4, 2161 (1997).

  9. Extension of H-alpha/H-beta Photometry to Additional Luminosity Classes and Emission Line Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    In Joner & Hintz (2015) they presented a fully calibrated H-alpha index based on spectroscopic observations of main sequence stars ranging from O9 to K2. In that work they provided relations between the H-alpha index, temperature, and equivalent width. In Didelon (1982) the relation between spectral type and equivalent width is examined with a clear difference between luminosity classes. In this poster we will present results from a spectroscopic examination of the H-alpha/H-beta relations. First we will examine the equivalent width as a function of luminosity class. Then we will examine the extension of the H-alpha system for application to emission line objects.We would like to acknowledge use of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.2-m Telescope.

  10. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  11. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension.

    PubMed

    Terekhov, Alexander V; Pesin, Yakov B; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2010-09-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms.

  12. An analytical approach to the problem of inverse optimization with additive objective functions: an application to human prehension

    PubMed Central

    Pesin, Yakov B.; Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of what is being optimized in human actions with respect to various aspects of human movements and different motor tasks. From the mathematical point of view this problem consists of finding an unknown objective function given the values at which it reaches its minimum. This problem is called the inverse optimization problem. Until now the main approach to this problems has been the cut-and-try method, which consists of introducing an objective function and checking how it reflects the experimental data. Using this approach, different objective functions have been proposed for the same motor action. In the current paper we focus on inverse optimization problems with additive objective functions and linear constraints. Such problems are typical in human movement science. The problem of muscle (or finger) force sharing is an example. For such problems we obtain sufficient conditions for uniqueness and propose a method for determining the objective functions. To illustrate our method we analyze the problem of force sharing among the fingers in a grasping task. We estimate the objective function from the experimental data and show that it can predict the force-sharing pattern for a vast range of external forces and torques applied to the grasped object. The resulting objective function is quadratic with essentially non-zero linear terms. PMID:19902213

  13. ADPROCLUS: a graphical user interface for fitting additive profile clustering models to object by variable data matrices.

    PubMed

    Wilderjans, Tom F; Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven; Depril, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    In many areas of psychology, one is interested in disclosing the underlying structural mechanisms that generated an object by variable data set. Often, based on theoretical or empirical arguments, it may be expected that these underlying mechanisms imply that the objects are grouped into clusters that are allowed to overlap (i.e., an object may belong to more than one cluster). In such cases, analyzing the data with Mirkin's additive profile clustering model may be appropriate. In this model: (1) each object may belong to no, one or several clusters, (2) there is a specific variable profile associated with each cluster, and (3) the scores of the objects on the variables can be reconstructed by adding the cluster-specific variable profiles of the clusters the object in question belongs to. Until now, however, no software program has been publicly available to perform an additive profile clustering analysis. For this purpose, in this article, the ADPROCLUS program, steered by a graphical user interface, is presented. We further illustrate its use by means of the analysis of a patient by symptom data matrix.

  14. Modification to the Joint Platform Allocation Tool (JPAT) to Include Additional Warfighting Functions. Aerial R&S Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    initially in theater. [items] BLg ,c Identifies which groups g are available in a configuration c. [binary] UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED SATi,g...10 3.3.8. Objective and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4. Group ...13 3.4.4. New Group Generation Model formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 UNCLASSIFIED iv UNCLASSIFIED

  15. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  16. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  17. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  18. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  19. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  20. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  1. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  2. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  3. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  4. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  5. 43 CFR 2.31 - What must a submitter include in a detailed Exemption 4 objection statement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include a specific and detailed discussion of why the information is a trade secret or, if the information is not a trade secret, the following three categories must be addressed (unless the bureau...

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  7. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  9. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  10. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  11. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  13. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  14. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  15. A New Method for Finding Optical Aberrations on the Basis of Analysis of the Object Hologram Without Additional Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkivsky, V. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Shilyagin, P. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Gelikonov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new method of compensating for the wavefront aberrations during the image processing. The method employs the digital-holography potential. The developed algorithms allow one to find the wavefront distortions caused by the optical-path nonuniformities during the interference recording of images without additional measurements (i.e., without using the reference point source and measuring the wavefront distortions). The possibility of decreasing the wavefront aberrations from tens to several radians using digital methods is demonstrated.

  16. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students.

  17. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  18. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El Sawy, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schulte, J F; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Gallo, E; Garcia, J Garay; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; 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Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Womersley, W J; Worm, S D; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Burton, D; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Cripps, N; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Dunne, P; Elwood, A; Elwood, A; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Kenzie, M; Lane, R; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Seez, C; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leggat, D; Leslie, D; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Scarborough, T; Wu, Z; Charaf, O; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Fantasia, C; Gastler, D; Lawson, P; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; St John, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Alimena, J; Berry, E; Bhattacharya, S; Cutts, D; Dhingra, N; Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Breto, G; De La Barca Sanchez, M Calderon; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Cousins, R; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Saltzberg, D; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Ivova Paneva, M; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Negrete, M Olmedo; Shrinivas, A; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Klein, D; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Incandela, J; Mccoll, N; Mullin, S D; Mullin, S D; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; West, C; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Pierini, M; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carlson, B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Eggert, N; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Sun, W; Tan, S M; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Jung, A W; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Kwan, S; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Martinez Outschoorn, V I; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Yang, F; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Di Giovanni, G P; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Hugon, J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Rossin, R; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, J R; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, L D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  19. Synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy for the mapping of photo-oxidation and additives in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model samples and historical objects.

    PubMed

    Saviello, Daniela; Pouyet, Emeline; Toniolo, Lucia; Cotte, Marine; Nevin, Austin

    2014-09-16

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-μFTIR) was used to map photo-oxidative degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and to investigate the presence and the migration of additives in historical samples from important Italian design objects. High resolution (3×3 μm(2)) molecular maps were obtained by FTIR microspectroscopy in transmission mode, using a new method for the preparation of polymer thin sections. The depth of photo-oxidation in samples was evaluated and accompanied by the formation of ketones, aldehydes, esters, and unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This study demonstrates selective surface oxidation and a probable passivation of material against further degradation. In polymer fragments from design objects made of ABS from the 1960s, UV-stabilizers were detected and mapped, and microscopic inclusions of proteinaceous material were identified and mapped for the first time.

  20. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  3. New modeling of reflection interference contrast microscopy including polarization and numerical aperture effects: application to nanometric distance measurements and object profile reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Theodoly, O; Huang, Z-H; Valignat, M-P

    2010-02-02

    We have developed a new and improved optical model of reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to determine with a precision of a few nanometers the absolute thickness h of thin films on a flat surface in immersed conditions. The model takes into account multiple reflections between a planar surface and a multistratified object, finite aperture illumination (INA), and, for the first time, the polarization of light. RICM intensity I is typically oscillating with h. We introduce a new normalization procedure that uses the intensity extrema of the same oscillation order for both experimental and theoretical intensity values and permits us to avoid significant error in the absolute height determination, especially at high INA. We also show how the problem of solution degeneracy can be solved by taking pictures at two different INA values. The model is applied to filled polystyrene beads and giant unilamellar vesicles of radius 10-40 microm sitting on a glass substrate. The RICM profiles I(h) can be fitted for up to two to three oscillation orders, and extrema positions are correct for up to five to seven oscillation orders. The precision of the absolute distance and of the shape of objects near a substrate is about 5 nm in a range from 0 to 500 nm, even under large numerical aperture conditions. The method is especially valuable for dynamic RICM experiments and with living cells where large illumination apertures are required.

  4. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  8. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  10. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  11. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  12. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  13. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  14. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  15. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  16. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  17. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  18. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  19. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  20. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  1. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  3. Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Auersperg, Alice Marie Isabel; Oswald, Natalie; Domanegg, Markus; Gajdon, Gyula Koppany; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, the black palm cockatoo. Moreover, we incorporate three neotropical species, the yellow- and the black-billed Amazon and the burrowing parakeet. Paralleling previous studies on primates and corvids, free object-object combinations and complex object-substrate combinations such as inserting objects into tubes/holes or stacking rings onto poles prevailed in the species previously linked to advanced physical cognition and tool use. In addition, free object-object combinations were intrinsically structured in Goffin cockatoos and in kea. PMID:25984564

  4. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGER, ROBERT F.

    THIS PROGRAMED TEXT INCLUDES A SELF-TEST OF ITS CONTENTS AND DEMONSTRATES HOW TO SPECIFY INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES BY BEHAVIOR OBSERVABLE IN A LEARNER, AND HOW TO WRITE OBJECTIVES, DEFINE DESIRED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, AND STATE CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL LEARNING. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FOR $1.75 FROM FEARON PUBLISHERS, INC., 2165 PARK BLVD., PALO…

  6. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  7. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  8. 68 FR 23172 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Max Beckmann”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Max Beckmann'' AGENCY: Department of... , as amended, I hereby determine that one additional object to be included in the exhibition,...

  9. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    validated, linked, and extended several previous research findings, using one common test bed and participant pool. The results provided a proven method and solid reference points for further research. The second set of experiments leveraged the first to explore the full R-V spectrum and included additional, relevant sensory modalities. It consisted of two full-factorial experiments providing for rich data and key insights into the effect of each type of environment and each modality on accuracy and timeliness of virtual object interaction. The empirical results clearly showed that mean depth perception error in personal space was less than four millimeters whether the stimuli presented were real, virtual, or mixed. Likewise, mean error for the simple task of pushing a button was less than four millimeters whether the button was real or virtual. Mean task completion time was less than one second. Key to the high accuracy and quick task performance time observed was the correct presentation of the visual cues, including occlusion, stereoscopy, accommodation, and convergence. With performance results already near optimal level with accurate visual cues presented, adding proprioception, audio, and haptic cues did not significantly improve performance. Recommendations for future research include enhancement of the visual display and further experiments with more complex tasks and additional control variables.

  12. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  13. System for controlled acoustic rotation of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for use with acoustically levitated objects, which enables close control of rotation of the object. One system includes transducers that propagate acoustic waves along the three dimensions (X, Y, Z) of a chamber of rectangular cross section. Each transducers generates one wave which is resonant to a corresponding chamber dimension to acoustically levitate an object, and additional higher frequency resonant wavelengths for controlling rotation of the object. The three chamber dimensions and the corresponding three levitation modes (resonant wavelengths) are all different, to avoid degeneracy, or interference, of waves with one another, that could have an effect on object rotation. Only the higher frequencies, with pairs of them having the same wavelength, are utilized to control rotation, so that rotation is controlled independently of levitation and about any arbitrarily chosen axis.

  14. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  15. Target-object integration, attention distribution, and object orientation interactively modulate object-based selection.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Shahd; Greenberg, Adam S

    2016-10-01

    The representational basis of attentional selection can be object-based. Various studies have suggested, however, that object-based selection is less robust than spatial selection across experimental paradigms. We sought to examine the manner by which the following factors might explain this variation: Target-Object Integration (targets 'on' vs. part 'of' an object), Attention Distribution (narrow vs. wide), and Object Orientation (horizontal vs. vertical). In Experiment 1, participants discriminated between two targets presented 'on' an object in one session, or presented as a change 'of' an object in another session. There was no spatial cue-thus, attention was initially focused widely-and the objects were horizontal or vertical. We found evidence of object-based selection only when targets constituted a change 'of' an object. Additionally, object orientation modulated the sign of object-based selection: We observed a same-object advantage for horizontal objects, but a same-object cost for vertical objects. In Experiment 2, an informative cue preceded a single target presented 'on' an object or as a change 'of' an object (thus, attention was initially focused narrowly). Unlike in Experiment 1, we found evidence of object-based selection independent of target-object integration. We again found that the sign of selection was modulated by the objects' orientation. This result may reflect a meridian effect, which emerged due to anisotropies in the cortical representations when attention is oriented endogenously. Experiment 3 revealed that object orientation did not modulate object-based selection when attention was oriented exogenously. Our findings suggest that target-object integration, attention distribution, and object orientation modulate object-based selection, but only in combination.

  16. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  17. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  18. Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro

    Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task.

  19. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  20. Infants' Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Xu, Fei

    2001-01-01

    Examines evidence that the research community studying infants' object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention have been studying the same natural kind. Maintains that the discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both…

  1. Riding the Behavioral Objective Bandwagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Joseph H.

    1974-01-01

    The author presents several guidelines for writing behavioral objectives for counseling. These include: (1) maintaining perspective; (2) establishing the criteria of performance; and (3) keeping fluid. (RP)

  2. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  3. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    PubMed

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  4. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  5. POOLkits: Applying Object Oriented Principles from Software Engineering to Physics Object Oriented Learning -- Preliminary Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassebaum, Thomas; Aubrecht, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    Object-oriented development depends upon the creation of generic pieces that can be built into more complex parts. In physics, we begin teaching basic principles and then develop more complex systems, a fertile environment to develop learning objects. Each learning object consists of observable quantities, such as the physical properties of a block of wood, and operators that act on the object, such as force. Additionally, each object can also include an assessment operator that evaluates the impact of the learning object on student comprehension. The physics object-oriented learning kits (POOLkits) will be developed to enhance student understanding of physics concepts, as well as, build a framework for developing a software object based on the physics concept. A POOLkit can be extended, similar to the concept of extending classes in object-oriented programming, as physics knowledge expands. The expectation for these POOLkits would be to provide physics students with a solid foundation in the first principles to be able to derive more complex formulae and have the understanding of the process with a secondary benefit of enhancing the object-oriented programming capabilities of physics students.

  6. 75 FR 54692 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Dutch Interiors”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mir : The Dutch Interiors'' ACTION... ''Mir : The Dutch Interiors.'' The reference notice is corrected to accommodate an additional object to... determine that the additional object to be included in the exhibition ``Mir : The Dutch...

  7. Real object use facilitates object recognition in semantic agnosia.

    PubMed

    Morady, Kamelia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we show that, in patients with poor semantic representations, the naming of real objects can improve when naming takes place after patients have been asked to use the objects, compared with when they name the objects either from vision or from touch alone, or together. In addition, the patients were strongly affected by action when required to name objects that were used correctly or incorrectly by the examiner. The data suggest that actions can be cued directly from sensory-motor associations, and that patients can then name on the basis of the evoked action.

  8. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  9. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  10. Objective assessment of acne.

    PubMed

    Becker, Markus; Wild, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C

    A precise and reliable assessment of acne severity is unarguably the most essential clinical method when it comes to monitoring and choosing optimal treatment in the daily practice. Since the early 1960s, different severity assessment systems have been described in the literature. The two commonly used concepts are global gradings and lesion counting. Both systems have been controversially discussed as to which is more reliable and providing an objective outcome measurement tool; however, both have some subjectivity involved. More objective methods for assessing the severity of acne vulgaris include photography, fluorescence photography, polarized light photography, video microscopy, and multispectral imaging. Such techniques have limitations such as high cost, complex and sophisticated apparatus, and a sometimes time-consuming imaging process. There are newly developed technologies that could avoid the problems of inter- and intrarater subjectivity.

  11. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  12. A quasi-cyclic RNA nano-scale molecular object constructed using kink turns† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PDF file comprising eight figures and three tables of data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr05186c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    k-Turns are widespread RNA architectural elements that mediate tertiary interactions. We describe a double-kink-turn motif comprising two inverted k-turns that forms a tight horse-shoe structure that can assemble into a variety of shapes by coaxial association of helical ends. Using X-ray crystallography we show that these assemble with two (dumbell), three (triangle) and four units (square), with or without bound protein, within the crystal lattice. In addition, exchange of a single basepair can almost double the pore radius or shape of a molecular assembly. On the basis of this analysis we synthesized a 114 nt self-complementary RNA containing six k-turns. The crystal structure of this species shows that it forms a quasi-cyclic triangular object. These are randomly disposed about the three-fold axis in the crystal lattice, generating a circular RNA of quasi D 3 symmetry with a shape reminiscent of that of a cyclohexane molecule in its chair conformation. This work demonstrates that the k-turn is a powerful building block in the construction of nano-scale molecular objects, and illustrates why k-turns are widely used in natural RNA molecules to organize long-range architecture and mediate tertiary contacts. PMID:27506301

  13. A universal functional object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing any function, combinational or sequential, in a single universal function scheme, termed the universal function object UF. This scheme is addressed to the problem of the proliferation of the number of parts (cards, chips) necessary for conventional implementation in an LSI technology of a computer system. The UF implementation will use about ten times more circuits than a conventional implementation regardless of the size of the design. The UF approach also includes general-purpose spares for failing circuits. The procedure could be used both at manufacture to increase yields, as well as to achieve automatic repair.

  14. Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHO) Mitigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Walter

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and its partner, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are prepared to develop, implement, and expand procedures to avert collisions of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) with Earth as recommended by NASA in its White Paper "Near- Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" requested by the US Congress and submitted to it in March 2007. In addition to developing the general mitigation program as outlined in the NASA White Paper, the program will be expanded to include aggressive mitigation procedures for small (e.g., Tunguska-sized) PHOs and other short warning-time PHOs such as some long-period comet nuclei. As a first step the program will concentrate on the most likely and critical cases, namely small objects and long-period comet nuclei with short warning-times, but without losing sight of objects with longer warning-times. Objects smaller than a few hundred meters are of interest because they are about 1000 times more abundant than kilometer-sized objects and are fainter and more difficult to detect, which may lead to short warning times and hence short reaction times. Yet, even these small PHOs can have devastating effects as the 30 June 1908, Tungaska event has shown. In addition, long-period comets, although relatively rare but large (sometimes tens of kilometers in size), cannot be predicted because of their long orbital periods. Comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock), for example, has an orbital period of 963.22 years, was discovered 27 April 1983, and passed Earth only two weeks later, on 11 May 1983, at a distance of 0.0312 AU. Aggressive methods and continuous alertness will be needed to defend against objects with such short warning times. While intact deflection of a PHO remains a key objective, destruction of a PHO and dispersion of the pieces must also be considered. The effectiveness of several alternative methods including nuclear demolition munitions, conventional explosives, and hyper

  15. 75 FR 66419 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Object of Devotion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Object of Devotion: Medieval English... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Object of Devotion: Medieval English Alabaster Sculpture...

  16. ARTEMIS Science Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Eastwood, J. P.; Farrell, W. M.; Grimm, R. E.; Halekas, J. S.; Hasegawa, H.; Hellinger, P.; Khurana, K. K.; Lillis, R. J.; Oieroset, M.; Phan, T.-D.; Raeder, J.; Russell, C. T.; Schriver, D.; Slavin, J. A.; Travnicel, P. M.; Weygand, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's two spacecraft ARTEMIS mission will address both heliospheric and planetary research questions, first while in orbit about the Earth with the Moon and subsequently while in orbit about the Moon. Heliospheric topics include the structure of the Earth's magnetotail; reconnection, particle acceleration, and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere, at the bow shock, and in the solar wind; and the formation and structure of the lunar wake. Planetary topics include the lunar exosphere and its relationship to the composition of the lunar surface, the effects of electric fields on dust in the exosphere, internal structure of the Moon, and the lunar crustal magnetic field. This paper describes the expected contributions of ARTEMIS to these baseline scientific objectives.

  17. Object links in the repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon; Eichmann, David

    1991-01-01

    Some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life-cycle of software development are explored. In particular, we wish to consider a model which provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The model we consider uses object-oriented terminology. Thus, the lattice is viewed as a data structure which contains class objects which exhibit inheritance. A description of the types of objects in the repository is presented, followed by a discussion of how they interrelate. We discuss features of the object-oriented model which support these objects and their links, and consider behavior which an implementation of the model should exhibit. Finally, we indicate some thoughts on implementing a prototype of this repository architecture.

  18. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  19. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  20. Object linking in repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  1. Objectives and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    significant exposure to biomedical topics and the integration of those topics with chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineering. o We shall provide unique opportunities for our students to work with clinicians and researchers in hospitals and other medical institutions. combined criteria a-k of ABET and 1-6 of AICHE (or IEEE or ASME) in some sensible manner. Here I have just estimated the number of distinct criteria that would be extracted from the AICHE paragraphs. These criteria are necessarily included because of the objective to producing chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineers. every student who desires an internship or independent study at a medical institution will be placed. a majority of our students will take either the FE exam or the M-CAT exam. demonstrating a commitment to professionalism and to life-long learning. a majority of our students will go on to graduate school or other post-graduate school. (I do not assert that this sort of outcome is appropriate to all excellent schools. In the case of this hypothetical school though, this outcome might be a reasonable expectation.) medical schools will rank our school as among the best from which to admit

  2. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  3. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  4. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  5. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  6. Behavioral Objectives?-No!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Bill L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)

  7. Microwave imaging of metal objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Li, Jiang; Tolliver, C.; Yeh, Hsiang H.

    1994-01-01

    The procedure of microwave imaging by maximum entropy method is discussed. First, the relationship between the induced current on the metal object surface and the scattered field is introduced. Our imaging concept is to reconstruct the induced current on the object surface from the measured scattered field. The object configuration will be provided by the induced current which is zero everywhere except on the object surface. Future work is also included with focus on the application of microwave imaging to both NASA and industry.

  8. Top-down facilitation of visual object recognition: object-based and context-based contributions.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Mark J; Aminoff, Elissa; Gronau, Nurit; Bar, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    The neural mechanisms subserving visual recognition are traditionally described in terms of bottom-up analysis, whereby increasingly complex aspects of the visual input are processed along a hierarchical progression of cortical regions. However, the importance of top-down facilitation in successful recognition has been emphasized in recent models and research findings. Here we consider evidence for top-down facilitation of recognition that is triggered by early information about an object, as well as by contextual associations between an object and other objects with which it typically appears. The object-based mechanism is proposed to trigger top-down facilitation of visual recognition rapidly, using a partially analyzed version of the input image (i.e., a blurred image) that is projected from early visual areas directly to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This coarse representation activates in the PFC information that is back-projected as "initial guesses" to the temporal cortex where it presensitizes the most likely interpretations of the input object. In addition to this object-based facilitation, a context-based mechanism is proposed to trigger top-down facilitation through contextual associations between objects in scenes. These contextual associations activate predictive information about which objects are likely to appear together, and can influence the "initial guesses" about an object's identity. We have shown that contextual associations are analyzed by a network that includes the parahippocampal cortex and the retrosplenial complex. The integrated proposal described here is that object- and context-based top-down influences operate together, promoting efficient recognition by framing early information about an object within the constraints provided by a lifetime of experience with contextual associations.

  9. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  10. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  11. Object oriented studies into artificial space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, J. M.; Marshall, G.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype simulation is being developed under contract to the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), Farnborough, England, to assist in the discrimination of artificial space objects/debris. The methodology undertaken has been to link Object Oriented programming, intelligent knowledge based system (IKBS) techniques and advanced computer technology with numeric analysis to provide a graphical, symbolic simulation. The objective is to provide an additional layer of understanding on top of conventional classification methods. Use is being made of object and rule based knowledge representation, multiple reasoning, truth maintenance and uncertainty. Software tools being used include Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) and SymTactics for knowledge representation. Hooks are being developed within the SymTactics framework to incorporate mathematical models describing orbital motion and fragmentation. Penetration and structural analysis can also be incorporated. SymTactics is an Object Oriented discrete event simulation tool built as a domain specific extension to the KEE environment. The tool provides facilities for building, debugging and monitoring dynamic (military) simulations.

  12. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  13. Physical Properties of Centaur Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Centaurs are objects in unstable orbits that cross the orbits of the giant planets. They are presumed to be recent additions to the planetary zone of the Solar System, having been dynamically perturbed from the Kulper Disk by the gravitational action of Neptune. Telescopic observations of Centaurs are important because they give us a view of the composition (and in some cases cometary activity) of large bodies that are normally to far from the Sun to be studied in detail. This paper reports on physical observations, primarily through spectroscopy, of the compositions of a small number of Centaurs that have been studied to date. In particular, the composition of 5145 Pholus is reviewed, following the published work of Crulkshank et al., in which compositional models that fit the spectrum well included H2O ice, the organic solid Titan tholin, a light hydrocarbon ice (e.g., CH3OH), the silicate mineral olivine, and amorphous carbon. The Centaur 1997 CU(26) shows evidence for H2O ice, but nothing else is yet identified.

  14. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  15. Coordinate Transformations in Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Markus

    2006-01-01

    A basic problem of visual perception is how human beings recognize objects after spatial transformations. Three central classes of findings have to be accounted for: (a) Recognition performance varies systematically with orientation, size, and position; (b) recognition latencies are sequentially additive, suggesting analogue transformation…

  16. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  17. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  18. Aries x ray objective grating spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was initiated in June of 1983. An Aries payload involving a single Wolter 1 telescope was developed and flown under a previous contract and the objective of this work was to add two additional mirrors, nested inside of the then existing mirror and add 12 objective reflection gratings to convert the telescope into a spectrograph. A summary of major milestones in the investigation are given. Results of efforts under this contract prior to 1987 are presented in the form of four reprints of published papers attached to this report. Results of the gamma-ray research are also included in the form of an attached reprint. A summary of other work under the contract since 1987 is given.

  19. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  20. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  1. Data quality objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  2. Fault-tolerant wait-free shared objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayanti, Prasad; Chandra, Tushar Deepak; Toueg, Sam

    1992-01-01

    A concurrent system consists of processes and shared objects. Previous research focused on the problem of tolerating process failure. We study the complementary problem of tolerating failures. We divide object failures into two broad classes: responsive and non-responsive. With responsive failures, a faulty object responds to every invocation, but responses may be incorrect. With non-responsive failures, a faulty object may also 'hang' without responding. For each class, we consider crash, and arbitrary types of failures. For each type of failure, we are seeking a universal implementation for fault-tolerant wait-free shared objects. We present (deterministic) implementations for all types of responsive failures, including arbitrary failures. In contrast, we show that even the most benign type of non-responsive failures requires the use of randomization. Of special interest is the problem of implementing fault-tolerant objects using only objects of the same type. We present such fault-tolerant self-implementations for many common object types. Graceful degradation is a desirable property of fault-tolerant implementations: the implemented object never fails more severely than the base objects it is derived from, even if all the base objects fail. For several failure models, we show whether this property can be achieved, and, if so, how. In addition to the above possibility/impossibility results, we also consider the resources complexity of fault-tolerant implementations. In many cases, we present lower bounds and give matching algorithms.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Alaska climate divisions based on objective methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloff, H.; Bieniek, P. A.; Bhatt, U. S.; Thoman, R.; Walsh, J. E.; Daly, C.; Shulski, M.

    2010-12-01

    Alaska is vast geographically, is located at high latitudes, is surrounded on three sides by oceans and has complex topography, encompassing several climate regions. While climate zones exist, there has not been an objective analysis to identify regions of homogeneous climate. In this study we use cluster analysis on a robust set of weather observation stations in Alaska to develop climate divisions for the state. Similar procedures have been employed in the contiguous United States and other parts of the world. Our analysis, based on temperature and precipitation, yielded a set of 10 preliminary climate divisions. These divisions include an eastern and western Arctic (bounded by the Brooks Range to the south), a west coast region along the Bering Sea, and eastern and western Interior regions (bounded to the south by the Alaska Range). South of the Alaska Range there were the following divisions: an area around Cook Inlet (also including Valdez), coastal and inland areas along Bristol Bay including Kodiak and Lake Iliamna, the Aleutians, and Southeast Alaska. To validate the climate divisions based on relatively sparse station data, additional sensitivity analysis was performed. Additional clustering analysis utilizing the gridded North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was also conducted. In addition, the divisions were evaluated using correlation analysis. These sensitivity tests support the climate divisions based on cluster analysis.

  6. Object Detection under Noisy Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkarnikar, P. P.; Khandagle, H. P.; Talbar, S. N.; Vasambekar, P. N.

    2010-11-01

    Identifying moving objects from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Such automatic object detection soft wares have many applications in surveillance, auto navigation and robotics. A common approach is to perform background subtraction, which identifies the moving object from portion of video sequences. These soft wares work good under normal condition but tend to give false alarms when tested in real life conditions. Such a condition arises due to fog, smoke, glares ect. These situations are termed as noisy conditions and objects are detected under such conditions. In this paper we created noise by addition of standard Gaussian noise in clean video and compare the response of the detection system to various noise level.

  7. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  8. Detection of a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  9. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  10. [Historiography of medical objects].

    PubMed

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  11. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  12. Teachers and Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey of 406 elementary, middle and secondary school teachers attending the 1973 summer session at Northern Illinois University was conducted to determine their familiarity with and exposure to behavioral objectives, their involvement in writing and using behavioral objectives, and their opinion of the effect of behavioral objectives on student…

  13. Behavioral Objectives for English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Robert

    1972-01-01

    A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,…

  14. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  15. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  16. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  17. Comparison of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers to BK7 glass in night vision goggle objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, James S.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) as an optical plastic for use in military-grade night vision goggle (NVG) lens objectives. Test objective lenses that could include either a Topas COC window element or BK7 glass window element were manufactured. The test objectives were evaluated for low light resolution, MTF, off-axis veiling glare, and on-axis stray light. Additionally, the spectral transmittance of the individual windows elements was measured. This paper compares the evaluation results of test objectives containing Topas COC with test objectives containing BK7 glass.

  18. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  19. Electronics 7-12 [Instructional Objectives Exchange].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    Included are instructional objectives which can be considered for use in a classroom or laboratory. The objectives are followed by measurement items meant to test if a certain objective is accomplished. Means for judging the adequacy of student responses are given. The areas of electronics included in this publication are: Fundamentals, Block…

  20. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  1. Attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Wei; Zhao, Hou-Qiang; Cao, Song-Xiao; Xiang, Ke; Wang, Xuan-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Object segmentation is an important but highly challenging problem in computer vision and image processing. An attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation model, called ASMSO, is introduced. The proposed ASMSO could produce a pool of potential object regions for each saliency object and be applicable to multiple saliency object segmentation. The potential object regions are produced by combing the methods of gPb-owt-ucm and min-cut graph, whereas the saliency objects are detected by a visual attention model with an attention shift mechanism. In order to deal with various scenes, the model attention shift-based multiple saliency object segmentation (ASMSO) contains different features which include not only traditional features, such as color, uniform, and texture, but also a new position feature originating from proximity of Gestalt theory. Experiments on the training set of PASCAL VOC2012 segmentation dataset not only show that traditional color feature and the proposed position feature work much better than features of texture and uniformity, but also prove that ASMSO is suitable for multiple object segmentation. In addition, experiments on a traditional saliency dataset show that ASMSO could also be applied to traditional saliency object segmentation and performs much better than the state-of-the-art method.

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  3. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  4. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  5. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  6. Achieving Course Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes: Seeking Student Feedback on Their Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Danni; Loyle-Langholz, Anne; Higbee, Jeanne L.; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Most postsecondary faculty in the United States include course goals or objectives as key components of their syllabi. In addition to individual course objectives, many institutions have identified institution-wide student learning outcomes (SLOs). This paper describes one faculty member's attempts to elicit feedback from students regarding their…

  7. A Selected Annotated Bibliography on Behavioral Objectives in the English Language Arts (Elementary and Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Rodney J.

    This bibliography describes books and articles designed to help English language arts teachers plan instructional goals, write behavioral objectives, and evaluate student performance. In addition, materials are included which discuss the pros and cons of behavioral objectives and related efforts at accountability. This bibliography contains all of…

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  10. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  11. Reasoning about Function Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  12. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-08

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced.

  13. Multi-Frame Object Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    was originally developed by Intel, but is now sup- ported by Willow Garage and Itseez [13]. The library includes many applications including facial...apply two- dimensional features to each frame of a multi-frame sample in the same locations and sum the results, as shown in the following equation and...Dataset We created a synthetic dataset that depicts a circular object undergoing a diagonal back-and- forth motion. 200 sequences, each spanning three

  14. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  15. Conscientious objection to abortion provision: Why context matters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laura Florence; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Chavkin, Wendy; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2016-09-12

    Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision. As the only legal way to refuse to provide abortions that are permitted by law, conscientious objection can become a safety valve for clinicians under pressure and may be claimed by clinicians who do not have moral or religious objections. Social factors including stigma also shape how stakeholders and policy-makers approach conscientious objection. To appropriately limit the scope of conscientious objection and make protection of conscience more meaningful, more information is needed about how conscientious objection is practised. Additionally, abortion trainings should include information about conscientious objection and its limits, reproductive rights, and creating an enabling environment for abortion provision. Policy-makers and all stakeholders should also focus on creating an enabling environment and reducing stigma.

  16. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  20. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  1. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  2. COMB: Compact embedded object simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Jason D.

    2016-06-01

    COMB supports the simulation on the sphere of compact objects embedded in a stochastic background process of specified power spectrum. Support is provided to add additional white noise and convolve with beam functions. Functionality to support functions defined on the sphere is provided by the S2 code (ascl:1606.008); HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) and CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001) are also required.

  3. Pedagogical Issues in Object Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…

  4. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  7. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  8. Preparation of Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The material in this programed workbook is divided into three sections. Section one introduces the subject of learning objectives and explains their use and importance. Section two describes a U.S. Navy handbook on writing learning objectives and teaches the student how to use the handbook as a working reference guide. Section three provides the…

  9. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  10. Ceramic Stereolithography: Additive Manufacturing for Ceramics by Photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic stereolithography and related additive manufacturing methods involving photopolymerization of ceramic powder suspensions are reviewed in terms of the capabilities of current devices. The practical fundamentals of the cure depth, cure width, and cure profile are related to the optical properties of the monomer, ceramic, and photo-active components. Postpolymerization steps, including harvesting and cleaning the objects, binder burnout, and sintering, are discussed and compared with conventional methods. The prospects for practical manufacturing are discussed.

  11. General presentation including new structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  12. Representational dynamics of object recognition: Feedforward and feedback information flows.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Erin; Carlson, Thomas A; Dermody, Nadene; Woolgar, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Object perception involves a range of visual and cognitive processes, and is known to include both a feedfoward flow of information from early visual cortical areas to higher cortical areas, along with feedback from areas such as prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that low and high spatial frequency information regarding object identity may be processed over different timescales. Here we used the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) combined with multivariate pattern analysis to measure information specifically related to object identity in peri-frontal and peri-occipital areas. Using stimuli closely matched in their low-level visual content, we found that activity in peri-occipital cortex could be used to decode object identity from ~80ms post stimulus onset, and activity in peri-frontal cortex could also be used to decode object identity from a later time (~265ms post stimulus onset). Low spatial frequency information related to object identity was present in the MEG signal at an earlier time than high spatial frequency information for peri-occipital cortex, but not for peri-frontal cortex. We additionally used Granger causality analysis to compare feedforward and feedback influences on representational content, and found evidence of both an early feedfoward flow and later feedback flow of information related to object identity. We discuss our findings in relation to existing theories of object processing and propose how the methods we use here could be used to address further questions of the neural substrates underlying object perception.

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  14. Solar System Object Extraction for Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. G.; Duran, F. R.

    Astronomy archives cover at different wavelengths all possible types of astronomical sources, including many dedicated and also serendipitous observations of solar system objects (SSO). It is difficult to handle SSOs in a ``typical'' archive way due to their apparent movement in the sky, ranging from a fraction of an arcsec/hour for Trans-Neptunian objects up to a few degrees for Near-Earth objects, and their enormous brightness change. To locate known SSOs in astronomical images, one needs to calculate highly accurate observatory-centric ephemeris for the image epochs. In crowed fields also rough brightness estimates are required for SSO identifications. The current data base includes, additionally to the planets and their satellites, about 200 comets and more than 100 000 asteroids. These constraints usually limit search procedures either to a small number of objects or to only a few frames. We present a possible solution to handle SSOs with known orbits in a systematic way for large numbers of sky frames. Our first attempts consisted in cross correlating about 5 Million 3'×3' sky fields, taken by the Infrared Space Observatory, against the data base of SSOs. The final source identification was based on reliable N-body ephemeris calculations and infrared brightness estimates. We aimed for the following goals: (1) ``Cleaning'' of stellar, galactic and extragalactic catalogue lists from SSOs; (2) Identifying serendipitously seen well-known SSOs for calibration purposes; (3) Extracting asteroids and comets for further scientific investigations; We believe that our experience in solving these problems might also be helpful for future developements of ``Virtual Observatories''.

  15. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  19. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    PubMed

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  20. Key Objectives for State and Local Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key objectives for state and local governments when developing Clean Energy Financing Programs, including generating demand, encouraging private lenders, and long-term program sustainability.

  1. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Vásquez, Patricia; Schubö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object’ s motor affordance and visual attention. PMID:24567725

  2. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  3. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  6. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  7. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  8. Observations of Near Earth Objects with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven R.; Emery, Joshua P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard Alan

    2016-10-01

    We are carrying out an Exploration Science Warm Spitzer program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 550 Near Earth Objects in 710 hours of Spitzer time. For each object we use a thermal model to derive diameter and albedo. For each object we also derive a (partial) lightcurve; total elapsed observing times range from 15 minutes to 3.2 hours. This catalog of 500+ NEO lightcurves is a substantial increase over the number of NEO lightcurves presently known. In addition to creating a large catalog of NEO properties, we are also able to study the properties of individual NEOs, including those with low delta V values (i.e., accessible asteroids) and those that might be dead comets. The final observations in this program will be obtained by 30 Sept 2016, so at the DPS meeting we will present a first look at our entire catalog of results. All results are posted at nearearthobjects.nau.edu usually within days of the data being released by the Spitzer Science Center. This work was supported in part by funding from the Spitzer Science Center.

  9. The Friendly Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Peter

    1969-01-01

    If buildings and cities are made as friendly objects, they will invite and precipitate participation. They will stimulate our creative powers, which are the basis of growth in all our activities. (CK)

  10. Radiation from hard objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    The inference of the diameter of hard objects is insensitive to radiation efficiency. Deductions of radiation efficiency from observations are very sensitive - possibly overly so. Inferences of the initial velocity and trajectory vary similarly, and hence are comparably sensitive.

  11. Quantum origins of objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, R.; Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.

    2015-03-01

    In spite of all of its successes, quantum mechanics leaves us with a central problem: How does nature create a bridge from fragile quanta to the objective world of everyday experience? Here we find that a basic structure within quantum mechanics that leads to the perceived objectivity is a so-called spectrum broadcast structure. We uncover this based on minimal assumptions, without referring to any dynamical details or a concrete model. More specifically, working formally within the decoherence theory setting with multiple environments (called quantum Darwinism), we show how a crucial for quantum mechanics notion of nondisturbance due to Bohr [N. Bohr, Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935), 10.1103/PhysRev.48.696] and a natural definition of objectivity lead to a canonical structure of a quantum system-environment state, reflecting objective information records about the system stored in the environment.

  12. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  13. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  14. Intelligence Data Object Server (IDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Doug J.; Barth, Stephen W.

    2002-07-01

    The Intelligence Data Object Server (IDOS) has been developed under the Air Force Research Laboratory Global Information Base Branch (AFRL/IFED) Global Awareness Virtual Testbed project to provide automated mechanisms for using Military Intelligence Data in modeling and simulation experiments. The IDOS software allows information from multiple data sources to be published in exercises using the High Level Architecture (HLA) or other object-oriented formats. IDOS uses the AFRL/IFEB Broadsword Gatekeeper for data source access. IDOS has been used in simulation-based acquisition experiments designed and carried out among distributed AFRL sites. This paper describes the IDOS architecture and capabilities including the use of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to provide a common representation for data objects, and application of IDOS to visualization of Intelligence Information.

  15. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  16. Objects of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  17. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  18. Industrial Electronics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Earl

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 30 terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) high school course in basic industrial electronics. The objectives cover instruction in basic electricity including AC-DC theory, magnetism, electrical safety, care and use of hand tools,…

  19. Young Children's Understanding of Addition Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates children's knowledge of concrete versions of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity. Reports that in study one, four-to five-year-olds (n=24) and five- to six-year-olds (n=25) judged the equivalence of conceptually related addition problems using groups of objects. States that in study two, five- to six-year-olds…

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  3. Subjective vs. objective measures in the valuation of water quality.

    PubMed

    Artell, Janne; Ahtiainen, Heini; Pouta, Eija

    2013-11-30

    Environmental valuation studies rely on accurate descriptions of the current environmental state and its change. Valuation scenario can be based on objective quality measures described to respondents, on individual subjective perceptions or their combination. If subjective perceptions differ systematically from objective measures, valuation results may be biased. We examine the factors underlying the divergence between perceptions of water quality among summer house owners and the objective water quality classification. We use bivariate probit and multinomial logit models to identify factors that explain both the divergence between perceived and objectively measured water quality and its direction, paying special attention to variables essential in valuation, including those describing the respondent, the summer house and the water body. Some 50% of the respondents perceive water quality differently from the objective quality measures. Several factors are identified behind systematic differences between the perceived and objectively measured quality, in particular the water body type, the level of the objective quality classification and the travel distance to the site. The results emphasize the need to take individual perceptions into account in addition to objective measures in valuation studies, especially if the environmental quality of the study area differs considerably from the average quality in general.

  4. Pyomo : Python Optimization Modeling Objects.

    SciTech Connect

    Siirola, John; Laird, Carl Damon; Hart, William Eugene; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-11-01

    The Python Optimization Modeling Objects (Pyomo) package [1] is an open source tool for modeling optimization applications within Python. Pyomo provides an objected-oriented approach to optimization modeling, and it can be used to define symbolic problems, create concrete problem instances, and solve these instances with standard solvers. While Pyomo provides a capability that is commonly associated with algebraic modeling languages such as AMPL, AIMMS, and GAMS, Pyomo's modeling objects are embedded within a full-featured high-level programming language with a rich set of supporting libraries. Pyomo leverages the capabilities of the Coopr software library [2], which integrates Python packages (including Pyomo) for defining optimizers, modeling optimization applications, and managing computational experiments. A central design principle within Pyomo is extensibility. Pyomo is built upon a flexible component architecture [3] that allows users and developers to readily extend the core Pyomo functionality. Through these interface points, extensions and applications can have direct access to an optimization model's expression objects. This facilitates the rapid development and implementation of new modeling constructs and as well as high-level solution strategies (e.g. using decomposition- and reformulation-based techniques). In this presentation, we will give an overview of the Pyomo modeling environment and model syntax, and present several extensions to the core Pyomo environment, including support for Generalized Disjunctive Programming (Coopr GDP), Stochastic Programming (PySP), a generic Progressive Hedging solver [4], and a tailored implementation of Bender's Decomposition.

  5. Invariance and Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  6. Scopophilia and object loss.

    PubMed

    Almansi, R J

    1979-10-01

    The study of a case of voyeuristic perversion and of some previously published cases of simple scopophilia suggests that fear of object loss early in life may be an important factor predisposing one to a propensity for voyeurism. The increased need to maintain visual contact with the object and to incorporate it visually leads to a hypercathexis of the visual function which is at the base of voyeurism. This need later becomes sexualized, while still retaining its pregenital connotations. Although object loss was apparently significant in the case of the patient described in this paper, it is not necessarily a factor in all cases of perverse voyeurism and, when present, may be considered as only one element in its pathogenesis.

  7. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  8. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  10. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  11. Optimizing Observation Scheduling Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Morris, Robert A.; Edgington, William R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that enables the automatic generation of high quality schedules, with respect to a given objective function. The approach involves the combination of two techniques: GenH, which automatically generates a search heuristic specialized to the given problem instance, and HBSS, which employs the generated heuristic as a bias within a stochastic sampling method.

  12. Differential Objective Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kino, Mary M.; And Others

    Item response theory (IRT) has been used extensively to study differential item functioning (dif) and to identify potentially biased items. The use of IRT for diagnostic purposes is less prevalent and has received comparatively less attention. This study addressed differential objective function (dof) to identify potentially biased content units.…

  13. Objectivity as Passionate Appropriation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Philip

    Objectivity is frequently described as a model of "objectivism" or transparent observation of an unproblematically given external world conducted by a completely neutral observer. However desirable objectivism is in theory, the presuppositions it makes in favor of a disembodied and decontextualized cogito, and against the inclusion of the…

  14. Common Object Library Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  15. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming.

    PubMed

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P; Mason, Emily J; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-11-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes.

  16. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  17. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  18. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  19. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  20. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  1. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  4. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  5. BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This grant has contributed to one of the original goals of the NAS/LTSA program, the goal of junior faculty development. Below I briefly summarize the following major results on BL Lacertae Objects that we have obtained. An invited talk on BL Lac Objects at IAU 175 "Extragalactic Radio Sources" at Bologna Italy in October 1995 summarized some of these results. A second invited talk in Oct 1998 at Green Bamk, WVA presented other BL Lac results at the conference entitled: "Highly Redshifted Radio Lines". We have used the EMSS sample to measure the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of BL Lacs. A new large sample of XBLs has been discovered.

  6. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  7. Managing Permanent Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    sorage me hanism is the Chunk Management System ( CMS ). CMS provides a database-like interface for POMW. On first reference to a permanent object POMS...19] M.P. Atkinson, K.J. Chisholm, and W.P. Cockshott. CMS - A Chunk Management System . Technical Report CSR-110-82, Department of Computer Science...database manager . Creating and using emibedded systems is not always bad. In most large programming projets one ends up constructing and using some sort

  8. Object Signing in Bamboo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    maximum 200 words) The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, many...basis for ensuring secure transactions throughout the Internet . However, this technology is prohibitively expensive for the majority of users. Object...BLANK iv ABSTRACT The rapid growth in the Internet has been fueled by an exorbitant number of users, organizations and individuals alike, relying on e

  9. Time reversal interactive objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, Ros Ki; Quieffin, Nicolas; Catheline, Stefan; Fink, Mathias

    2001-05-01

    Time reversal has shown to be a fruitful concept in nondestructive testing in underwater acoustic or in ultrasonic imaging. In this paper this technique is adapted in the audible range to transform every day objects into tactile sensitive interfaces. A quick historical background is presented in the ultrasonic field and specially in chaotic cavity. In all time reversal experiments, it is demonstrated that a wave field spatially and temporally recorded is able to back propagate to its source. In other words, the field contains all the information on the location of the source. In the interactive experiments, it is shown that touching an object like a window, a table or a world globe generates an acoustic field easily detectable with one or two acoustic sensors. Using the concept of time reversal, the source location is deduced in real time. Then, touching objects at specific locations (virtual switches) is used to activate devices. Such devices are for example lights, stereo volume, or computer software. From a technical point of view, all these interactive experiments just use some computation easily performed with a standard personnel computer.

  10. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  11. Cantera and Cantera Electrolyte Thermodynamics Objects

    SciTech Connect

    John Hewson, Harry Moffat

    2015-10-19

    Cantera is a suite of object-oriented software tools for problems involving chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and/or transport processes. It is a multi-organizational effort to create and formulate high quality 0D and 1D constitutive modeling tools for reactive transport codes.Institutions involved with the effort include Sandia, MIT, Colorado School of Mines, U. Texas, NASA, and Oak Ridge National Labs. Specific to Sandia’s contributions, the Cantera Electrolyte Thermo Objects (CETO) packages is comprised of add-on routines for Cantera that handle electrolyte thermochemistry and reactions within the overall Cantera package. Cantera is a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. With this addition, Cantera can be extended to handle problems involving liquid phase reactions and transport in electrolyte systems, and phase equilibrium problemsinvolving concentrated electrolytes and gas/solid phases. A full treatment of molten salt thermodynamics and transport has also been implemented in CETO. The routines themselves consist of .cpp and .h files containing C++ objects that are derived from parent Cantera objects representing thermodynamic functions. They are linked unto the main Cantera libraries when requested by the user. As an addendum to the main thermodynamics objects, several utility applications are provided. The first is multiphase Gibbs free energy minimizer based on the vcs algorithm, called vcs_cantera. This code allows for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium in multiple phases at constant temperature and pressure. Note, a similar code capability exists already in Cantera. This version follows the same algorithm, but gas a different code-base starting point, and is used as a research tool for algorithm development. The second program, cttables, prints out tables of thermodynamic and kinetic information for thermodynamic and kinetic objects within Cantera. This program serves as a “Get the numbers

  12. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  13. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  14. A multisensory perspective on object memory.

    PubMed

    Matusz, Pawel J; Wallace, Mark T; Murray, Micah M

    2017-04-08

    Traditional studies of memory and object recognition involved objects presented within a single sensory modality (i.e., purely visual or purely auditory objects). However, in naturalistic settings, objects are often evaluated and processed in a multisensory manner. This begets the question of how object representations that combine information from the different senses are created and utilised by memory functions. Here we review research that has demonstrated that a single multisensory exposure can influence memory for both visual and auditory objects. In an old/new object discrimination task, objects that were presented initially with a task-irrelevant stimulus in another sense were better remembered compared to stimuli presented alone, most notably when the two stimuli were semantically congruent. The brain discriminates between these two types of object representations within the first 100ms post-stimulus onset, indicating early "tagging" of objects/events by the brain based on the nature of their initial presentation context. Interestingly, the specific brain networks supporting the improved object recognition vary based on a variety of factors, including the effectiveness of the initial multisensory presentation and the sense that is task-relevant. We specify the requisite conditions for multisensory contexts to improve object discrimination following single exposures, and the individual differences that exist with respect to these improvements. Our results shed light onto how memory operates on the multisensory nature of object representations as well as how the brain stores and retrieves memories of objects.

  15. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  16. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  17. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  18. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2004-12-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  19. Modeling Physical Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    of the conference will be published by Oxford University Press . At the ASME Conference on Design Automation in Chicago. D. Dmtta and I presented... University Press , 1991. .1. Jung-Hong (’huang, "Surface Approximations in Geometric Modeling," PhD Diss., Dept. of ComIp. Sci., Purdue University: Rept. CER-90-37. September 1990. 3 ...utoination. Chicago, 1990: (with D. Dutta). 3. "How to Construct the Skeleton of CSG Objects," Proc. ,Ith JA1A Con!. Math. of Suifaces. Oxford

  20. DOLIB: Distributed object library

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    DOLIB (Distributed Object Library) emulates global shared memory in distributed memory environments intended for scientific applications. Access to global arrays is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Use of DOLIB does not rely on language extension, compiler or operating system supports. Shared memory provided by DOLIB was also used by DONIO (Distributed Network I/O Library) as large disk caches that gave improvements of 15 to 30 fold on the Intel Paragon. DOLIB shared memory simplifies the parallelization of the CHAMMP Semi-Lagrangian Transport (SLT) code that has particle tracking as the kernel computation.

  1. System and method for disrupting suspect objects

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, T. Scott; Garretson, Justin R; Hobart, Clinton G; Monda, Mark J

    2013-07-09

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system includes a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image therefrom, a weapon having a discharge deployable therefrom, and a targeting unit. The targeting unit displays the image(s) of the suspect object and aims the weapon at a disruption point on the displayed image such that the weapon may be positioned to deploy the discharge at the disruption point whereby the suspect object is disabled.

  2. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  3. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  4. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. PMID:28008636

  5. Object-oriented Persistent Homology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  6. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  7. Object-oriented persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Teaching Profound and Severely Retarded Students (I.Q. Under 40) Including Those with Physical Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Constance

    1975-01-01

    Presented are curriculum guidelines for teaching severely and profoundly retarded students, including students with physical handicaps. In addition to a listing of aims and objectives (such as that the student should analyze the need for space for himself and others), guidelines are provided for the following areas: awareness (of such stimuli as…

  9. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  10. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  11. Standards for Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

  12. Reflaxicon objectives for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadorff, Georg; DeWitt, Frank

    2012-10-01

    We introduce a novel application of reflective axicon surfaces to high performance image-forming objectives. The reflective surfaces are arranged such that the optical and mechanical axes are collinear, yet have the potential to provide unobscured transmission. Offering the ability to compete with the performance of traditional diffraction-limited unobscured optical systems provides a design and fabrication alternative where demanding optical requirements must be met. There are four possible arrangements for construction, with the two outer reflectors always being concave and the two inner reflectors being either concave or convex. Multitudes of novel design forms are explored. We describe monolithic and two-piece solid, two- and three-piece reflective, and two-piece hollow-solid hybrids. We analyze the performance of such designs and compare to the performance of both refractive and reflective systems.

  13. ISAR for concealed objects imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, A.; Razevig, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Ivashov, S.; Voronin, V.

    2015-03-01

    A new promising architecture of microwave personnel screening system is analyzed in this paper with numerical simulations. This architecture is based on the concept of inverse aperture synthesis applied to a naturally moving person. The extent of the synthetic aperture is formed by a stationary vertical linear antenna array and by a length of subject's trajectory as he moves in the vicinity of this antenna array. The coherent radar signal processing is achieved by a synchronous 3D video-sensor whose data are used to track the subject. The advantages of the proposed system architecture over currently existing systems are analyzed. Synthesized radar images are obtained by numerical simulations with a human torso model with concealed objects. Various aspects of the system architecture are considered, including: advantages of using sparse antenna arrays to decrease the number of antenna elements, the influence of positioning errors of body surface due to outer clothing. It was shown that detailed radar images of concealed objects can be obtained with a narrow-band signal due to the depth information available from the 3D video sensor. The considered ISAR architecture is considered perspective to be used on infrastructure objects owing to its superior qualities: highest throughput, small footprint, simple design of the radar sub-system, non-required co-operation of the subject.

  14. Method for imaging a concealed object

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Partin, Judy K [Idaho Falls, ID; Sawyers, Robert J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-07-03

    A method for imaging a concealed object is described and which includes a step of providing a heat radiating body, and wherein an object to be detected is concealed on the heat radiating body; imaging the heat radiating body to provide a visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body; and determining if the visibly discernible infrared image of the heat radiating body is masked by the presence of the concealed object.

  15. Simultaneous video stabilization and moving object detection in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Oreifej, Omar; Li, Xin; Shah, Mubarak

    2013-02-01

    Turbulence mitigation refers to the stabilization of videos with nonuniform deformations due to the influence of optical turbulence. Typical approaches for turbulence mitigation follow averaging or dewarping techniques. Although these methods can reduce the turbulence, they distort the independently moving objects, which can often be of great interest. In this paper, we address the novel problem of simultaneous turbulence mitigation and moving object detection. We propose a novel three-term low-rank matrix decomposition approach in which we decompose the turbulence sequence into three components: the background, the turbulence, and the object. We simplify this extremely difficult problem into a minimization of nuclear norm, Frobenius norm, and l1 norm. Our method is based on two observations: First, the turbulence causes dense and Gaussian noise and therefore can be captured by Frobenius norm, while the moving objects are sparse and thus can be captured by l1 norm. Second, since the object's motion is linear and intrinsically different from the Gaussian-like turbulence, a Gaussian-based turbulence model can be employed to enforce an additional constraint on the search space of the minimization. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach on challenging sequences which are significantly distorted with atmospheric turbulence and include extremely tiny moving objects.

  16. Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OpenMDAO is an open-source MDAO framework. It is used to develop an integrated analysis and design environment for engineering challenges. This Phase II project integrated additional modules and design tools into OpenMDAO to perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. It also showcased a refined system architecture that allows the system to be less customized to a specific configuration (i.e., system and configuration separation). By delivering a capable and validated MDAO system along with a set of example applications to be used as a template for future users, this work greatly expands NASA's high-fidelity, physics-based MDAO capabilities and enables the design of revolutionary vehicles in a cost-effective manner. This proposed work complements M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.

  17. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Poth, Christian H; Herwig, Arvid; Schneider, Werner X

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask). Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object's contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013). Postsaccadic object recognition is

  18. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Management actions on existing projects, including leasing and licensing, will also be directed towards the... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment... as a guide for the preparation of detailed development plans and management actions to achieve...

  19. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Management actions on existing projects, including leasing and licensing, will also be directed towards the... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment... as a guide for the preparation of detailed development plans and management actions to achieve...

  20. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Management actions on existing projects, including leasing and licensing, will also be directed towards the... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment... as a guide for the preparation of detailed development plans and management actions to achieve...

  1. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Management actions on existing projects, including leasing and licensing, will also be directed towards the... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment... as a guide for the preparation of detailed development plans and management actions to achieve...

  2. 33 CFR 279.9 - Objective rationale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Management actions on existing projects, including leasing and licensing, will also be directed towards the... objective(s) and providing the rationale, impact, and basic management measures for their accomplishment... as a guide for the preparation of detailed development plans and management actions to achieve...

  3. Children Seek Historical Traces of Owned Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Was, Alexandra M.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2016-01-01

    An object's mental representation includes not just visible attributes but also its nonvisible history. The present studies tested whether preschoolers seek subtle indicators of an object's history, such as a mark acquired during its handling. Five studies with 169 children 3-5 years of age and 97 college students found that children (like adults)…

  4. Electronics Technology. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 20 terminal objectives for a basic electronics technology course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) designed to include instruction in basic electricity and electronic fundamentals, and to develop skills and…

  5. Auto Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Thomas G., Sr.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 14 terminal objectives for a basic automotive mechanics course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily) designed to provide training in the basic fundamentals in diagnosis and repair including cooling system and…

  6. 28 CFR 511.12 - Prohibited objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL MANAGEMENT POLICY Searching and Detaining or Arresting Non-Inmates § 511.12 Prohibited objects. (a... the public. (b) Examples of “prohibited objects” include, but are not limited to, the following items... type; recording equipment; telephones; radios; pagers; electronic devices; and any other objects...

  7. Deep-Sky Companions: The Caldwell Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2016-11-01

    Foreword to the first edition Patrick Moore; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. About this book; 2. The Caldwell objects; 3. Twenty spectacular non-Caldwell objects; Appendix A. The Caldwell Catalogue: basic data; Appendix B. Why didn't Messier include the Double Cluster in his catalogue?; Appendix C. William Herschel: the greatest observer of all time Larry Mitchell; Appendix D. Image credits; Index.

  8. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  9. Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

  10. Live Information Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    options.  Indeed, one  group of students used Twitter to implement multicast as a  classroom  project.  That object was  slow… but it worked.    Notice...if connectivity  is  lost, they often crash.   (As an example: the  iPad   has  a map  application,  and  it  can  function  like  any GPS device...tracking  your  car  and  giving  driving instructions.  But if the  iPad  loses its network connection, the map vanishes and an error  box appears: not

  11. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  12. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...

  14. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information.

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) met in Rome from 14 to 23 June 2011. The purpose of the committee was to provide the Codex Alimentarius Commission access with objective advice on high priority food safety matters. Specifically, the tasks before the Committee were: i) t...

  17. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  18. Children's Profiles of Addition and Subtraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.

    2005-01-01

    The current research explored children's ability to recognize and explain different concepts both with and without reference to physical objects so as to provide insight into the development of children's addition and subtraction understanding. In Study 1, 72 7- to 9-year-olds judged and explained a puppet's activities involving three conceptual…

  19. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  20. 19 CFR 134.2 - Additional duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING General Provisions § 134.2 Additional duties. Articles not marked as required by... container) to indicate the English name of the country of origin of the article or to include words...

  1. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE (Eff. Jan. 10, 2011) Content Requirements... notices, the CPSC shall include in the Database any additional information it determines to be in...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  3. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  4. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.24 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements. 2001.24 Section 2001.24... Markings § 2001.24 Additional requirements. (a) Marking prohibitions. Markings other than “Top Secret... list for NSI portions.” The source list, as described in § 2001.22(c)(1)(ii), shall include...

  9. Objective Probability and Quantum Fuzziness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrhoff, U.

    2009-02-01

    This paper offers a critique of the Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics with particular focus on a paper by Caves, Fuchs, and Schack containing a critique of the “objective preparations view” or OPV. It also aims to carry the discussion beyond the hardened positions of Bayesians and proponents of the OPV. Several claims made by Caves et al. are rebutted, including the claim that different pure states may legitimately be assigned to the same system at the same time, and the claim that the quantum nature of a preparation device cannot legitimately be ignored. Both Bayesians and proponents of the OPV regard the time dependence of a quantum state as the continuous dependence on time of an evolving state of some kind. This leads to a false dilemma: quantum states are either objective states of nature or subjective states of belief. In reality they are neither. The present paper views the aforesaid dependence as a dependence on the time of the measurement to whose possible outcomes the quantum state serves to assign probabilities. This makes it possible to recognize the full implications of the only testable feature of the theory, viz., the probabilities it assigns to measurement outcomes. Most important among these are the objective fuzziness of all relative positions and momenta and the consequent incomplete spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world. The latter makes it possible to draw a clear distinction between the macroscopic and the microscopic. This in turn makes it possible to understand the special status of measurements in all standard formulations of the theory. Whereas Bayesians have written contemptuously about the “folly” of conjoining “objective” to “probability,” there are various reasons why quantum-mechanical probabilities can be considered objective, not least the fact that they are needed to quantify an objective fuzziness. But this cannot be appreciated without giving thought to the makeup of the world, which

  10. Infants' Ability To Use Object Kind Information for Object Individuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan; Welch, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Adult and 10- and 12-month olds participated in two experiments to determine reliance of infants on object-kind information in solving problems of object individuation. Findings converge with those of object-first hypothesis of developmental course of object individuation. Findings suggest that young infants may represent one concept as criteria…

  11. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  12. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  13. Microwave-Spectral Signatures Would Reveal Concealed Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G.; Ngo, P.; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, K.; Stolarcyzk, L.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed technique for locating concealed objects (especially small antipersonnel land mines) involves the acquisition and processing of spectral signatures over broad microwave frequency bands. This technique was conceived to overcome the weaknesses of older narrow- band electromagnetic techniques like ground-probing radar and low-frequency electromagnetic induction. Ground-probing radar is susceptible to false detections and/or interference caused by rocks, roots, air pockets, soil inhomogeneities, ice, liquid water, and miscellaneous buried objects other than those sought. Moreover, if the radar frequency happens to be one for which the permittivity of a sought object matches the permittivity of the surrounding soil or there is an unfavorable complex-amplitude addition of the radar reflection at the receiver, then the object is not detected. Low-frequency electromagnetic induction works well for detecting metallic objects, but the amounts of metal in plastic mines are often too small to be detectable. The potential advantage of the proposed technique arises from the fact that wideband spectral signatures generally contain more relevant information than do narrow-band signals. Consequently, spectral signatures could be used to make better decisions regarding whether concealed objects are present and whether they are the ones sought. In some cases, spectral signatures could provide information on the depths, sizes, shapes, and compositions of objects. An apparatus to implement the proposed technique (see Figure 1) could be assembled from equipment already in common use. Typically, such an apparatus would include a radio-frequency (RF) transmitter/receiver, a broad-band microwave antenna, and a fast personal computer loaded with appropriate software. In operation, the counter would be turned on, the antenna would be aimed at the ground or other mass suspected to contain a mine or other sought object, and the operating frequency would be swept over the band of

  14. Dynamical Logic Driven by Classified Inferences Including Abduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Koji; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2010-11-01

    We propose a dynamical model of formal logic which realizes a representation of logical inferences, deduction and induction. In addition, it also represents abduction which is classified by Peirce as the third inference following deduction and induction. The three types of inference are represented as transformations of a directed graph. The state of a relation between objects of the model fluctuates between the collective and the distinctive. In addition, the location of the relation in the sequence of the relation influences its state.

  15. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    PubMed

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration.

  16. PLUTINO DETECTION BIASES, INCLUDING THE KOZAI RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, S. M.; Gladman, B.

    2013-07-01

    Because of their relative proximity within the trans-Neptunian region, the plutinos (objects in the 3:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune) are numerous in flux-limited catalogs, and well-studied theoretically. We perform detailed modeling of the on-sky detection biases for plutinos, with special attention to those that are simultaneously in the Kozai resonance. In addition to the normal 3:2 resonant argument libration, Kozai plutinos also show periodic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination, coupled to the argument of perihelion ({omega}) oscillation. Due to the mean-motion resonance, plutinos avoid coming to pericenter near Neptune's current position in the ecliptic plane. Because Kozai plutinos are restricted to certain values of {omega}, perihelion always occurs out of the ecliptic plane, biasing ecliptic surveys against finding these objects. The observed Kozai plutino fraction f{sub koz}{sup obs} has been measured by several surveys, finding values between 8% and 25%, while the true Kozai plutino fraction f{sub koz}{sup true} has been predicted to be between 10% and 30% by different giant planet migration simulations. We show that f{sub koz}{sup obs} varies widely depending on the ecliptic latitude and longitude of the survey, so debiasing to find the true ratio is complex. Even a survey that covers most or all of the sky will detect an apparent Kozai fraction that is different from f{sub koz}{sup true}. We present a map of the on-sky plutino Kozai fraction that would be detected by all-sky flux-limited surveys. This will be especially important for the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope projects, which may detect large numbers of plutinos as they sweep the sky. f{sub koz}{sup true} and the distribution of the orbital elements of Kozai plutinos may be a diagnostic of giant planet migration; future migration simulations should provide details on their resonant Kozai populations.

  17. Objective hydrograph baseflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Vogel, Richard M.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-06-01

    A streamflow hydrograph recession curve expresses the theoretical relationship between aquifer structure and groundwater outflow to a stream channel. That theoretical relationship is often portrayed empirically using a recession plot defined as a plot of ln(-dQ/dt) versus ln(Q), where Q is streamflow discharge. Such hydrograph recession plots are commonly used to estimate recession parameters, aquifer properties and for evaluating alternative hydrologic hypotheses. We introduce a comprehensive and objective approach to analyze baseflow recessions with innovations including the use of quantile regression, efficient and objective numerical estimation of dQ/dt, inclusion of groundwater withdrawals, and incorporation of seasonal effects. We document that these innovations when all combined, lead to significant improvements, over previous studies, in our ability to discern the theoretical behavior of stream aquifer systems. A case study reveals that our methodology enables us to reject the simple linear reservoir hypothesis of stream aquifer interactions for watersheds in New Jersey and results in improved correlations between low flow statistics and aquifer properties for those same watersheds.

  18. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies.

  19. Hybrid object detection system for x-ray radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita, Joshua A.; Wantuch, Andrew C.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Bray, Iliana E.

    2016-10-01

    While object detection is a relatively well-developed field with respect to visible light photographs, there are significantly fewer algorithms designed to work with other imaging modalities. X-ray radiographs have many unique characteristics that introduce additional challenges that can cause common image processing and object detection algorithms to begin to fail. Examples of these problematic attributes include the fact that radiographs are only represented in gray scale with similar textures and that transmission overlap occurs when multiple objects are overlaid on top of each other. In this paper we not only analyze the effectiveness of common object detection techniques as applied to our specific database, but also outline how we combined various techniques to improve overall performance. While significant strides have been made towards developing a robust object detection algorithm for use with the given database, it is still a work in progress. Further research will be needed in order to deal with the specific obstacles posed by radiographs and X-ray imaging systems. Success in this project would have disruptive repercussions in fields ranging from medical imaging to manufacturing quality assurance and national security.

  20. A Survey of Complex Object Technologies for Digital Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Argue, Brad; Efron, Miles; Denn, Sheila; Pattuelli, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Many early web-based digital libraries (DLs) had implicit assumptions reflected in their architecture that the unit of focus in the DL (frequently "reports" or "e-prints") would only be manifested in a single, or at most a few, common file formats such as PDF or PostScript. DLs have now matured to the point where their contents are commonly no longer simple files. Complex objects in DLs have emerged from in response to various requirements, including: simple aggregation of formats and supporting files, bundling additional information to aid digital preservation, creating opaque digital objects for e-commerce applications, and the incorporation of dynamic services with the traditional data files. We examine a representative (but not necessarily exhaustive) number of current and recent historical web-based complex object technologies and projects that are applicable to DLs: Aurora, Buckets, ComMentor, Cryptolopes, Digibox, Document Management Alliance, FEDORA, Kahn-Wilensky Framework Digital Objects, Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard, Multivalent Documents, Open eBooks, VERS Encapsulated Objects, and the Warwick Framework.

  1. Subjectivity and objectivity in analytic listening.

    PubMed

    Smith, H F

    1999-01-01

    Analysts use the concepts of subjectivity and intersubjectivity to support many different technical recommendations; this represents a misuse of theory. The dichotomy between subjectivity and objectivity is a false one. Arguing against the notion of objectivity, analysts conflate it with the idealized notion of pure objectivity and then eliminate various technical devices in its name. One cannot have a concept of subjectivity without a concept of objectivity, or an intersubjective perspective that does not include some agreed-upon concept of objectivity. The simplest definition of objectivity is a directional one. Objectivity is the perception or experience of the external; subjectivity is the perception or experience of the internal. Subjectivity and objectivity are both necessary pathways to knowledge and are dependent on each other. Any form of looking or listening does to some extent preclude another, but to speak solely from a subjective or an objective perspective represents a regression in thinking to a form of naive objectivism or naive subjectivism. Clinical examples illustrate how the forming and testing of hypotheses require the cooperation of both subjective and objective listening.

  2. Visual object recognition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  3. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Search for anomalous production of events with two photons and additional energetic objects at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Giovanni, G. P.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramanov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. I.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Rutherford, B.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Tourneur, S.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2010-09-01

    We present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, τ lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using pp¯ collision data from 1.1-2.0fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs of new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

  5. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with Two Photons and Additional Energetic Objects at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-10-01

    The authors present results of a search for anomalous production of two photons together with an electron, muon, {tau} lepton, missing transverse energy, or jets using p{bar p} collision data from 1.1-2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The event yields and kinematic distributions are examined for signs for new physics without favoring a specific model of new physics. The results are consistent with the standard model expectations. The search employs several new analysis techniques that significantly reduce instrumental backgrounds in channels with an electron and missing transverse energy.

  6. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    PubMed

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  7. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context.

  8. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232

  9. Foreign Object Damage Identification in Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, William; Zhang, Desheng; Turso, James; Pavlik, William; Lopez, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the collective work of a five-person team from different organizations examining the problem of detecting foreign object damage (FOD) events in turbofan engines from gas path thermodynamic and bearing accelerometer sensors, and determining the severity of damage to each component (diagnosis). Several detection and diagnostic approaches were investigated and a software tool (FODID) was developed to assist researchers detect/diagnose FOD events. These approaches include (1) fan efficiency deviation computed from upstream and downstream temperature/ pressure measurements, (2) gas path weighted least squares estimation of component health parameter deficiencies, (3) Kalman filter estimation of component health parameters, and (4) use of structural vibration signal processing to detect both large and small FOD events. The last three of these approaches require a significant amount of computation in conjunction with a physics-based analytic model of the underlying phenomenon the NPSS thermodynamic cycle code for approaches 1 to 3 and the DyRoBeS reduced-order rotor dynamics code for approach 4. A potential application of the FODID software tool, in addition to its detection/diagnosis role, is using its sensitivity results to help identify the best types of sensors and their optimum locations within the gas path, and similarly for bearing accelerometers.

  10. Neural correlates of object size and object location during grasping actions.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Simona; Sedda, Anna; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Culham, Jody C

    2015-02-01

    The visuo-motor channel hypothesis (Jeannerod, 1981) postulates that grasping movements consist of a grip and a transport component differing in their reliance on intrinsic vs. extrinsic object properties (e.g. size vs. location, respectively). While recent neuroimaging studies have revealed separate brain areas implicated in grip and transport components within the parietal lobe, less is known about the neural processing of extrinsic and intrinsic properties of objects for grasping actions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to examine the cortical areas involved in processing object size, object location or both. Participants grasped (using the dominant right hand) or passively viewed sequential pairs of objects that could differ in size, location or both. We hypothesized that if intrinsic and extrinsic object properties are processed separately, as suggested by the visuo-motor channel hypothesis, we would observe adaptation to object size in areas that code the grip and adaptation to location in areas that code the transport component. On the other hand, if intrinsic and extrinsic object properties are not processed separately, brain areas involved in grasping may show adaptation to both object size and location. We found adaptation to object size for grasping movements in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), in agreement with the idea that object size is processed separately from location. In addition, the left superior parietal occipital sulcus (SPOC), primary somatosensory and motor area (S1/M1), precuneus, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and supplementary motor area (SMA) showed non-additive adaptation to both object size and location. We propose different roles for the aIPS as compared with the SPOC, S1/M1, precuneus, PMd and SMA. In particular, while the aIPS codes intrinsic object properties, which are relevant for hand preshaping and force scaling, area SPOC, S1/M1, precuneus, PMd and SMA code intrinsic as well as extrinsic

  11. Laser deflection of space objects -- An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    Lasers provide the two major attributes required for effective deflection of space objects: agility and efficiency. Lasers act instantaneously over long distances with little losses, but deliver energy at modest power levels. Material interceptors provide large impulses, but deliver only a fraction of the mass launched into space at low speeds. The two deflection concepts are compared, as are some important additional applications.

  12. WISE Views of Centaurs & Scattered Disk Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. M.; Walker, R.; Mainzer, A.; Blauvelt, E.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Meech, K. J.; McMillan, R.; Tholen, D.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer surveyed most of the sky in the Mid-Infrared From January through September of 2010. In addition to 120 comets, more than 30 Centaurs and Scattered Disc Objects (SDOs) were observed and discovered. We will present preliminary results from the analysis ofthese outer solar system bodies.

  13. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  14. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  15. Conscientious Objection in Healthcare and Moral Integrity.

    PubMed

    Wicclair, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are several reasons for accommodating health professionals' conscientious objections. However, several authors have argued that among the most important and compelling reasons is to enable health professionals to maintain their moral integrity. Accommodation is said to provide "moral space" in which health professionals can practice without compromising their moral integrity. There are, however, alternative conceptions of moral integrity and corresponding different criteria for moral-integrity-based claims. It is argued that one conception of moral integrity, the identity conception, is sound and suitable in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation. According to the identity conception, one maintains one's moral integrity if and only if one's actions are consistent with one's core moral convictions. The identity conception has been subject to a number of criticisms that might call into question its suitability as a standard for determining whether health professionals have genuine moral-integrity-based accommodation claims. The following five objections to the identity conception are critically examined: (1) it does not include a social component, (2) it is a conception of subjective rather than objective integrity, (3) it does not include a reasonableness condition, (4) it does not include any substantive moral constraints, and (5) it does not include any intellectual integrity requirement. In response to these objections, it is argued that none establishes the unsuitability of the identity conception in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation.

  16. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  17. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides assistance with systematic planning using measurement quality objectives to those working on research projects. These performance criteria are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because they are more closely associated with the measuremen...

  18. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  19. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  20. Impacting small Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Fernández, J.; Panzeca, R.; Corral, C.

    2008-10-01

    The design of a low-cost spacecraft to impact on a small, faint Near Earth Object (NEO), poses major challenges. This paper focuses on the terminal phase of such impact mission, analyzing the capability of autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems to compensate the deviations in the impact point to achieve a successful collision. The autonomous GNC system employs the information of the optical sensors to estimate the parameters allowing the computation of divert maneuvers to achieve the impact. GMV has developed a simulator, with different levels of sophistication, and a set of different GNC algorithms to help in the design process. This tool is used for different purposes such as: dimensioning the sensors and actuators, verifying mission requirements, computing figures of merit of different SC configurations and evaluating GNC performances. Four GNC algorithms are compared: low-thrust proportional navigation using a fading memory filter, high-thrust predictive guidance using either a Kalman filter or a batch-sequential least-squares filter, and a mid-thrust hybrid predictive-proportional guidance using a fading memory filter. Monte Carlo analysis using global-performances models of the optical sensors for each of these GNC algorithms are presented for two different asteroids (1989 ML and 2002 AT4), showing the mission parameters driving the mission performances. In addition, single-runs with high-fidelity optical sensors models are presented to validate the Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. The Power of Objectives: Moving beyond Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jack J.; Phillips, Patti P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the need for project objectives is obvious, their value and role are much broader than most think. In this article, we explore the need for higher levels of objectives, along with tips and techniques to develop them properly. More important, we examine the benefits of objectives from many perspectives. In today's competitive environment,…

  2. Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin H.; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Swain, Shelley N.

    2014-01-01

    Two important and related developments in children between 18 and 24 months of age are the rapid expansion of object name vocabularies and the emergence of an ability to recognize objects from sparse representations of their geometric shapes. In the same period, children also begin to show a preference for planar views (i.e., views of objects held…

  3. Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reverbel, F.C.R.

    1997-05-01

    In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

  4. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  5. Reconsidering remineralization strategies to include nanoparticle hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim; Chaiyabutr, Yada; Milicich, Graeme

    2013-03-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible biofilm-mediated disease of the teeth that is defined by prolonged periods of low pH resulting in net mineral loss from the teeth. Hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, and the carbonated forms of calcium phosphate form the main mineral content of dental hard tissues: enamel, dentin, and cementum. Active dental caries results when the biofilm pH on the tooth surface drops below the dissolution threshold for hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite. The clinical evidence of this net mineral loss is porosity, whitespot lesions, caries lesions, and/or cavitation. The potential to reverse this mineral loss through remineralization has been well documented, although previous remineralization strategies for dental hard tissues have focused on the use of fluorides and forms of calcium phosphate. This in-vitro study documented the deposition of nanoparticle hydroxyapatite on demineralized enamel surfaces after treatment with an experimental remineralization gel. This finding supports consideration of an additional approach to remineralization that includes pH neutralization strategies and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite crystals.

  6. New Scattered Disk Object and Centaur Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucker, Melissa; Wilcox, P.; Stansberry, J.

    2013-10-01

    We report B, V, and R magnitudes for scattered disk objects and centaurs from observations taken in December 2011 and August 2013 using the Lowell Observatory Perkins Telescope with PRISM and observations taken in March 2012 at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Targeted scattered disk objects include 2002 CY224, 2003 UY117, 2006 QJ181, 2008 CT190, 2009 YG19, 2010 FD49, 2010 VZ98. Targeted centaurs include 2002 QX47, 2005 UJ438, 2006 UX184, and 2007 RH283. We will determine if the resultant centaur colors follow the bimodal distribution (B-R either red or gray) previously detected. We will also compare the resultant scattered disk object colors to those published for other scattered disk objects. This work is based on observations with the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and with the VATT: The Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  7. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  8. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  9. Bacteria repelling poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide) coatings for biomedical devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer microarray screening, including analysis of bacterial adhesion by fluorescence microscopy and SEM, and chemical composition of bacteria repelling polymers identified in the screen; polymer synthesis and characterisation; preparation of catheter pieces and solvent studies, and details for confocal imaging/analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb01129e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Wu, Mei; Gwynne, Peter J.; Hardman, Ailsa; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Blakely, Garry; Swann, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections due to bacteria have serious implications on the health and recovery of patients in a variety of medical scenarios. Since bacterial contamination on medical devices contributes to the majority of nosocomical infections, there is a need for redesigning the surfaces of medical devices, such as catheters and tracheal tubes, to resist the binding of bacteria. In this work, polyurethanes and polyacrylates/acrylamides, which resist binding by the major bacterial pathogens underpinning implant-associated infections, were identified using high-throughput polymer microarrays. Subsequently, two ‘hit’ polymers, PA13 (poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide)) and PA515 (poly(methoxyethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate-co-methylmethacrylate)), were used to coat catheters and substantially shown to decrease binding of a variety of bacteria (including isolates from infected endotracheal tubes and heart valves from intensive care unit patients). Catheters coated with polymer PA13 showed up to 96% reduction in bacteria binding in comparison to uncoated catheters. PMID:25580245

  10. When should conscientious objection be accepted?

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes two main claims: first, that the need to protect health professionals' moral integrity is what grounds the right to conscientious objection in health care; and second, that for a given claim of conscientious objection to be acceptable to society, a certain set of criteria should be fulfilled. The importance of moral integrity for individuals and society, including its special role in health care, is advocated. Criteria for evaluating the acceptability of claims to conscientious objection are outlined. The precise content of the criteria is dictated by the two main interests that are at stake in the dilemma of conscientious objection: the patient's interests and the health professional's moral integrity. Alternative criteria proposed by other authors are challenged. The bold claim is made that conscientious objection should be recognised by society as acceptable whenever the five main criteria of the proposed set are met.

  11. The Origin of Apollo Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul

    1984-03-29

    The source of the Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids has been much debated. (This class of asteroidal bodies includes the Apollo, Aten, and some Amor objects, each with its own orbital characteristics; we shall use the term Apollo objects to mean all Earth-crossers.) It is difficult to find a mechanism which would create new Apollo objects at a sufficient rate to balance the loss due to collision with planets and ejection from the solar system, and thus explain the estimated steady-state number. A likely source is the main asteroid belt, since it has similar photometric characteristics. There are gaps in the main belt which correspond to orbits resonant with the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, and it has been shown that the resonances can perturb a body into an Earth-crossing orbit. Apollo objects could thus be generated when random collisions between asteroids in the main belt sent fragments into these resonant orbits. Calculations of the creation rate from these random collisions, however, yielcl numbers too low by a factor of four. This rate could be significantly lower given the uncertainty in the efficiency of the resonance mechanism. As an alternative, it was suggested that the evaporation of a comet's volatile mantle as it passes near the sun could provide enough non-gravitational force to move the comet into an orbit with aphelion inside of Jupiter's orbit, and thus safe from ejection from the solar system. The probability of such an event occurring is unknown, although the recent discovery of the 'asteroid' 1983 TB, with an orbit matching that of the Geminid meteor shower, suggests that such a mechanism has occurred at least once. New evidence from paleontology and geophysics, however, suggests a better solution to the problem of the source of the Apollos. M. Davis, P. Hut, and R. A. Muller recently proposed that an unseen companion to the sun passes through the Oort cloud every 28 million years, sending a shower of comets to the Earth; this provides an

  12. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  13. Laser dusting of delicate objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.; Abraham, Meg

    2005-06-01

    Since the inception of the laser-divestment process, emphasis has focused on the treatment of reasonably durable materials. Marble, limestone, sandstone, and bronze are foremost among these. In most situations the objective of laser divestment is the removal of superficial corrosion or chemical-decomposition products. To a lesser extent laser ablation is also used to treat diverse surface problems for a spectrum of other historic and artistic substrates such as paper, vellum, ivory, paint, and plaster. Although materials of this sort are not particularly strong, their optical, thermodynamical, and mechanical properties are sufficiently propitious to enable successful laser treatment (with the exercise of precise control). There is another, quite different, cleaning problem encountered in the maintenance of museum collections. This is often referred to as "dusting" (in contrast to "divestment" or "conservation"). Vacuuming, wiping, blowing, and feather dusting are used most often to improve the cosmetic appearance of museum objects after dust and aerosols have accumulated on exposed surfaces. However, many collections include extremely friable pieces composed of feathers, fir, hair, plant fibers, or mummified skin. Conventional dusting may be impossible in such instances. From experimental observations and theoretical analyses we speculate that at very low fluxes laser-induced acoustic and electrostatic forces are responsible for the ejection of debris. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that laser dusting was effective on feathers and textiles, The practical viability of laser dusting was demonstrated by laser-cleaning two very large sand sculptures by San Diego artist C.R. Faust. In contrast, all conventional cleaning techniques damaged the surface by dislodging sand grains.

  14. Object-related knowledge and the production of gestures with imagined objects by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Takasfii; Sugai, Kuniaki

    2002-02-01

    Previous research suggests that the gestural representation of preschool age children has a symbolic quality in the absence of real objects. It has shown a developmental progression from use of concrete body parts to more abstract imaginary-object gestural representations during the preschool years. The present study examined whether object-related knowledge is involved in the production of imaginary-object gestures. 35 children (12 3-, 11 4-, and 12 5-yr.-olds) performed gestural tasks in which they were asked to pretend to use common objects, e.g., "pretend to brush your teeth with a toothbrush." In addition, they were asked to describe the relationship between the performed gesture and object when they were pretending. Analysis indicated that, when an imaginary-object gesture was performed, it was through an evoked prior knowledge of the function and context of the use of objects. This may suggest that object-related knowledge is a key factor involved in developmental changes from body part to imaginary-object gestures and that it is involved in freeing preschool children from object substitution, which is prescribed by perceptual support.

  15. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  16. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  17. Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man Mohan, Rai

    2006-01-01

    Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The

  18. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  19. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  20. A neuromorphic system for video object recognition.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam

    2014-01-01

    Automated video object recognition is a topic of emerging importance in both defense and civilian applications. This work describes an accurate and low-power neuromorphic architecture and system for real-time automated video object recognition. Our system, Neuormorphic Visual Understanding of Scenes (NEOVUS), is inspired by computational neuroscience models of feed-forward object detection and classification pipelines for processing visual data. The NEOVUS architecture is inspired by the ventral (what) and dorsal (where) streams of the mammalian visual pathway and integrates retinal processing, object detection based on form and motion modeling, and object classification based on convolutional neural networks. The object recognition performance and energy use of the NEOVUS was evaluated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Neovision2 program using three urban area video datasets collected from a mix of stationary and moving platforms. These datasets are challenging and include a large number of objects of different types in cluttered scenes, with varying illumination and occlusion conditions. In a systematic evaluation of five different teams by DARPA on these datasets, the NEOVUS demonstrated the best performance with high object recognition accuracy and the lowest energy consumption. Its energy use was three orders of magnitude lower than two independent state of the art baseline computer vision systems. The dynamic power requirement for the complete system mapped to commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware that includes a 5.6 Megapixel color camera processed by object detection and classification algorithms at 30 frames per second was measured at 21.7 Watts (W), for an effective energy consumption of 5.45 nanoJoules (nJ) per bit of incoming video. These unprecedented results show that the NEOVUS has the potential to revolutionize automated video object recognition toward enabling practical low-power and mobile video processing

  1. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  2. Object detection is completed earlier than object categorization: evidence from LRP and N200.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Zhong, Weifang; Chen, Qi; Mo, Lei

    2013-12-01

    The classic account of object recognition, which proposes that object detection precedes categorization, was challenged by recent behavioral evidence. The present study investigated the temporal relation between object detection and categorization by employing ERP measures. Participants performed a dual-choice go/no-go task based on the outcomes of object detection and categorization. A no-go lateralized readiness potential, which indexed motor preparation, was obtained only when detection determined responding hand and categorization determined go/no-go, indicating that detection was completed earlier and thus activated preparation. Additionally, the N200 effect, which indicated the completion of go/no-go, was obtained 70 ms earlier when detection determined go/no-go than when categorization determined go/no-go. Our ERP results indicate that object detection is completed earlier than categorization, which supports the traditional models of object recognition.

  3. In Defense of Behavioral Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewenstein, Morris

    1976-01-01

    Presents arguments in favor of setting behavioral objectives for the social studies. A discussion of criticisms that have been made of the behavioral objective approach to curriculum development is presented. The author concludes that it is impossible to determine the success of a program without specific behavioral objectives. (Author/DB)

  4. Creating the First SCORM Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The creation of the first SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) object offers some challenges and difficulties which go beyond the facilities offered by content generation applications. In particular, the creation of really reusable, searchable learning objects requires a detailed consideration of metadata, where some institutional…

  5. Preschoolers Search for Hidden Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Yuping; Keen, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The issue of whether young children use spatio-temporal information (e.g., movement of objects through time and space) and/or contact-mechanical information (e.g., interaction between objects) to search for a hidden object was investigated. To determine whether one cue can have priority over the other, a dynamic event that put these cues into…

  6. The Object of Their Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishman, Shari

    2008-01-01

    Tishman argues that directing students to closely examine physical objects is an excellent way to motivate and strengthen thinking. Even simple objects reflect the social and physical contexts in which they were created and can spur deeper observations and questions. Teaching thinking through objects appeals to many different kinds of learners and…

  7. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…

  8. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  9. Object Technology: Positioning and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the concepts of object technology, discusses object technology's method of reusing software, and examines three main factors that influence software reuse: commonality, connectivity, and commitment. Presents steps that should be taken in the transition to object technology, and reviews present and future benefits for information…

  10. The Use of Educational Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper looks at the Winnicottian notion of object use as it relates to education. Object use is understood as the process of attaching to but then attempting to destroy the educator in an effort to create new knowledge and relationships. The paper argues for educational object use as a way of understanding and normalising resistance…

  11. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  12. Questions sur les objectifs (Questions on the Objectives)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcher, Louis

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses instruction by objectives. Suggestions include relating objectives to the notion of evaluation, so that improvement in objectives implies change in examinations; making the objectives clear to the learner; and taking into account the changing needs of the learner at each stage of learning. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  13. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  14. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  15. Alternative origins for nannobacteria-like objects in calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, Brenda L.; Lynch, F. Leo; Rahnis, Michael A.; Folk, Robert L.; Molineux, Ian J.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    1999-04-01

    More than 40 calcite-precipitation experiments were performed under sterile conditions in order to investigate the origins of 25 300 nm spherical-, rod-, and ovoid-shaped objects that have been widely interpreted as evidence of nanometer-scale life (i.e., nannobacteria). Individual experiments included the addition of soluble organic compounds, common species of eubacteria, or phage-induced eubacterial lysates. These experiments indicate that many of the nanometer-scale objects have inorganic or nonnannobacterial origins. In the precipitation experiments, calcite formed euhedral crystals 50 800 nm in diameter and smaller (<50 nm) anhedral or rounded particles or protocrystals. The small anhedral or rounded solids resembled nannobacteria. The relative amount of anhedral or rounded calcite was greatest in experiments with a dissolved organic component. These controlled experiments are in accord with observations that rounded nanometer-scale objects are more common in minerals formed in organic-rich environments. Bacterial fragments occur as rounded to irregularly shaped particles that included cell-wall fragments, expulsed cytoplasm, and relict capsules that also closely resembled nannobacteria. Acid etching of the large euhedral crystals produced in the precipitation experiments also resulted in the formation of nanometer-scale features that resembled nannobacteria in natural carbonates. The shapes of the etching artifacts vary as a function of the strength of the acid and the duration of etching. Much caution is advisable in interpreting the origin of rounded features <50 nm.

  16. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  17. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  18. Neuronal representation of object orientation.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Ferber, S; Bülthoff, H H

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation between object identity and object orientation observed in six patients with brain damage, has been taken as evidence for a view-invariant model of object recognition. However, there was also some indication that these patients were not generally agnosic for object orientation but were able to gain access to at least some information about objects' canonical upright. We studied a new case (KB) with spared knowledge of object identity and impaired perception of object orientation using a forced choice paradigm to contrast directly the patient's ability to perceive objects' canonical upright vs non-upright orientations. We presented 2D-pictures of objects with unambiguous canonical upright orientations in four different orientations (0 degrees, -90 degrees, +90 degrees, 180 degrees ). KB showed no impairment in identifying letters, objects, animals, or faces irrespective of their given orientation. Also, her knowledge of upright orientation of stimuli was perfectly preserved. In sharp contrast, KB was not able to judge the orientation when the stimuli were presented in a non-upright orientation. The findings give further support for a distributed view-based representation of objects in which neurons become tuned to the features present in certain views of an object. Since we see more upright than inverted animals and familiar objects, the statistics of these images leads to a larger number of neurons tuned for objects in an upright orientation. We suppose that probably for this reason KB's knowledge of upright orientation was found to be more robust against neuronal damage than knowledge of other orientations.

  19. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  20. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  1. Scale estimation of objects using template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Tapia, Juan J.

    2016-09-01

    Scale estimation of objects is a challenging problem in image processing. This work presents a novel method to detect and estimate the scaling factor of a target in an observed scene corrupted with additive noise and clutter. Given a set of available views of the target the proposed method is able to detect the target and estimate its scaling factor using a template matched filters and a scale pyramidal representation. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in synthetic and real-life scenes in different pattern recognition applications. The obtained results are characterized in terms of objective metrics.

  2. Semantic Network Analysis of Earth ScienceTextbooks Focus on Learning Objectives in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how congruently the learning objectives of Earth Science textbooks match the 2009 revised Earth Science curriculum in Korea. For this purpose, we classified the learning objectives of curriculum and textbooks were into three factors including ability, cross-cutting concepts, and behavioral verbs. The text data were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. The learning objectives of textbooks with regard to ability factors mainly emphasized the cognitive and affective domain. In addition, the ability of inquiry performance was emphasized in the learning objective of the curriculum. The textbooks used various sub-frame of cross-cutting concepts in comparison with the curriculum. Both textbooks and curriculum used the term 'comprehension' the most as behavioral verbs. However, most behavioral verbs just remained at the level of cognitive system. Keywords: curriculum, textbook, learning objectives, semantic network analysis

  3. Salient object changes influence overt attentional prioritization and object-based targeting in natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nicola C.; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all. Changes that were made during a fixation attracted the eyes both when the change involved an increase and a decrease in salience. However, changes that were made during a saccade only captured the eyes when the change was an increase in salience, relative to the baseline no-change condition. These results suggest that the prioritization of object changes can be influenced by the underlying salience of the changed object. In addition, object changes that occurred with a transient signal (which is itself a salient signal) resulted in more central object targeting. Taken together, our results suggest that salient signals in a natural scene are an important component in both object prioritization and targeting in natural scene viewing, insofar as they align with object locations. PMID:28222190

  4. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  5. Neurocomputational bases of object and face recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, I; Kalocsai, P

    1997-01-01

    A number of behavioural phenomena distinguish the recognition of faces and objects, even when members of a set of objects are highly similar. Because faces have the same parts in approximately the same relations, individuation of faces typically requires specification of the metric variation in a holistic and integral representation of the facial surface. The direct mapping of a hypercolumn-like pattern of activation onto a representation layer that preserves relative spatial filter values in a two-dimensional (2D) coordinate space, as proposed by C. von der Malsburg and his associates, may account for many of the phenomena associated with face recognition. An additional refinement, in which each column of filters (termed a 'jet') is centred on a particular facial feature (or fiducial point), allows selectivity of the input into the holistic representation to avoid incorporation of occluding or nearby surfaces. The initial hypercolumn representation also characterizes the first stage of object perception, but the image variation for objects at a given location in a 2D coordinate space may be too great to yield sufficient predictability directly from the output of spatial kernels. Consequently, objects can be represented by a structural description specifying qualitative (typically, non-accidental) characterizations of an object's parts, the attributes of the parts, and the relations among the parts, largely based on orientation and depth discontinuities (as shown by Hummel & Biederman). A series of experiments on the name priming or physical matching of complementary images (in the Fourier domain) of objects and faces documents that whereas face recognition is strongly dependent on the original spatial filter values, evidence from object recognition indicates strong invariance to these values, even when distinguishing among objects that are as similar as faces. PMID:9304687

  6. Sex and spatial position effects on object location memory following intentional learning of object identities.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Packard, Mark G; Peterson, Bradley S

    2002-01-01

    Memory for object location relative both to veridical center (left versus right visual hemispace) and to eccentricity (central versus peripheral objects) was measured in 26 males and 25 females using the Silverman and Eals Location Memory Task. A subset of participants (17 males and 13 females) also completed a measure of implicit learning, the mirror-tracing task. No sex differences were observed in memory for object identities. Further, in both sexes, memory for object locations was better for peripherally located objects than for centrally located objects. In contrast to these similarities in female and male task performance, females but not males showed better recovery of object locations in the right compared to the left visual hemispace. Moreover, memory for object locations in the right hemispace was associated with mirror-tracing performance in women but not in men. Together, these data suggest that the processing of object features and object identification in the left cerebral hemisphere may include processing of spatial information that may contribute to superior object location memory in females relative to males.

  7. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  8. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  9. Infrared Stationary Object Acquisition and Moving Object Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-07

    acquisition and tracking algorithms for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) and other applications. Many of the existing EO/IR object...for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) and other applications. Many of the existing EO/IR object acquisition and tracking...UAV) Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) applications. The technology is continuing to develop and is increasingly used by

  10. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  11. Tactile Feedback of Object Slip Facilitates Virtual Object Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Julie M; Blank, Amy A; Shewokis, Patricia A; OMalley, Marcia K

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in myoelectric prosthetic technology have enabled more complex movements and interactions with objects, but the lack of natural haptic feedback makes object manipulation difficult to perform. Our research effort aims to develop haptic feedback systems for improving user performance in object manipulation. Specifically, in this work, we explore the effectiveness of vibratory tactile feedback of slip information for grasping objects without slipping. A user interacts with a virtual environment to complete a virtual grasp and hold task using a Sensable Phantom. Force feedback simulates contact with objects, and vibratory tactile feedback alerts the user when a virtual object is slipping from the grasp. Using this task, we found that tactile feedback significantly improved a user's ability to detect and respond to slip and to recover the slipping object when visual feedback was not available. This advantage of tactile feedback is especially important in conjunction with force feedback, which tends to reduce a subject's grasping forces and therefore encourage more slips. Our results demonstrate the potential of slip feedback to improve a prosthesis user's ability to interact with objects with less visual attention, aiding in performance of everyday manipulation tasks.

  12. Tracing the identity of objects.

    PubMed

    Rips, Lance J; Blok, Sergey; Newman, George

    2006-01-01

    This article considers how people judge the identity of objects (e.g., how people decide that a description of an object at one time, t(0), belongs to the same object as a description of it at another time, t(1)). The authors propose a causal continuer model for these judgments, based on an earlier theory by Nozick (1981). According to this model, the 2 descriptions belong to the same object if (a) the object at t(1) is among those that are causally close enough to be genuine continuers of the original and (b) it is the closest of these close-enough contenders. A quantitative version of the model makes accurate predictions about judgments of which a pair of objects is identical to an original (Experiments 1 and 2). The model makes correct qualitative predictions about identity across radical disassembly (Experiment 1) as well as more ordinary transformations (Experiments 2 and 3).

  13. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects.

    PubMed

    Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem

    2003-06-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.

  14. Tracing the Identity of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rips, Lance J.; Blok, Sergey; Newman, George

    2006-01-01

    This article considers how people judge the identity of objects (e.g., how people decide that a description of an object at one time, t-sub-0, belongs to the same object as a description of it at another time, t-sub-1). The authors propose a causal continuer model for these judgments, based on an earlier theory by Nozick (1981). According to this…

  15. Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

  16. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  17. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1984-04-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  18. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  19. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  1. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  2. Representation and classification of 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Csakany, P; Wallace, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generic object classification from three-dimensional depth or meshed data. First, surface patches are segmented on the basis of differential geometry and quadratic surface fitting. These are represented by a modified Gaussian image that includes the well-known shape index. Learning is an interactive process in which a human teacher indicates corresponding patches, but the formation of generic classes is unaided. Classification of unknown objects is based on the measurement of similarities between feature sets of the objects and the generic classes. The process is demonstrated on a group of three-dimensional (3-D) objects built from both CAD and laser-scanned depth data.

  3. Being smart about writing SMART objectives.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, May Britt; Renger, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    This article challenges the conventional wisdom in mainstream evaluation regarding the process for developing specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives. The article notes several advantages of mainstreaming the SMART method including program capacity building and being able to independently monitor progress toward process and outcome objectives. It is argued the one size fits all approach for writing SMART objectives is misleading. The context in which the evaluation is conducted is a key deciding factor in how and when the SMART criteria should be applied. Without an appreciation of the evaluation context, mainstream users may be developing objectives that are far from smart. A case example is presented demonstrating a situation where a stepwise, rather than simultaneous application of the SMART criteria was necessary. Learning from this case, recommendations are forwarded for adjusting how SMART criteria should be presented in mainstream evaluation manuals/guides.

  4. Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

  5. Detectability of Oort Cloud Objects Using Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Nakar, Ehud

    2010-03-01

    The size distribution and total mass of objects in the Oort Cloud have important implications to the theory of planet formation, including the properties of, and the processes taking place in the early solar system. We discuss the potential of space missions, such as Kepler and CoRoT, designed to discover transiting exoplanets, to detect Oort Cloud, Kuiper Belt, and main belt objects by occultations of background stars. Relying on published dynamical estimates of the content of the Oort Cloud, we find that Kepler's main program is expected to detect between 0 and ~100 occultation events by deca-kilometer-sized Oort Cloud objects. The occultation rate depends on the mass of the Oort Cloud, the distance to its "inner edge," and the size distribution of its objects. In contrast, Kepler is unlikely to find occultations by Kuiper Belt or main belt asteroids, mainly due to the fact that it is observing a high ecliptic latitude field. Occultations by solar system objects will appear as a photometric deviation in a single measurement, implying that the information regarding the timescale and light-curve shape of each event is lost. We present statistical methods that have the potential to verify the authenticity of occultation events by solar system objects, to estimate the distance to the occulting population, and to constrain their size distribution. Our results are useful for planning of future space-based exoplanet searches in a way that will maximize the probability of detecting solar system objects, without hampering the main science goals.

  6. From following edges to pursuing objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Guillaume S.; Stone, Leland S.

    2002-01-01

    Primates can generate accurate, smooth eye-movement responses to moving target objects of arbitrary shape and size, even in the presence of complex backgrounds and/or the extraneous motion of non-target objects. Most previous studies of pursuit have simply used a spot moving over a featureless background as the target and have thus neglected critical issues associated with the general problem of recovering object motion. Visual psychophysicists and theoreticians have shown that, for arbitrary objects with multiple features at multiple orientations, object-motion estimation for perception is a complex, multi-staged, time-consuming process. To examine the temporal evolution of the motion signal driving pursuit, we recorded the tracking eye movements of human observers to moving line-figure diamonds. We found that pursuit is initially biased in the direction of the vector average of the motions of the diamond's line segments and gradually converges to the true object-motion direction with a time constant of approximately 90 ms. Furthermore, transient blanking of the target during steady-state pursuit induces a decrease in tracking speed, which, unlike pursuit initiation, is subsequently corrected without an initial direction bias. These results are inconsistent with current models in which pursuit is driven by retinal-slip error correction. They demonstrate that pursuit models must be revised to include a more complete visual afferent pathway, which computes, and to some extent latches on to, an accurate estimate of object direction over the first hundred milliseconds or so of motion.

  7. Objective calibration of numerical weather prediction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voudouri, A.; Khain, P.; Carmona, I.; Bellprat, O.; Grazzini, F.; Avgoustoglou, E.; Bettems, J. M.; Kaufmann, P.

    2017-07-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models use parameterization schemes for physical processes, which often include free or poorly confined parameters. Model developers normally calibrate the values of these parameters subjectively to improve the agreement of forecasts with available observations, a procedure referred as expert tuning. A practicable objective multi-variate calibration method build on a quadratic meta-model (MM), that has been applied for a regional climate model (RCM) has shown to be at least as good as expert tuning. Based on these results, an approach to implement the methodology to an NWP model is presented in this study. Challenges in transferring the methodology from RCM to NWP are not only restricted to the use of higher resolution and different time scales. The sensitivity of the NWP model quality with respect to the model parameter space has to be clarified, as well as optimize the overall procedure, in terms of required amount of computing resources for the calibration of an NWP model. Three free model parameters affecting mainly turbulence parameterization schemes were originally selected with respect to their influence on the variables associated to daily forecasts such as daily minimum and maximum 2 m temperature as well as 24 h accumulated precipitation. Preliminary results indicate that it is both affordable in terms of computer resources and meaningful in terms of improved forecast quality. In addition, the proposed methodology has the advantage of being a replicable procedure that can be applied when an updated model version is launched and/or customize the same model implementation over different climatological areas.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  9. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  11. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1997-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  12. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  13. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  15. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  16. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  17. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  18. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  19. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... or deficient maintenance. Such correction must be accomplished by, or at the expense of, local.... Separable areas with minor damage will be included in the maintenance program of local interests. (c)...

  20. College of Architecture Addition, Burchard Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the College of Architecture Addition, Burchard Hall in Blacksburg, Virginia. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

  1. Detecting concealed objects at a checkpoint

    DOEpatents

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to interrogate a clothed individual with electromagnetic radiation to determine if a concealed object is being carried. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual with a pair of opposed, semi-cylindrical array panels each configured to interrogate the individual with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range.

  2. Creating a Total Object of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klie, Evelyn Busch

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a workshop that accompanied the author's exhibit, "A Sense of Place: Paintings by Evelyn Busch Klie." Explains that students created a watercolor painting and a clay frame or base with details in it. Includes a list of art materials and learning objectives. (CMK)

  3. Object Recognition and Random Image Structure Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadr, Jvid; Sinha, Pawan

    2004-01-01

    We present a technique called Random Image Structure Evolution (RISE) for use in experimental investigations of high-level visual perception. Potential applications of RISE include the quantitative measurement of perceptual hysteresis and priming, the study of the neural substrates of object perception, and the assessment and detection of subtle…

  4. 40 CFR 46.110 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Fellowships provide support for undergraduate and graduate students, including staff of state, local or Tribal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objectives. 46.110 Section 46.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  5. 40 CFR 46.110 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Fellowships provide support for undergraduate and graduate students, including staff of state, local or Tribal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Objectives. 46.110 Section 46.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  6. 40 CFR 46.110 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Fellowships provide support for undergraduate and graduate students, including staff of state, local or Tribal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Objectives. 46.110 Section 46.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  7. 40 CFR 46.110 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Fellowships provide support for undergraduate and graduate students, including staff of state, local or Tribal... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objectives. 46.110 Section 46.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  8. American Industries. Performance Objectives. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbury, Paul; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of the three categories (Manufacturing, Graphic Communication, and Power) included in this second of a two-volume course guide on American industries. The materials were developed for a 9- to 12-week course for seventh grade students to acquaint…

  9. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  10. Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.; Gray, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the release of many objects into its orbital plane, usually during the course of an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Such releases are often unintentional, but in a growing number of cases, the jettison has been intentional, conducted after a careful assessment of the net risk to the partnership and to other objects in space. Since its launch in 1998 the ISS has contributed on average at least one additional debris object that is simultaneously in orbit with the station, although the number varies widely from zero to eight at any one moment. All of these objects present potential risks to other objects in orbit. Whether it comes from known and tracked orbiting objects or from unknown or untrackable objects, collision with orbital debris can have disastrous consequences. Objects greater than 10cm are generally well documented and tracked, allowing orbiting spacecraft or satellites opportunities to perform evasive maneuvers (commonly known as Debris Avoidance Maneuvers, or DAMs) in the event that imminent collision is predicted. The issue with smaller debris; however, is that it is too numerous to be tracked effectively and yet still poses disastrous consequences if it intercepts a larger object. Due to the immense kinetic energy of any item in orbit, collision with debris as small as 1cm can have catastrophic consequences for many orbiting satellites or spacecraft. Faced with the growing orbital debris threat and the potentially catastrophic consequences of a collision-generated debris shower originating in an orbit crossing the ISS altitude band, in 2007 the ISS program manger asked program specialists to coordinate a multilateral jettison policy amongst the ISS partners. This policy would define the acceptable risk trade rationale for intentional release of a debris object, and other mandatory constraints on such jettisons to minimize the residual risks whenever a jettison was

  11. Laser scanning system for object monitoring

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy James [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie Curtis [Powell, TN; Chiaro, Jr; John, Peter [Clinton, TN

    2008-04-22

    A laser scanner is located in a fixed position to have line-of-sight access to key features of monitored objects. The scanner rapidly scans pre-programmed points corresponding to the positions of retroreflecting targets affixed to the key features of the objects. The scanner is capable of making highly detailed scans of any portion of the field of view, permitting the exact location and identity of targets to be confirmed. The security of an object is verified by determining that the cooperative target is still present and that its position has not changed. The retroreflecting targets also modulate the reflected light for purposes of returning additional information back to the location of the scanner.

  12. Continued Astrometric Follow-up Of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, Timothy; Johnson, Lindley (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    As the grant periods overlapped, some of this information below will also be present on the previous final report. During the period May 1 2004 to April 30 2005, approximately 100 NEOs fainter than V = 20 were observed on separate nights from the 1.2-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins. Additionally, a few comets were targeted, including astrometric support of the Deep Impact mission by observing comet P/Tempel 1. Kyle Smalley was again employed as an independent contractor, and he was trained in use of the telescope, performed several remote observing runs on his own, and has now begun critical software support of the observing program. Code to automatically operate the telescope, given a target list, is approximately 90% done. During the first observing run scheduled in late September or early October, this code will be tested at on the telescope. It is probable that the 1.2m telescope will be run automatically all night without any interruption from the observer for anything during this time. Additional work on selecting which NEO targets to observe is progressing, with a beta-release of a simple target selection web page. Additionally, two-night objects with the potential of being NEOs have been extracted on a routine basis during this last grant cycle. These will also be added to a web page to facilitate additional astrometric follow-up.

  13. Converting a carbon preform object to a silicon carbide object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for converting in depth a carbon or graphite preform object to a silicon carbide object, silicon carbide/silicon object, silicon carbide/carbon-core object, or a silicon carbide/silicon/carbon-core object, by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time in a reaction chamber. In the process, a stream comprised of a silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a coreactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into the reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. Thus, the precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. Any stream of decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from the reaction chamber is removed. A carbon or graphite preform object placed in the reaction chamber is contacted with the silicon. The carbon or graphite preform object is recovered from the reactor chamber after it has been converted to a desired silicon carbide, silicon and carbon composition.

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  15. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic.

  18. Improving Objective Measures of Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Allan G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article examines shortcomings in existing objective measures of mobility for blind persons in the light of evaluative experiences and demonstrates improvements in reliability, together with a new technique for tracking pavement position. It refutes the idea that it is not possible to measure improvement in performance objectively. (Author/CL)

  19. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  20. Drafting. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charles

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives for a basic drafting course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 hours daily). The organized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student to develop general competencies in the…

  1. Performance Objectives: Query and Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines four issues regarding the utilization of precise instructional and learner performance objectives. These issues deal with a) the measurability of educational outcomes, b) the difficulty of specifying objectives for some subject areas, c) the individualization of instruction, and d) dehumanization of education through…

  2. Printing. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 17 terminal objectives for a secondary level basic printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course with specialized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop basic…

  3. Repetition Blindness for Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, William G.; Zhou, Guomei; Man, Wai-Fung; Harris, Irina M.

    2010-01-01

    Repetition blindness (RB) is the finding that observers often miss the repetition of an item within a rapid stream of words or objects. Recent studies have shown that RB for objects is largely unaffected by variations in viewpoint between the repeated items. In 5 experiments, we tested RB under different axes of rotation, with different types of…

  4. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  5. Aesthetic properties of everyday objects.

    PubMed

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Eisermann, Jens; Leder, Helmut

    2007-06-01

    This research addresses whether one underlying concept of appreciation exists across different classes of objects. Three studies were done. To identify aesthetic properties relevant for the aesthetic judgment of everyday objects and paintings, in Study 1 expert interviews were conducted with 12 interior designers, object-oriented designers and architects, and 12 students of art history. In Study 2, multidimensional unfolding (MDU) was used to examine whether common judgment criteria can be identified for the objects of the different classes. A sample of 217 German subjects participated. 2- or 3-dimensional MDU solutions resulted for each object class. The identified dimensions were labeled using the aesthetic properties derived from the expert interviews (Study 1). These dimensions represent relevant dimensions of aesthetic judgment on which object properties vary. Study 2 suggested that people use different dimensions of aesthetic judgment for different object classes. The identified dimensions were then used to construct three sets of systematically varied everyday objects and one set of systematically varied paintings. Using this stimulus material in Study 3, conjoint analysis indicated these dimensions are differentially important for the overall aesthetic judgment.

  6. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  7. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  8. Paradigm Statements of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter J.

    Five distinct format categories are used in this study to describe the form of educational objectives: clarity, range, level of abstractness, behavioralness, and observability. These form concepts are used to describe paradigm statements of three kinds of educational objectives: goals, intended learning outcomes, and behavioral evidence. Goals are…

  9. Carpentry. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. L.; Adcox, John W., Jr.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives in this course guide in basic carpentry. The guide is designed to prepare persons for initial employment, or to upgrade or retrain persons already employed, or to provide the apprenticeship related course work necessary to…

  10. Performance Objectives - Necessary or Superfluous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, David P.

    This paper discusses the nature and usefulness of performance objectives, and asserts that they can be springboards or coffin lids depending upon the intent of the user. Performance objectives facilitate: (1) directions for the learning context, (2) selecting learning opportunities, (3) fitting the learning context to the learner, and (4)…

  11. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  12. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  13. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  14. 78 FR 77666 - Notice and Request for Public Comment on State Requests To Include Additional Proof-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...-Dyson, Director, Office of Research, Policy, and Programs, at (301) 563-3919 or 1-866- 747-1471 (toll... responsibilities of implementing and interpreting EAC regulations and policy, answering questions from stakeholders... Regulations and policies. State Requests to Modify State-Specific Instructions: The chief election official...

  15. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... EPA's proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public comment. For... Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of...

  16. 78 FR 35929 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for... certain water quality limited segments and associated pollutants (Table 1 in Appendix A1 of EPA's...

  17. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking... appropriate for the waste or category of waste; will improve management practices for the waste or category of... waste or category of waste, will improve management practices for the waste or category of......

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnasissance of the Trinidad NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Uranium and other elemental data resulting from the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Trinidad National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) are reported herein. This study was conducted as part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide improved estimates of the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and to make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The HSSR data will ultimately be integrated with other NURE data (e.g., airborne radiometric surveys and geological investigations) to complete the entire NURE program. This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Trinidad quadrange (Morris et al, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 1060 water and 1240 sediment samples collected from 1768 locations in the quadrangle. The earlier report contains an evaluation of the uranium concentrations of the samples as well as descriptions of the geology, hydrology, climate, and uranium occurrences of the quadrange. This supplement presents the sediment field and uranium data again and the analyses of 42 other elements in the sediments. All uranium samples were redetermined by delayed-neutron counting (DNC) when the sediment samples were analyzed for 31 elements by neutron activation. For 99.6% of the sediment samples analyzed, the differences between the uranium contents first determined (Morris et al, 1978) and the analyses reported herein are less than 10%.

  19. 77 FR 1073 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered System of Records, Including Addition of Routine Uses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... authorities; foreign governments/ Agencies; international organizations; and non-governmental regulatory... marketing permit for an FDA-regulated product. Records contain name, education, professional qualifications... governments/Agencies; international organizations; and non-governmental regulatory bodies of a foreign...

  20. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  1. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  2. Medical image segmentation using object atlas versus object cloud models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phellan, Renzo; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-03-01

    Medical image segmentation is crucial for quantitative organ analysis and surgical planning. Since interactive segmentation is not practical in a production-mode clinical setting, automatic methods based on 3D object appearance models have been proposed. Among them, approaches based on object atlas are the most actively investigated. A key drawback of these approaches is that they require a time-costly image registration process to build and deploy the atlas. Object cloud models (OCM) have been introduced to avoid registration, considerably speeding up the whole process, but they have not been compared to object atlas models (OAM). The present paper fills this gap by presenting a comparative analysis of the two approaches in the task of individually segmenting nine anatomical structures of the human body. Our results indicate that OCM achieve a statistically significant better accuracy for seven anatomical structures, in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient and Average Symmetric Surface Distance.

  3. Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looser, Theresa A.

    This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

  4. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  5. Generating object proposals for improved object detection in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Lars W.; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Screening of aerial images covering large areas is important for many applications such as surveillance, tracing or rescue tasks. To reduce the workload of image analysts, an automatic detection of candidate objects is required. In general, object detection is performed by applying classifiers or a cascade of classifiers within a sliding window algorithm. However, the huge number of windows to classify, especially in case of multiple object scales, makes these approaches computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, we reduce the number of candidate windows by generating so called object proposals. Object proposals are a set of candidate regions in an image that are likely to contain an object. We apply the Selective Search approach that has been broadly used as proposals method for detectors like R-CNN or Fast R-CNN. Therefore, a set of small regions is generated by initial segmentation followed by hierarchical grouping of the initial regions to generate proposals at different scales. To reduce the computational costs of the original approach, which consists of 80 combinations of segmentation settings and grouping strategies, we only apply the most appropriate combination. Therefore, we analyze the impact of varying segmentation settings, different merging strategies, and various colour spaces by calculating the recall with regard to the number of object proposals and the intersection over union between generated proposals and ground truth annotations. As aerial images differ considerably from datasets that are typically used for exploring object proposals methods, in particular in object size and the image fraction occupied by an object, we further adapt the Selective Search algorithm to aerial images by replacing the random order of generated proposals by a weighted order based on the object proposal size and integrate a termination criterion for the merging strategies. Finally, the adapted approach is compared to the original Selective Search algorithm

  6. Objects Versus Shadows as Influences on Perceived Object Motion

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The motion trajectory of an object’s cast shadow has been shown to alter the perceived trajectory of a casting object, an effect that holds even if the cast shadow appears unrealistic. This raises the question of whether a cast shadow per se is necessary for this influence, a question that has been studied only with stationary targets. We examined the relative influence of a shadow and a spherical object on the perceived motion trajectory of an identical spherical object, using a paradigm similar to Kersten, Mamassian, and Knill's ball-in-box animation. We recorded both depth and height estimates of the perceived end-point of the target trajectory as a function of various target and context trajectories. Both shadows and objects significantly influenced the perceived trajectory of the target, though the influence of the shadow was overall stronger. We conjecture that the influence of the object reveals the assumption that similar objects moving at the same speed and in similar directions are perceived to move within the same plane, a plane subject to a fronto-parallel bias. PMID:28096972

  7. Object Segmentation from Motion Discontinuities and Temporal Occlusions–A Biologically Inspired Model

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia; Ognibeni, Thilo; Neumann, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Optic flow is an important cue for object detection. Humans are able to perceive objects in a scene using only kinetic boundaries, and can perform the task even when other shape cues are not provided. These kinetic boundaries are characterized by the presence of motion discontinuities in a local neighbourhood. In addition, temporal occlusions appear along the boundaries as the object in front covers the background and the objects that are spatially behind it. Methodology/Principal Findings From a technical point of view, the detection of motion boundaries for segmentation based on optic flow is a difficult task. This is due to the problem that flow detected along such boundaries is generally not reliable. We propose a model derived from mechanisms found in visual areas V1, MT, and MSTl of human and primate cortex that achieves robust detection along motion boundaries. It includes two separate mechanisms for both the detection of motion discontinuities and of occlusion regions based on how neurons respond to spatial and temporal contrast, respectively. The mechanisms are embedded in a biologically inspired architecture that integrates information of different model components of the visual processing due to feedback connections. In particular, mutual interactions between the detection of motion discontinuities and temporal occlusions allow a considerable improvement of the kinetic boundary detection. Conclusions/Significance A new model is proposed that uses optic flow cues to detect motion discontinuities and object occlusion. We suggest that by combining these results for motion discontinuities and object occlusion, object segmentation within the model can be improved. This idea could also be applied in other models for object segmentation. In addition, we discuss how this model is related to neurophysiological findings. The model was successfully tested both with artificial and real sequences including self and object motion. PMID:19043613

  8. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  9. Using Learning Objects in Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minović, Miroslav; Milovanović, Miloš; Starcevic, Dusan

    Our research in game based learning area is moving from traditional web-based Learning Management Systems towards game-based Learning Management Systems, with the intention of integrating upsides of using games in university education. This paper gives insight in to our recent work in area of reusability of Learning Objects between web-based LMSs and game-based LMSs. One of the major issues was how to use classical Learning Objects in development of educational games. We decided to apply a Model Driven Approach to Learning Objects repurposing, which represents a two-step process. Web based Learning Object is transformed into more abstract model and then returned enriched with game specific attributes to a platform specific model. For that purpose we propose a new term Educational Game Learning Object (EGLO). Different games that use different environment and settings can simply reuse Educational Game Learning Objects. Another contribution of our work is a software tool that can be used to import, transform, edit and add metadata, store and export Learning Objects. Applicability of this approach is demonstrated in one simple example.

  10. Object Discovery via Cohesion Measurement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guanjun; Wang, Hanzi; Zhao, Wan-Lei; Yan, Yan; Li, Xuelong

    2017-02-16

    Color and intensity are two important components in an image. Usually, groups of image pixels, which are similar in color or intensity, are an informative representation for an object. They are therefore particularly suitable for computer vision tasks, such as saliency detection and object proposal generation. However, image pixels, which share a similar real-world color, may be quite different since colors are often distorted by intensity. In this paper, we reinvestigate the affinity matrices originally used in image segmentation methods based on spectral clustering. A new affinity matrix, which is robust to color distortions, is formulated for object discovery. Moreover, a cohesion measurement (CM) for object regions is also derived based on the formulated affinity matrix. Based on the new CM, a novel object discovery method is proposed to discover objects latent in an image by utilizing the eigenvectors of the affinity matrix. Then we apply the proposed method to both saliency detection and object proposal generation. Experimental results on several evaluation benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed CM-based method has achieved promising performance for these two tasks.

  11. The core legion object model

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Grimshaw, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Legion project at the University of Virginia is an architecture for designing and building system services that provide the illusion of a single virtual machine to users, a virtual machine that provides secure shared object and shared name spaces, application adjustable fault-tolerance, improved response time, and greater throughput. Legion targets wide area assemblies of workstations, supercomputers, and parallel supercomputers, Legion tackles problems not solved by existing workstation based parallel processing tools; the system will enable fault-tolerance, wide area parallel processing, inter-operability, heterogeneity, a single global name space, protection, security, efficient scheduling, and comprehensive resource management. This paper describes the core Legion object model, which specifies the composition and functionality of Legion`s core objects-those objects that cooperate to create, locate, manage, and remove objects in the Legion system. The object model facilitates a flexible extensible implementation, provides a single global name space, grants site autonomy to participating organizations, and scales to millions of sites and trillions of objects.

  12. Joint Geophysical Inversion With Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, P. G.; Bijani, R.; Farquharson, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Pareto multi-objective global optimization (PMOGO) methods generate a suite of solutions that minimize multiple objectives (e.g. data misfits and regularization terms) in a Pareto-optimal sense. Providing a suite of models, as opposed to a single model that minimizes a weighted sum of objectives, allows a more complete assessment of the possibilities and avoids the often difficult choice of how to weight each objective. We are applying PMOGO methods to three classes of inverse problems. The first class are standard mesh-based problems where the physical property values in each cell are treated as continuous variables. The second class of problems are also mesh-based but cells can only take discrete physical property values corresponding to known or assumed rock units. In the third class we consider a fundamentally different type of inversion in which a model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units; the physical properties of each rock unit remain fixed while the inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via control nodes. This third class of problem is essentially a geometry inversion, which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. Joint inversion is greatly simplified for the latter two problem classes because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function. PMOGO methods can solve numerically complicated problems that could not be solved with standard descent-based local minimization methods. This includes the latter two classes of problems mentioned above. There are significant increases in the computational requirements when PMOGO methods are used but these can be ameliorated using parallelization and problem dimension reduction strategies.

  13. An object-color space.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2009-10-05

    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 < or = k < or = 1), with two transitions (at wavelengths lambda(1) and lambda(2)) across the spectrum. This color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda

  14. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  15. Process Architecture for Managing Digital Object Identifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.; Stolte, E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project implemented a process for registering Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for data products distributed by Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For the first 3 years, ESDIS evolved the process involving the data provider community in the development of processes for creating and assigning DOIs, and guidelines for the landing page. To accomplish this, ESDIS established two DOI User Working Groups: one for reviewing the DOI process whose recommendations were submitted to ESDIS in February 2014; and the other recently tasked to review and further develop DOI landing page guidelines for ESDIS approval by end of 2014. ESDIS has recently upgraded the DOI system from a manually-driven system to one that largely automates the DOI process. The new automated feature include: a) reviewing the DOI metadata, b) assigning of opaque DOI name if data provider chooses, and c) reserving, registering, and updating the DOIs. The flexibility of reserving the DOI allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. The DOI update process allows the changing of any DOI metadata except the DOI name unless the name has not been registered. Currently, ESDIS has processed a total of 557 DOIs of which 379 DOIs are registered with EZID and 178 are reserved with ESDIS. The DOI incorporates several metadata elements that effectively identify the data product and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page which describes the data product. ESDIS in consultation with data providers in the Earth Science community is currently developing landing page guidelines that specify the key data product descriptive elements to be included on each data product's landing page. This poster will describe in detail the unique automated process and

  16. Homodyne impulse radar hidden object locator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    An electromagnetic detector is designed to locate an object hidden behind a separator or a cavity within a solid object. The detector includes a PRF generator for generating 2 MHz pulses, a homodyne oscillator for generating a 2 kHz square wave, and for modulating the pulses from the PRF generator. A transmit antenna transmits the modulated pulses through the separator, and a receive antenna receives the signals reflected off the object. The receiver path of the detector includes a sample and hold circuit, an AC coupled amplifier which filters out DC bias level shifts in the sample and hold circuit, and a rectifier circuit connected to the homodyne oscillator and to the AC coupled amplifier, for synchronously rectifying the modulated pulses transmitted over the transmit antenna. The homodyne oscillator modulates the signal from the PRF generator with a continuous wave (CW) signal, and the AC coupled amplifier operates with a passband centered on that CW signal. The present detector can be used in several applications, including the detection of metallic and non-metallic objects, such as pipes, studs, joists, nails, rebars, conduits and electrical wiring, behind wood wall, ceiling, plywood, particle board, dense hardwood, masonry and cement structure. The detector is portable, light weight, simple to use, inexpensive, and has a low power emission which facilitates the compliance with Part 15 of the FCC rules.

  17. Homodyne impulse radar hidden object locator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-04-30

    An electromagnetic detector is designed to locate an object hidden behind a separator or a cavity within a solid object. The detector includes a PRF generator for generating 2 MHz pulses, a homodyne oscillator for generating a 2 kHz square wave, and for modulating the pulses from the PRF generator. A transmit antenna transmits the modulated pulses through the separator, and a receive antenna receives the signals reflected off the object. The receiver path of the detector includes a sample and hold circuit, an AC coupled amplifier which filters out DC bias level shifts in the sample and hold circuit, and a rectifier circuit connected to the homodyne oscillator and to the AC coupled amplifier, for synchronously rectifying the modulated pulses transmitted over the transmit antenna. The homodyne oscillator modulates the signal from the PRF generator with a continuous wave (CW) signal, and the AC coupled amplifier operates with a passband centered on that CW signal. The present detector can be used in several applications, including the detection of metallic and non-metallic objects, such as pipes, studs, joists, nails, rebars, conduits and electrical wiring, behind wood wall, ceiling, plywood, particle board, dense hardwood, masonry and cement structure. The detector is portable, light weight, simple to use, inexpensive, and has a low power emission which facilitates the compliance with Part 15 of the FCC rules. 15 figs.

  18. Ubiquitous distributed objects with CORBA.

    PubMed

    Achard, F; Barillot, E

    1997-01-01

    Database interoperation is becoming a bottleneck for the research community in biology. In this paper, we first discuss the question of interoperability and give a brief overview of CORBA. Then, an example is explained in some detail: a simple but realistic data bank of STSs is implemented. The Object Request Broker is the media for communication between an object server (the data bank) and a client (possibly a genome center). Since CORBA enables easy development of networked applications, we meant this paper to provide an incentive for the bioinformatics community to develop distributed objects.

  19. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  20. IUE observations of extragalactic objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenberg, A.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Wilson, R.; Benvenuti, P.; Clavell, J.; Macchetto, F.; Penston, M.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Gondhalekar, P.

    1978-01-01

    During the commissioning phase of IUE several extragalactic objects were observed spectrally at low dispersion in the UV range lambda lambda 1150-3200: the Seyfert galaxies NGC4151 and NGC1068, the QSO 3C273, the BL Lacertae object B2 1101+38, the giant elliptical galaxy M87 and the spiral galaxy M81. The results obtained are presented and a preliminary analysis given for all six objects, discussing the continuous spectrum, extinction, emission line spectrum and absorption line spectrum, where possible for each case. Several new or confirmatory astrophysical results are obtained.

  1. Adiponectin, Leptin and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nurnazahiah, Ali; Lua, Pei Lin; Shahril, Mohd Razif

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to ‘objectively measured’ physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed. PMID:28090175

  2. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  3. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Tania S

    2014-05-12

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one example of this kind of technology. AM offers geometric flexibility in its products and therefore allows customisation to suit individual needs. Clinical success has been shown with models for surgical planning, implants, assistive devices and scaffold-based tissue engineering. The use of AM to print tissues and organs that mimic nature in structure and function remains an elusive goal, but has the potential to transform personalised medicine, drug development and scientific understanding of the mechanisms of disease. 

  4. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  5. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  6. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  7. Deep Surveys for Inner Oort Cloud Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Tholen, David J.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    We are undertaking two deep wide-field surveys to discover extremely distant solar system objects. While our target solar system population is the Inner Oort Cloud objects such as 2012 VP113 and Sedna, we are also sensitive to other populations with high perihelia such as the Scattered Kuiper Belt Objects and the highest perihelion Kuiper Belt Objects which have similar arguments of perihelion to the Inner Oort Cloud Objects. These unusual populations are thought to consist primarily of highly eccentric objects which spend most of their orbits hundreds or thousands of AU from the sun. Large aperture telescopes are needed to reach the faintness limits, red magnitudes of 23.5 to 25, required for detection of even the large members of the population. In addition, wide fields of view are also needed since the sky density of the detectable members of the populations approach 1 in 100 square degrees even with large telescopes.Our primary discovery instruments are the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4 meter Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on Subaru Telescope at Maunakea. Each of these instruments has a tremendously wide field of view considering the size of the telescope they are mounted on. DECam has a field of view of about 3 square degrees and HSC has a field of view of about 1.75 square degrees. We will present our survey progress in terms of sky area covered and new objects discovered and highlight some of our more interesting findings.

  8. Deep-sky companions. The Messier objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, S. J.

    With a foreword by D. H. Levy. The galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae catalogued by Charles Messier in the late 1700s are still the most widely observed celestial wonders. This book provides both new and experienced observers with a fresh perspective on the Messier objects. Using the finest telescopes available and observing from some of the clearest, darkest sites on Earth, the author describes the view in the eyepiece as never before. There are new drawings, improved finder charts, and new astronomical data on each object, including findings from the Hubble Space Telescope. This is truly the Messier guide for the modern age.

  9. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  10. EMEN2: An Object Oriented Database and Electronic Lab Notebook

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Ian; Langley, Ed; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and associated methods such as single particle analysis, 2-D crystallography, helical reconstruction and tomography, are highly data-intensive experimental sciences, which also have substantial variability in experimental technique. Object-oriented databases present an attractive alternative to traditional relational databases for situations where the experiments themselves are continually evolving. We present EMEN2, an easy to use object-oriented database with a highly flexible infrastructure originally targeted for transmission electron microscopy and tomography, which has been extended to be adaptable for use in virtually any experimental science. It is a pure object-oriented database designed for easy adoption in diverse laboratory environments, and does not require professional database administration. It includes a full featured, dynamic web interface in addition to APIs for programmatic access. EMEN2 installations currently support roughly 800 scientists worldwide with over 1/2 million experimental records and over 20 TB of experimental data. The software is freely available with complete source. PMID:23360752

  11. EMEN2: an object oriented database and electronic lab notebook.

    PubMed

    Rees, Ian; Langley, Ed; Chiu, Wah; Ludtke, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and associated methods, such as single particle analysis, two-dimensional crystallography, helical reconstruction, and tomography, are highly data-intensive experimental sciences, which also have substantial variability in experimental technique. Object-oriented databases present an attractive alternative to traditional relational databases for situations where the experiments themselves are continually evolving. We present EMEN2, an easy to use object-oriented database with a highly flexible infrastructure originally targeted for transmission electron microscopy and tomography, which has been extended to be adaptable for use in virtually any experimental science. It is a pure object-oriented database designed for easy adoption in diverse laboratory environments and does not require professional database administration. It includes a full featured, dynamic web interface in addition to APIs for programmatic access. EMEN2 installations currently support roughly 800 scientists worldwide with over 1/2 million experimental records and over 20 TB of experimental data. The software is freely available with complete source.

  12. Advancement Planning: An Objectives View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druck, Kalman B.

    1986-01-01

    Planning must revolve around objectives related to students, faculty, money, and political support. When it is understood that all of the institution's advancement activity should help produce these four things, planning is easy. (MLW)

  13. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  14. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach without getting stuck, it will probably pass through the entire GI tract. ... Sharp objects, such as pins and screws, usually pass through the GI tract without complications. X-rays ...

  15. Mechanical hand for gripping objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    End effector serves as "hand" for remote manipulator spacecraft system to grasp objects of various sizes. Device has built in flexible wrist joint "cartilage" for increased gripping force without significant strain on mechanical connections.

  16. Laser sources for object illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, G.F.

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  17. Object-oriented productivity metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John L.; Eller, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code and using lower level languages. Function Point Analysis is an improved software metric system, but it is not compatible with newer rapid prototyping and object-oriented approaches to software development. A process is presented here for counting object-oriented effort points, based on a preliminary object-oriented analysis. It is proposed that this approach is compatible with object-oriented analysis, design, programming, and rapid prototyping. Statistics gathered on actual projects are presented to validate the approach.

  18. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  19. Validation of brief questionnaire measures of sun exposure and skin pigmentation against detailed and objective measures including vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (≥45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration.

  20. GRIPPING DEVICE FOR CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS

    DOEpatents

    Pilger, J.P.

    1964-01-21

    A gripping device is designed for fragile cylindrical objects such as for drawing thin-walled tubes. The gripping is done by multiple jaw members held in position by two sets of slots, one defined by keystone-shaped extensions of the outer shell of the device and the other in a movable sleeve held slidably by the extensions. Forward movement oi the sleeve advances the jaws, thereby exerting a controlled, radial pressure on the object being gripped. (AEC)