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Sample records for additional oil recovered

  1. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  2. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  3. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  4. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  5. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2004-03-27

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO{sub 2} mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO{sub 2} flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO{sub 2} Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review.

  6. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and

  7. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg

    2002-07-30

    A three-year contract, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364 ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering January 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002 that covers the second and third fiscal quarters of the project's first year. Paper SPE 75178, ''Cost Reduction and Injectivity Improvements for CO{sub 2} Foams for Mobility Control,'' has been presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, producer survey on injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried and reservoir core.

  8. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2003-05-01

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was awarded and started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003 that covers the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's second year. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. We also had a very productive project review in Midland, Texas. A paper on CO{sub 2}-brine-reservoir rock interaction was presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5-8 February, 2003. Papers have been accepted for the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration in Alexandria, VA in May, the Society of Core Analysis meeting in Pau, France in September, and two papers for the SPE Annual Meeting in Denver, CO in October.

  9. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg

    2003-10-31

    The second annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies have been undertaken with the intention to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Many items presented in this report are applicable to other interest areas: e.g. gas injection and production, greenhouse gas sequestration, chemical flooding, reservoir damage, etc. Major areas of studies include reduction of CO{sub 2} mobility to improve conformance, determining and understanding injectivity changes in particular injectivity loses, and modeling process mechanisms determined in the first two areas. Interfacial tension (IFT) between a high-pressure, high-temperature CO{sub 2} and brine/surfactant and foam stability are used to assess and screen surfactant systems. In this work the effects of salinity, pressure, temperature, surfactant concentration, and the presence of oil on IFT and CO{sub 2} foam stability were determined on the surfactant (CD1045{trademark}). Temperature, pressure, and surfactant concentration effected both IFT and foam stability while oil destabilized the foam, but did not destroy it. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) can be used as a sacrificial and an enhancing agent. This work indicates that on Berea sandstone CLS concentration, brine salinity, and temperature are dominant affects on both adsorption and desorption and that adsorption is not totally reversible. Additionally, CLS adsorption was tested on five minerals common to oil reservoirs; it was found that CLS concentration, salinity, temperature, and mineral type had significant effects on adsorption. The adsorption density from most to least was: bentonite > kaolinite > dolomite > calcite > silica. This work demonstrates the extent of dissolution and precipitation from co-injection of CO{sub 2} and brine in limestone core

  10. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  11. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  12. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  13. Lubricating oil compositions containing organometallic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, J.F.; Croudance, M.C.; On, H.P.; Shen, S.Y.

    1987-04-07

    This invention provides novel lubricating oil compositions comprising an organometallic additive, including a metal selected from Groups I, Ib, and VIII of the Periodic System of Elements, e.g. Na, K, Cu, Co, Ni or Fe, chelated with the reaction product of formaldehyde, an amino acid and a phenol, dissolved in a lubricating oil. Depending on the choice of the metal, the above organometallic additive imparts rust inhibition, sludge dispersant, wear reduction and anti-oxidant properties to the lubricating oil compositions.

  14. Rust inhibiting additive compositions for oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, H.

    1980-09-23

    Compositions which include mixtures of a calcium hydroxide overbased oil-soluble calcium sulfonate, hexylene glycol and a surfactant consisting of an ethoxylated aliphatic amine, particularly, diethoxylated cocoamine or diethoxylated soyamine, are useful as rust inhibiting additives for oils and the like. By incorporating these compositions in petroleum based oils such as petroleum based oils of lubricating oil quality which come into contact with metal surfaces under conditions such that the metal surfaces tend to rust or otherwise be subject to deterioration it is possible to inhibit rust formation on such metal surfaces.

  15. Surfactant development for enhanced oil recover. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The general objective of the project is to develop novel surfactants for tertiary recovery of light oil at elevated temperatures and high brine concentrations. Specific objectives are: to design, synthesize and characterize new surfactants capable of forming microemulsions of high stability at high temperatures and high salinity; to select microemulsions that will yield optimum efficiency and effectiveness in oil solubilization; to characterize the physico-chemical properties of selected microemulsion; to correlate surfactant efficacy with physico-chemical variables of selected reservoirs.

  16. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  17. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zhengwen Zeng; Baojun Bai; Yi Liu

    2004-09-27

    The third annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies were designed to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Chapter 1 describes the behavior at low concentrations of the surfactant Chaser International CD1045{trademark} (CD) versus different salinity, pressure and temperature. Results of studies on the effects of pH and polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide?HPAM) and CO{sub 2} foam stability after adsorption in the core are also reported. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) transport mechanisms through sandstone, description of the adsorption of CD and CD/CLS onto three porous media (sandstone, limestone and dolomite) and five minerals, and the effect of adsorption on foam stability are also reported. In Chapter 2, the adsorption kinetics of CLS in porous Berea sandstone and non-porous minerals are compared by monitoring adsorption density change with time. Results show that adsorption requires a much longer time for the porous versus non-porous medium. CLS adsorption onto sandstone can be divided into three regions: adsorption controlled by dispersion, adsorption controlled by diffusion and adsorption equilibrium. NaI tracer used to characterize the sandstone had similar trends to earlier results for the CLS desorption process, suggesting a dual porosity model to simulate flow through Berea sandstone. The kinetics and equilibrium test for CD adsorption onto five non-porous minerals and three porous media are reported in Chapter 3. CD adsorption and desorption onto non-porous minerals can be established in less than one hour with adsorption densities ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg of CD per g of mineral in decreasing order of montmorillonite, dolomite, kaolinite, silica and calcite. The surfactant adsorption onto three porous media takes much longer than one

  19. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  20. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  1. Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and tocopherols in seed oils recovered from different Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-10-31

    Seed oils recovered from Rosaceae species such as dessert and cider apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) were analyzed for their tocopherol and carotenoid contents using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) following saponification. Qualitative and quantitative tocopherol and carotenoid compositions significantly differed, not only among the different genera but also among cultivars of one species. In particular, seed oils of cider apples were shown to contain higher amounts of both antioxidant classes than that of dessert apples. Total contents of tocopherols of the investigated Rosaceous seed oils ranged from 597.7 to 1099.9 mg/kg oil, while total carotenoid contents varied between 0.48 and 39.15 mg/kg oil. Thus, these seed oils were found to contain appreciable amounts of lipohilic antioxidants having health beneficial potential. The results of the present study contribute to a more economical and exhaustive exploitation of seed byproducts arising from the processing of these Rosaceous fruits. PMID:23020156

  2. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant. PMID:26521551

  3. Amine Hydroxy Derivative of Soybean Oil as Lubricant Additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amphiphilic character of vegetable oils makes them an excellent candidate as lubricants and as specialty chemicals. Additional advantages of vegetable oils are that they are renewable resources, environmentally friendly non toxic fluids, and readily biodegradable. Industrial application of veg...

  4. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  5. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  6. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  7. Impact of Species and Variety on Concentrations of Minor Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Oils Recovered from Plum Kernels.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Soliven, Arianne; Lācis, Gunārs; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-02-01

    The profile of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene) in oils recovered from the kernels of 28 plum varieties of hexaploid species Prunus domestica L. and diploid plums Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and their crossbreeds were studied. Oil yields in plum kernels of both P. cerasifera and P. domestica was in wide ranges of 22.6-53.1 and 24.2-46.9% (w/w) dw, respectively. The contents of total tocochromanols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and squalene was significantly affected by the variety and ranged between 70.7 and 208.7 mg/100 g of oil, between 0.41 and 3.07 mg/100 g of oil, between 297.2 and 1569.6 mg/100 g of oil, and between 25.7 and 80.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, β-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol were the main minor lipophilic compounds in plum kernel oils and constituted between 208.5 and 1258.7 mg/100 g of oil and between 60.5 and 182.0 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Between the studied plum species, significant differences were recorded for δ-tocopherol (p = 0.007), 24-methylenecycloartanol (p = 0.038), and citrostadienol (p = 0.003), but they were insufficient for discrimination by PCA.

  8. Process for separating and/or recovering hydrocarbon oils from water using biodegradable absorbent sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.B.; Mareau, K.J.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes an improved process for absorbing oils selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon fuels. It comprises the step of contacting the oils with an absorbent oleophilic biodegradable sponge material comprised of at least one essentially fat free, foamed, biodegradable natural product selected from the group consisting of animal proteins and plant polymaccharides, which material is capable of absorbing at least about thirty times its weight of oils.

  9. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  10. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency

  11. EP Additive Performance in Biobased vs. Paraffinic Base Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of commercial extreme pressure (EP) additives containing sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine were investigated for their EP properties in soybean (SBO) and paraffinic (PRFN) base oils. The investigations were conducted using a 4-ball (4B) and twist-compression (TC) tribometers. The concentra...

  12. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  13. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  14. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  15. Balanced-line rf electrode system for use in rf ground heating to recover oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, W.A.; Vinegar, H.J.; Chiafu Hsu; Mueller, O.M.

    1993-08-17

    A system is described for extracting oil in-situ from a hydrocarbon bearing layer below a surface layer comprising: (a) a master oscillator for producing a fundamental frequency; (b) a plurality of heating sources, each comprising: radiofrequency (RF) producing means for providing a radiofrequency excitation signal based upon the fundamental frequency, a coaxial line coupled to the RF producing means for passing the radiofrequency signal through said surface layer without substantial loss of power; a conductive electrode located in the hydrocarbon bearing layer having a length related to the radiofrequency signal and adapted for radiating energy into said hydrocarbon bearing layer for causing shade oil to be extracted; a plurality of matching elements, each matching element coupled, respectively, between each respective electrode and a respective coaxial line for maximizing radiation emitted by the electrodes when they receive the radiofrequency signal; and (c) a plurality of producer wells adapted for collecting the extracted shale oil.

  16. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  17. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Rust preventive oil additives based on microbial fats

    SciTech Connect

    Salenko, V.I.; Fedorov, V.V.; Kazantsev, Yu.E.

    1983-03-01

    This article investigates the composition and lubricating properties of microbial fats obtained from microorganisms grown on various hydrocarbon substrates (n-paraffins, alcohols, natural gas, petroleum distillates, etc.). Focuses on the protective functions of the 4 main fractions (unsaponifiables, free fatty acids, glycerides, and phospholipids) which comprise the microbial fat from a yeast grown on purified liquid n-paraffins. Concludes that neutralized microbial fats can be used as preservative additives; that the principal components of the microbial fats have the properties necessary for oil-soluble corrosion inhibitors; that the phospholipids of the microbial fat can fulfill the functions of not only preservative additives, but also highly effective operational/ preservative additives; and that fats of microbial origin can be used in the development of multipurpose polyfunctional additives.

  19. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Periaswamy Sivagnanam, Saravana; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process. PMID:26035021

  20. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-06-01

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process. PMID:26035021

  1. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P.; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited. PMID:26965360

  2. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P.; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited.

  3. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  4. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  5. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  6. Gelation of protein recovered from whole Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as affected by functional additives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2007-03-01

    This study demonstrated that the novel isoelectric solubilization/precipitation can be applied to recover functional muscle protein in a continuous mode from whole Antarctic krill. Protein recovered from whole krill had a much lower ash content than whole krill, suggesting good removal of inedible impurities (shell, appendages, etc.). Lipids were retained to a higher degree with krill protein solubilized at acidic rather than basic pH. The viscoelastic modulus (G') showed that recovered krill protein failed to form heat-induced gel unless beef plasma protein (BPP) was added. Therefore, protease inhibitors are suggested for development of krill-derived products. Even with BPP, the G' decreased between 45 and 55 degrees C. However, krill protein solubilized at acidic pH had a higher decrease of the G' than the protein solubilized at basic pH, likely due to krill endogenous cathepsin L. Krill protein-based gels developed from protein solubilized at basic pH, especially pH 12.0, had better texture (torsion and Kramer tests and texture profile analysis) than acidic counterparts, possibly due to higher proteolysis and denaturation at acidic pH. Gels made from protein solubilized at acidic pH were brighter and whiter likely due to a higher lipid content.

  7. Effectivenss of oil-soluble diakylphenosulfonamides as antiwear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Sushko, E.B.; Belov, P.S.; Trofimov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article investigates the antiwear efficiency of dialkylphenolsulfonamides in motor oils. The focus of the study is on N-dialkyl-2-hydroxy-3,5-dialkylbenzenesulfonamides. Derivatives of 2-hydroxy-3,5-dialkylbenzoic acids (dialkylsalicylic acids) were synthesized in order to determine the influence of the structure of the amide fragment on the properties of the compounds. Functional properties of the compounds, such as their adsorptivity on metal, polarity, and dipole moment, were examined. A PF-1 tribometer and a four-ball tester were used to determine the antiwear properties of the compounds. It is found that the dialkylphenolsulfonamides and the amine dialkylphenolsulfonate are better in antiwear efficiency than the ash-containing commercial additives PSM'Ya (calcium sulfonate), the overbased calcium sulfonate L-59, or ASK (calcium alkylsalicylate). With regard to the antiwear efficiency of the studied synthesized compounds, amine dialkylphenolsulfonate is the most efficient, followed by dialkylphenolsulfonamide and dialkylsalicylamide.

  8. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  9. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats
    KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  10. Turbulent flow of oil-water emulsions with polymer additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Monkam Clovis Le Grand, Monkam; Abdousaliamov, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    The article outlines direct and reverse oil-water emulsions. Microphotography study of these emulsions was carried out. The effect of water-soluble and oil soluble polymers on the emulsion structure and their turbulent flow velocity in cylindrical channel was investigated. It has been experimentally proven that if the fluid being transported is not homogeneous, but a two-phase oil-water emulsion, only the polymer that is compatible with dispersion medium and capable of dissolving in this medium can reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow. Thus, the resistance in direct emulsions can be reduced by water- soluble polyacrylamide, while oil-soluble polyhexene can be applied for reverse emulsions.

  11. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  12. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  13. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  14. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  15. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  16. Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability and oxidative stability of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) oil methyl esters (CSME) were improved with addition of commercial additives. Four commercial anti-gel additives: Technol® B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver, Gunk® Premium Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, Heet® Dies...

  17. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p < 0.001) and 77% (p < 0.001), respectively. No differences in the PM2.5 emissions were observed when other additives were added to soybean oil. Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  18. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  19. Evaluation of a biomass-derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H.

    1995-12-31

    A biomass derived oil referred to as sludge derived oil (SDO) has been evaluated to determine its potential use as an asphalt cement additive. The oil is derived from a relatively low temperature (450{degrees}C) atmospheric pressure thermoconversion process called Enersludge. The Enersludge process converts dried sewage sludge to a liquid hydrocarbon fraction. Relatively high concentrations of polar groups were identified in extensive characterization tests which indicated SDO could be utilized as an additive for asphalt. The oil`s unique properties make it a antistripping additive. Also, its strong affinity for heavy asphaltic material makes it an ideal rejuvenating agent for recycled asphalt. The SDO performed as well as the commercial antistripping asphalt additives tested in static immersion stripping tests. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the strength of asphalt concrete produced using SDO is similar to that produced using commercial additives. In September 1994 SDO was used to pave a test strip in Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the work done at ERL/CANMET to develop SDO for antistripping applications.

  20. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  1. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  2. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality. PMID:22248297

  3. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat. PMID:24547939

  4. Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oils recovered from by-products of apple industry: rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (α, β, γ and δ) by RP-HPLC/FLD.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The tocochromanol profile was studied in seed oils recovered from by-products of fruit industry, five dessert and seven crab apple varieties grown in Eastern Europe (Latvia). The seed oils obtained from dessert apples were characterized by higher contents of tocopherols (191.05-379.08 mg/100g oil) when compared to seed oils recovered from crab apples (130.55-202.54 mg/100g oil). The predominant homologues of tocopherol in all the studied samples were α and β over γ and δ. However, seed oils recovered from the apple cultivars 'Antej' and 'Beforest' had a unique profile of four tocopherol homologues (α:β:γ:δ) 91.41:80.55:72.46:79.03 and 114.55:112.84:78.69:73.00 mg/100g oil, respectively. A single dilution of seed oils in 2-propanol facilitated the direct use samples in the DPPH assay as well as injection into the RP-HPLC system containing a PFP (pentafluorophenyl) column, which resulted in a rapid separation of all four tocopherol homologues with excellent repeatability and reproducibility.

  5. Innocuous oil as an additive for reductive reactions involving zero valence iron

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1994-11-01

    Reductive reactions involving zero valence iron appear to hold promise for in situ remediation of sites containing chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents and certain reducible metals and radionuclides. Treatment involves the injection of metallic iron and the creation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in the aqueous phase through oxidation of the metallic iron. The use of a biodegradable immiscible and innocuous organic liquid such as vegetable oil as an additive offers several intriguing possibilities. The oil phase creates a large oil-water interface that is immobile with respect to flow in the aqueous phase. This phase will act as a trap for chlorinated hydrocarbons and could potentially increase the reaction efficiency of reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by the metallic iron. When iron particles are suspended in the oil before injection they are preferentially held in the oil phase and tend to accumulate at the oil-water interface. Thus oil injection can serve as a mechanism for creating a stable porous curtain of metallic iron in the vadose to maintain a low oxygen environment which will minimize the consumption of the iron by molecular oxygen.

  6. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  8. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    PubMed

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel.

  10. Technical options for processing additional light tight oil volumes within the United States

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines technical options for processing additional LTO volumes within the United States. Domestic processing of additional LTO would enable an increase in petroleum product exports from the United States, already the world’s largest net exporter of petroleum products. Unlike crude oil, products are not subject to export limitations or licensing requirements. While this is one possible approach to absorbing higher domestic LTO production in the absence of a relaxation of current limitations on crude exports, domestic LTO would have to be priced at a level required to encourage additional LTO runs at existing refinery units, debottlenecking, or possible additions of processing capacity.

  11. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  12. Polymers bearing groups derived from n-substituted lactams and their use as lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brulet, D.; Chauvel, B.; Pocheville, R.

    1980-09-16

    Novel lubricating oil polymer additives are obtained by the following: (1) by preparing, by anionic polymerization, a living diene polymer of mn of between about 20,000 and 300,000; (2) by functionalizing the said polymer by means of an nsubstituted lactam of the type of n-alkylcaprolactam, nbinylcaprolactam, and particularly of the type of nalkylpyrrolidione and n-vinylpyrrolidone; and (3) by hydrogenating the said functionalized polymer. A variant method of preparing the said polymers comprises subjecting the living polymer to a metalation operation before functionalization; the hydrogenation operation is carried out before metalation or after functionalization. The said polymers may be used as additives which improve the viscosity index and the dispersing power of lubricating oils. The amount of additive added is between about 0.1 and 10 percent by weight.

  13. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  14. Analyses of microbial community within a composter operated using household garbage with special reference to the addition of soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, M; Pedro, M S; Haruta, S; Ding, L; Fukada, T; Kigawa, A; Kodama, T; Ishii, M; Igarashi, Y

    2001-01-01

    A commercially available composter was operated using fixed composition of garbage with or without the addition of soybean oil. The composter was operated without adding seed microorganisms or bulking materials. Microflora within the composter were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the case of oil addition, or by 16/18 S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolated microorganisms in the case of no oil addition. The results showed that, irrespective of the addition of oil, the bacteria identified were all gram positive, and that lactobacilli seemed to be the key microorganisms. Based on the results, suitable microflora for use in a household composter are discussed.

  15. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2005-10-19

    The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  18. Additive methane-mitigating effect between linseed oil and nitrate fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Meunier, B; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Silberberg, M; Rochette, Y; Gerard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-07-01

    , which tended to reduce (P < 0.10) fiber digestibility. Nitrogen balance (% of N intake) was positive for all diets but retention was less (P = 0.03) with linseed oil. This study demonstrates an additive effect between nitrate and linseed oil for reducing methanogenesis in cows without altering diet digestibility. PMID:26440025

  19. Treatment of a dilute waste oil emulsion by chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.E.; Carriere, P.; Zhu, X.; Lorkowski, T.

    1995-12-31

    Treatment of wastewater from aluminum rolling mill operations is an inherent problem in the aluminum fabrication industry. In this study, wastewater from the manufacturer`s processes was transferred to two holding ponds having a total capacity of about 5 million gallons and a detention time of about 10 days. In the holding ponds, free oil was allowed to rise to the surface where it was periodically removed. Wastewater from the holding ponds was withdrawn from about a depth of 9 ft. and used as influent to a variety of technologies. In this paper, results from the chemical addition (CA)-dissolved air flotation (DAF) portion of the treatability study are presented.

  20. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  1. Additive-free harvesting of oleaginous phagotrophic microalga by oil and air flotation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Majid; Starvaggi, Haley A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    A unique oleaginous phagotrophic microalga Ochromonas danica is poised for effective lipid production from waste. Cell harvesting and dewatering are major costs in making algae-based products. In this work an effective additive-free harvesting method was developed, taking advantage of O. danica's comparatively more hydrophobic surface and larger size. The algal cells' partitioning to oil/water interface was evaluated. Recovery by flotation with waste cooking oil was optimized using an L-9 Taguchi orthogonal-array design. Further, additive-free cell collection and concentrating by air flotation was studied for the effects of both physical factors (column dimension, air-stone pore size, sample-to-column volume ratio) and culture properties (pH, culture growth stage, cell concentration, and pure versus impure cultures). The optimized process consistently achieved >90 % recovery in a single stage. 98+ % recovery could be achieved when starting concentrations were >10(8) cells/ml, or potentially using a two- or multi-stage process for diluter cultures. PMID:27025209

  2. Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    The combustion of single coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive (CWOM) has been studied. In this study, the droplet is suspended on a fine quartz fiber and is exposed to the hot combustion product of propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/) and air. The results are documented in a movie series. The combustion of CWOM with various combinations of concentrations are compared with that of coal-water slurry and water-oil mixture droplets. The combustion of coal-water slurry is enhanced significantly due to the presence of emulsified kerosene. The enhancement is also dependent upon the mixing procedure during preparation of CWOM. The presence of emulsified kerosene induces local boil-off and combustion that coal particles are splashed as fire works during the early evaporation stage of droplet heat-up. After particle splashing, blow-holes appear on the droplet surface. The popcorn and swelling phenomena usually occurred in coal-water-slurry combustion is greatly reduced. Significant combustion enhancement occurs with the use of kerosene in an amount of about 15 percent of the overall CWOM. This process of using kerosene as combustion additive may provide obvious advantage for the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry. 4 references, 6 figures.

  3. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  4. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  5. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives. PMID:25763467

  6. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  7. Ethylene copolymer viscosity index improver dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.Y.

    1989-02-07

    A composition useful as an oil additive is described comprising reaction product of: (i) reaction product of (a) oil soluble ethylene copolymer comprising from about 15 to 90 wt. % ethylene and about 10 to 85 wt. % of at least one C/sub 3/ to C/sub 28/ alpha-olefin, the copolymer having a number average molecular weight within a range of about 10,000 to 500,000, grafted with ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid material having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or anhydride group, (b) at least one polyamine selected from the group consisting of poly(alkylene amines) and poly(oxyalkylene amines) having at least two primary amine groups, and (c) at least one carboxylic acid material selected from long chain hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride or acid having about 50 to 400 carbons in the hydrocarbyl; and (ii) a viscosity stabilizing effective amount of at least one C/sub 12/ to about C/sub 16/ aliphatic hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride.

  8. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  9. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  10. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  11. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  12. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils.

  13. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  15. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation. PMID:25442608

  16. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  17. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-12-19

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.

  18. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  19. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Valencia, I; O'Grady, M N; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I; Kerry, J P

    2008-12-01

    Fresh pork sausages (pork shoulder, pork back fat, water, rusk and seasoning) were manufactured where 15% of the pork back fat was substituted with linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO). Green tea catechins (GTC) and green coffee antioxidant (GCA) were added to both LO (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200) and FO (FGTC 200 and FGCA 200) substituted sausages at a level of 200mg/kg. Raw and cooked pork sausages were either over-wrapped with oxygen permeable film (aerobic storage) or stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing 80% O(2):20% CO(2) or 70% N(2):30% CO(2), respectively for 7 days at 4°C. Effects on fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, colour and sensorial properties were investigated. α-Linolenic acid increased from 1.34% (control) to 8.91% (LO) and up to 11.2% (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200). Addition of fish oil increased levels of EPA from 0.05% (control) to 2.83% (FO), 3.02% (FGTC 200) and 2.87% (FGCA 200) and DHA levels increased from 0.04% (control) to a maximum of 1.93% (FGTC 200). Lipid oxidation was low in raw and cooked linseed oil containing sausages. GTC (200mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid oxidation in raw fish oil containing sausages after 7 days of storage. Colour parameters in raw pork sausages were unaffected by the packaging atmosphere. L(∗) lightness values were lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and a(∗) redness values lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and FGTC 200 after 7 days of storage. Sensory scores of cooked pork sausages were unaffected by linseed oil addition. Flavour and overall acceptability scores in cooked fish oil containing sausages were improved by GTC addition. Results obtained demonstrate potential for the production of nutritionally enhanced fresh pork sausages.

  20. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  1. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  2. Use of taurine additives in enhanced oil recovery with anionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Prukop, G.; Chea, C.K.

    1990-12-11

    This patent describes a method disclosed for increasing the recovery of oil in enhanced oil recovery operations employing anionic surfactant by blending a taurine with the anionic surfactant. The taurine may also increase the salt and divalent ion tolerance of the aniomic surfactant.

  3. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  4. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  5. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  6. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage.

  7. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage. PMID:27507476

  8. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process.

  9. DNA damage caused by organic extracts of contaminated sediment, crude, and weathered oil and their fractions recovered up to 5 years after the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill off Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Gi Beum

    2015-06-15

    We examined the degree of DNA damage caused by three fractions (F1, aliphatic hydrocarbons; F2, aromatic hydrocarbons; and F3, polar compounds) of the organic extract of sediments taken from Taean, Korea, following the Hebei Spirit oil spill. DNA damage was measured using the comet assay with blood cells of the striped beakfish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). DNA damage was also examined for fractions of crude oil (Iranian Heavy Crude Oil, IHC), weathered oil and six subfractions (F2.1-F2.6). The greatest DNA damage was found from the Sinduri dune region and DNA damage decreased to 40% weathered oil in F2 fraction compared with crude oil. The DNA damage of the sum of fractions was found higher than the organic extracts of sediments, suggesting antagonistic interactions between the genotoxic compounds. This study confirmed the persistence of potential genotoxicity in sediments of the severely affected regions as long as 5 years after the oil spill.

  10. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  11. Short-term adverse effects in humans of ingested mineral oils, their additives and possible contaminants--a review.

    PubMed

    Hard, G C

    2000-03-01

    The toxicological databases for petroleum refinery products such as mineral oils, as well as for their potential contaminants and additives, were reviewed for human cases of poisoning by the oral route. The aim was to determine whether any overlooked adulterant in the oil implicated as the cause of the 1981 outbreak of Toxic Oil Syndrome (TOS) in Spain, may have been responsible for the unusual symptomatology characterizing this disease. The essential features of TOS were peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and endothelial damage in the acute phase; myalgia, sensory neuropathy, hepatic injury, skin oedema and sicca in the intermediate phase; and peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, scleroderma and hepatopathy in the chronic phase. Of the more than 70 chemical entities and mixtures reviewed here, none had been reported as producing adverse toxic effects upon ingestion resembling the specific set of symptoms and progression that characterized TOS. Because of their viscosity, the most commonly recorded disease process associated with oral ingestion of petroleum refinery products was lipid pneumonia, implicating lung exposure via aspiration. The mineral oil additives and contaminants comprised a highly diverse range of chemical entities, producing a variety of symptoms in instances of poisoning. Specifically, no chemical entity amongst the refinery products, additives or contaminants was described as inducing a syndrome involving vasculitis accompanied by thrombotic events, along with immunological consequences (such as T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine release), as is considered to be the cellular basis of TOS.

  12. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  13. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  14. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  15. Effects of CO sub 2 addition to steam on recovery of West Sak crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbrook, M.W. ); Dehghani, K. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on a high-pressure 1D laboratory displacement study which evaluated the effects of adding CO{sub 2} to steam on the recovery of West Sak crude oil. Results of the laboratory experiments indicate that the simultaneous injection of CO{sub 2} and steam increases recovery, reduces injection temperatures, and reduces the heat input required.

  16. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  17. Investigation of the tribology behaviour of the graphene nanosheets as oil additives on textured alloy cast iron surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Shen, Ming-xue; Li, Zheng-yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-11-01

    Tribological properties of graphene nanosheets (GNS) as lubricating oil additives on textured surfaces were investigated using a UMT-2 tribotester. The lubricating fluids keeping a constant temperature of 100 °C were applied to a GCr15 steel ball and an RTCr2 alloy cast iron plate with various texture designs (original surface, dimple density of 22.1%, 19.6% and 44.2%). The oil with GNS adding showed good tribological properties (wear reduced 50%), especially on the textured surfaces (the reduction in wear was high at over 90%). A combined effect between GNS additives and laser surface texturing (LST) was revealed, which is not a simple superposition of the two factors mentioned. A mechanism is proposed to explain for these results -the graphene layers sheared at the sliding contact interfaces, and form a protective film, which is closely related with the GNS structures and surface texture patterns.

  18. Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

    1986-10-01

    Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

  19. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  20. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  1. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  2. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  3. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  4. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  5. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  6. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  7. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  8. Method of increasing enhanced oil recovery by using a higher sulfonate phase obtained on polymer addition

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, J.T.

    1987-01-13

    A process is described for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery comprising: dissolving a polymer from the group consisting of polyacrylamides and polysaccharides in a surfactant flood fluid resulting from mixing water, petroleum sulfonate-containing surfactant and solubilizer; allowing the mixture to separate; using the fraction with the highest sulfonate content as a surfactant fluid; forcing the fluid through the formation and recovering the hydrocarbons, wherein the proportion of the sulfonate-containing surfactant, solubilizer and polymer is about 0.5% to 20.0% of total solute by weight of petroleum sulfonate surfactant, about 0.1% to about 5% by weight of a solubilizer and about 0.1% to 10% by weight of polymer.

  9. Additional male mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata wied.) Attractants from Angelica seed oil (Angelica archangelica L.).

    PubMed

    Flath, R A; Cunningham, R T; Mon, T R; John, J O

    1994-08-01

    Two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, β-copaene and β-ylangene, were isolated from bioactive fractions of angelica seed oil and were shown by field bioassays to be attractive to the male Mediterranean fruit fly. Their relative attractiveness, compared with the(+)-and (-)-α-copaene enantiomers, are: (+)-α-copaene>angelica β-copaene>angelica β-ylangene>(-)-α-copaene. The enantiomer ratios for the two compounds are: β-copaene, 61.4% (+), 38.6% (-); β-ylangene, 91.9% (+), 8.1% (-).trans-α-Bergamotene was also isolated from the same fractions, but in sufficient quantity for bioassay [enantiomer ratio: 95.7% (+), 4.3% (-)]. PMID:24242723

  10. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis of peat with additions of oil-slime and polymeric waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, E.; Kosivtsov, Yu.; Sulman, M.; Alfyorov, V.; Lugovoy, Yu.; Chalov, K.; Misnikov, O.; Afanasjev, A.; Kumar, N.; Murzin, D.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the influence of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates, metal chlorides of iron subgroup on the peat low-temperature pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of peat with oil-slime and polymeric waste was studied in variety of conditions (t = 350-650δC, catalyst loading: from 1 up to 30 % (wt.)). The use of bentonite clay (30 % (wt.)) at 460δC as a catalyst in peat pyrolysis resulted in increase of weight of gaseous and liquid products from 23 up to 30 % (wt.) and from 32 up to 45 % (wt.), respectively. Co-pyrolysis of peat and oil-slime in the presence of bentonite clay resulted in increase of gaseous product weight from 18 up to 26 % (wt.) and liquid fraction yield - from 45 up to 55 % (wt.) in comparison with precalculated value. The use of metal chlorides of iron subgroup (2 % (wt.) concentration) at 500 δC in the co-pyrolysis of peat and polymeric waste led to optimal conversion of substrate in desired products, 15 % increase of total weight of gaseous and liquid products formed during the pyrolysis process and simultaneous decrease of char formation.

  12. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  13. Recovering after stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... LIVE AFTER A STROKE Most people will need stroke rehabilitation (rehab) to help them recover after they leave ...

  14. Tribotronic control of friction in oil-based lubricants with ionic liquid additives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P K; Li, H; Rutland, M W; Webber, G B; Atkin, R

    2016-08-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that tribotronic control of friction using an external potential applied to a gold surface is possible for ionic liquid (IL) concentrations as low as 5 mol% in hexadecane. The IL used is trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, in which both the cation and anion have surfactant-like structures, and is miscible with hexadecane in all proportions. For IL concentrations less than 5 mol% friction does not vary with applied potential, but for 5 mol% and above changing the potential changes the composition of the IL boundary layer from cation-enriched (negative potentials) to anion-enriched (positive potentials). As the lubricities of the cation-rich and anion-rich boundary layers differ, this enables active control of friction in oil-based lubricants. PMID:27511143

  15. Oil additive and telomer applications of 4-esters of trimellitic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Puskas, I.; Fields, E.K.; Piasek, E.J.

    1981-08-01

    Three methods for the selective 4-esterification of trimellitic anhydride (TMA) briefly reviewed are: (1) reaction of the acid chloride derivative of TMA with alcohols or phenols in the presence of stoichiometric quantities of a tertiary nitrogen base, (2) reaction between the carboxyl group of TMA and an ester of a low-boiling organic acid via a trans-acidolysis mechanism, and (3) thermal reaction of TMA with alcohols. A large number of esters prepared by these methods were evaluated as potential rust inhibitors in lubricating oils, and some differences in rust prevention were noted for esters resulting from the different modes of preparation. However, the data were in agreement that rust-preventing properties increase with increasing chain length in the ester moiety, and esters with more than 20 carbons in the chain performed excellently. The synthesis and applications of 4-tert-butyl pertrimellitate anhydride are described. The structure of the compound was also documented. (BLM)

  16. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  17. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  18. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  19. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  20. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013–2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  1. Adsorption of KINKh-2* additive on thickening agents in lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mysak, A.E.; Fuks, I.G.; Kanchenko, Y.A.; Kitashov, Y.N.; Nikulichev, T.G.; Voitova, R.A.

    1983-07-01

    The processes of surfactant adsorption play an important role in the production of greases. These processes taking place at a solid/liquid interface have been investigated by means of a technique involving adsorption from solution. This paper investigates the adsorption of the additive KINKh-2 from its solutions in tetradecane on the following adsorbents: silica gel A-380, silica gels RT and AM-1-300, silica gel B-1, and lithium stearate, among others. The results of these studies are in agreement with practical data indicating that the strength of the lubricating greases is increased by the introduction of additives up to a certain extent.

  2. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  3. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum. PMID:27417228

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  5. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  6. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  7. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  8. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  9. Additive Regulation of Adiponectin Expression by the Mediterranean Diet Olive Oil Components Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol in Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Wabitsch, Martin; Calabriso, Nadia; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone, is suppressed in obesity through mechanisms involving chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Olive oil consumption is associated with beneficial cardiometabolic actions, with possible contributions from the antioxidant phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) and the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9 cis), both possessing anti-inflammatory and vasculo-protective properties. We determined the effects of HT and OA, alone and in combination, on adiponectin expression in human and murine adipocytes under pro-inflammatory conditions induced by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. We used human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes and murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes as cell model systems, and pretreated them with 1-100 μmol/L OA, 0.1-20 μmol/L HT or OA plus HT combination before stimulation with 10 ng/mL TNF-α. OA or HT significantly (P<0.05) prevented TNF-α-induced suppression of total adiponectin secretion (by 42% compared with TNF-α alone) as well as mRNA levels (by 30% compared with TNF-α alone). HT and OA also prevented—by 35%—TNF-α-induced downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ. Co-treatment with HT and OA restored adiponectin and PPARγ expression in an additive manner compared with single treatments. Exploring the activation of JNK, which is crucial for both adiponectin and PPARγ suppression by TNF-α, we found that HT and OA additively attenuated TNF-α-stimulated JNK phosphorylation (up to 55% inhibition). In conclusion, the virgin olive oil components OA and HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, have additive effects in preventing adiponectin downregulation in inflamed adipocytes through an attenuation of JNK-mediated PPARγ suppression. PMID:26030149

  10. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  11. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  12. Alkyl-chain-grafted hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets as oil-dispersible additives for friction and wear reduction.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sangita; Sharma, Om P; Gusain, Rashi; Mungse, Harshal P; Kukrety, Aruna; Kumar, Niranjan; Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Khatri, Om P

    2015-02-18

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), an isoelectric analogous to graphene multilayer, can easily shear at the contact interfaces and exhibits excellent mechanical strength, higher thermal stability, and resistance toward oxidation, which makes it a promising material for potential lubricant applications. However, the poor dispersibility of h-BN in lube base oil has been a major obstacle. Herein, h-BN powder was exfoliated into h-BN nanoplatelets (h-BNNPs), and then long alkyl chains were chemically grafted, targeting the basal plane defect and edge sites of h-BNNPs. The chemical and structural features of octadecyltriethoxysilane-functionalized h-BNNPs (h-BNNPs-ODTES) were studied by FTIR, XPS, XRD, HRTEM, and TGA analyses. The h-BNNPs-ODTES exhibit long-term dispersion stability in synthetic polyol ester lube base oil because of van der Waals interaction between the octadecyl chains of h-BNNPs-ODTES and alkyl functionalities of polyol ester. Micro- and macrotribology results showed that h-BNNPs-ODTES, as an additive to synthetic polyol ester, significantly reduced both the friction and wear of steel disks. Elemental mapping of the worn area explicitly demonstrates the transfer of h-BNNPs-ODTES on the contact interfaces. Furthermore, insight into the lubrication mechanism for reduction in both friction and wear is deduced based on the experimental results. PMID:25625695

  13. Alkyl-chain-grafted hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets as oil-dispersible additives for friction and wear reduction.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sangita; Sharma, Om P; Gusain, Rashi; Mungse, Harshal P; Kukrety, Aruna; Kumar, Niranjan; Sugimura, Hiroyuki; Khatri, Om P

    2015-02-18

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), an isoelectric analogous to graphene multilayer, can easily shear at the contact interfaces and exhibits excellent mechanical strength, higher thermal stability, and resistance toward oxidation, which makes it a promising material for potential lubricant applications. However, the poor dispersibility of h-BN in lube base oil has been a major obstacle. Herein, h-BN powder was exfoliated into h-BN nanoplatelets (h-BNNPs), and then long alkyl chains were chemically grafted, targeting the basal plane defect and edge sites of h-BNNPs. The chemical and structural features of octadecyltriethoxysilane-functionalized h-BNNPs (h-BNNPs-ODTES) were studied by FTIR, XPS, XRD, HRTEM, and TGA analyses. The h-BNNPs-ODTES exhibit long-term dispersion stability in synthetic polyol ester lube base oil because of van der Waals interaction between the octadecyl chains of h-BNNPs-ODTES and alkyl functionalities of polyol ester. Micro- and macrotribology results showed that h-BNNPs-ODTES, as an additive to synthetic polyol ester, significantly reduced both the friction and wear of steel disks. Elemental mapping of the worn area explicitly demonstrates the transfer of h-BNNPs-ODTES on the contact interfaces. Furthermore, insight into the lubrication mechanism for reduction in both friction and wear is deduced based on the experimental results.

  14. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  15. Effects of emulsifier concentration, composition, and order of addition in squalene-phosphatidylcholine oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fox, Christopher B; Lin, Susan; Sivananthan, Sandra J; Dutill, Timothy S; Forseth, Kristen T; Reed, Steven G; Vedvick, Thomas S

    2011-10-01

    Development and characterization of stable and biocompatible oil-in-water emulsions is important for improved drug and vaccine delivery. In this work, two-component emulsions consisting of squalene and phosphatidylcholine have been developed. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process is established and production efficiency is improved by altering the order of component addition. The effects of emulsifier concentration and composition on emulsion stability and biocompatibility are assessed through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, viscosity, and hemolytic activity. High concentrations of egg phosphatidylcholine emulsifier decreased initial particle size and increased initial size polydispersity. However, high emulsifier concentrations also appeared to decrease long-term emulsion stability as well as absolute zeta potential values. Substitution of naturally derived egg phosphatidylcholine with synthetic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) produced an emulsion with similar physicochemical properties and stability.

  16. Method for recovering petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Coenen, H.; Kriegel, E.

    1985-08-06

    A process for recovering petroleum from deposits which have already been worked by primary extraction or are not suited for primary extraction. A gas in its supercritical state is introduced into the deposit. The supercritical gas charges itself with the petroleum while flowing through the deposit. The charged supercritical gas leaves the deposit and the petroleum is separated in a plurality of fractions from the charged supercritical gas.

  17. Gulf operations still recovering

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil.

  18. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  19. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  20. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  1. Effect of the addition of basil essential oil on the degradation of palm olein during repeated deep frying of French fries.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Morlán-Palmas, C Christian; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2013-07-01

    The potential antioxidant power of basil essential oil under frying conditions was explored. Two concentrations (200 or 500 ppm) were added to palm olein (PO) to evaluate their effect on fat oxidation/degradation during repeated frying of French fries at 180 °C. A higher oxidative stability index was detected for PO with basil essential oil at 200 ppm. Both concentrations showed lower p-anisidine values than PO without basil essential oil after 5 d of frying. Addition at 500 ppm resulted in the lowest total polar compounds and free fatty acids contents. Thus, the addition of basil essential oil improved the performance of PO during repeated frying of French fries. PMID:23772857

  2. Effect of the addition of basil essential oil on the degradation of palm olein during repeated deep frying of French fries.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Morlán-Palmas, C Christian; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2013-07-01

    The potential antioxidant power of basil essential oil under frying conditions was explored. Two concentrations (200 or 500 ppm) were added to palm olein (PO) to evaluate their effect on fat oxidation/degradation during repeated frying of French fries at 180 °C. A higher oxidative stability index was detected for PO with basil essential oil at 200 ppm. Both concentrations showed lower p-anisidine values than PO without basil essential oil after 5 d of frying. Addition at 500 ppm resulted in the lowest total polar compounds and free fatty acids contents. Thus, the addition of basil essential oil improved the performance of PO during repeated frying of French fries.

  3. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  4. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  5. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  6. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  7. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    PubMed

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering.

  8. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2.

  9. Recover chemicals from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    For years, solution mining near Prague in the Czech Republic has produced acid-laden wastewater, which has accumulated in deep underground caverns. Over the years, this acid waste has spread into a large underground reservoir, which today threatens the aquifer that supplies drinking water to Prague, about 70 miles south of the mine. Later this year, a two-pronged site cleanup will be carried out by Resources Conservation Co. International (RCCI), a subsidiary of Ionics, Inc. (Watertown, Mass.). First, the acid water will be pumped to the surface. Then, the stream, which contains sulfuric acid and aluminum ammonium sulfate (ammonium alum) will undergo evaporation and crystallization to recover the ammonium alum, a widely used water-treatment chemical, and fresh water for reuse.

  10. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  11. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  12. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  13. Effect of talc addition on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina cultivar after production and during storage.

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Monteleone, Julieta I; Martellini, Giovanni; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of talc on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina olives after production and during storage. A significant effect of talc, added in the malaxer, on both yield and oil quality was observed. The addition of 1% talc lead to a 15% decrease of the residual oil in the olive-pomace, while higher amounts of talc did not determine further significant variations. The use of talc caused also a significant decrease of the peroxide value and tocopherols and a significant increase of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, antioxidant activity and K270, while no influence was detected on free fatty acids and K232. Finally, during storage the differences among the oils were maintained as immediately after their production, with the exception of chlorophylls. PMID:25296576

  14. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Management District to conduct assessment, evaluation, and planning and integration activities... applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a policy... additional members to the RECOVER Leadership Group. (e) RECOVER shall perform assessment, evaluation,...

  15. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water/organic solvent addition and pH adjustment

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Lydia Kyoung-Eun; Ren, Shoujie; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-29

    Applications of bio-oil are limited by its challenging properties including high moisture content, low pH, high viscosity, high oxygen content, and low heating value. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil components by adding water, organic solvents (hexadecane and octane), and sodium hydroxide may help to overcome these issues. Acetic acid and phenolic compounds were extracted in aqueous and organic phases, respectively. Polar chemicals, such as acetic acid, did not partition in the organic solvent phase. Acetic acid in the aqueous phase after extraction is beneficial for a microbial-electrolysis-cell application to produce hydrogen as an energy source for further hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil. Organicmore » solvents extracted more chemicals from bio-oil in combined than in sequential extraction; however, organic solvents partitioned into the aqueous phase in combined extraction. When sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH of aqueous bio-oil, organic-phase precipitation occurred. As the pH was increased, a biphasic aqueous/organic dispersion was formed, and phase separation was optimized at approximately pH 6. The neutralized organic bio-oil had approximately 37% less oxygen and 100% increased heating value than the initial centrifuged bio-oil. In conclusion, the less oxygen content and increased heating value indicated a significant improvement of the bio-oil quality through neutralization.« less

  16. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  17. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices. PMID:27052719

  18. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces.

  19. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces. PMID:27108987

  20. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices.

  1. Mixed layers of sodium caseinate + dextran sulfate: influence of order of addition to oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Laureline S; Schmitt, Christophe; Leser, Martin E; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2009-09-01

    We report on the interfacial properties of electrostatic complexes of protein (sodium caseinate) with a highly sulfated polysaccharide (dextran sulfate). Two routes were investigated for preparation of adsorbed layers at the n-tetradecane-water interface at pH = 6. Bilayers were made by the layer-by-layer deposition technique whereby polysaccharide was added to a previously established protein-stabilized interface. Mixed layers were made by the conventional one-step method in which soluble protein-polysaccharide complexes were adsorbed directly at the interface. Protein + polysaccharide systems gave a slower decay of interfacial tension and stronger dilatational viscoelastic properties than the protein alone, but there was no significant difference in dilatational properties between mixed layers and bilayers. Conversely, shear rheology experiments exhibited significant differences between the two kinds of interfacial layers, with the mixed system giving much stronger interfacial films than the bilayer system, i.e., shear viscosities and moduli at least an order of magnitude higher. The film shear viscoelasticity was further enhanced by acidification of the biopolymer mixture to pH = 2 prior to interface formation. Taken together, these measurements provide insight into the origin of previously reported differences in stability properties of oil-in-water emulsions made by the bilayer and mixed layer approaches. Addition of a proteolytic enzyme (trypsin) to both types of interfaces led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus of the film, suggesting that the enzyme was adsorbed at the interface via complexation with dextran sulfate. Overall, this study has confirmed the potential of shear rheology as a highly sensitive probe of associative electrostatic interactions and interfacial structure in mixed biopolymer layers. PMID:19459686

  2. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing.

  4. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains.

    PubMed

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Nakamura, Celso V; de Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Célia G T J; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  5. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C.; Lancheros, Cesar A. C.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Nakamura, Celso V.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Célia G. T. J.; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  6. Process for sulfonation of gas oils

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R. C.

    1980-12-23

    A process for the production of oil-soluble sulfonates from a gas oil such as a vacuum gas oil. Water-soluble sulfonic acids are separated from the effluent of the sulfonation zone, and the remainder of the effluent is then passed through a saponification zone to produce oil-soluble sulfonates which are then recovered. The remaining hydrocarbons are fractionated, with the resultant heavy fraction being passed through a reforming zone to produce additional aromatics which are then recycled to the sulfonation zone.

  7. Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.

  8. Situ process for making multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carrier, R.C.; Allen, B.R.

    1984-02-28

    Disclosed is an in situ or ''one pot'' process for making a fuel additive comprising reacting an excess of at least one N-primary alkylalkylene diamine with maleic anhydride in the presence of from 20 to 36 weight percent of a mineral oil reaction diluent at a temperature ranging from ambient to about 225/sup 0/ F. and recovering a product containing a primary aliphatic hydrocarbon amino alkylene substituted asparagine, an N-primary alkylalkylene diamine in the reaction oil with the product having a by-product succinimide content not in excess of 1.0 weight percent, based on the weight of asparagine present.

  9. Effect of the addition of fatty by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on methane production in co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Badey, L; Bosque, F; Steyer, J P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of the addition of by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on the behavior of co-digestion reactors treating a mixture of grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste. Three by-products were used: one soapstock, one used winterization earth and one skimming of aeroflotation of the effluents. Three 15 l reactors were run in parallel and fed five times a week. In a first phase of 4 weeks, the three reactors were fed with the co-digestion substrates alone (grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 g VS/kg d (VS: volatile solids). Then, a different by-product from the refining of oil was added to the feed of each reactor at an OLR of 0.5 g VS/kg d, generating a 33% increase in the OLR. The results show that the addition of by-products from the refining of oil is an efficient way of increasing the methane production of co-digestion reactors thanks to high methane yield of such by-products (0.69-0.77 l CH(4)/g VS loaded). In fact, in this work, it was possible to raise the methane production of the reactors by about 60% through a 33% increase in the OLR thanks to the addition of the by-products from the refining of vegetable oil.

  10. Recovering from Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Coast region suffered an unusually severe hurricane season in 2005: Hurricane Katrina (August 28-29, 2005) devastated much of southern Mississippi and Louisiana. Approximately 2,700 licensed early care and education facilities in those states and in Alabama were affected by Katrina, in addition to an unknown number of family child care…

  11. Influence of a liquid-crystal additive on the structural characteristics of the orientationally ordered near-surface layers of a petroleum oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyan, S. V.; Altoiz, B. A.; Shatagina, E. A.

    2013-03-01

    It has been established that a shear flow of a micron interlayer of a petrolatum oil doped with a nematic liquid crystal or a surface-active substance (oleic acid) is non-Newtonian in character. This was explained by the existence of orientationally ordered near-wall layers on the substrate confining the indicated interlayer. The parameters of the structure of such a near-wall layer were estimated within the framework of the rheological model of a heterophase stratified interlayer. It is shown that the thickness and molecular ordering of an interlayer of a petrolatum oil with a liquid-crystal additive are larger than those of an interlayer of this oil doped with a surface-active substance.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  13. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  15. Facilitated Leaching of Additive-Derived PBDEs from Plastic by Seabirds' Stomach Oil and Accumulation in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procellariiformes, acts as an organic solvent, facilitating the leaching of hydrophobic chemicals. Pieces of plastic compounded with deca-BDE were soaked in several leaching solutions. Trace amounts were leached into distilled water, seawater, and acidic pepsin solution. In contrast, over 20 times as much material was leached into stomach oil, and over 50 times as much into fish oil (a major component of stomach oil). Analysis of abdominal adipose, liver tissue, and ingested plastics from 18 wild seabirds collected from the North Pacific Ocean showed the occurrence of deca-BDE or hexa-BDEs in both the tissues and the ingested plastics in three of the birds, suggesting transfer from the plastic to the tissues. In birds with BDE209 in their tissues, the dominance of BDE207 over other nona-BDE isomers suggested biological debromination at the meta position. Model calculation of PBDE exposure to birds based on the results of the leaching experiments combined with field observations suggested the dominance of plastic-mediated internal exposure to BDE209 over exposure via prey. PMID:26325685

  16. Facilitated Leaching of Additive-Derived PBDEs from Plastic by Seabirds' Stomach Oil and Accumulation in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procellariiformes, acts as an organic solvent, facilitating the leaching of hydrophobic chemicals. Pieces of plastic compounded with deca-BDE were soaked in several leaching solutions. Trace amounts were leached into distilled water, seawater, and acidic pepsin solution. In contrast, over 20 times as much material was leached into stomach oil, and over 50 times as much into fish oil (a major component of stomach oil). Analysis of abdominal adipose, liver tissue, and ingested plastics from 18 wild seabirds collected from the North Pacific Ocean showed the occurrence of deca-BDE or hexa-BDEs in both the tissues and the ingested plastics in three of the birds, suggesting transfer from the plastic to the tissues. In birds with BDE209 in their tissues, the dominance of BDE207 over other nona-BDE isomers suggested biological debromination at the meta position. Model calculation of PBDE exposure to birds based on the results of the leaching experiments combined with field observations suggested the dominance of plastic-mediated internal exposure to BDE209 over exposure via prey.

  17. FORMATION OF FINE PARTICLES FROM RESIDUAL OIL COMBUSTION: REDUCING ULTRAFINE NUCLEI THROUGH THE ADDITION OF INORGANIC SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation, using an 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor, of the characteristics of particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and the reduction of ultrafine nuclei by postflame sorbent injection. Without sorbent a...

  18. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  19. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  20. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  1. Recovering Seasat SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, T. A.; Arko, S. A.; Rosen, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    supposedly 'steadily' changing millisecond (MSEC) timing values. The elevated BER made even a basic linear fit difficult. In addition, the MSEC field often shows a 'stair step' function, assumed to be a spacecraft clock malfunction. To fix these issues, three separate levels of time filtering were applied. After the initial three-pass time filter, a fourth procedure located and removed discontinuities - missing data sections that occurred randomly throughout the data takes - by inserting random valued lines into the effected data file and repeated value lines into the corresponding header file. Finally, a fifth pass through the metadata was required to fix remaining start time anomalies. After the data were filtered, all times were linearly increasing, and all discontinuities filled, images could finally be formed. ASF DAAC utilized a custom version of ROI, the Repeat Orbit Interferometric SAR processor, to focus the data. Special focusing tasks for Seasat included dealing with Doppler ambiguity issues and filtering out 'spikes' in the power spectra. Once these obstacles were overcome via additional pre-processing software developed in house, well-focused SAR imagery was obtained from approximately 80% the ASF DAAC archives. These focused products, packaged in either HDF5 or geotiff formats with XML metadata, are downloadable from ASF DAAC free of charge.

  2. Recovered Energy Generation Using an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, Neil; Sweetser, Richard; Zimron, Ohad; Stovall, Therese K

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a project demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of capturing thermal energy from a 35,000 hp (27 MW) gas turbine driving a natural gas pipeline compressor with a Recovered Energy Generation (REG) system to produce 5.5 MW of electricity with no additional fuel and near-zero emissions. The REG is based on a modified Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Other major system elements include a waste-heat-to-oil heat exchanger with bypass, oil-to-pentane heat exchanger with preheater, recuperator, condenser, pentane turbine, generator and synchronizing breaker and all power and control systems required for the automatic operation of the REG. When operating at design heat input available from the gas turbine exhaust, the REG system consistently delivered 5.5 MW or more output to the grid at up to 15 percent heat conversion efficiency. The REG system improved the overall energy efficiency by 28%, from 32% simple cycle efficiency to 41% for the combined system. Significant lessons learned from this project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  3. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  4. Simultaneous determination of five common additives in insulating mineral oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Rivoira, Luca; Tumiatti, Vander; Maina, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric mineral oils are used to impregnate power transformers and large electrical apparatus, acting as both liquid insulation and heat dissipation media. Antioxidants and passivators are frequently added to mineral oils to enhance oxidation stability and reduce the electrostatic charging tendency, respectively. Since existing standard test methods only allow analysis of individual additives, new approaches are needed for the detection of mixtures. For the first time we investigate and discuss the performance of analytical methods, which require or do not require extraction as sample pretreatment, for the simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of passivators (benzotriazole, Irgamet(®) 39) and antioxidants (N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), chosen for their presence in marketed oils. Quick easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe and solid phase extractions were evaluated as sample pretreatments. Direct sample-injection was also studied. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and direct-current coulometry detection were explored. As less prone to additive concentrations variability, the direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection method was validated through comparison with Standard Method IEC 60666 and through an ASTM interlaboratory proficiency test. Obtained detection limits are (mg kg(-1) ): benzotriazole (2.8), Irgamet(®) 39 (13.8), N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (11.9), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (13.1), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (10.2). Simultaneous determination of selected additives was possible both in unused and used oils, with good precision and accuracy.

  5. Simultaneous determination of five common additives in insulating mineral oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Rivoira, Luca; Tumiatti, Vander; Maina, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric mineral oils are used to impregnate power transformers and large electrical apparatus, acting as both liquid insulation and heat dissipation media. Antioxidants and passivators are frequently added to mineral oils to enhance oxidation stability and reduce the electrostatic charging tendency, respectively. Since existing standard test methods only allow analysis of individual additives, new approaches are needed for the detection of mixtures. For the first time we investigate and discuss the performance of analytical methods, which require or do not require extraction as sample pretreatment, for the simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of passivators (benzotriazole, Irgamet(®) 39) and antioxidants (N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), chosen for their presence in marketed oils. Quick easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe and solid phase extractions were evaluated as sample pretreatments. Direct sample-injection was also studied. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and direct-current coulometry detection were explored. As less prone to additive concentrations variability, the direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection method was validated through comparison with Standard Method IEC 60666 and through an ASTM interlaboratory proficiency test. Obtained detection limits are (mg kg(-1) ): benzotriazole (2.8), Irgamet(®) 39 (13.8), N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (11.9), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (13.1), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (10.2). Simultaneous determination of selected additives was possible both in unused and used oils, with good precision and accuracy. PMID:27279638

  6. Oil recovery method using unique salinity for oil recovery surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsmann, G.R.; Hedges, J.H.

    1981-05-05

    A series of surfactant systems is prepared at varying electrolyte concentrations, each system being mixed with oil to be displaced or its equivalent and allowed to equilibrate to determine the salinity at which the microemulsion phase has approximately equal volumes of oil and water; thereafter additional series of such surfactant systems are prepared utilizing different cosurfactants; thereafter the resulting surfactant systems are used at their optimal salinity (I.E., the salinity at which approximately equal volumes of oil and water are taken up into the microemulsion phase) to recover oil from test cores and the resulting oil recovery plotted versus the salinity to give the unique salinity at which maximum oil recovery is obtained for the particular oil-surfactant combination.

  7. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P. Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. Methods ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Results Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Conclusions Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis

  8. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  9. The addition of rosehip oil to Aloe gels improves their properties as postharvest coatings for maintaining quality in plum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Zapata, Pedro J; Guillén, Fabián; Paladines, Diego; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2017-02-15

    The effect of Aloe vera gel (AV) and Aloe arborescens gel (AA) alone or in combination with rosehip oil (RO) at 2% on ethylene production, respiration rate, quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during plum postharvest storage was studied. Coated plums showed a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate at 20°C and during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, the main effect being observed for those fruits coated with AA+RO. Quality parameters such as softening, colour and maturity index was also delayed during storage by the use of the coatings, which led to a 2-fold increase in plum storability. Accumulation of bioactive compounds was also delayed although at the end of the experiment the content of bioactive compounds was higher than those found for control fruits at the estimated shelf life. The most effective coating for maintaining plum quality and bioactive compounds was AA+RO. PMID:27664675

  10. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  11. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  12. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  13. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  15. [Rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients studied by the addition of Ca soaps of palm oil fatty acids and their analogous fatty acids in the sheep model].

    PubMed

    Drochner, W; Yildiz, G

    1999-12-01

    The ruminally fistulated sheep was used as a model to study the effects of fat supplementation (Ca-soaps and free long chain fatty acids from palm oil) on rumen physiology and digestibility of the nutrients. The animals were fed with a typical ration of hay and concentrate supplying nutrients according to maintenance levels. The following results should be pointed out: The addition of free fatty acids and their Ca-soaps induced a retarded recovery of postprandially decreased pH-values in ruminal fluid. This retardation was more pronounced after addition of free long chain fatty acids than with their Ca-soap-analogous acids. Compared to the control, the concentration of short chain fatty acids was depressed by fat addition in the period 2 hours after feed intake. The release of ammonia in the first period after feed intake was reduced by fat addition. A lack of synchronity could be observed in this post-prandial period in ruminal fluid between concentration of short chain fatty acids and ammonia. This effect was most obvious with supplementation of unprotected fatty acids. This might be one reason for the better tolerance of Ca soaps from palm oil fatty acids. Formation of hydrides, branched chains and transforms proceeds more effectively with free fatty acids than with their analogous forms of Ca-soaps. The well-known effect of depression of digestibility of nutrients due to fat supplementation was--under present conditions--quite low. This might be different in lactating dairy cows with higher levels of feed intake. With high feed intake, passage time is reduced. This will affect digestibility and interactions with fat supplementation.

  16. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity.

  17. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity. PMID:25836415

  18. [Determination of the Plant Origin of Licorice Oil Extract, a Natural Food Additive, by Principal Component Analysis Based on Chemical Components].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawahara, Nobuo; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Fukai, Toshio; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tahara, Maiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or (1)H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using (1)H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products. PMID:26537652

  19. [Determination of the Plant Origin of Licorice Oil Extract, a Natural Food Additive, by Principal Component Analysis Based on Chemical Components].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawahara, Nobuo; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Fukai, Toshio; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tahara, Maiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or (1)H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using (1)H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.

  20. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to provide scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard officers in charge of response operations. In addition ... NOAA Responds to Oil Spills While the U.S. Coast Guard oversees all responses to oil spills and chemical ...

  1. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  2. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  3. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maximum extent possible; (c) Recover the discharged oil from the water or adjoining shorelines by... the Federal OSC; and (e) Dispose of recovered oil and oil contaminated materials in accordance...

  4. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum extent possible; (c) Recover the discharged oil from the water or adjoining shorelines by... the Federal OSC; and (e) Dispose of recovered oil and oil contaminated materials in accordance...

  5. 33 CFR 153.305 - Methods and procedures for the removal of discharged oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maximum extent possible; (c) Recover the discharged oil from the water or adjoining shorelines by... the Federal OSC; and (e) Dispose of recovered oil and oil contaminated materials in accordance...

  6. The advantage of polymer addition to a non-ionic oil in water microemulsion for the dermal delivery of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Biruss, Babette; Valenta, Claudia

    2008-02-12

    The influence of progesterone on the physicochemical behaviour of the o/w microemulsion consisting of the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether, tributyrin and water was investigated. Thereby no significant influence could be detected in terms of droplet size, zeta potential, conductivity and pH by progesterone. However the chemical stability of progesterone was insufficient during the storage of 6 months. Therefore, two different polymeric agents, named silicon dioxide and polymeric emulsifier, were added to the progesterone containing microemulsions. These polymers increased the chemical stability of progesterone significantly. Moreover the polymeric additives improved the skin permeation 1.24- and 1.63-fold and decreased the skin retention in relation to the pure microemulsion. The polymer-stabilized progesterone microemulsions are interesting vehicles for skin application of progesterone. PMID:17869457

  7. Recovery of hydrocarbon oil from filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, W. H.; Stuart, F. A.

    1985-10-01

    A process for recovering hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon oils containing dissolved additives from filter cakes produced by filtering such oils using a siliceous filter aid. A small amount of a release agent, up to 2 cc per gram of filter cake, is slowly added to the filter cake with agitation to prevent formation of a release agent phase and then a further quantity of release agent is added to the resultant mixture with gentle stirring and the final mixture is then held quiescent at elevated temperature until an oil phase separates. The oil phase is removed and the remainder of the mixture is filtered to separate a release agent filtrate and a filter cake consisting mainly of filter aid.

  8. Sulfonic acid resin-catalyzed addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and water to olefins: Model reactions for catalytic upgrading of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wen; Yang, Xu-Lai; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Pittman, Charles U

    2010-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed 1-octene reactions with phenol and mixtures of phenol with water, acetic acid and 1-butanol were studied as partial bio-oil upgrading models. Bio-oil from fast biomass pyrolysis has poor fuel properties due to the presence of substantial amounts of water, carboxylic acid, phenolic derivatives and other hydroxyl-containing compounds. Additions across olefins offer a route to simultaneously lower water content and acidity while increasing hydrophobicity, stability and heating value. Amberlyst15, Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 effectively catalyzed phenol O- and C-alkylation from 65 to 120 degrees C, giving high O-alkylation selectivities in the presence of water, acetic acid and 1-butanol. Octanols and dioctyl ethers were formed from water and octyl acetates and phenol acetates from acetic acid. Phenol alkylation slowed in the presence of water. Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 were more stable in the presence of water than Amberlyst15 and were successfully recycled. Adding 1-butanol to phenol/water/1-octene, gave emulsion-like mixtures which improved phenol conversion and olefin hydration.

  9. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation.

  10. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  11. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  12. Degradation of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons, Gasoline, and Diesel Oil Additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W.; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 μmol of ether degraded h−1 g−1 (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced. PMID:19837842

  13. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  14. Measured effects of retrofits -- a refrigerant oil additive and a condenser spray device -- on the cooling performance of a heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, W.P.; Sand, J.R.; Baxter, V.D.; Linkous, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water-spray device and retested. Results at standard ARI cooling rating conditions (95 F outdoor dry bulb and 80/67 F indoor dry bulb/wet bulb temperatures) showed the capacity increased by about 7%, and the electric power demand dropped by about 8%, resulting in a steady-state EER increase of 17%. Suction and discharge pressures were reduced by 7 and 37 psi, respectively. A refrigerant oil additive formulated to enhance refrigerant-side heat transfer was added at a dose of one ounce per ton of rated capacity, and the unit was tested for several days at the same 95 F outdoor conditions and showed essentially no increase in capacity, and a slight 3% increase in steady-state EER. Adding more additive lowered the EER slightly. Suction and discharge pressures were essentially unchanged. The short-term testing showed that the condenser-spray device was effective in increasing the cooling capacity and lowering the electrical demand on an old and relatively inefficient heat pump, but the refrigerant additive had little effect on the cooling performance of the unit. Sprayer issues to be resolved include the effect of a sprayer on a new, high-efficiency air conditioner/heat pump, reliable long-term operation, and economics.

  15. Fatty Acid Profiles and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Expression in Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Growing Lambs Influenced by Addition of Tea Saponins and Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Lin, J.; Liu, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of tea saponins (TS) and soybean oil (SO) on fatty acid profile and gene expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs. Thirty-two Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement with main effects of TS (0 or 3 g/d) and SO (0 or 30 g/kg of diet DM). The diet without additives was considered as NTNS (no TS or SO). After a feeding trial for 60 d, four lambs of each treatment were slaughtered to collect the samples of LD muscle. Percentage of trans-11 vaccenic acid was enhanced (p<0.05) in muscle of lambs fed TS and SO. The proportion of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) by SO, but decreased (p<0.05) by TS in LD muscle. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids in muscle was decreased (p<0.05) by addition of TS and SO, while addition of SO increased (p<0.05) the percentage of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ratio of cis-9, trans-11 CLA to tran-11 vaccenic acid was decreased (p<0.05) by TS, but increased (p<0.05) by SO. The same effects were observed in SCD mRNA expression. From these results it is indicated that including TS and SO in the diet of growing lambs affect the fatty acid profiles of LD muscle and that the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the muscle influenced by TS and SO may be related to the SCD gene expression. PMID:25049609

  16. Enhancement of anaerobic treatability of olive oil mill effluents by addition of Ca(OH)2 and bentonite without intermediate solid/liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Beccari, M; Majone, M; Papini, M P; Torrisi, L

    2001-01-01

    Previous work on the anaerobic treatment of olive oil mill effluents (OME) have shown: (a) lipids, even if more easily degraded than phenols, were potentially capable of inhibiting methanogenesis more strongly; (b) a pretreatment based on addition of Ca(OH)2 and bentonite removed lipids almost quantitatively; (c) preliminary biotreatability tests performed on the pretreated OME showed high bioconversion into methane at very low dilutions ratios, especially when the mixture (OME, Ca(OH)2 and bentonite) was fed to the biological treatment without providing an intermediate phase separation. This paper was directed towards two main aims: (a) to optimize pretreatment: the best results in terms of methane production were obtained by addition of Ca(OH)2 up to pH 6.5 and of 10 g L-1 of bentonite; (b) to evaluate the enhancement of anaerobic treatability of OME pretreated under optimized conditions in a lab-scale continuous methanogenic reactor fed with the substrate without intermediate solid/liquid separation: very satisfactory performances were obtained (at an organic load of 8.2 kg COD m-3 d-1 and at a dilution ratio of 1:1.5 total COD removal was 91%, biogas production was 0.80 g CH4 (as COD)/g tot. COD, lipids removal was 98%, phenols removal was 63%). The results confirm the double role played by bentonite (adsorption of the inhibiting substances and release of the adsorbed biodegradable matter in the methanogenic reactor).

  17. Addition of low concentrations of an ionic liquid to a base oil reduces friction over multiple length scales: a combined nano- and macrotribology investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Somers, Anthony E; Howlett, Patrick C; Rutland, Mark W; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricant additives to a model base oil has been probed at the nanoscale and macroscale as a function of IL concentration using the same materials. Silica surfaces lubricated with mixtures of the IL trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and hexadecane are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (nanoscale) and ball-on-disc tribometer (macroscale). At both length scales the pure IL is a much more effective lubricant than hexadecane. At the nanoscale, 2.0 mol% IL (and above) in hexadecane lubricates the silica as well as the pure IL due to the formation of a robust IL boundary layer that separates the sliding surfaces. At the macroscale the lubrication is highly load dependent; at low loads all the mixtures lubricate as effectively as the pure IL, whereas at higher loads rather high concentrations are required to provide IL like lubrication. Wear is also pronounced at high loads, for all cases except the pure IL, and a tribofilm is formed. Together, the nano- and macroscales results reveal that the IL is an effective lubricant additive - it reduces friction - in both the boundary regime at the nanoscale and mixed regime at the macroscale.

  18. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  19. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  20. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  1. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  2. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Vlielander, René; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2005-05-01

    The major components of oregano and thyme essential oils that had previously been shown to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E. coli O157: H7 phage type 34 isolated from bovine feces were determined by microdilution assay. The constituents were then tested in checkerboard assays to detect possible interactions. Carvacrol and thymol displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties with MICs of 1.2 mmol/liter and were additive in combination. p-Cymene and gamma-terpinene displayed no measurable antibacterial activity up to 50 mmol/liter, and neither influenced the activity of carvacrol or thymol. Growth curves in the presence of nonlethal concentrations of carvacrol with the addition of agar (0.05%, wt/vol) or carrageenan (0.125%, wt/vol) as stabilizer were produced by optical density measurement. The stabilizers agar and carrageenan both significantly improved the effectiveness of carvacrol in broth, possibly because of a delay in the separation of the hydrophobic substrate from the aqueous phase of the medium. When carvacrol was dissolved in ethanol before addition to broth, stabilizers were not needed. Carvacrol and thymol, particularly when used in combination with a stabilizer or in an ethanol solution, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing growth of E. coli O157:H7 in liquid foods. PMID:15895722

  3. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  4. Importance of Rhodococcus strains in a bacterial consortium degrading a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives revealed by metatranscriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc D; Yergeau, Etienne; Labbé, Diane; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Greer, Charles W

    2015-03-01

    A bacterial consortium (Mix3) composed of microorganisms originating from different environments (soils and wastewater) was obtained after enrichment in the presence of a mixture of 16 hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives. After addition of the mixture, the development of the microbial composition of Mix3 was monitored at three different times (35, 113, and 222 days) using fingerprinting method and dominant bacterial species were identified. In parallel, 14 bacteria were isolated after 113 days and identified. Degradation capacities for Mix3 and the isolated bacterial strains were characterized and compared. At day 113, we induced the expression of catabolic genes in Mix3 by adding the substrate mixture to resting cells and the metatranscriptome was analyzed. After addition of the substrate mixture, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased at day 222 while a shift between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium was observed after 113 days. Mix3 was able to degrade 13 compounds completely, with partial degradation of isooctane and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, but tert-butyl alcohol was not degraded. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain IFP 2016 isolated from Mix3 showed almost the same degradation capacities as Mix3: these results were not observed with the other isolated strains. Transcriptomic results revealed that Actinobacteria and in particular, Rhodococcus species, were major contributors in terms of total and catabolic gene transcripts while other species were involved in cyclohexane degradation. Not all the microorganisms identified at day 113 were active except R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 that appeared to be a major player in the degradation activity observed in Mix3.

  5. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  6. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, Phil A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Gautier, Donald L.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil, 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world's oil and gas resources.

  7. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  8. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  9. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Chrones, J. ); Germain, R.R. )

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulphur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional projects, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems; the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  10. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Chrones, J.

    1988-06-01

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulfur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader, now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional products, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems: the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  11. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi

    2009-02-15

    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.

  12. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  13. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  14. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  15. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  16. Monoglyceride-based organogelator for broad-range oil uptake with high capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Niu, Jian; Wang, Zhenggong; Jin, Jian

    2015-02-10

    Oil/water separation has been a worldwide subject because of increasing release of oil-containing wastewater as well as several marine oil spills. The phase-selective organogelators (PSOGs) are thought to offer a potential and effective implement for addressing this issue. An ideal PSOG for oil adsorption must fulfill some requirements involving effective gelation, easy synthesis, low cost, and recyclable for reuse. However, beyond those, the ability of gelation for a broad-range oil phase without selectivity is also important. However, most of the reported PSOGs have limitation in this respect thus far. In this paper, a new class of saturated 1-monoglyceride-derived organogelators can efficiently uptake almost all of the common fuel oils from water and gelate organic solvents with extremely low minimum gelation concentration (MGC). In addition, the oils in the gel and gelator molecules can be recovered quantitatively through simple vacuum distillation. PMID:25604733

  17. Monoglyceride-based organogelator for broad-range oil uptake with high capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Niu, Jian; Wang, Zhenggong; Jin, Jian

    2015-02-10

    Oil/water separation has been a worldwide subject because of increasing release of oil-containing wastewater as well as several marine oil spills. The phase-selective organogelators (PSOGs) are thought to offer a potential and effective implement for addressing this issue. An ideal PSOG for oil adsorption must fulfill some requirements involving effective gelation, easy synthesis, low cost, and recyclable for reuse. However, beyond those, the ability of gelation for a broad-range oil phase without selectivity is also important. However, most of the reported PSOGs have limitation in this respect thus far. In this paper, a new class of saturated 1-monoglyceride-derived organogelators can efficiently uptake almost all of the common fuel oils from water and gelate organic solvents with extremely low minimum gelation concentration (MGC). In addition, the oils in the gel and gelator molecules can be recovered quantitatively through simple vacuum distillation.

  18. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments. PMID:22381704

  19. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  20. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed. PMID:22467662

  1. Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yehuda

    2002-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mats developing in oil-contaminated sabkhas along the African coasts of the Gulf of Suez and in the pristine Solar Lake, Sinai, were collected for laboratory studies. Samples of both mats showed efficient degradation of crude oil in the light, followed by development of an intense bloom of Phormidium spp. and Oscillatoria spp. Isolated cyanobacterial strains, however, did not degrade crude oil in axenic cultures. Strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophs were capable of degrading model compounds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Results indicate that degradation of oil was done primarily by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. The oxygenic photosynthesis of oil-insensitive cyanobacteria supplied the molecular oxygen for the efficient aerobic metabolism of organisms, such as Marinobacter sp. The diurnal shifts in environmental conditions at the mat surface, from highly oxic conditions in the light to anaerobic sulfide-rich habitat in the dark, may allow the combined aerobic and anaerobic degradation of crude oil at the mat surface. Hence, coastal cyanobacterial mats may be used for the degradation of coastline oil spills. Oxygen microelectrodes detected a significant inhibition of photosynthetic activity subsequent to oil addition. This prevailed for a few hours and then rapidly recovered. In addition, shifts in bacterial community structure following exposure to oil were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fractions of 16S rRNA from eubacteria, cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Since the mats used for the present study were obtained from oil-contaminated environments, they were believed to be preequilibrated for petroleum remediation. The mesocosm system at Eilat provided a unique opportunity to study petroleum degradation by mats formed under different salinities (up to 21%). These mats, dominated by cyanobacteria, can serve as close analogues to the sabkhas contaminated during the

  2. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  3. Additional tests on the efficacy of ginger root oil in enhacing the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe; termed GRO hereafter) increases the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This result suggests that pre-release exposure of sterile ...

  4. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  5. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  6. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  7. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  8. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  9. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  10. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  11. Metallurgical examination of recovered copper jet particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1995-11-30

    A shaped charge (81 mm, 42{degrees}, OFHC copper cone) was fired into a ``soft` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 gm, of which 184 gm was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g. dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work we present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet we find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  12. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands.

  13. Identification of 9(E),11(E)-18:2 fatty acid methyl ester at trace level in thermal stressed olive oils by GC coupled to acetonitrile CI-MS and CI-MS/MS, a possible marker for adulteration by addition of deodorized olive oil.

    PubMed

    Saba, Alessandro; Mazzini, Francesco; Raffaelli, Andrea; Mattei, Alissa; Salvadori, Piero

    2005-06-15

    The olive oil market is suffering from sophisticated illegal treatments. One common adulteration process consists of the addition to virgin olive oil of lower quality oils, such as "lampante" oil, an inexpensive oil and with some organoleptic defects, which is then submitted to thermal deodorization under vacuum processes for removal of the undesired flavor components. Such a blending may not have a huge influence on the chemical composition and may not significantly affect the parameters usually checked as quality indicators, although the organoleptic properties may change. As a consequence, a major effort is being devoted to find reliable markers able to unmask such adulterations. We report here the complete characterization of a compound, detected at trace levels exclusively in thermal stressed oils, which could be a candidate marker for adulteration. The investigation, carried out by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, provided its complete structure, including the stereochemistry, shown to be a 9(E),11(E)-18:2 fatty acid methyl ester. Experimental data also confirmed the influence of both temperature and heating time on formation and concentration of this compound. PMID:15941328

  14. Steam foam drive method for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, A.; Friedmann, F.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of oil from a petroleum reservoir by improving steam sweep efficiency during steam-flooding, wherein a foaming agent is added to divert steam to unswept zones and the reservoir is penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production. It comprises injecting steam and a surfactant solution comprising the foaming agent into an injection well, while concurrently and separately injecting an additional amount of liquid water into the injection well to generate a foam and thereby increase the pressure at the injection well; and recovering oil from a production well.

  15. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  16. Activity concentrations of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K radionuclides in refinery products and the additional radiation dose originated from oil residues in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Parmaksiz, A; Agus, Y; Bulgurlu, F; Bulur, E; Yildiz, Ç; Öncü, T

    2013-10-01

    A total of 56 crude oil, refinery product, waste water, sludge and scale samples collected from three refineries were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Except for nine samples, all refinery product samples were found to have activity concentrations below the minimum detectable activity (MDA) values. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in crude oil and refinery product samples were measured as 11.7 ± 4.5, 14.9 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 4.5, 248.5 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The maximum (224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K activity concentrations in scale, sludge and water samples were measured as 343.7 ± 11.8, 809.2 ± 29.0, 302.5 ± 21.6, 623.0 ± 80.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities of the residue samples were calculated up to 1241.8 ± 42.4 Bq kg(-1). The maximum activity concentration index and the alpha index were found to be 4.2 and 4.0, respectively. The annual effective doses of residue samples were calculated below the permitted dose rate for the public, i.e. 1 mSv y(-1).

  17. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Hellgren, Lars Ingvar; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134 kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition. PMID:21773017

  18. Lycopene degradation, isomerization and in vitro bioaccessibility in high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil: effect of additional thermal and high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Knockaert, Griet; Pulissery, Sudheer K; Colle, Ines; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Hendrickx, Marc; Loey, Ann Van

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of equivalent thermal and high pressure processes at pasteurization and sterilization intensities on some health related properties of high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil were investigated. Total lycopene concentration, cis-lycopene content and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility were examined as health related properties. Results showed that pasteurization hardly affected the health related properties of tomato puree. Only the formation of cis-lycopene during intense thermal pasteurization was observed. Sterilization processes on the other hand had a significant effect on the health related properties. A significant decrease in total lycopene concentration was found after the sterilization processes. Next to degradation, significant isomerization was also observed: all-trans-lycopene was mainly converted to 9-cis- and 13-cis-lycopene. High pressure sterilization limited the overall lycopene isomerization, when compared to the equivalent thermal sterilization processes. The formation of 5-cis-lycopene on the other hand seemed to be favoured by high pressure. The in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil was decreased during subsequent thermal or high pressure processing, whereby significant changes were observed for all the sterilization processes.

  19. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  1. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  3. Breaking oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Guilherme F; Picone, Carolina S F; Cuellar, Maria C; Cunha, Rosiane L

    2015-04-01

    Several biotechnological processes can show an undesirable formation of emulsions making difficult phase separation and product recovery. The breakup of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast was studied using different physical and chemical methods. These emulsions were composed by deionized water, hexadecane and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The stability of the emulsions was evaluated varying the yeast concentration from 7.47 to 22.11% (w/w) and the phases obtained after gravity separation were evaluated on chemical composition, droplet size distribution, rheological behavior and optical microscopy. The cream phase showed kinetic stability attributed to mechanisms as electrostatic repulsion between the droplets, a possible Pickering-type stabilization and the viscoelastic properties of the concentrated emulsion. Oil recovery from cream phase was performed using gravity separation, centrifugation, heating and addition of demulsifier agents (alcohols and magnetic nanoparticles). Long centrifugation time and high centrifugal forces (2 h/150,000×g) were necessary to obtain a complete oil recovery. The heat treatment (60°C) was not enough to promote a satisfactory oil separation. Addition of alcohols followed by centrifugation enhanced oil recovery: butanol addition allowed almost complete phase separation of the emulsion while ethanol addition resulted in 84% of oil recovery. Implementation of this method, however, would require additional steps for solvent separation. Addition of charged magnetic nanoparticles was effective by interacting electrostatically with the interface, resulting in emulsion destabilization under a magnetic field. This method reached almost 96% of oil recovery and it was potentially advantageous since no additional steps might be necessary for further purifying the recovered oil. PMID:25791419

  4. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  5. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  6. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  7. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on the Recovering Boundary Layer Downstream of a Reflected Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton; Clemens, Noel; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel; Ueckermann, Mattheus

    2015-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow distortion and instability, structural fatigue, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. The current study investigates the effect of pulsed plasma jets on the recovering boundary layer downstream of a reflected shock wave-boundary layer interaction. The effects of pitch and skew angle of the jet as well as the heating parameter and discharge time scale are tested using several pulsing frequencies. In addition, the effect of the plasma jets on the undisturbed boundary layer at 6 mm and 11 mm downstream of the jets is measured. A pitot-static pressure probe is used to measure the velocity profile of the boundary layer 35 mm downstream of the plasma jets, and the degree of boundary layer distortion is compared between the different models and run conditions. Additionally, the effect of each actuator configuration on the shape of the mean separated region is investigated using surface oil flow visualization. Previous studies with lower energy showed a weak effect on the downstream boundary layer. The current investigation will attempt to increase this effect using a higher-energy discharge. Funded by AFRL through and SBIR in collaboration with Creare, LLC.

  8. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse.

  9. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse. PMID:22303769

  10. Oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.

    1981-10-01

    Significant oil shale development activities are taking place in the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northeastern Utah. About 377,000 bbl/d of oil production capacity is in the planning or construction phase in the Piceance basin and about 240,000 bbl/d capacity in the Uinta basin. Completion of these projects will depend upon the political, environmental, and technical feasibility. Additional oil shale development of about 80,000 bbl/d is being planned for Brazil and Morocco. 3 figures.

  11. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  12. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  13. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  14. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  15. Hydrocracking and recovering polynuclear aromatic compounds in slop wax stream

    SciTech Connect

    Gruia, A.J.

    1987-10-06

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process which comprises: (a) introducing a reduced crude into a fractionation zone to produce a vacuum gas oil stream having a propensity to form polynuclear aromatic compounds in a hydrocracking zone and a slop wax stream; (b) contacting the vacuum gas oil stream in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a metal promoted hydrocracking catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure sufficient to gain a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; (c) partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the same into a low boiling hydrocarbon product stream and an unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 650/sup 0/F (343/sup 0/C) and containing trace quantities of polynuclear aromatic compounds; and (d) introducing at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream containing polynuclear aromatic compounds into the fractionation zone thereby recovering a substantial portion of the polynuclear aromatic compounds in the slop wax stream which significantly minimizes the introduction of the polynuclear aromatic compounds into the hydrocracking zone.

  16. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability. PMID:27016685

  17. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  18. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  19. Oil-Well Cement and C3S Hydration Under High Pressure as Seen by In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Temperatures ;= 80 degrees C with No Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Garry P.

    2012-06-28

    The hydration kinetics of a white cement and batches of both Class G and H oil-well cements were examined between 0 and 60 MPa, at {le}80 C, using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This gives a continuous measure of the C{sub 3}S (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), CH (Ca(OH){sub 2}), C{sub 4}AF (Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}), ettringite, and other phases in the hydrating slurries. Slurries prepared from single-phase C{sub 3}S; synthetic C{sub 4}AF, and gypsum; and white cement, synthetic C{sub 4}AF and gypsum were also examined. An increasing pressure enhanced the rate of hydration for all slurries. Analysis of the data, using a kinetic model, provided rate constants that were used to obtain activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration. For all the cement and C{sub 3}S slurries studied, similar activation volumes were obtained (average {Delta}V{double_dagger}{sup -}-35 cm{sup 3}/mol), indicating that the presence of cement phases other than C{sub 3}S has a modest influence on the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration. An alternative analysis, using the time at which 90% of the initial C{sub 3}S remained, gave similar activation volumes. Pressure accelerated the formation of ettringite from synthetic C{sub 4}AF in the presence of gypsum. However, in slurries containing cement, the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration plays a major role in determining the pressure dependence of ettringite formation.

  20. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  1. Recovering selenium from copper refinery slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Olli; Lindroos, Leo; Yllö, Erkki

    1989-07-01

    The selenium contained within copper refinery slimes may be recovered advantageously by roasting at about 600°C. While roasting in air is inefficient, roasting in a sulfating atmosphere enables practically complete selenium recovery. Based on laboratory tests, a new selenium recovery process was adopted at Outokumpu Copper Refinery. In this process, sulfation is achieved by feeding sulfur dioxide and oxygen into the roasting furnace.

  2. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  3. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  4. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  5. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  6. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  7. Theoretical design of an energy recovering divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, D. A.

    2010-11-01

    An energy recovering divertor (ERD) is a device for converting thermal to electrical energy in the divertor channel of a tokamak. Because ERD's are a type of heat engine operating at plasma temperatures, they have the thermodynamic potential for extremely high efficiencies. An ERD offers several important benefits to a tokamak fusion reactor. First, any energy recovered by the ERD is subtracted from divertor heat load, thus circumventing materials limitations. Second, energy recovered by the ERD is available for auxiliary heating, thus allowing the reactor to break even at a lower Lawson parameter. Third, an ERD can be used to power auxiliary current drive, thus reducing dependence on bootstrap current. We will present a design for an ERD based on amplification of Alfven waves in a manner analogous to a free-electron laser. While its projected efficiency falls short of the thermodynamic potential for this class of device, it nonetheless demonstrates the theoretical viability of direct power conversion in a tokamak divertor. We will also present potential approaches towards higher efficiency devices of this type. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under grant DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  8. Recovering chaotic properties from small data.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chenxi; Fang, Fang; Liu, Qingqing; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Binghong; Yin, Peifeng

    2014-12-01

    Physical properties are obviously essential to study a chaotic system that generates discrete-time signals, but recovering chaotic properties of a signal source from small data is a very troublesome work. Existing chaotic models are weak in dealing with such case in that most of them need big data to exploit those properties. In this paper, geometric theory is considered to solve this problem. We build a smooth trajectory from series to implicitly exhibit the chaotic properties with series-nonuniform rational B-spline (S-NURBS) modeling method, which is presented by our team to model slow-changing chaotic time series. As for the part of validation, we reveal how well our model recovers the properties from both the statistical and the chaotic aspects to confirm the effectiveness of the model. Finally a practical chaotic model is built up to recover the chaotic properties contained in the Musa standard dataset, which is used in analyzing software reliability, thereby further proves the high credibility of this model in practical time series. The effectiveness of the S-NURBS modeling leads us to believe that it is really a feasible and worthy research area to study chaotic systems from geometric perspective. For this reason, we reckon that we have opened up a new horizon for chaotic system research.

  9. Hydrolysis and composition of recovered fibres fractionated from solid recovered fuel.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, K; Siika-Aho, M; Östman, A; Sipilä, E; Puranen, T; von Weymarn, N; Kruus, K

    2014-10-01

    Fibres fractionated from solid recovered fuel (SRF), a standardised market combustion fuel produced from sorted waste, were considered as a source of lignocellulosic fermentable sugars. The fibre yield from four samples of SRF was 25-45%, and the separated material consisted of 52-54% carbohydrates, mainly glucan, with a high content of ash (12-17%). The enzymatic digestibility of recovered fibres was studied at low and high solids loading and compared with model substrates containing only chemical and mechanical pulps. Above 80% hydrolysis yield was reached at 20% solids loading in 48 h, but variation was observed between different samples of recovered fibres. Surfactants were found to improve the hydrolysis yield of recovered fibres especially in tumbling-type of mixing at low solids loading, where hydrolysis was found to stagnate without surfactants. The results suggest that SRF is a potential source of easily digestible lignocellulosic carbohydrates for use in biorefineries.

  10. Rapid response, flow diversion saves wildlife habitat after oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills can create operational, financial and public relations nightmares for petroleum companies. Fast, effective response in the hours following a spill can minimize the impacts and ensure that biological recovery can proceed without residual effects. Such a rapid, successful response was made to one of California`s largest inland oil spills by ARCO Pipe Line Co., its consultants, Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, and its contractors. The spill occurred about 70 miles north of Los Angeles in a pipeline designed to transport oil to Los angeles-area refineries from the San Joaquin Valley. The pipeline ruptured on April 6, 1993, spraying 6,200 barrels of blended crude oil onto the northbound lanes of a major freeway. The crude oil flowed through the freeway`s stormwater collection system and into a nearby creek. Because response to the spill was rapid and appropriate, all cleanup activities were completed and approved by the California Department of Fish and Game within 21 days of the release. In addition, a sensitive wildlife habitat recovered quickly after floating oil, oil-contaminated soil and vegetation were removed. Follow-up soil and water samples and biological surveys confirmed that plant and animal life had suffered only short-term, localized impacts.

  11. Use of RDF to dry recovered froth-floated glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the technical and economic feasibility of using waste- or refuse-derived fuel, at a resource recovery site, to provide the energy for drying glass recovered by froth flotation. A survey of equipment manufacturers and a technical study of an assembly, including a waste combusting unit, heat exchanger, and dryer is conducted. An equipment package is defined and costed. The analysis shows that, at the present price of oil, and probably for the next decade, drying froth-floated glass is done more economically, simply, and compactly with fuel oil than with refuse-derived fuel in a single-use, dedicated combustor.

  12. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  13. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  14. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  15. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  16. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  17. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  18. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  19. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early spring (late September - early October). Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average area coverage during this September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen (chlorine and bromine) catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this talk, I will show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections. I will also discuss current assessments of mid-latitude ozone recovery.

  20. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  1. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  2. Association of oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities with oil discoveries, upper continental slope, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.; Brooks, J.M.; MacDonald, I.R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Guinasso, N.L. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    A belt of sea-floor oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities has been mapped across the upper continental slope, offshore Louisiana, at depths ranging from 2000 to 1000 m. Visibly oil-stained sediments and thelmogenic gas hydrates have been recovered using piston cores and research submarines. Biomarker fingerprinting of seep oils suggests an origin from deeply buried Cretaceous or Jurassic source rocks characterized by marine kerogen. The abundance of seeps provides a unique opportunity to define their relationship to oil discoveries including Auger, Cooper, Jolliet, Marquette, Vancouver, Popeye, and Mars. Seeps are preferentially distributed over shallow salt ridges that rim intrasalt basin cooking pots, over salt diapirs, and along shallow fault traces near discoveries. Diagnostic seep-related features on the sea floor include gas hydrate mounds and outcrops, pockmarks and craters, mud volcanoes, and carbonate buildups. Many of the 50 chemosynthetic communities including tube worms, mussels, or clams thus far documented in the gulf occur near discoveries. Recent imagery from orbital platforms, including the space shuttle, shows that natural oil slicks are common on the sea surface in this area. Additional mapping of seep distributions should contribute to better defining of the limits of the deep Gulf play fairway.

  3. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IN-SITU GAS HYDRATES AND HEAVY OIL OCCURRENCES ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1973, during the drilling of the West Sak #1 well on the North Slope of Alaska, oil was first recovered from a shallow Cretaceous sand interval which was later informally named the West Sak sands by ARCO Alaska. Stratigraphically above the West Sak sands there are two additional oil bearing sands, and are informally referred to by ARCO as the Ugnu and the 2150 horizons. Gas hydrates are interpreted to exist in the West Sak #6 well in conjunction with heavy oil and the physical properties of this oil may have been influenced by the gas hydrate. Prior to this work, only experimental evidence suggested that hydrates and oil could exist in the same reservoir.

  4. Management of Patients With Recovered Systolic Function.

    PubMed

    Basuray, Anupam; Fang, James C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in the treatment of heart failure (HF) with systolic dysfunction have given rise to a new population of patients with improved ejection fraction (EF). The management of this distinct population is not well described due to a lack of consensus on the definition of myocardial recovery, a scarcity of data on the natural history of these patients, and the absence of focused clinical trials. Moreover, an improvement in EF may have different prognostic and management implications depending on the underlying etiology of cardiomyopathy. This can be challenging for the clinician who is approached by a patient inquiring about a reduction of medical therapy after apparent EF recovery. This review explores management strategies for HF patients with recovered EF in a disease-specific format. PMID:26796969

  5. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  6. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  7. High Brightness Beam Applications: Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey A. Krafft

    2005-09-01

    In the first part of the paper some general statements are made regarding applications suitable for utilizing energy recovered linacs (ERLs) by contrasting their potential performance to that of single pass linacs and storage rings. As a result of their potential for extremely good beam quality in combination with high average beam current, ERLs have been used and considered as drivers of both free electron laser and partially coherent photon sources, from THz through X-rays; as a suitable technology for high energy electron cooling; and as a continuous or semi-continuous electron beam source for high energy colliders. At present, beam requirements tend to be highly matched to end use requirements. By reviewing some of the many examples which have either been reduced to practice, or are being explored presently, one can develop an appreciation for the wide range of parameters being considered in ERL applications.

  8. Recovering two languages with the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Tatu, Karina; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia; Zettin, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) plays an important role in language recovery from aphasia after a left hemisphere (LH) lesion. In this longitudinal study we describe the neurological, cognitive, and linguistic profile of A.C., a bilingual who, after a severe traumatic brain injury, developed a form of fluent aphasia that affected his two languages (i.e., Romanian and Italian). The trauma-induced parenchymal atrophy led to an exceptional ventricular dilation that, gradually, affected the whole left hemisphere. A.C. is now recovering both languages relying only on his right hemisphere. An fMRI experiment employing a bilingual covert verb generation task documented the involvement of the right middle temporal gyrus in processes of lexical selection and access. This case supports the hypothesis that the RH plays a role in language recovery from aphasia when the LH has suffered massive lesions. PMID:27289209

  9. Direct Oil Recovery from Saturated Carbon Nanotube Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiying; Xue, Yahui; Zou, Mingchu; Zhang, Dongxiao; Cao, Anyuan; Duan, Huiling

    2016-05-18

    Oil adsorption by porous materials is a major strategy for water purification and industrial spill cleanup; it is of great interest if the adsorbed oil can be safely recovered from those porous media. Here, direct oil recovery from fully saturated bulk carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges by displacing oil with water in controlled manner is shown. Surfactant-assisted electrocapillary imbibition is adopted to drive aqueous electrolyte into the sponge and extrude organic oil out continuously at low potentials (up to -1.2 V). More than 95 wt % of oil adsorbed within the sponge can be recovered, via a single electrocapillary process. Recovery of different oils with a wide range of viscosities is demonstrated, and the remaining CNT sponge can be reused with similar recovery capacity. A direct and efficient method is provided to recover oil from CNT sponges by water imbibition, which has many potential environmental and energy applications.

  10. Gulf of Mexico production still recovering

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that the extent of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew to Gulf of Mexico oil and gas installations continues coming into focus. A preliminary tally by Minerals Management Service offers a reasonably complete summary of gulf production and pipeline systems damage detectable at the surface. MMS requires Outer Continental Shelf operators to inspect for underwater damage all platforms, pipelines, risers, and other structures within an 85 mile corridor along the path of Andrew's eye as it churned through the gulf. OCS operators have until Oct. 16 to submit plans for the Level II surveys.

  11. Microbial response to crude oil and Corexit 9527: SEAFLUXES enclosure study.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Wong, C S; Cretney, W J; Whitney, F A; Parsons, T R; Lalli, C M; Wu, J

    1985-12-01

    The response of marine bacteria to Corexit 9527, with and without Prudhoe Bay crude oil labeled withn-(1-(14)C)hexadecane, in a temperate pelagic environment was monitored over 22 days using controlled ecosystem enclosures. The results indicated that Corexit and Corexit-dispersed crude oil stimulated bacterial production by serving as substrates and/or by inducing the release of organic compounds from the indigenous phytoplankton population. Highest bacterial standing stock was observed in the enclosure treated with a mixture of Corexit and crude oil, in which a large fraction of the predominant bacterivores were eliminated. Biodegradation appeared to be more significant than abiotic processes in contributing to the loss of low volatility n-alkanes in Corexit-dispersed oil. Twenty-two days following its addition, 50% of the radiotracer was recovered: 3% in the suspended particulate fraction, 10% in sedimentary material, 36% as CO2, and less than 1% in the dissolved organic pool.

  12. Theoretical design of a compact energy recovering divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    An energy recovering divertor (ERD) is a type of plasma direct converter (PDC) designed to fit in the divertor channel of a tokamak. Such a device reduces the heat load to the divertor plate by converting a portion of it into electrical energy. This recovered energy can then be used for auxiliary heating and current drive, fundamentally altering the relationship between scientific and engineering breakeven and reducing dependence on bootstrap current. Previous work on the ERD concept focused on amplification of Alfven waves in a manner similar to a free-electron laser. While conceptually straightforward, this concept was also bulky, thus limiting its applicability to existing tokamak experiments. A design is presented for an ERD based on sheath-localized waves. This makes possible a device sufficiently compact to fit in the divertor channel of many existing tokamak experiments, and moreover requires no new shaping coils to achieve the desired magnetic geometry or topology. In addition, incidental advantages of this concept will be discussed.

  13. Oil additives containing a thiocarbamyl moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Brois, S.J.; Gutierrez, A.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a polyalkenyl isothiocyanate having the isothiocyanate group attached to a carbon which is one carbon removed from an ethylenically unsaturated carbon, the polyalkenyl isothiocyanate being obtained by the method of: adding a solution of a thiocyanogen halide in acetic acid, tetrahydrofuran or alcohol solvent to a polyalkene to form an adduct wherein the polyalkene is selected from the group consisting of polypropylene, polyisobutylene, ethylene copolymers, ethylene terpolymers, polybutadiene-isoprene interpolymer, butylene-isoprene interpolymer, and mixtures thereof; removing a hydrogen halide from the adduct to produce a polyalkenyl thiocyanate having the thiocyanate group attached is a carbon which is one carbon removed from an ethylenically unsaturated carbon; and thermally rearranging the polyalkenyl thiocyanate to the polyalkenyl isothiocyanate.

  14. Barber tackles heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    Barber Oil Corp. is using a combination of mining and oil recovery techniques to recover heavy oil in the Kern River field near Bakersfield, California. The approach involves drilling 8 near-horizontal shafts from a cavern at the bottom of an 84-in. hole drilled to approximately 700 ft. The hole is cased with 60-in. pipe, and the cavern is cement lined. The near-horizontal shafts are designed to follow the natural dip of the producing zone and lie as near the base of the zone as geologic interpretation will allow. Slotted casing is installed in the radials, and each radial is connected to 2 risers. One riser delivers steam into the radial lines, and the other radial pumps produced oil using conventional sucker-rod pumping systems.

  15. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  20. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  1. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  2. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  3. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  4. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  5. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  6. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  7. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. PMID:20697706

  8. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  9. Comparison of methods for recovering metal values from Salton Sea KGRA Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    As part of its program for developing plentiful domestic resources, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is investigating methods for recovering metal values from geobrines. Two precipitation techniques were evaluated for recovering selected metal values from Salton Sea KGRA brines. Lime addition precipitates more than 95 pct of the iron, manganese, lead, and zinc, while sulfide addition precipitates more than 90 pct of the lead and zinc and lesser amounts of iron and manganese. A comparison of these techniques and a discussion of the respective advantages and disadvantages are presented.

  10. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  11. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  12. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Bioefficacy of EPA-DHA from lipids recovered from fish processing wastes through biotechnological approaches.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N; Baskaran, V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of fish oil recovered from fish visceral waste (FVW-FO) on serum and liver lipids, activity of HMG-CoA reductase in liver microsomes and EPA+DHA incorporation in liver, heart and brain were evaluated. Rats were fed different concentrations of FVW-FO providing 1.25%, 2.50%, 5.0% EPA+DHA recovered by either fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis for 8weeks. Feeding FVW-FO reduce triacylglycerols (5.96-20.3%), total cholesterol (7.9-21.5%) and LDL (7.39-21.7%) cholesterol levels in serum compared to group fed on a control diet (groundnut oil). The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was reduced (p<0.05) in the FVW-FO fed groups compared to the control. EPA+DHA level in serum, liver, brain and heart increased with increments in dietary EPA+DHA. Results show the hypolipidemic property of FVW-FO and reduced HMG-CoA reductase activity which is proportional to the incorporation of EPA+DHA. Recovery of FVW-FO will address the increasing demand for fish oil and reduce pollution problems.

  15. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  16. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  17. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  18. Effects of oil on avian reproduction: A review and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Rosie, Don; Barnes, Stephen N.

    1983-01-01

    Oil pollution is a highly visible form of environmental contamination that affects avian reproduction in a variety of ways. Plumage oiling causes widespread and locally severe mortality of adult birds. Egg oiling can be a serious hazard for bird embryos but only a few field observationons of this have been reported. Oil ingestion seldom kills birds directly but it causes sublethal change~ in the bodily functions and behavior of adults and nestlings. Studies of the effects of oil on avian reproduction have produced varied and, in ingestion studies, sometimes conflicting results because of inconsistent experimental design and the use of different test species and types of oil. Field experimentation with the sublethal effects of ingested oil on avian reproduction has been limited. Simulation modelling of seabird populations has shown that (l) an occasional decrease in survival of breeding adults will have a greater impact on seabird populations than an occasional decrease in reproductive success, and (2) populations of long-lived seabirds with low reproductive potential have great difficulty recovering from high one-time mortality when experiencing even small sustained annual decreases in either natality or breeding adult survival. The impact of oil-related decreases in survival or reproduction will be more noticeable at the local or colony level than at the regional or species level. Immigration, surplus breeders, and possible compensatory changes in natality and mortality resulting from population reductions usually prevent local population reductions from lasting very long (unless the species is rare or at the edge of its range). A study of west European seabird populations indicates that the natural annual mortality of the region greatly exceeds the annual mortality due to plumage oiling; effects of oil ingestion and egg oiling were not measured but were thought to be less than the mortality from plu~age oiling. Oil-related mortality, even if in addition to

  19. [Quality evaluation of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2002-03-01

    Essential oils on the market were analyzed using GC-MS and the main ingredients of each essential oil were quantified. Analysis of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis (lavender oil) showed that each sample had a different ratio of the contents of main ingredients, such as linalool, linalyl acetate, and camphor. In addition, some commercial lavender oils were analyzed by GC-MS for comparison with the Lavandula flagrans (lavandin oil) and the reference standard. As a result of this analysis, although the components of almost all commercial lavender oils were approximately the same as those of the reference standard, there were a few products that contained more than 0.5% of the amount of camphor in lavandin oil. This suggests that some lavender oil samples are mixed with lavandin oil to lower the price. Commercial essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (teatree oil) and Mentha piperita (peppermint oil) were also analyzed by GC-MS. Each of the peppermint oil samples had a different ratio in the content of its main ingredient. With respect to teatree oils, the amount of terpinens in each sample differed. These results led to concern about the efficacy of essential oils. For achieve the expected efficacy of essential oils, correct information on their ingredients should be available and quality control using instrumental analysis should be introduced. PMID:11905050

  20. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  1. Symptom overreporting and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The authenticity of recovered memories is a much debated issue. Surprisingly, no study has systematically looked at symptom overreporting in people claiming recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). In a first sample we administered the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) to individuals who said they had recovered CSA memories (n=66), individuals who said their CSA had always been accessible (continuous CSA memory group; n=119), and controls who said they had no CSA experiences (n=83). In a second sample individuals reporting recovered (n=45) or continuous (n=45) CSA memories completed the Morel Emotional Numbing Test (MENT). Our aim was to compare these groups with regard to their tendency to overreport symptoms. The results indicate that people with recovered memories do not score higher on the SIMS and the MENT than other CSA survivors suggesting that symptom overreporting is not typical for people reporting recovered memories.

  2. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification.

  3. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification. PMID:27035386

  4. Surfactant waterflooding oil recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Schievelbein, V.H.

    1981-12-29

    Oil is recovered from an underground petroleum reservoir which contains a brine having a salinity of from 50 to 220 kg/m3 total dissolved solids by injecting an alkylarylpolyalkoxy sulfate or alkylpolyalkoxy sulfate surfactant that exhibits phase stability in the brine or diluted brine. The surfactant is injected in an aqueous solution which is prepared with diluted brine which has a salinity slightly less than that required to cause partitioning of the surfactant out of the aqueous phase into the oil-water interface or oil phase. The injection of surfactant is followed by the injecting of a driving slug comprised of either diluted brine or thickened diluted brine.

  5. Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical alcohols: effects of the alcohol to oil molar ratios on the biofuel chemical composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Bunyakiat, Kunchana; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2011-11-01

    Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical methanol (SCM) and supercritical ethanol (SCE) at 400 °C and 15 MPa were evaluated. At the optimal alcohol to oil molar ratios of 12:1 and 18:1 for the SCM and SCE processes, respectively, the biofuel samples were synthesized in a 1.2-L reactor and the resulting biofuel was analyzed for the key properties including those for the diesel and biodiesel standard specifications. Biofuel samples derived from both the SCM and SCE processes could be used as an alternative fuel after slight improvement in their acid value and free glycerol content. The remarkable advantages of this novel process were: the additional fuel yield of approximately of 5% and 10% for SCM and SCE, respectively; the lower energy consumption for alcohol preheating, pumping and recovering than the biodiesel production with supercritical alcohols that use a high alcohol to oil molar ratio of 42:1.

  6. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  7. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  8. Effect of a simulated oil spill on natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton enclosed in microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Figueiras, F. G.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Crespo, B. G.; Fernández, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Nieto-Cid, M.

    2009-07-01

    Two microcosm experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of sporadic oil spills derived from tanker accidents on oceanic and coastal marine phytoplankton assemblages. Treatments were designed to reproduce the spill from the Prestige, which took place in Galician coastal waters (NW Iberia) in November 2002. Two different concentrations of the water soluble fraction of oil were used: low (8.6 ± 0.7 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents) and high (23 ± 5 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents l -1). Photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll a concentration decreased in both assemblages after 24-72 h of exposure to the two oil concentrations, even though the effect was more severe on the oceanic assemblage. These variables progressively recovered up to values close or higher than those in the controls, but the short-term negative effect of oil, which was generally stronger at the high concentration, also induced changes in the structure of the plankton community. While the biomass of nanoflagellates increased in both assemblages, oceanic picophytoplankton was drastically reduced by the addition of oil. Effects on diatoms were also observed, particularly in the coastal assemblage. The response of coastal diatoms to oil addition showed a clear dependence on size. Small diatoms (<20 μm) were apparently stimulated by oil, whereas diatoms >20 μm were only negatively affected by the high oil concentration. These differences, which could be partially due to indirect trophic interactions, might also be related to different sensitivity of species to PAHs. These results, in agreement with previous observations, additionally show that the negative effect of the water soluble fraction of oil on oceanic phytoplankton was stronger than on coastal phytoplankton.

  9. Desalination of brackish water from oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing non-brackish water from brackish water found in an inactivated oil well. It comprises at least one inactive oil well located on an offshore oil platform, the well having a perforated well casing at a level of a geological formation known to contain flowable brackish water; a desalination plant located on the offshore platform receiving flowable brackish water from the inactive oil well; and means to transport the non-brackish water produced by the desalination plant. This patent also describes a method of using an inactivated oil well. It comprises ceasing oil production in an inactive oil well having a well casing that penetrates a plurality of geological formations; recovering brackish water from the inactive oil well from a geological formation containing flowable brackish water; and desalinating the brackish water producing non-brackish water.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  11. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  12. PROTOTYPIC CONTINUITY METHODS FOR FASTER RECOVERY OF OIL PRODUCTS SUPPLY AFTER GREAT QUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Takato

    In the Great East Japan Earthquake, some oil product farms and tanks had a lot of damages. Then we temporally run short of oil products such as gasoline, lamp oil. The oil product is indispensable to make cargo shipment, or rescue operations, and some trouble must come for everyday shopping and movement of business. The lifeline damages come out electric power, water service, gas and communication. In addition the oil product shortage overlaps then the importance to restore was recognized. After earthquake disaster, there is a possibility to interrupt supply services such as shipping from oil tanks and sale at stations. Even if their discontinuation comes, it needs some business continuity policies in order to recover supply service at early stage. This paper grasps oil product discontinuation of supply and restoration transition and tries to get disaster lessons. This paper proposes prototypic techniques to minimize the sum of penalties to supply no service for neighbor region with capacities of critical stations. It applies to Tohoku regions and their gas stations and comments the usefulness of techniques and implication of supply service continuity policy.

  13. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  14. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  15. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  16. Evaluation of polypropylene and poly (butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) nonwoven material as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Xiao, Changfa; Xu, Naiku

    2013-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and poly(butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PBMA-co-HEMA) nonwoven materials as oil absorbents have been fabricated for the first time via melt blown method. As-prepared nonwovens were investigated in terms of mass per unit area, density, air permeability, contact angle, and morphology observations for fiber diameter distribution and single fiber surface by a field emission scanning electron microscope. The nonwovens are demonstrated as fast and efficient absorbents for various kinds of oils with oil absorbency up to seven to ten times their own weight. The nonwovens show excellent water repulsion but superoleophilic properties. The measured contact angles for water and toluene are more than 127° and ca. 0°, respectively. The addition of PBMA-co-HEMA makes the nonwoven surface more hydrophobic while conserving superoleophilicity. Compared with PP nonwoven, broad diameter distribution of the blend nonwoven is attributed to poor melt fluidity of PBMA-co-HEMA. In terms of single fiber, coarse surface and the presence of point-like convexities lead to the fibers being more readily wetted by oil. More interesting, oil-water separation and oil recovery can be easily carried out by filter and absorption-desorption process, the recovered materials contained hardly any oil droplet and could be reused for next cycles. PMID:23238599

  17. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-06-13

    Excessive dietary intake of Na (i.e., NaCl) contributes to hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Normally, NaOH and HCl are used to dissolve and precipitate, respectively, fish muscle proteins in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP), therefore contributing to increased Na content in the recovered fish protein isolates (FPI). Substitution of NaOH with KOH may decrease the Na content in FPI and, thus, allow development of reduced-Na seafood products. In this study, FPI was recovered with ISP using NaOH or KOH. In order to develop a nutraceutical seafood product, the FPI was extracted with NaCl or KCl-based salt substitute and subjected to cold- or heat-gelation. In addition, standard nutraceutical additives (ω-3 fatty acids-rich oil and dietary fiber) along with titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to FPI. Color, texture, dynamic rheology, Na and K content, and lipid oxidation of the FPI gels were compared to commercial Alaska pollock surimi gels. FPI gels had greater (p < 0.05) whiteness, good color properties (L*a*b*), and generally better textural properties when compared to surimi gels. Although the ISP-recovered FPI and surimi developed similar final gel elasticity, the proteins in FPI and surimi had different gelation pattern. A reduction (p < 0.05) of Na content and simultaneous increase (p < 0.05) in K content of FPI gels was achieved by the substitution of NaOH with KOH during ISP and NaCl with the KCl-based salt substitute during formulation of the FPI paste. Although cooking and addition of NaCl during formulation of the FPI paste increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in FPI gels, TBARS values were much below rancidity levels. These results indicate that KOH can replace NaOH to recover FPI from whole gutted fish for subsequent development of nutraceutical seafood products tailored for reduction of diet-driven cardiovascular disease. PMID:22624700

  18. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-06-13

    Excessive dietary intake of Na (i.e., NaCl) contributes to hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Normally, NaOH and HCl are used to dissolve and precipitate, respectively, fish muscle proteins in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP), therefore contributing to increased Na content in the recovered fish protein isolates (FPI). Substitution of NaOH with KOH may decrease the Na content in FPI and, thus, allow development of reduced-Na seafood products. In this study, FPI was recovered with ISP using NaOH or KOH. In order to develop a nutraceutical seafood product, the FPI was extracted with NaCl or KCl-based salt substitute and subjected to cold- or heat-gelation. In addition, standard nutraceutical additives (ω-3 fatty acids-rich oil and dietary fiber) along with titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to FPI. Color, texture, dynamic rheology, Na and K content, and lipid oxidation of the FPI gels were compared to commercial Alaska pollock surimi gels. FPI gels had greater (p < 0.05) whiteness, good color properties (L*a*b*), and generally better textural properties when compared to surimi gels. Although the ISP-recovered FPI and surimi developed similar final gel elasticity, the proteins in FPI and surimi had different gelation pattern. A reduction (p < 0.05) of Na content and simultaneous increase (p < 0.05) in K content of FPI gels was achieved by the substitution of NaOH with KOH during ISP and NaCl with the KCl-based salt substitute during formulation of the FPI paste. Although cooking and addition of NaCl during formulation of the FPI paste increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in FPI gels, TBARS values were much below rancidity levels. These results indicate that KOH can replace NaOH to recover FPI from whole gutted fish for subsequent development of nutraceutical seafood products tailored for reduction of diet-driven cardiovascular disease.

  19. Statistical approach to meteoroid shape estimation based on recovered meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnikov, V.; Gritsevich, M.; Turchak, L.

    2014-07-01

    Each meteorite sample can provide data on the chemical and physical properties of interplanetary matter. The set of recovered fragments within one meteorite fall can give additional information on the history of its parent asteroid. A reliably estimated meteoroid shape is a valuable input parameter for the atmospheric entry scenario, since the pre-entry mass, terminal meteorite mass, and fireball luminosity are proportional to the pre-entry shape factor of the meteoroid to the power of 3 [1]. We present a statistical approach to the estimation of meteoroid pre-entry shape [2], applied to the detailed data on recovered meteorite fragments. This is a development of our recent study on the fragment mass distribution functions for the Košice meteorite fall [3]. The idea of the shape estimation technique is based on experiments that show that brittle fracturing produces multiple fragments of sizes smaller than or equal to the smallest dimension of the body [2]. Such shattering has fractal properties similar to many other natural phenomena [4]. Thus, this self-similarity for scaling mass sequences can be described by the power law statistical expressions [5]. The finite mass and the number of fragments N are represented via an exponential cutoff for the maximum fragment mass m_U. The undersampling of tiny unrecoverable fragments is handled via an additional constraint on the minimum fragment mass m_L. The complementary cumulative distribution function has the form F( m)={N-j}/{m_j}( {m}/{m_j})^{-β_0}exp( {m-m_j}/{m_U}). The resulting parameters sought (scaling exponent β_0 and mass limits) are computed to fit the empirical fragment mass distribution: S(β_0, j, m_U) = sum_{i=j}^{N}[F(m_i)-{N-j}/{m_j}]^2, m_j = m_L. The scaling exponent correlates with the dimensionless shape parameter d [2]: 0.13d^2-0.21d+1.1-β=0, which, in turn, is expressed via the ratio of the linear dimensions a, b, c of the shattering body [2]: d = 1+2(ab+ac+bc)(a^2+b^2+c^2)^{-1}. We apply the

  20. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  1. Supportive Counseling for Students Recovering from Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ann Marie

    Adults who are recovering from substance abuse usually possess coping skills that adolescents have not yet developed. This paper examines the special needs of adolescents who are recovering from substance abuse. Young people have not had the opportunity to develop healthy social, emotional, and cognitive skills because they are using chemicals at…

  2. 24 CFR 792.203 - Application of amounts recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of amounts recovered. 792.203 Section 792.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Recovery of Section 8 Funds § 792.203 Application of amounts recovered. (a) The PHA may only use the...

  3. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  4. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  5. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  6. 48 CFR 245.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.607-2 Recovering precious metals. (b) Precious metals are silver, gold... office with disposition instructions for certain categories of precious metals-bearing...

  7. Apparatus for recovering matter adhered to a host surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, W. W.; Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for removing and recovering matter adhered to a host surface is described. The device consists of a pickup head with an ultrasonic transducer adapted to deliver ultrasonic pressure waves against the material. The ultrasonic waves agitate the material and cause its separation from the surface. A vacuum system recovers the material and delivers it to suitable storage containers.

  8. The Recovered Memory Controversy: A Representative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The recovered memory controversy has been an ongoing debate within the mental health profession for the past two decades. Disagreement remains in the field over the veracity of "forgotten" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are recalled or recovered during therapy. At the heart of the controversy are the concepts of repression and…

  9. Evaluation of heavy-oil mining. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, E.M.; Riddell, A.W.; Trent, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    One of the technologies being advanced on an experimental basis for recovering heavy oil reserves is oil mining. So far, little has been done in this field, particularly in the United States. Because of this situation the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering heavy oil by mining or mining-assisted methods. The project consisted of the following three tasks: (1) evaluate the heavy oil resource amenable to mine production; (2) evaluate mine technology; and (3) develop preliminary mining concepts for heavy oil resources. Volume II contains Task II and Task III. Task II presents a historical review of heavy oil projects through current and planned projects. It also details various mining methods applicable to heavy oil mining. Task III describes the development of two site-specific heavy oil mining operations. 27 figures, 49 tables.

  10. Differences among substance abusers in Spain who recovered with treatment or on their own.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José Luis; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramon; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Errasti-Pérez, José Manuel; Alhalabí-Diaz, Susana

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study compared the differences among substance abusers in Spain who recovered with treatment or on their own. Advertisements were used to recruit 58 individuals (29 self-changers and 29 treatment-changers) who had had problems with alcohol or drugs, and who had been recovered for at least one year. The groups differed significantly in severity of dependence, psychiatric treatment prior to recovery, and coping strategies to maintain recovery. Consistent with previous studies, those who had recovered through treatment had a more serious substance use history than those who changed on their own. In addition, social support was associated with maintenance of change for both groups. These findings parallel those for English-speaking populations. PMID:17825494

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Extended service 5w-40 motor oil

    SciTech Connect

    Schiemen, R.D.

    1983-09-06

    An extended drain 5W-40 motor oil composition for internal combustion engines comprises a base oil component of one or more solvent extracted mineral oils and a high refractory mineral oil, a V.I. improver, and preferably other suitable lube oil additives. The finished oil formulation has characteristics of minimal viscosity at low temperatures, low volatility at higher temperatures, and stable viscosity over extended use.

  13. OIL OUTLOOK:USGS Optimistic on World Oil Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-07-14

    According to the latest estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey, the world has 20% more oil awaiting discovery in yet-to-be-found fields than the USGS estimated 6 years ago. And a newly analyzed category--oil lurking in and around known fields--offers almost as much additional oil as in those undiscovered reservoirs. But even if the additional oil is really there, pessimists argue that it pushes back the global production peak--and the end of the era of cheap oil--by years, not decades.

  14. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  17. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Schneider, V

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a space station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  18. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a Space Station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  19. 27 CFR 17.183 - Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered. 17.183 Section 17.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK...

  20. Combination of ethylene polymer, normal paraffinic wax and nitrogen containing compound (stabilized, if desired, with one or more compatibility additives) to improve cold flow properties of distillate fuel oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, M.; Feldman, N.; Ryer, J.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a wax-containing petroleum fuel oil comprising a major proportion of a distillate oil boiling in the range of 120/sup 0/ to 42 5/sup 0/ C, which fuel oil has been improved in its low temperature flow properties, containing in the range of about 0.001 to 2.5 wt. %, based on the weight of the total composition, of a flow improving combination of: (A) one part by weight of an oil-soluble ethylene backbone distillate flow improving polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 500 to 50,000; (B) 0.1 to 30 parts by weight of wax comprising principally n-paraffins having from 20 to 60 carbons; and (C) 0.01 to 10 parts weight of an oil-soluble nitrogen compound containing a total of about 30 to 300 carbon atoms and having at least one straight chain alkyl segment of 8 to 40 carbons, and selected from the class consisting of amine salts and/or amides of hydrocarbyl carboxylic acids or anhydrides having 1 to 4 carbonyl groups.

  1. Rock and Roll - How Do Flies Recover From Serial Stumbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai

    2012-11-01

    Flying insects manage to maintain aerodynamic stability despite the facts that flapping flight is inherently unstable and that they are constantly subject to mechanical perturbations, such as gusts of wind. To maintain stability against such perturbations, insects rely on fast and robust flight control mechanisms, which are poorly understood. Here, we directly study flight control in the fruit fly D. melanogaster by applying mechanical perturbations in mid-air and measuring the insects' correction maneuvers. On each fly we glue a small magnet and use pulses of magnetic field to apply torque perturbations along the fly's roll axis. We then use high-speed filming and 3D reconstruction to characterize the kinematics of their correction maneuver and show how the flies fully recover from roll perturbations of up to 70° within 7-8 wing beats (30-40ms), which is faster than their visual response time. In addition, we study the dynamics of the maneuver by calculating the aerodynamic forces and torques the fly produces. Finally, we present a control mechanism that can explain the roll correction maneuver. These results have implications ranging from the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie flight control to the design of flapping robots.

  2. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  3. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  4. ANALYSIS OF SOLVENT RECOVERED FROM WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INCORPORATED TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-11

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to process liquid waste for an interim period. The MCU Project Team conducted testing of the contactors, coalescers, and decanters at Wright Industries, Incorporated (WII) in Nashville, Tennessee. That testing used MCU solvent and simulated SRS dissolved salt. Because of the value of the solvent, the MCU Project wishes to recover it for use in the MCU process in the H-Tank Farm. Following testing, WII recovered approximately 62 gallons of solvent (with entrained aqueous) and shipped it to SRS. The solvent arrived in two stainless steel drums. The MCU Project requested SRNL to analyze the solvent to determine whether it is suitable for use in the MCU Process. SRNL analyzed the solvent for Isopar{reg_sign} L by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), for Modifier and BOBCalixC6 by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and for Isopar{reg_sign} L-to-Modifier ratio by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. They also measured the solvent density gravimetrically and used that measurement to calculate the Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier concentration. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The constituents of the used WII solvent are collectively low in Isopar{reg_sign} L, most likely due to evaporation. This can be easily corrected through the addition of Isopar{reg_sign} L. (2) Compared to a sample of the WII Partial Solvent (without BOBCalixC6) archived before transfer to WII, the Reworked WII Solvent showed a significant improvement (i.e., nearly doubling) in the dispersion numbers for tests with simulated salt solution and with strip acid. Hence, the presence of the plasticizer impurity has no detrimental impact on phase separation. While there are no previous dispersion tests using the exact same materials, the results seem to indicate that the washing of the solvent gives a

  5. Recovering Bi and Sb from electrolyte in copper electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K.; Tsuchida, N.

    1997-12-01

    The separation of antimony and bismuth in copper electrorefining is somewhat difficult and costly. An ion-exchange technique for the removal of the metals from the electrolyte has been practiced recently, although the metals recovered require further processing. Sumitomo Metal Mining has developed a process to recover antimony and bismuth directly from the eluant by an electrowinning process using a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride as an eluant for the desorption from the resin. The content of bismuth in the antimony metal recovered by this process was less than 0.2%, while the content of antimony in the bismuth metal was less than 0.4%.

  6. Proportion of recovered goose and brant bands that are reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, R.K.; McCann, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    A few more than one-third of the goose and brant bands recovered by hunters were reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory (a rate of 0.361) during the 1962-64 hunting seasons. We calculated this band-reporting rate by comparing the estimated number of goose and brant bands recovered by hunters, based on a mail questionnaire survey, with the number of bands actually reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. This band-reporting rate is probably representative only of the 1962-65 period. It is likely that, in earlier years, a greater proportion (perhaps about 0.60) of recovered goose and brant bands were reported.

  7. Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; Mountford, Victoria A; Tchanturia, Kate

    2014-08-15

    Interpersonal difficulties are proposed to maintain eating disorders (EDs). This study explored whether social anhedonia (SA) was an additional social emotional maintenance factor which might also explain work/social problems in EDs. Additionally, the study explored SA and work and social adjustment in recovered participants. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n=105), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=46), recovered from AN (RAN; n=30) and non-ED controls (n=136) completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. ED participants reported greater SA and WSAS scores than non-ED controls; the RAN group reported an intermediate profile. AN participants had poorer work/social adjustment than BN participants. SA was associated with longer illness duration. SA, current severity (BMI) and lifetime severity (lowest adult BMI) significantly predicted work/social difficulties. Recovered participants scoring in the clinical range for SA experienced significantly greater work/social difficulties than recovered participants scoring outside the clinical range for SA. EDs are associated with clinical levels of SA and poor work/social functioning which reduce in recovery. SA may maintain the interpersonal functioning difficulties.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  9. Heavy oil mining technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, T.J.; Piper, E.M.; Riddell, A.W.

    1984-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy studies have indicated that the United States has produced only about one-third of its estimated reserves of heavy oil, primarily because this oil is unrecoverable by conventional production methods. One technology that shows promise for recovering these reserves is oil mining. Of three fundamental mining methods, surface extractive mining, underground extractive mining and underground mining for access, the surface extractive mining and underground mining for access methods appear to be technically feasible for oil recovery. Two heavy oil reservoirs are used as the basis for an economic evaluation of the two technically feasible mining methods. These two reservoirs were selected from an extensive list of heavy oil reservoirs in the United States based on a favorable combination of physical characteristics including depth, net pay thickness, oil saturation in barrels per acre, reservoir area, and total estimated reserves.

  10. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final technical progress report, October 21, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

    1995-03-21

    Badger Basin Field was discovered in 1931. Production is principally from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Though many wells initially produced at about 100 barrels of oil per day or more, they now produce at stripper rates. Only about 12% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. The goal of this joint project between Sierra Energy Company (Sierra) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) was to recover addition reserves at economic rates through the use of 3D seismic and horizontal drilling and completing techniques.

  11. Short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging for recovered post-consumer single and mixed polymers characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Palmieri, Roberta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Postconsumer plastics from packing and packaging represent about the 60% of the total plastic wastes (i.e. 23 million of tons) produced in Europe. The EU Directive (2014/12/EC) fixes as target that the 60%, by weight, of packaging waste has to be recovered, or thermally valorized. When recovered, the same directive established that packaging waste has to be recycled in a percentage ranging between 55% (minimum) and 60% (maximum). The non-respect of these rules can produce that large quantities of end-of-life plastic products, specifically those utilized for packaging, are disposed-off, with a strong environmental impact. The application of recycling strategies, finalized to polymer recovery, can represent an opportunity to reduce: i) not renewable raw materials (i.e. oil) utilization, ii) carbon dioxide emissions and iii) amount of plastic waste disposed-off. Aim of this work was to perform a full characterization of different end-of-life polymers based products, constituted not only by single polymers but also of mixtures, in order to realize their identification for quality control and/or certification assessment. The study was specifically addressed to characterize the different recovered products as resulting from a recycling plant where classical processing flow-sheets, based on milling, classification and separation, are applied. To reach this goal, an innovative sensing technique, based on the utilization of a HyperSpectral[b] I[/b]maging (HSI) device working in the SWIR region (1000-2500 nm), was investigated. Following this strategy, single polymers and/or mixed polymers recovered were correctly recognized. The main advantage of the proposed approach is linked to the possibility to perform "on-line" analyses, that is directly on the different material flow streams, as resulting from processing, without any physical sampling and classical laboratory "off-line" determination.

  12. What People Recovering from Alcoholism Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation and increase bone breakdown. Because of the effects of alcohol on balance and gait, people with alcoholism tend ... abuse ends. Nutrition. Because of the negative nutritional effects of chronic alcohol use, people recovering from alcoholism should make healthy ...

  13. Analysis of ``soft`` recovered shaped charge jet particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    A shaped charge with an 81 mm diameter, 42{degree} apex angle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper conical liner was fired into a ``soft`` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 g, of which 184 g was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g., dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work the authors present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet they find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  14. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  15. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems.

    PubMed

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution. PMID:27183146

  16. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems.

    PubMed

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution.

  17. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  18. Carbon dioxide for the recovery of (residual) crude oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doscher, T.M.; El Arabi, M.; Gharib, S.; Oyekan, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original plan of the work was altered with the agreement of the various contract officers from that of emphasis on the use of additives in improving the efficiency of carbon dioxide to a plan for developing a thorough understanding of the mechanism and basic efficiency of carbon dioxide as a recovery agent for residual crude oil. As this program proceeded, the results obtained from the physical model studies were not those anticipated from prior theoretical studies and laboratory experiments which had not been physically scaled. This required that the work be continued to no more than define and establish as unequivocally as possible the actual mechanism by which carbon dioxide might recover some of the reputed hundreds of billions barrels of residual oil in reservoirs in the United States. Only in this way could a proper evaluation of the potential of the process be defined and hopefully, subsequently, improved. The work has now been completed and leads to the conclusion that the recovery of residual oil by carbon dioxide depends on solution of the carbon dioxide in the oil and the displacement of the resulting solution by the continuing gas drive, or, alternately, a substitute water drive. The efficiency of the process will depend on the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the residual oil prior to the breakthrough of the latter and the residual oil phase saturation to the concurrent gas drive. 17 references, 16 figures.

  19. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process. PMID:11952176

  20. Recovered memory and the Daubert criteria: recovered memory as professionally tested, peer reviewed, and accepted in the relevant scientific community.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Constance

    2006-10-01

    Research during the past two decades has firmly established the reliability of the phenomenon of recovered memory. This review first highlights the strongest evidence for the phenomenon itself and discusses the survey, experimental, and biological evidence for the varying mechanisms that may underlie the phenomenon. Routes to traumatic amnesia from dissociative detachment (loss of emotional content leading to loss of factual content) and from dissociative compartmentalization (failure in integration) are discussed. Next, an argument is made that false memory is a largely orthogonal concept to recovered memory; the possibility of one phenomena is largely irrelevant to the potential for the other. Furthermore, some aspects of the false memory research offer supportive data for the recovered memory researcher. Finally, the issue of error rates in making the Daubert case is explored. It is concluded that the weight of the evidence should allow the recovered memory victim to come before the court.

  1. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  2. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds).

  3. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  4. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-06-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora species were isolated from 249 rhizosphere samples and 25 bait bags deployed in 21 stream, river, or wetland locations. Of the 186 Phytophthora isolates recovered, 130 were identified to species based on ITS sequence data. Ninety-five isolates corresponded to 13 described Phytophthora species while additionally 35 isolates were identified as Clade 6 hybrids. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most common species isolated (31 %), followed by P. elongata (6 %), both species were only recovered from soil. Samples from sites with the highest soil moisture at the time of sampling had the highest yield of isolates. Consistent with other studies throughout the world, Clade 6 species and their hybrids dominated water samples, although many of these species were also recovered less frequently from soil samples. Many of the species recovered in this study have not previously been reported from eastern Australia, reinforcing that Phytophthora species are widespread, abundant and diverse in natural ecosystems. We have probably been underestimating Phytophthora diversity in Australia.

  5. Removing baseline flame's spectrum by using advanced recovering spectrum techniques.

    PubMed

    Arias, Luis; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Torres, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured flame spectra is proposed. The algorithm estimates the continuous background based on previous information obtained from a learning database of continuous flame spectra. Then, the discontinuous flame emission is calculated by subtracting the estimated continuous baseline from the measured spectrum. The key issue subtending the learning database is that the continuous flame emissions are predominant in the sooty regions, in absence of discontinuous radiation. The proposed algorithm was tested using natural gas and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions, and the goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) quality metric was used to quantify the performance in the estimation process. Additionally, the commonly used first derivative method (FDM) for baseline removing was applied to the same testing spectra in order to compare and to evaluate the proposed technique. The achieved results show that the proposed method is a very attractive tool for designing advanced combustion monitoring strategies of discontinuous emissions. PMID:22945158

  6. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  7. Volatile fatty acids platform from thermally hydrolysed secondary sewage sludge enhanced through recovered micronutrients from digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumi, Philemon J; Henley, Adam; Shana, Achame; Wilson, Victoria; Esteves, Sandra R

    2016-09-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances and microbial cytoplasmic contents seem to hold inorganic ions and organic products, such as proteins and carbohydrates that are of critical importance for the metabolism of hydrolytic and acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms. The addition of soluble microbially recovered nutrients from thermally treated digestate sludge, for the fermentation of thermally hydrolysed waste activated sludge, resulted in higher volatile fatty acids yields (VFAs). The yield of VFAs obtained from the recovered microbial nutrients was 27% higher than the no micronutrients control, and comparable to the yield obtained using a micronutrients commercial recipe. In addition, the use of a low pH resulting from a high sucrose dose to select spore forming acidogenic bacteria was effective for VFA production, and yielded 20% higher VFAs than without the pH shock and this associated with the addition of recovered microbial nutrients would overcome the need to thermally pre-treat the inoculum. PMID:27206055

  8. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  9. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  10. Polymerization of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Mousetis, T.L.; Lloyd, L.

    1982-01-01

    The addition of antioxidants and dispersants is not sufficient to eliminate gum formation in vegetable oils. Even with relatively unsaturated oils like rapeseed the extent of unsaturation overwhelms these additives. Fuel deterioration during storage will be minimized in an anaerobic storage environment and, to a lesser extent, with a lower degree of oil unsaturation. Gum formation and carbon coking can also occur immediately preceding and during combustion. Thermal polymerization may be the dominant gum forming reaction under combustion conditions since thermal polymerization has a higher activation energy than oxidative polymerization and anaerobic conditions can occur within atomized fuel droplets. Carbon coking can be reduced with a lower degree of oil unsaturation and with better atomization of the fuel. 4 figures, 1 table.

  11. Recovering The Photometry Of Brighter Than Saturated Objects In SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahab, William

    2007-05-01

    We present the results of a technique that recovers the integrity of the SDSS photometry from bright (m < 15) and/or saturated objects in the SDSS. Bright objects saturate the CCD used by the SDSS, with overabundant electrons spilling over to nearby pixels, resulting in bleed trails. The photometric pipeline should, and indeed does, effectively process these bleed trails yielding usable data. This technique filters objects based on their specific flags, and recovers the stellar locus in color-color space. Objects as bright as g = 13 were extremely well recovered, as well as much of the data down to g = 11. We used these data to search for blue, saturated objects, hoping to find bright quasars. No new quasars were discovered, but several previously known objects, including 3C 273, were. We did discover a new cataclysmic variable, demonstrating the viability of this technique in the search for new, bright objects.

  12. Information processing in recovered depressed children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, T; Neshat-Doost, H; Taghavi, R; Moradi, A; Yule, W; Canterbury, R; Vostanis, P

    1998-10-01

    Previous research into subjective probability estimates for negative events revealed that depressed children estimated events as equally likely to happen to themselves as to other children. In contrast, both controls and anxious children estimated that negative events were more likely to happen to others than to themselves. The present study followed up this finding by investigating the subjective probability judgements concerning future negative events generated by children and adolescents who have recovered from depression. Subjects generated probability estimates either for themselves or for other children for a range of negative events on a visual analogue scale. The results revealed that both recovered depressed and matched control groups estimated negative events as significantly more likely to happen to others than to themselves. It was also found that the recovered depressed subjects estimated that negative events were less likely overall, compared to the controls. These results are discussed in the context of the adult literature.

  13. Recovering pointwise values of discontinuous data within spectral accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pointwise values of a function, f(x), can be accurately recovered either from its spectral or pseudospectral approximations, so that the accuracy solely depends on the local smoothness of f in the neighborhood of the point x. Most notably, given the equidistant function grid values, its intermediate point values are recovered within spectral accuracy, despite the possible presence of discontinuities scattered in the domain. (Recall that the usual spectral convergence rate decelerates otherwise to first order, throughout). To this end, a highly oscillatory smoothing kernel is employed in contrast to the more standard positive unit-mass mollifiers. In particular, post-processing of a stable Fourier method applied to hyperbolic equations with discontinuous data, recovers the exact solution modulo a spectrally small error. Numerical examples are presented.

  14. Recovering metal values hydrometallurgically from spent dry battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabah, M. A.; Barakat, M. A.; Mahrous, Y. Sh.

    1999-12-01

    A hydro-pyrometallurgical method was used to recover metal values from spent dry battery cells. Water-soluble ingredients were filtered, and solid residue was sorted by magnetic separation and water flotation. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency were also studied. Results revealed that metallic parts, carbon rods, and paper were safely recovered; pure NH4Cl, MnO2, and ZnCl2 salts were obtained. Maximum recovery efficiencies reached 93 percent for manganese and 99.5 percent for zinc and NH4.

  15. Solid fuel oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutter, P.R.; Veal, C.J.

    1984-11-27

    Fuel composition comprises 15 to 60% be weight, preferably 40 to 55%, of a friable solid fuel, e.g. coal, a stabilizing additive composition and a fuel oil. The additive comprises the combination of a polymer containing functional groups, e.g., maleinized polybutadiene, and a surfactant. The composition is suitable for use as a liquid fuel for industrial burners.

  16. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  17. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  18. Evaluation of heavy-oil mining. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, E.M.; Riddell, A.W.; Trent, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    One of the technologies being advanced on an experimental basis for recovering heavy oil reserves is oil mining. So far, little has been done in this field, particularly in the United States. Because of this situation the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering heavy oil by mining or mining-assisted methods. The project consisted of the following three tasks: (1) evaluate the heavy oil resource amenable to mine production; (2) evaluate mine technology; and (3) developed preliminary mining concepts for heavy oil resources. the first section of Volume I summarizes the work of the tasks and presents conclusions. Task I, which represents the bulk of Volume I, describes the selection process for determing the heavy oil reservoirs amenable to mining technology. Various screening processes are described along with target reservoirs. 44 figures, 13 tables.

  19. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  20. Lavender oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning occurs when someone swallows lavender oil. ... Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 64. Maypole J, Woolf, ...

  1. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  2. Reelin supplementation recovers synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hethorn, Whitney R; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Filonova, Irina; Rogers, Justin T; Aguirre, Daniela; Ramirez, Raquel A; Grieco, Joseph C; Peters, Melinda M; Gulick, Danielle; Anderson, Anne E; L Banko, Jessica; Lussier, April L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2015-05-01

    The Reelin signaling pathway is implicated in processes controlling synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. A single direct in vivo application of Reelin enhances long-term potentiation, increases dendritic spine density and improves associative and spatial learning and memory. Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological disorder that presents with an overall defect in synaptic function, including decreased long-term potentiation, reduced dendritic spine density, and deficits in learning and memory, making it an attractive model in which to examine the ability of Reelin to recover synaptic function and cognitive deficits. In this study, we investigated the effects of Reelin administration on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in a mouse model of AS and demonstrated that bilateral, intraventricular injections of Reelin recover synaptic function and corresponding hippocampus-dependent associative and spatial learning and memory. Additionally, we describe alteration of the Reelin profile in tissue from both the AS mouse and post-mortem human brain. PMID:25864922

  3. Reelin supplementation recovers synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hethorn, Whitney R; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Filonova, Irina; Rogers, Justin T; Aguirre, Daniela; Ramirez, Raquel A; Grieco, Joseph C; Peters, Melinda M; Gulick, Danielle; Anderson, Anne E; L Banko, Jessica; Lussier, April L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2015-01-01

    The Reelin signaling pathway is implicated in processes controlling synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. A single direct in vivo application of Reelin enhances long-term potentiation, increases dendritic spine density and improves associative and spatial learning and memory. Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological disorder that presents with an overall defect in synaptic function, including decreased long-term potentiation, reduced dendritic spine density, and deficits in learning and memory, making it an attractive model in which to examine the ability of Reelin to recover synaptic function and cognitive deficits. In this study, we investigated the effects of Reelin administration on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in a mouse model of AS and demonstrated that bilateral, intraventricular injections of Reelin recover synaptic function and corresponding hippocampus-dependent associative and spatial learning and memory. Additionally, we describe alteration of the Reelin profile in tissue from both the AS mouse and post-mortem human brain. PMID:25864922

  4. Chemical properties of ω-3 fortified gels made of protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation from whole fish.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2013-08-15

    Protein isolate was recovered from whole gutted fish using isoelectric solubilisation/precipitation (ISP). The objective was to determine chemical properties of heat-set gels made of the ISP protein isolate fortified with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-rich oils (flaxseed, fish, algae, krill, and blend). The extent of the PUFAs increase, ω-6/ω-3 FAs and unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios, and the indices of thrombogenicity and atherogenicity depended on specific ω-3 PUFAs-rich oil used to fortify protein isolate gels. Lipid oxidation in ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels was minimal, although greater (P<0.05) than control gels (without ω-3 PUFAs fortification). However, all gels were in the slightly rancid, but acceptable range. The commonly used thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) assay to determine lipid oxidation in seafood may be inaccurate for samples containing krill oil due to its red pigment, astaxanthin. Protein degradation (total-volatile-basic-nitrogen) was greater (P<0.05) in ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels than control gels. However, all gels were considerably below the acceptability threshold for protein degradation. The shear stress of ω-3 PUFAs fortified gels was generally greater than the control gels and the shear strain was generally unchanged. This study demonstrates that ω-3 PUFAs fortification of protein isolates recovered with ISP from fish processing by-products or whole fish has potential application in the development of functional foods. PMID:23561173

  5. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  6. Habitual Response to Stress in Recovering Adolescent Anorexic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samantha P.; Erickson, Sarah J.; Branom, Christina; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has investigated the stress response in acutely anorexic patients, there is currently little research addressing this response in recovering adolescent anorexic girls. Therefore, this study investigated partially and fully weight-restored anorexic adolescent girls' psychological and physiological response to a…

  7. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recove...

  8. Colonizing and Decolonizing Projects of Re/covering Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Subedi, Binaya

    2014-01-01

    In this postcolonial inquiry, we analyze how spirituality has been simultaneously appropriated/re-covered and re-appropriated/recovered for the purpose of (re)colonizing as well as decolonizing projects. By drawing from discrete yet interconnected literatures of decolonizing, (post)(anti)colonial, Indigenous, and ethnic studies based theories, we…

  9. Recovering our Histories: Studying Educational History through Stories and Memoirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…

  10. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  11. Auditory Abilities of Speakers Who Persisted, or Recovered, from Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Williams, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to see whether participants who persist in their stutter have poorer sensitivity in a backward masking task compared to those participants who recover from their stutter. Design: The auditory sensitivity of 30 children who stutter was tested on absolute threshold, simultaneous masking, backward masking with…

  12. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  13. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration Coordination and... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation Processes § 385.20 Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER)....

  14. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  15. Major Concerns Associated with Recovered Memories of Childhood Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Kristina J.

    When accusations of child abuse result from false memories, all parties involved suffer. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding recovered memories of childhood abuse. The mechanisms that the mind may employ to deal with traumatic events, such as disassociation and repression, must be further explored through experimental research to…

  16. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recovered materials content for EPA-designated items to be delivered or used in the performance of the contract will be at least the amount required by the applicable contract specifications or other... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  18. Stormy weather. Preparing for and recovering from disasters.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Frederic R

    2006-01-01

    Preparing for and recovering from disasters Planning is the most important thing a medical practice can do to prepare for a disaster. Learn from the experiences of a medical group in Florida that weathered four hurricanes in 2004. Its trials provide insights for other groups that might suffer calamities such as blizzards, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, blackouts and even acts of terrorism.

  19. Process for recovering metals from solution utilizing metalloprotein affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, D.R.; Vincent, J.B.

    1993-11-29

    The invention relates generally to a process for recovering metals from an aqueous metal-bearing solution and, more particularly, to a process which utilizes metalloproteins immobilized on an insoluble support to remove metal ions such as the main group, transition, lanthanide, and actinide ions from the aqueous metal-ion bearing solution.

  20. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  1. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  2. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  3. Exporting Alaska's oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.F.; Copulos, M.; Watkins, D.J.

    1983-02-22

    Federal legislation that prohibits the commercial export of oil and gas is creating a glut and discouraging oil production in California, while raising energy costs by shipping the fuel to the East and Gulf Coasts. The historical security reasons for blocking the export of Alaskan oil no longer exist, yet they continue to impose costs for the taxpayer. The optimum solution appears to be to export liquefied natural gas, using a pipeline paralleling the oil pipeline to Valdez. This would encourage the use and manufacture in Alaska of urea and ammonia fertilizer for export to the Far East, which would enhance US/Japan relations. The possibility of exports of additional oil, bringing a higher return for producers, will encourage production, reduce the need for OPEC oil, and moderate world oil prices. 5 references.

  4. SG oils

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, W.

    1988-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers worldwide have targeted improved vehicle quality as a major goal. Engine oil quality is one component in the quest for an improved quality image. Engine design changes have imposed increased stresses on engine oils. API SG oils will provide a margin of protection to the engine against sludge and varnish deposit formation and valve train wear.

  5. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  6. Process for treating and regenerating used oil products

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, G.

    1983-03-08

    In the recovery of regenerated mineral and synthetic oils from blackish dirty lubricating or industrial oils, a quaternary ammonium salt or mixture of salts is added to the dirty oil and the mixture is subjected to agitation. The agitated mixture is next subjected to a decanting operation making it possible to recover, as the upper supernatant fraction, an oil exhibiting approximately the same characteristics as a new starting oil useful for automotive engines, transmissions and differentials, as a lubricant for machine tools, useful in transformers and other electric and electropneumatic devices and also useful as a hydraulic fluid.

  7. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  8. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  9. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters.

  10. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters. PMID:19603666

  11. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    operators for enhanced oil recovery. The second essay extends the CO2--EOR economic model described in a recent Energy Journal article by Klaas van 't Veld and Owen R. Phillips (2010). This essay takes a Monte Carlo approach to the economic scoping model which focuses more directly on the probabilistic outcomes for each individual oil field-reservoir combination (FRC). Using data on Wyoming oil fields the essay analyzes 197 FRCs in order to identify oil units with robust CO2--EOR profit potential over a wide range of uncertainty regarding future oil prices and reservoir characteristics. Of the 197 FRCs considered, 93 of them are found to meet an industry threshold IRR of 20 percent in at least half of scenarios with limited chance of actually taking losses. The third essay continues to employ the CO2--EOR economic scoping model, but focuses on Wyoming's aggregate EOR potential and attendant CO2 requirements. A similar Monte Carlo analysis is used to construct incremental oil "supply" and cumulative CO2 purchase "demand" curve estimates. Finally, the study uses a resampling technique similar to bootstrapping in order to create probabilistic distributions of Wyoming's aggregate EOR potential by assigning probabilities to individual oil prices. Although the data only covers oil fields with at least 5 MMbo of production, the analysis suggests around 768 MMbo of additional oil is likely to be recovered with CO2--EOR utilizing roughly 5.5 Tcf of injectable CO2.

  12. Additive effects on lubricant fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S.; Moore, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.

  13. Surfactant waterflooding enhanced oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Schievelbein, V.H.

    1984-07-17

    Disclosed is a surfactant waterflooding enhanced oil recovery process and surfactant fluid suitable for use in an enhanced oil recovery process which accomplishes an increase in the amount of oil recovered over prior art methods. The surfactant fluid contains an alkylpolyalkoxy sulfate or alkylarylpolyalkoxy sulfate, or an alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate, either alone or in combination with an organic sulfonate anionic surfactant, such as petroleum sulfonate. The optimum average degree of ethoxylation of the alkoxy sulfate or alkoxy sulfonate surfactant is identified, and the surfactant fluid is formulated with a mixture of ethoxylated and sulfated or ethoxylated and sulfonated surfactants, having a broad even range of degree of ethoxylation.

  14. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  15. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    , cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  16. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  17. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  18. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in charge may, at...

  19. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  20. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  1. 25 CFR 214.5 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information. 214.5 Section 214.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.5 Additional information. The officer in...

  2. 30 CFR 256.53 - Additional bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional bonds. 256.53 Section 256.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.53 Additional bonds. (a) This paragraph explains...

  3. Peppermint oil.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Chaudhary, Sapna

    2007-04-01

    Peppermint leaf and peppermint oil have a long history of use for digestive disorders. Recent evidence suggests that enteric-coated peppermint oil may be effective in relieving some of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A combination product including peppermint oil and caraway oil seems to be moderately effective in the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia. Topical application of peppermint oil may be effective in the treatment of tension headache. Because of its relaxing effects on smooth muscle, peppermint oil given via enema has been modestly effective for relief of colonic spasm in patients undergoing barium enemas. Peppermint oil is well tolerated at the commonly recommended dosage, but it may cause significant adverse effects at higher dosages. PMID:17427617

  4. Oil shales energy source development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.G.

    1983-01-18

    Oil shales represents the United States' second (after coal) most abundant fossil energy source. The Green River deposits in the West and the Devonian deposits in the East/Great Lakes are the principal oil shale deposits. This paper discusses in depth: the technology of recovering shale oil (retorting either above ground or in situ); refining of shale oil by hydrotreating and/or cracking; environmental impacts of retorting oil shales; economic analysis of shale oil refinery; and military applications of middle distillates from shale oils. At present the Parachute Creek, Colorado project of the Union Oil Company is the only active commercial scale shale oil project in operation. Union is building a 10,000 barrel per day plant at a cost of $600 million. The plant will be completed by midyear and be in operation by the end of 1983. The Department of Defense is guaranteeing a price of at least $42.50/barrel for the finished product, JP-4 jet fuel and diesel fuel made to military specifications. The overall conclusion that can be reached is that state-of-the-art, commercially practical refining processes are available to produce high quality fuels from shale oil at a cost which should make this resource a highly important part of our energy supply and therefore of our national security.

  5. Using compressive sensing to recover images from PET scanners with partial detector rings

    SciTech Connect

    Valiollahzadeh, SeyyedMajid; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Most positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners consist of tightly packed discrete detector rings to improve scanner efficiency. The authors’ aim was to use compressive sensing (CS) techniques in PET imaging to investigate the possibility of decreasing the number of detector elements per ring (introducing gaps) while maintaining image quality. Methods: A CS model based on a combination of gradient magnitude and wavelet domains (wavelet-TV) was developed to recover missing observations in PET data acquisition. The model was designed to minimize the total variation (TV) and L1-norm of wavelet coefficients while constrained by the partially observed data. The CS model also incorporated a Poisson noise term that modeled the observed noise while suppressing its contribution by penalizing the Poisson log likelihood function. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed CS recovery algorithm: a simulation study, a phantom study, and six patient studies. The simulation dataset comprised six disks of various sizes in a uniform background with an activity concentration of 5:1. The simulated image was multiplied by the system matrix to obtain the corresponding sinogram and then Poisson noise was added. The resultant sinogram was masked to create the effect of partial detector removal and then the proposed CS algorithm was applied to recover the missing PET data. In addition, different levels of noise were simulated to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm. For the phantom study, an IEC phantom with six internal spheres each filled with F-18 at an activity-to-background ratio of 10:1 was used. The phantom was imaged twice on a RX PET/CT scanner: once with all detectors operational (baseline) and once with four detector blocks (11%) turned off at each of 0 °, 90 °, 180 °, and 270° (partially sampled). The partially acquired sinograms were then recovered using the proposed algorithm. For the third test, PET images

  6. Oil shale perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.

    1983-03-01

    The worldwide oil shale resources are extremely large. As an example, the calculated recoverable oil from just the Green River Formation in the tri-state area of Colorado-Utah-Wyoming is as large as the estimated ultimate total conventional oil production from the entire world. In addition there are significant resources in other parts of the USA and in other countries. Despite the great potential, the peace of western oil shale development took a general downturn in 1982 because of a combination of factors led by an uncertainty concerning short to intermediate term pricing for crude oil, a lesser demand for petroleum products, and increased projected costs for development. An example is Exxon's announcement that the Exxon/TOSCO multi-billion dollar project would be discontinued and most of its support equipment sold. In the eastern part of the country, Paraho decided not to move its project to Kentucky unless additional financial support could be obtained. On the international front, Brazil and Morocco are actively developing oil shales in their countries, and feasibility and background studies are being conducted in other areas of the world. The industry, from a future commercial development standpoint, and the government, following its policy to promote high-risk, long-range, high-return energy projects, should accelerate their efforts in oil shale research and development. A lead time of 3 to 5 years is necessary from the planning stage to the first barrel of shale oil production. Using a 20,000 bbl/day plant as a minimum goal, modular development of several competing processes and technologies should be conducted in the near future.

  7. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil

  8. Acetylation of banana fibre to improve oil absorbency.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Valia, Sanket P

    2013-01-30

    Oil spill leaves detrimental effects on the environment, living organisms and economy. In the present work, an attempt is made to provide an efficient, easily deployable method of cleaning up oil spills and recovering of the oil. The work reports the use of banana fibres which were acetylated for oil spill recovery. The product so formed was characterized by FT-IR, TG, SEM and its degree of acetylation was also evaluated. The extent of acetylation was measured by weight percent gain. The oil sorption capacity of the acetylated fibre was higher than that of the commercial synthetic oil sorbents such as polypropylene fibres as well as un-modified fibre. Therefore, these oil sorption-active materials which are also biodegradable can be used to substitute non-biodegradable synthetic materials in oil spill cleanup. PMID:23218302

  9. System and method for recycling used oil filters

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, M.W.; Taylor, J.M.; Baillie, L.A.

    1993-08-17

    A system is described for recycling oil filters comprising: (a) means for shredding used oil filters, said filters comprising ferrous metal parts and nonmetal parts, and containing trapped oil, into smaller metal parts and nonmetal parts, and for releasing at least a portion of the trapped oil; (b) means for separating the released oil from the metal parts and nonmetal parts; (c) means for separating the metal parts from the nonmetal parts without incineration using gravitational and magnetic means; (d) means for draining oil from the separated metal parts and nonmetal parts; (e) means for separately recovering the oil, the metal parts, and the nonmetal parts; and (f) means for compacting the separated nonmetal parts. A method is also described for recycling used oil filters using this system.

  10. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  11. Recovering strain readings from chirping fiber Bragg gratings in composite overwrapped pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutner, Scott M.; Pena, Frank; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Richards, W. Lance; Carman, Gregory P.

    2014-04-01

    This study reports on signal recovery of optical fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a carbon fiber composite overwrapped pressure vessel's (COPV) structure which have become chirped due to microcracks. COPVs are commonly used for the storage of high pressure liquids and gases. They utilize a thin metal liner to seal in contents, with a composite overwrap to strengthen the vessel with minimal additional mass. A COPV was instrumented with an array of surface mounted and embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for structural health monitoring (SHM) via strain sensing of the material. FBGs have been studied as strain sensors for the last couple decades. Many of the embedded FBGs reflected a multi-peak, chirped response which was not able to be interpreted well by the current monitoring algorithm. Literature and this study found that the chirping correlated with microcracks. As loading increases, so does the number of chirped FBGs and microcracks. This study uses optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to demultiplex the array of FBGs, and then sub- divide individual FBGs. When a FBG is sub-divided using OFDR, the gratings' strain along its length is recovered. The sub-divided chirped FBGs have strain gradients along their length from microcracks. Applying this to all chirped gratings, nearly the entirety of the embedded sensors' readings can be recovered into a series of single peak responses, which show very large local strains throughout the structure. This study reports on this success in recovering embedded FBGs signal, and the strain gradient from microcracks.

  12. A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2000-02-01

    A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

  13. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-01-29

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced domestically will probably be about 80 to 100 million bbls.

  14. Apparatus for recovering energy and useful products from plantain wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Quame, B.A.

    1983-08-16

    Energy and useful products are recovered from plantain wastes in a self-contained waste treatment plant wherein the raw material waste is charged into a boiler where the same is combusted to produce flue gases containing several organic compounds and dry ash containing residue mineral salts. The flue gas heats water in a water reservoir to generate steam which drives a turbine generator to produce electricity, the flue gas then being collected and at least partially condensed to form a pyroligneous acid solution from which alcohols and the like can be recovered. The dry ash containing residue mineral salt is mixed with other minerals or reagents with the resulting mass being supplied into continuously stirred fusion furnace situated within the boiler to which heat is supplied by the flue gas to produce commercially useful products, such as zeolites, dolomite or other related products.

  15. Recover: A Concept For Tropical Forest Assessment For REDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hame, Tuomas; Sirro, Laura; Caberea, Edersson; Enßle, Fabian; Haarpainter, Jorg; Hamalainen, Jarno; de Jong, Bernardus; Pellat, Fernando Paz; Pedrazzani, Donata; Reiche, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Project ReCover, funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Union, developed beyond state-of-the- art service capabilities to support fighting deforestation and forest degradation in the tropical region in the context of the REDD process (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). A monitoring system for forest cover mapping by combining wall-to-wall mapping and a sample of VHR imagery was introduced. Also biomass and changes of forest cover changes were estimated. ReCover provided close to one hundred products for the study sites in Mexico, Guyana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia and Fiji using optical and SAR data and their combinations. The accuracy in forest and non- forest classification varied from 85 % to 97 %.

  16. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: Drowning and Bodies Recovered From Water.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; Gerdin, J

    2016-09-01

    Determining the cause of death in animals recovered from bodies of water, swimming pools, or other water-containing vessels is challenging. Animals recovered from water may or may not have drowned. The diagnosis of drowning is usually one of exclusion, requiring information from the crime scene, recovery scene, the medical history or reliable witness accounts. While there are characteristic macroscopic and microscopic lesions of drowning, none are specific and are dependent on the volume and tonicity of the drowning medium. Beyond interpreting the postmortem findings, the court may ask pathologists to comment on the behavioral and welfare implications of drowning. This requires an understanding of the drowning process, which is a complex series of sequential, concurrent, and overlapping cardiorespiratory reflexes, electrolyte and blood gas abnormalities, aspiration, physical exhaustion, and breathlessness eventually culminating in death. This review addresses the mechanisms, lesions, and diagnostic issues associated with drowning in nonaquatic companion animals. PMID:26926081

  17. Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

  18. Recovering full-length viral genomes from metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Saskia L.; Bodewes, Rogier; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Koopmans, Marion P.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schürch, Anita C.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease metagenomics is driven by the question: “what is causing the disease?” in contrast to classical metagenome studies which are guided by “what is out there?” In case of a novel virus, a first step to eventually establishing etiology can be to recover a full-length viral genome from a metagenomic sample. However, retrieval of a full-length genome of a divergent virus is technically challenging and can be time-consuming and costly. Here we discuss different assembly and fragment linkage strategies such as iterative assembly, motif searches, k-mer frequency profiling, coverage profile binning, and other strategies used to recover genomes of potential viral pathogens in a timely and cost-effective manner. PMID:26483782

  19. Recovering badly exposed objects from digital photos using internet images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, Florian M.; Vonikakis, Vassilios; Winkler, Stefan; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of clipped-pixel recovery over an entire badly exposed image region, using two correctly exposed images of the scene that may be captured under different conditions. The first reference image is used to recover texture; feature points are extracted along the boundaries of both the source and reference regions, while a warping function deforms the reference region to fit inside the source. The second reference is used to recover color by replacing the mean and variance of the texture reference image with those of the color reference. A user study conducted with both modified and original images demonstrates the benefits of our method. The results show that a majority of the enhanced images look natural and are preferred to the originals.

  20. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.