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Sample records for additional oil recovered

  1. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Semen Quality and Sperm Function Loss by Hypercholesterolemic Diet Was Recovered by Addition of Olive Oil to Diet in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Aida A.; Funes, Abi K.; Cid-Barria, Macarena; Cabrillana, María E.; Monclus, María A.; Simón, Layla; Vicenti, Amanda E.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2013-01-01

    Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality. PMID:23326331

  3. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  4. Method and apparatus for recovering waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.B.

    1982-09-21

    Oil is recovered from a mixture of oil and water by heating the mixture, adding a de-emulsifier, passing the mixture through a first vibrating screen, adding a surface tension reducer, processing through a hydrocyclone, passing through a second vibrating screen, and separating the oil from water by settling.

  5. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  6. Method of recovering oil-based fluid and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for recovering oil-based fluid from a surface having oil-based fluid thereon comprising the steps of: applying to the oil-based fluid on the surface an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fibers, the cloth having at least one napped surface that defines voids therein, the nap being formed of raised ends or loops of the fibers; absorbing, with the cloth, oil-based fluid; feeding the cloth having absorbed oil-based fluid to a means for applying a force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid; and applying force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid therefrom using the force applying means.

  7. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  8. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  9. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  10. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  11. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2004-03-27

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO{sub 2} mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO{sub 2} flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO{sub 2} Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review.

  12. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and

  13. Enzymatic esterification of starch using recovered coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Akhila; Prasad, V S; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-11-15

    Modification of maize and cassava starches was done using recovered coconut oil and microbial lipase. Microwave esterification was advantageous as it gave a DS 1.55 and 1.1 for maize starch and cassava starch, respectively. Solution state esterification of cassava starch for 36 h at 60 degrees C gave a DS of 0.08 and semi-solid state esterification gave a DS of 0.43. TGA and DSC studies showed that the higher DS attributed to the thermostability, since onset of decomposition is at a higher temperature (492 degrees C) than the unmodified (330 degrees C) and was stable above 600 degrees C. alpha-Amylase digestibility and viscosity reduced for modified starch.

  14. Tall oil as additive in gas drive hydrocarbon oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Djabbarah, N.F.

    1988-04-12

    A miscible displacement process for recovering oil from a subterranean, oil-containing formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one spaced-apart production well and having fluid communication between the injection and the production wells is described comprising: (a) injecting a slug of til oil into the formation through the injection well; (b) injecting a slug of a displacing fluid into the formation through the injection well, the displacing fluid being selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, air, flue gas, combustion gas and mixtures thereof, the injection of the tall oil lowering the minimum miscibility pressure of the displacing fluid in the formation oil; and (c) recovering the oil through the production well.

  15. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg

    2003-10-31

    The second annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies have been undertaken with the intention to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Many items presented in this report are applicable to other interest areas: e.g. gas injection and production, greenhouse gas sequestration, chemical flooding, reservoir damage, etc. Major areas of studies include reduction of CO{sub 2} mobility to improve conformance, determining and understanding injectivity changes in particular injectivity loses, and modeling process mechanisms determined in the first two areas. Interfacial tension (IFT) between a high-pressure, high-temperature CO{sub 2} and brine/surfactant and foam stability are used to assess and screen surfactant systems. In this work the effects of salinity, pressure, temperature, surfactant concentration, and the presence of oil on IFT and CO{sub 2} foam stability were determined on the surfactant (CD1045{trademark}). Temperature, pressure, and surfactant concentration effected both IFT and foam stability while oil destabilized the foam, but did not destroy it. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) can be used as a sacrificial and an enhancing agent. This work indicates that on Berea sandstone CLS concentration, brine salinity, and temperature are dominant affects on both adsorption and desorption and that adsorption is not totally reversible. Additionally, CLS adsorption was tested on five minerals common to oil reservoirs; it was found that CLS concentration, salinity, temperature, and mineral type had significant effects on adsorption. The adsorption density from most to least was: bentonite > kaolinite > dolomite > calcite > silica. This work demonstrates the extent of dissolution and precipitation from co-injection of CO{sub 2} and brine in limestone core

  16. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  17. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  18. Hard-to-recover oils with anomalous physical and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Y. M.

    2016-11-01

    Using the global database on physical and chemical properties of oils, the analysis of distribution of viscous, heavy, waxy and highly resinous oils in terms of volumes of their reserves was carried out. It is known that heavy and viscous oils account for slightly more than 33% of the total sample. Resinous and paraffin oils account for less than 30% of the total sample. The criteria necessary to classify oils as hard-to-recover oil reserves are determined. Features of physicochemical properties of these oils are studied under various conditions. The results obtained could be used to solve practical issues in the oil sector.

  19. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflush compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.

  20. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; ...

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  1. Rust inhibiting additive compositions for oils

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, H.

    1980-09-23

    Compositions which include mixtures of a calcium hydroxide overbased oil-soluble calcium sulfonate, hexylene glycol and a surfactant consisting of an ethoxylated aliphatic amine, particularly, diethoxylated cocoamine or diethoxylated soyamine, are useful as rust inhibiting additives for oils and the like. By incorporating these compositions in petroleum based oils such as petroleum based oils of lubricating oil quality which come into contact with metal surfaces under conditions such that the metal surfaces tend to rust or otherwise be subject to deterioration it is possible to inhibit rust formation on such metal surfaces.

  2. Surfactant development for enhanced oil recover. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The general objective of the project is to develop novel surfactants for tertiary recovery of light oil at elevated temperatures and high brine concentrations. Specific objectives are: to design, synthesize and characterize new surfactants capable of forming microemulsions of high stability at high temperatures and high salinity; to select microemulsions that will yield optimum efficiency and effectiveness in oil solubilization; to characterize the physico-chemical properties of selected microemulsion; to correlate surfactant efficacy with physico-chemical variables of selected reservoirs.

  3. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  4. Physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery in deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of laboratory and field tests as well as the commercial use of new physicochemical technologies intended to enhance oil recovery in deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves are presented. They are based on the concept of reservoir energy used to generate gels, sols, and surfactant compositions preserving a complex of properties in the reservoir which are optimal for oil displacement.

  5. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zhengwen Zeng; Baojun Bai; Yi Liu

    2004-09-27

    The third annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies were designed to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Chapter 1 describes the behavior at low concentrations of the surfactant Chaser International CD1045{trademark} (CD) versus different salinity, pressure and temperature. Results of studies on the effects of pH and polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide?HPAM) and CO{sub 2} foam stability after adsorption in the core are also reported. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) transport mechanisms through sandstone, description of the adsorption of CD and CD/CLS onto three porous media (sandstone, limestone and dolomite) and five minerals, and the effect of adsorption on foam stability are also reported. In Chapter 2, the adsorption kinetics of CLS in porous Berea sandstone and non-porous minerals are compared by monitoring adsorption density change with time. Results show that adsorption requires a much longer time for the porous versus non-porous medium. CLS adsorption onto sandstone can be divided into three regions: adsorption controlled by dispersion, adsorption controlled by diffusion and adsorption equilibrium. NaI tracer used to characterize the sandstone had similar trends to earlier results for the CLS desorption process, suggesting a dual porosity model to simulate flow through Berea sandstone. The kinetics and equilibrium test for CD adsorption onto five non-porous minerals and three porous media are reported in Chapter 3. CD adsorption and desorption onto non-porous minerals can be established in less than one hour with adsorption densities ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg of CD per g of mineral in decreasing order of montmorillonite, dolomite, kaolinite, silica and calcite. The surfactant adsorption onto three porous media takes much longer than one

  7. Major oil, gas reserve additions reported

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-10

    Several large, internationally active, US-based companies have recently reported sizable gains in oil and gas reserves in 1996. The biggest reserves addition in absolute terms reported to date belongs to Exxon Corp. However, Amoco Corp. scored the largest percentage gain. The paper discusses gains reported by Exxon, Amoco, ARCO, Phillips, and Oryx.

  8. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  9. Sol-forming oil-displacing system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Altunina, L. K.; Stasyeva, L. A.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves. The kinetic and rheological features of solation in the oil-displacing system have been investigated. A physical modeling of the oil displacement process was carried out under the conditions of a heterogeneous reservoir at a low temperature using the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system. The investigations have proved its high efficiency, and the system was recommended for pilot tests.

  10. AN AZERBAIDZHAN SSR. INSTITUTE OF ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY ADDITIVES TO LUBRICATING OILS. PROBLEMS OF SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION AND USE OF OIL ADDITIVES; FUELS AND POLYMER MATERIALS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An Azerbaidzhan SSR. Institute of additive chemistry additives to lubricating oils . Problems of synthesis, investigation and use of oil additives; fuels and polymer materials (Selected articles)--Translation.

  11. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  12. Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and tocopherols in seed oils recovered from different Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-10-31

    Seed oils recovered from Rosaceae species such as dessert and cider apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) were analyzed for their tocopherol and carotenoid contents using HPLC-DAD-MS(n) following saponification. Qualitative and quantitative tocopherol and carotenoid compositions significantly differed, not only among the different genera but also among cultivars of one species. In particular, seed oils of cider apples were shown to contain higher amounts of both antioxidant classes than that of dessert apples. Total contents of tocopherols of the investigated Rosaceous seed oils ranged from 597.7 to 1099.9 mg/kg oil, while total carotenoid contents varied between 0.48 and 39.15 mg/kg oil. Thus, these seed oils were found to contain appreciable amounts of lipohilic antioxidants having health beneficial potential. The results of the present study contribute to a more economical and exhaustive exploitation of seed byproducts arising from the processing of these Rosaceous fruits.

  13. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant.

  14. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions

    PubMed Central

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10–13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  15. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions.

    PubMed

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10-13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  16. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor.

  17. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  18. A Multipurpose Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the synthesis and properties of S-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-O-O-(alkyl or aryl) phosphorodithioate. This compound was synthesized as wear inhibitor and antioxidant for lubricating oils .

  19. METHOD OF OBTAINING AN ADDITIVE FOR LUBRICATING OILS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of obtaining an additive to lubricating oils , consisting of treating boron trifluoride with alkylphenol and alkylamine, is known. In this...case, (aminotrifluoralkyl)phenoxyborate is obtained which may be used as an antiwear additive for lubricating oils . The proposed method differs from

  20. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  1. Impact of Species and Variety on Concentrations of Minor Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Oils Recovered from Plum Kernels.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Soliven, Arianne; Lācis, Gunārs; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-02-03

    The profile of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene) in oils recovered from the kernels of 28 plum varieties of hexaploid species Prunus domestica L. and diploid plums Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and their crossbreeds were studied. Oil yields in plum kernels of both P. cerasifera and P. domestica was in wide ranges of 22.6-53.1 and 24.2-46.9% (w/w) dw, respectively. The contents of total tocochromanols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and squalene was significantly affected by the variety and ranged between 70.7 and 208.7 mg/100 g of oil, between 0.41 and 3.07 mg/100 g of oil, between 297.2 and 1569.6 mg/100 g of oil, and between 25.7 and 80.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, β-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol were the main minor lipophilic compounds in plum kernel oils and constituted between 208.5 and 1258.7 mg/100 g of oil and between 60.5 and 182.0 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Between the studied plum species, significant differences were recorded for δ-tocopherol (p = 0.007), 24-methylenecycloartanol (p = 0.038), and citrostadienol (p = 0.003), but they were insufficient for discrimination by PCA.

  2. Process for separating and/or recovering hydrocarbon oils from water using biodegradable absorbent sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.B.; Mareau, K.J.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes an improved process for absorbing oils selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon fuels. It comprises the step of contacting the oils with an absorbent oleophilic biodegradable sponge material comprised of at least one essentially fat free, foamed, biodegradable natural product selected from the group consisting of animal proteins and plant polymaccharides, which material is capable of absorbing at least about thirty times its weight of oils.

  3. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  4. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  5. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency

  6. EP Additive Performance in Biobased vs. Paraffinic Base Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of commercial extreme pressure (EP) additives containing sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine were investigated for their EP properties in soybean (SBO) and paraffinic (PRFN) base oils. The investigations were conducted using a 4-ball (4B) and twist-compression (TC) tribometers. The concentra...

  7. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulzar, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Mufti, R. A.; Zahid, Rehan

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  8. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  9. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  10. Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

  11. Treatment of carbonaceous shales or sands to recover oil and pure carbon as products

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. G.

    1985-05-28

    A carbon-containing solid (such as oil shale or tar sand) is treated with air in a six-stage vertical shaft to make producer gas, oil and a pure carbon as products. The top and bottom stages of the vertical shaft are fed to pre-heat incoming solid and to scavenge sensible heat from the processed solid. One stage is a direct retort and makes a gas stream which is a mixture of producer gas and oil. Another stage is a gas producer which converts fixed carbon on the solid to carbon monoxide by reaction with air and carbon dioxide. A fifth stage preheats incoming air. The sixth stage cools and purifies hot carbon monoxide-rich producer gas. The oil and producer gas products are made by direct retorting of the solid with air followed by a separation step. The pure carbon product is made by separating pure carbon monoxide from the carbon monoxide-rich producer gas followed by reaching the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and the pure carbon product.

  12. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  13. Balanced-line rf electrode system for use in rf ground heating to recover oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, W.A.; Vinegar, H.J.; Chiafu Hsu; Mueller, O.M.

    1993-08-17

    A system is described for extracting oil in-situ from a hydrocarbon bearing layer below a surface layer comprising: (a) a master oscillator for producing a fundamental frequency; (b) a plurality of heating sources, each comprising: radiofrequency (RF) producing means for providing a radiofrequency excitation signal based upon the fundamental frequency, a coaxial line coupled to the RF producing means for passing the radiofrequency signal through said surface layer without substantial loss of power; a conductive electrode located in the hydrocarbon bearing layer having a length related to the radiofrequency signal and adapted for radiating energy into said hydrocarbon bearing layer for causing shade oil to be extracted; a plurality of matching elements, each matching element coupled, respectively, between each respective electrode and a respective coaxial line for maximizing radiation emitted by the electrodes when they receive the radiofrequency signal; and (c) a plurality of producer wells adapted for collecting the extracted shale oil.

  14. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-05-29

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  15. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Periaswamy Sivagnanam, Saravana; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process. PMID:26035021

  16. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  17. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Teresa Díaz-Faes; González, Alfonso Fernández; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol–gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives. PMID:27877840

  18. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine

    2016-03-11

    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited.

  20. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P.; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited.

  1. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P.; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited. PMID:26965360

  2. Synthesis and characterization of polyacids from palm acid oil and sunflower oil via addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Nor, Hussin Mohd; Kamarul, Tunku; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2013-12-15

    In this study aliphatic polyacids were synthesized using palm acid oil (PAO) and sunflower oil (SFO) via addition reaction technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mixing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide with PAO or SFO at the ratio 3:10:1 produced the lowest iodine value of 10.57 and 9.24 respectively, indicating the increase in epoxidization of both oils. Adding adipic acid to the epoxidized oils at a ratio of 1:10 increases the acid values of SFO and PAO to 11.22 and 6.73 respectively. The existence of multi-acid groups present in synthesized polyacid was confirmed by MALD-ToF-MS. This feature indicates a possible value to the biomaterials development.

  3. Radiowave-based process recovers oil from sludge at Texas site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-02

    A radio frequency (RF)-based sludge treatment process is proving successful in demonstration tests at a Texas site. The process separates petroleum-based sludges into salable oil, treatment-quality water, and disposable solids. The system, called MST-4000, is effective on most sludges, including: dissolved-air-flotation float, slop oil emulsion solids, heat exchanger cleaning sludge, API separator sludge, and leaded tank bottoms. Major components of the system include: four high-power RF/microwave transmitters; four high-power RF/microwave illuminators, which focus the energy on the sludge in a small, cylindrical reactor; four computer-controlled, automatic RF tuners, which improve the quality of the RF/sludge interface by monitoring and adjusting vector impedance; a wave guide, which channels and controls the RF signals from the transmitters through the tuners and to the illuminators; a specially designed instrumentation and control system; and plumbing and piping systems. The paper describes the process and current tests being performed.

  4. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  5. Thermal and Tribological Properties of Jatropha Oil as Additive in Commercial Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Nieto-Camacho, F.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Contreras-Gallegos, E.; Torres, M. Vite; Flores-Cuautle, J. J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The recent use that has been given to bio-oil as an additive, in a commercial engine oil, raises the necessity to study its physical properties. The present study is aimed to obtain thermal properties of blends made with Jatropha-Curcas L. Oil, Crude, and Refined, at different concentrations using SAE40W oil (EO) as a lubricant base. By using photothermal techniques, thermal effusivity and diffusivity were obtained. The obtained results show that thermal effusivity increases from 455 Ws^{1/2}{\\cdot }m^{-2}{\\cdot }K^{-1} to 520 Ws^{1/2}{\\cdot }m^{-2}{\\cdot }K^{-1} as the percentage of additive increases as well, whereas thermal diffusivity values range from 7× 10^{-8}m2{\\cdot }s^{-1} to 10× 10^{-8}m2{\\cdot }s^{-1}. In the present study, four balls test was used in order to obtain friction coefficient and wear scar values for studied samples, the obtained results point out that in general refined Jatropha-Curcas L. oil presents smaller wear scars than the crude one.

  6. Fluid loss control additives for oil well cementing compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Crema, S.C.; Kucera, C.H.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a cementing composition useful in cementing oil, gas and water wells. It comprises hydraulic cement; and a fluid loss additive in an amount effective to reduce fluid loss, the fluid loss additive comprised of a copolymer of acrylamide monomer and vinyl formamide monomer and derivatives thereof in a weight percent ratio of from about 95:5 to 5:95, the copolymer having a molecular weight range of from about 10,000 to 3,000,000, the acrylamide monomer being selected from the group consisting of acrylamide, methacrylamide, N,N-dimethyl(meth)acrylamide, dialkylaminoalkyl(meth) acrylamide and mixtures thereof, the vinyl formamide monomer being selected from the group consisting of vinyl formamide, its hydrolysis products and derivatives thereof.

  7. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  8. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  9. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats
    KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  10. Protection against oxidation of fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions through addition of rapeseed oil or antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pham, Kim A; Meyer, Anne S

    2005-06-29

    The ability of rapeseed oil and/or different antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol mixture, ascorbyl palmitate, and EDTA) to protect fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions against oxidation was investigated. Tocopherol isomers in concentrations similar to those found in natural rapeseed oil were added to rapeseed oil stripped of natural tocopherols. The rapeseed oil with added tocopherols significantly inhibited oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions. In contrast, the emulsions with only fish oil and added alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were less stable than the emulsions with fish oil alone. When added individually, the gamma-tocopherol seemed to inhibit oxidation more efficiently than alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) almost completely retarded oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions, as determined by PV, volatile oxidation products, and sensory evaluation. AP also prevented the otherwise prooxidant effect of tocopherols added to fish oil before emulsification. No interactions between AP, tocopherols, and EDTA were observed, and EDTA added alone to fish oil did not show antioxidant properties in the milk emulsions. Overall, the results showed that addition of AP or rapeseed oil containing natural tocopherols to fish oil was equally efficient in inhibiting oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions.

  11. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    PubMed

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar.

  12. Analysis of synthetic motor oils for additive elements by ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.; Salmon, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    Standard motor oils are made by blending paraffinic or naphthenic mineral oil base stocks with additive packages containing anti-wear agents, dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers. The blender can monitor the correct addition of the additives by determining the additive elements in samples dissolved in a solvent by ICP-AES. Internal standardization is required to control sample transport interferences due to differences in viscosity between samples and standards. Synthetic motor oils, made with poly-alpha-olefins and trimethylol propane esters, instead of mineral oils, pose an additional challenge since these compounds affect the plasma as well as having sample transport interference considerations. The synthetic lubricant base stocks add significant oxygen to the sample matrix, which makes the samples behave differently than standards prepared in mineral oil. Determination of additive elements in synthetic motor oils will be discussed.

  13. Free radical addition of butanethiol to vegetable oil double bonds.

    PubMed

    Bantchev, Grigor B; Kenar, James A; Biresaw, Girma; Han, Moon Gyu

    2009-02-25

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further product characterization and analysis was conducted using GC and GC-MS on the fatty acid methyl esters obtained by the transesterification of the SMVO products. Investigation of the effect of reaction conditions showed that high yield and high conversion of double bonds into thiol were favored at low reaction temperatures and high butanethiol/vegetable oil ratios. Canola and corn oils gave similar double-bond conversions and yields of the desired SMVO product even though they have big differences in the relative numbers of single and multiple double bonds in their structures. Under best reaction conditions, up to 97% of double-bond conversion and 61% isolated yields of the purified SMVO products were attained.

  14. THERMOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF ANTI-ABRASIVE OIL ADDITIVES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTISEIZE COMPOUNDS, *LUBRICANT ADDITIVES, *LUBRICANTS, ADDITIVES, ALKYL RADICALS, CHLORIDES, ETHYLENES, HEXANES (6 C), HYDROCARBONS, IRON, PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, POWDER METALS, SULFIDES, TEST METHODS, TRANSLATIONS

  15. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  16. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  17. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  18. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  19. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  20. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  1. Effect of water on overbased sulfonate engine oil additives.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Dowding, P J; Steytler, D C; Barnes, D J; Routh, A F

    2008-04-15

    The presence and effect of water on calcium carbonate nanoparticles used in engine additives, stabilized with a sulfonate surfactant, is investigated using small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and rheometry. These techniques provide complementary data that suggests the formation of a layer of water around the core of the particles ensuring continued colloidal stability yet increasing the dispersion viscosity. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering, the dimensions of this layer have been quantified to effectively one or two water molecules in thickness. The lack of a significant electrostatic repulsion is evidence that the water layer is insufficient to cause major dissociation of surface ions.

  2. Measurement of water by oven evaporation using a novel oven design. 2. Water in motor oils and motor oil additives.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Vaishnav, Kevin; Sieber, John R

    2004-11-01

    The measurement of water in lubricating oils is important because water accelerates the corrosion of metal parts and bearings in motors. Some of the additives added to lubricating oils to improve their performance react with the Karl Fischer reagent (KFR) causing a positive bias in the water measurement. A new oven evaporation technique for measuring water in oils has been developed that is automated, requires less sample handling, is easily calibrated, and is capable of measuring relatively small mass fractions of water (> or =50 mg/kg sample). A series of motor oils was analyzed with the standard KFR, a reagent that detects interfering substances that reduce iodine, and the aldehyde-ketone reagent that does not detect substances that react with methanol and form water. The oil samples were heated to 107 degrees C and then reheated to 160 degrees C. At both temperatures, material was measured by both KFRs, but only zinc dithiophosphate released sulfur compounds that would react with the reagent that detects interfering substances. Mass fractions of between 20 and 70% of the volatile material released at either temperature were measured with the standard KFR but not with the aldehyde-ketone reagent. These results demonstrate that there are a number of sources of positive bias in the measurement of water in motor oils and that the standard KFR cannot be used to measure water in motor oils and motor oil additives. These results also indicate that some of the material reacts with methanol to form water. Finally, these results suggest that some of the material that is volatile at 160 degrees C and not at 107 degrees C may be water that is physically occluded or may be substances that react with diethyleneglycol monomethylether to produce water.

  3. Inhibition of Ostwald ripening in model beverage emulsions by addition of poorly water soluble triglyceride oils.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian; Henson, Lulu; Popplewell, L Michael; Decker, Eric Andrew; Choi, Seung Jun

    2012-01-01

    Beverage emulsions containing flavor oils that have a relatively high water-solubility are unstable to droplet growth due to Ostwald ripening. The aim of this study was to improve the stability of model beverage emulsions to this kind of droplet growth by incorporating poorly water-soluble triglyceride oils. High pressure homogenization was used to prepare a series of 5 wt% oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by modified starch that had different lipid phase compositions (orange oil : corn oil). Emulsions prepared using only orange oil as the lipid phase were highly unstable to droplet growth during storage, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening resulting from the relatively high water-solubility of orange oil. Droplet growth could be effectively inhibited by incorporating ≥ 10% corn oil into the lipid phase prior to homogenization. In addition, creaming was also retarded because the lipid phase density was closer to that of the aqueous phase density. These results illustrate a simple method of improving the physical stability of orange oil emulsions for utilization in the food, beverage, and fragrance industries.

  4. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p < 0.001) and 77% (p < 0.001), respectively. No differences in the PM2.5 emissions were observed when other additives were added to soybean oil. Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  5. Method of using an aqueous chemical system to recover hydrocarbon and minimize wastes from sludge deposits in oil storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, M.L.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a process for separating and removing a hydrocarbon, water and solid components of sludge deposited in an oil storage tank. It comprises: introducing a sufficient amount of a nonionic surfactant in an aqueous solution to form a layer of the solution above the sludge layer; the nonionic surfactant comprising: C{sub 8}-C{sub 12} alkylphenol-ethylene oxide adducts of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide, and at least one castor oil-ethylene oxide adduct of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide; the nonionic surfactant being present in a quantity sufficient to separate hydrocarbon component from the sludge without forming an emulsion, adding a diluent, immiscible with the aqueous layer, for extracting the hydrocarbons, and separately draining the diluent layer and aqueous layer from the tank.

  6. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  7. Evaluation of a biomass-derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H.

    1995-12-31

    A biomass derived oil referred to as sludge derived oil (SDO) has been evaluated to determine its potential use as an asphalt cement additive. The oil is derived from a relatively low temperature (450{degrees}C) atmospheric pressure thermoconversion process called Enersludge. The Enersludge process converts dried sewage sludge to a liquid hydrocarbon fraction. Relatively high concentrations of polar groups were identified in extensive characterization tests which indicated SDO could be utilized as an additive for asphalt. The oil`s unique properties make it a antistripping additive. Also, its strong affinity for heavy asphaltic material makes it an ideal rejuvenating agent for recycled asphalt. The SDO performed as well as the commercial antistripping asphalt additives tested in static immersion stripping tests. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the strength of asphalt concrete produced using SDO is similar to that produced using commercial additives. In September 1994 SDO was used to pave a test strip in Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the work done at ERL/CANMET to develop SDO for antistripping applications.

  8. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  9. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  10. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality.

  11. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Use of soybean oil and ammonium sulfate additions to optimize secondary metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Junker, B; Mann, Z; Gailliot, P; Byrne, K; Wilson, J

    1998-12-05

    A valine-overproducing mutant (MA7040, Streptomyces hygroscopicus) was found to produce 1.5 to 2.0 g/L of the immunoregulant, L-683,590, at the 0.6 m3 fermentation scale in a simple batch process using soybean oil and ammonium sulfate-based GYG5 medium. Levels of both lower (L-683,795) and higher (HH1 and HH2) undesirable homolog levels were controlled adequately. This batch process was utilized to produce broth economically at the 19 m3 fermentation scale. Material of acceptable purity was obtained without the multiple pure crystallizations previously required for an earlier culture, MA6678, requiring valine supplementation for impurity control. Investigations at the 0.6 m3 fermentation scale were conducted, varying agitation, pH, initial soybean oil/ammonium sulfate charges, and initial aeration rate to further improve growth and productivity. Mid-cycle ammonia levels and lipase activity appeared to have an important role. Using mid-cycle soybean oil additions, a titer of 2.3 g/L of L-683,590 was obtained, while titers reached 2.7 g/L using mid-cycle soybean oil and ammonium sulfate additions. Both higher and lower homolog levels remained acceptable during this fed-batch process. Optimal timing of mid-cycle oil and ammonium sulfate additions was considered a critical factor to further titer improvements.

  13. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  14. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  15. Additives increasing antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...

  16. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  17. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  18. Technical options for processing additional light tight oil volumes within the United States

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines technical options for processing additional LTO volumes within the United States. Domestic processing of additional LTO would enable an increase in petroleum product exports from the United States, already the world’s largest net exporter of petroleum products. Unlike crude oil, products are not subject to export limitations or licensing requirements. While this is one possible approach to absorbing higher domestic LTO production in the absence of a relaxation of current limitations on crude exports, domestic LTO would have to be priced at a level required to encourage additional LTO runs at existing refinery units, debottlenecking, or possible additions of processing capacity.

  19. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  20. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  1. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  2. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  3. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  4. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2005-10-19

    The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters.

  5. The enhanced stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets by Xanthan Gum as an additive of chemical dispersant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiqin; Li, Yiming; Yang, Xiaolong; Bao, Mutai; Cheng, Hua

    2017-03-07

    It is necessary for chemical dispersant to disperse oil effectively and maintain the stability of oil droplets. In this work, Xanthan Gum (XG) was used as an environmentally friendly additive in oil dispersant formulation to enhance the stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets. When XG was used together with chemical dispersant 9500A, the dispersion effectiveness of crude oil in artificial sea water (ASW) and the oil droplet stability were both greatly enhanced. In the presence of XG, lower concentration of 9500A was needed to achieve the effective dispersion and stabilization. In addition to the enhancement of dispersion and stabilization, it was found that the biodegradation rate of crude oil by bacteria was dramatically enhanced when a mixture of 9500A and XG was used as a dispersant. Because of the low environmental impact of XG, this would be a potential way to formulate the dispersant with lower toxicity.

  6. New chemical additive to enhance reduction of oil carryover in gas

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.I.

    1998-12-31

    Foaming and fouling in glycol contactors and/or in amine treating systems are frequent problems in gas treatment processes due to the entrainment of liquid and solid aerosols in the gas stream. Entrainment of these aerosols leads also to mechanical damage of turbines and/or unscheduled shutdown of compressor units. A new chemical additive was developed and applied in the gas stream. The additive was successful in preventing the dissemination of the oil and/or condensate carryover into aerosol sizes, thereby enhancing the performance of coalescer filters and scrubbers.

  7. Additive methane-mitigating effect between linseed oil and nitrate fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Meunier, B; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Silberberg, M; Rochette, Y; Gerard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-07-01

    , which tended to reduce (P < 0.10) fiber digestibility. Nitrogen balance (% of N intake) was positive for all diets but retention was less (P = 0.03) with linseed oil. This study demonstrates an additive effect between nitrate and linseed oil for reducing methanogenesis in cows without altering diet digestibility.

  8. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  9. Impacts of calcium addition and different oil types and levels on in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gülşen, Nurettin; Umucalilar, Huzur Derya; Inal, Fatma; Hayirli, Armagan

    2006-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the effects of calcium addition to substrates differing in source and level of oil on fermentation, gas production, and digestibility parameters. Substrates were made from basal mixtures containing three levels of calcium salt (0, 1, and 2% CaCl2) to contain three levels (3, 6, and 9%) of two types (sunflower and soy) of oil. After collecting from two Holstein bulls and mixing with buffer, rumen fluid was used to incubate the resulting 18 mixtures in duplicate. Ionizable calcium, pH and NH3-N concentration were measured during incubation. Gas production was measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after incubation. Kinetics parameters of gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were calculated from regression coefficients of an exponential equation and a linear equation, respectively. Data were analysed using 3-way ANOVA with repeated measure option in which the parameter time was a subplot. Oil type did not affect pH and ionizable calcium concentration. There were linear increases and decreases in pH and ionizable calcium concentration in response to increasing oil and calcium levels, respectively. However, with increasing oil levels there were no interactions between calcium addition and oil level on pH and ionizable calcium concentration. None of the treatments affected NH3-N concentration. The amount of gas produced from substrates containing sunflower oil was greater than soy oil (41.7 vs. 40.5 ml). Cumulative gas production and amount of gas production from insoluble but slowly fermentable portion of the supplemental mixtures linearly decreased and linearly increased as oil and calcium levels increased in the substrates, respectively. However, interactions of calcium addition and oil level on gas production and kinetics of gas production were lacking. Oil type did not affect IVDMD. Despite lacking main effects, interaction of calcium addition and oil level indicated that increasing calcium level

  10. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Oxide Nanoparticles as Friction and Wear Improvement Additives in Motor Oil

    DOE PAGES

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Erck, Robert A.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; ...

    2017-01-01

    The effect of two nanoparticle oxides on friction and wear was studied under laboratory test conditions using a reciprocating test machine and two test configurations. The addition of these nanoparticles in base stock oil under certain conditions reduced the coefficient of friction and improved wear, but that depended on the test configuration. Examination of the rubbed surfaces showed the pronounced formation of a tribofilm in some cases, while polishing on the surface was also observed in other cases. Contact configuration is important when oxide nanoparticles are being evaluated and the conclusions about their efficacy can be vastly different.

  13. [Inhibitory effect of essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents on bacterial histidine decarboxylase].

    PubMed

    Kamii, Eri; Terada, Gaku; Akiyama, Jyunki; Isshiki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether various essential oils, food additives, peracetic acid and detergents inhibit bacterial histidine decarboxylase. Crude extract of Morganella morganii NBRC3848 was prepared and incubated with various agents. Histidine decarboxylase activity was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) by 26 of 45 compounds tested. Among the 26 agents, sodium hypochlorite completely decomposed both histidine and histamine, while peracetic acid caused slight decomposition. Histidine and histamine were stable in the presence of the other 24 agents. These results indicated that 25 of the agents examined were inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase.

  14. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  15. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  16. Additive-free harvesting of oleaginous phagotrophic microalga by oil and air flotation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Majid; Starvaggi, Haley A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    A unique oleaginous phagotrophic microalga Ochromonas danica is poised for effective lipid production from waste. Cell harvesting and dewatering are major costs in making algae-based products. In this work an effective additive-free harvesting method was developed, taking advantage of O. danica's comparatively more hydrophobic surface and larger size. The algal cells' partitioning to oil/water interface was evaluated. Recovery by flotation with waste cooking oil was optimized using an L-9 Taguchi orthogonal-array design. Further, additive-free cell collection and concentrating by air flotation was studied for the effects of both physical factors (column dimension, air-stone pore size, sample-to-column volume ratio) and culture properties (pH, culture growth stage, cell concentration, and pure versus impure cultures). The optimized process consistently achieved >90 % recovery in a single stage. 98+ % recovery could be achieved when starting concentrations were >10(8) cells/ml, or potentially using a two- or multi-stage process for diluter cultures.

  17. The tribological chemistry of the triazine derivative additives in rape seed oil and synthetic diester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Hua; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Ma, Chenyan

    2011-02-01

    The additives, laurylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TRLA) and diisooctylamino-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (referred to as TREA), were prepared in our laboratory. The products were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and elemental analysis. Their tribological behaviors as additives in raped seed oil and diester were evaluated using four-ball friction and wear testers as well. The results suggest that all the synthesized compounds have excellent tribological behaviors and they were compared with sulfurized isobutene (referred to as SIB) which is a commercial additive. The results show that they have good tribological properties. The two additives were investigated on thermal films and tribofilms by using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results of surface analysis reveal that the thermal films formed from TREA and TRLA in rape seed oil (referred to as RSO) and diester (referred to as DE), all are consist of iron sulfate; under mild AW conditions, the tribofilms from TRLA and TREA in DE is mainly composed of FeS, while the tribochemcal film from TRLA in RSO is mainly composed of iron sulfite; under EP-1 (the maximum non-seizure load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS and FeSO4; under EP-2 (nearly weld load) conditions, the tribochemical films from TRLA and TREA in RSO and DE mainly consist of FeS.

  18. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  19. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  20. Effect of additives on tribochemical stability of greases with easter base oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonorov, E.M.; Demina, L.V.; Skryabina, T.G.; Sosulina, L.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article investigates the possibility of improving the tribochemical stability of soap-base grease formulated with polyol ester oils, by the use of additives of the phenol and amine types. Model greases formulated with a pentaerythritol ester (PET) and the polyester PAK, taken in a 9:1 ratio, were examined. The tribochemical stability of the greases was evaluated according to the rate of conversion of their dispersion medium in a rolling friction zone. The rate of additive exhaustion was evaluated by analogy with the rate of triboconversion of the dispersion medium. The additives used were phenyl-..cap alpha..-naphthylamine (PAN), diphenylamine (DPA), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (ionol), a technical-grade dialkylated diphenylamine (DAT), and mixtures of the inhibitors. It is determined that the greatest effect in increasing the tribochemical stability is achieved by the introduction of combinations of additives: DAT + ionol (in Li and cCa greases) and PAN + DAT (in cCa grease).

  1. Addition of a palm oil analogue to oil-reservoir formation water stimulates the growth of Anaerobaculum sp. and a novel taxon from the Deferribacteraceae.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; J Midgley, David; Wei, Xiaofang; Volk, Herbert; Ata Wan Daud, Wan; Hendry, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of microbes within oil reservoirs has been the subject of a number of studies. The aims of these studies have included alteration of oil characteristics, improvement in recovery of oil and suppression of microbes that produce H(2)S. Understanding microbial communities and their microbial responses is important in predicting the outcome of these studies. Palm oil waste is an abundant waste product, particularly in Asia, and we sought to examine its usefulness for altering microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Data from the present study demonstrated that after amendment with a palm oil analogue (POA), oil reservoir microflora produced methane and nitrogen gas along with a net consumption of CO(2). The addition stimulated a novel taxon in the family Deferribacteraceae. Amendment with POA also affected the methanogen community by stimulating the growth of Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus spp. Overall the study indicated that POA addition allowed the development of a consortium that was able to convert CO(2) into CH(4) in a process powered by an abundant waste product.

  2. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Lesquerella fendleri seed and oils as poultry feed additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats) is an oil seed plant capable of growth over a large geographic area of the southwestern U.S. The seed oil contains hydroxyfatty acids, useful in a variety of industrial products, and can replace imported castor bean oil (Ricinus communis L.). Lesquere...

  3. Addition of pasture plant essential oil in milk: influence on chemical and sensory properties of milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Tornambé, G; Cornu, A; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Kondjoyan, N; Figueredo, G; Hulin, S; Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the addition, to milk, of an essential oil (EO) obtained from the hydrodistillation of plants collected from a mountain natural pasture on the milk and cheese sensory properties. The EO was mainly composed of terpenoid compounds (67 of the 95 compounds identified) as well as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and benzenic compounds. In milk, the addition of this EO at the concentration of 0.1 microL/L did not influence its sensory properties, whereas at 1.0 microL/L, sensory properties were modified. In cheeses, the effect of adding EO into milk was studied in an experimental dairy plant allowing the production of small Cantal-type cheeses (10 kg) in 3 vats processed in parallel. The control (C) vat contained 110 L of raw milk; in the other 2 vats, 0.1 microL/L (EO1) or 3.0 microL/L (EO30) of EO were added to 110 L of the same milk. Six replicates were performed. After 5 mo of ripening, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out on the cheeses, including determination of the volatile compounds by dynamic headspace combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The EO did not influence the sensory properties of the cheeses at the lower concentration (EO1). However, the EO30 cheeses had a more intense odor and aroma, both characterized as "mint/chlorophyll" and "thyme/oregano." These unusual odors and aromas originated directly from the EO added. In total, 152 compounds desorbing from cheese were found, of which 41 had been added with the EO; in contrast, 54 compounds of the EO were not recovered in the cheese. Few volatile compounds desorbing from cheeses, other than the added compounds, were affected by EO addition. Among them, 2-butanol, propanol, and 3-heptanone suggested a slight effect of the EO on lipid catabolism. The antimicrobial activity of terpenes is not or is only marginally involved in the explanation of the influence of the botanical composition of the meadows on the pressed

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  5. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation.

  6. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  7. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils.

  8. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  9. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-12-19

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.

  10. A blend of essential plant oils used as an additive to alter silage fermentation or used as a feed additive for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kung, L; Williams, P; Schmidt, R J; Hu, W

    2008-12-01

    A blend of essential plant oils was evaluated for its effects on silage fermentation and animal performance. In the first experiment, the blend of essential oils was mixed with freshly chopped whole-plant corn to achieve a concentration of 0, 40, or 80 mg of active product per kilogram of fresh forage weight. Whole-plant corn was also mixed with a buffered propionic acid-based product at 0.2% of fresh forage weight. The blend of essential oils did not affect the populations of yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, or enterobacteria; the fermentation end products; or the aerobic stability of the corn silage. Addition of the buffered propionic acid additive moderately reduced the production of acids during fermentation and resulted in a small reduction in the numbers of yeasts after ensiling, but did not affect aerobic stability. In a second experiment, 30 Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 26 multiparous) averaging 118 +/- 70 d in milk and producing 38 +/- 16 kg of milk/d were fed a total mixed ration, once daily, that consisted of (on a DM basis) 25% corn silage, 15% alfalfa silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 50% concentrate. One-half of the cows were fed a blend of essential oils that was mixed directly into their total mixed ration to provide 1.2 g/cow per d for 9 wk. Cows fed the essential oils ate 1.9 kg more dry matter/d and produced 2.7 kg more 3.5% fat-corrected milk/d than did cows fed the control diet. The percentages of milk fat and protein, the somatic cell count numbers, and the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by treatment. Feed efficiency, change in body weight, and change in body condition scoring were also similar between treatments. After 12 h of incubation, the addition of a moderate dose and a high dose of essential oils to in vitro ruminal fermentations had no effect on the concentration of total VFA compared with the control treatment. However, they decreased the molar proportions of acetic, butyric, and valeric acids and increased

  11. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Valencia, I; O'Grady, M N; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I; Kerry, J P

    2008-12-01

    Fresh pork sausages (pork shoulder, pork back fat, water, rusk and seasoning) were manufactured where 15% of the pork back fat was substituted with linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO). Green tea catechins (GTC) and green coffee antioxidant (GCA) were added to both LO (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200) and FO (FGTC 200 and FGCA 200) substituted sausages at a level of 200mg/kg. Raw and cooked pork sausages were either over-wrapped with oxygen permeable film (aerobic storage) or stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing 80% O(2):20% CO(2) or 70% N(2):30% CO(2), respectively for 7 days at 4°C. Effects on fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, colour and sensorial properties were investigated. α-Linolenic acid increased from 1.34% (control) to 8.91% (LO) and up to 11.2% (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200). Addition of fish oil increased levels of EPA from 0.05% (control) to 2.83% (FO), 3.02% (FGTC 200) and 2.87% (FGCA 200) and DHA levels increased from 0.04% (control) to a maximum of 1.93% (FGTC 200). Lipid oxidation was low in raw and cooked linseed oil containing sausages. GTC (200mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid oxidation in raw fish oil containing sausages after 7 days of storage. Colour parameters in raw pork sausages were unaffected by the packaging atmosphere. L(∗) lightness values were lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and a(∗) redness values lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and FGTC 200 after 7 days of storage. Sensory scores of cooked pork sausages were unaffected by linseed oil addition. Flavour and overall acceptability scores in cooked fish oil containing sausages were improved by GTC addition. Results obtained demonstrate potential for the production of nutritionally enhanced fresh pork sausages.

  12. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  13. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  14. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  15. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    PubMed

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  16. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach.

  17. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of corn oil polyhydroxy fatty acids designed as additive agent for many applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the advent of the modern food industry, vegetable oils (triglycerides) from many sources had a long history of use as condiments in cooking, personal care and other therapeutic applications. Industrial applications of vegetable oils, on the other hand, have been limited on account of the shor...

  19. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiao; He, Jie; Yu, Laigui; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-10-01

    LaF3 nanoparticles surface-modified with fluorosilane were synthesized by surface modification technology. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The tribological properties of surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that 3-(heptafluoroisopropoxy)propyltriethoxysilane as the modifier is able to improve the dispersibility of LaF3 nanoparticles in fluoro silicone oil. Moreover, when the optimum concentration, 0.08 wt.% of fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 is added into fluoro silicone oil, as-synthesized fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent anti-wear as additive in fluoro silicone oil. The wear scar diameter under the optimum concentration is always smaller than that under the lubrication of fluoro silicone oil alone. Especially, when the load is 500 N, 600 N and 700 N, the wear scar diameter is reduced by 17%, 43% and 42%, respectively. In addition, during the friction process, LaF3 nanoparticles are deposited on the rubbed steel surface to form LaF3 deposition layer which functions jointly with the boundary lubricating film thereby resulting in improved tribological properties.

  20. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  1. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  2. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  3. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  4. DNA damage caused by organic extracts of contaminated sediment, crude, and weathered oil and their fractions recovered up to 5 years after the 2007 Hebei Spirit oil spill off Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Gi Beum

    2015-06-15

    We examined the degree of DNA damage caused by three fractions (F1, aliphatic hydrocarbons; F2, aromatic hydrocarbons; and F3, polar compounds) of the organic extract of sediments taken from Taean, Korea, following the Hebei Spirit oil spill. DNA damage was measured using the comet assay with blood cells of the striped beakfish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). DNA damage was also examined for fractions of crude oil (Iranian Heavy Crude Oil, IHC), weathered oil and six subfractions (F2.1-F2.6). The greatest DNA damage was found from the Sinduri dune region and DNA damage decreased to 40% weathered oil in F2 fraction compared with crude oil. The DNA damage of the sum of fractions was found higher than the organic extracts of sediments, suggesting antagonistic interactions between the genotoxic compounds. This study confirmed the persistence of potential genotoxicity in sediments of the severely affected regions as long as 5 years after the oil spill.

  5. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage.

  6. Steam-on-a-chip for oil recovery: the role of alkaline additives in steam assisted gravity drainage.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Guerrero, Uriel; Sinton, David

    2013-10-07

    We present a lab-on-a-chip approach to informing thermal oil recovery processes. Bitumen - a major global resource - is an extremely viscous oil which is extracted by injecting steam underground in a process known as Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). Here, a microfluidic network saturated with bitumen provides a physical model of the SAGD reservoir; steam is injected into the chip, and the oil recovery dynamics are visualized and quantified in real-time. The unique advantage of this approach is the pore-scale quantification of fluid phase dynamics under relevant reservoir conditions and pore sizes. High resolution is achieved by leveraging the inherent fluorescence of the native bitumen. The approach is applied to quantify the efficacy of an alkaline steam additive. With the additive, the mean characteristic size of oil-in-water emulsions formed during SAGD is reduced from 150 μm to 6 μm, and the corresponding recovery effectiveness is improved by ~50%. These results demonstrate that pore-scale process quantification enabled by lab-on-a-chip methods can improve the efficacy, and the associated carbon footprint, of energy intensive thermal oil recovery processes.

  7. Effect of storage on refined olive oil composition: stabilization by addition of chlorophyll pigments and squalene.

    PubMed

    Rigane, Ghayth; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Salem, Ridha Ben

    2013-01-01

    Refined olive oil has been analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of storage time on their quality after enrichment with chlorophyll pigments and squalene. At the end of the storage, chlorophyll pigments decomposed for more than 90%, while, carotene pigment loss was lower showing up to 75% in all oil samples stored at 20°C and 50°C. The reduction of total phenolic compounds exhibited similar degradation profiles, reducing by 81% for enriched refined olive oil stored at 20°C and 50°C after six months. For all studied samples, squalene content decreased significantly (p< 0.05) only after four months of storage. Oils with added pure squalene had the lower peroxide values (52 meq O2 · kg(-1)) at the end of storage at 20°C. After six months of storage the oxidative stability increased to 1 h 28 min and 2 h 06 min for refined olive oil stored at 20°C enriched with chlorophyll + squalene and only by squalene, respectively. Therefore, squalene supplemented with 800 mg · kg(-1) exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. This study could provide useful information for industry to produce high-stability vegetable oil.

  8. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  9. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  10. Additive antimicrobial [corrected] effects of the active components of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris--chemotype carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Iten, Felix; Saller, Reinhard; Abel, Gudrun; Reichling, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Herbal remedies are multicomponent mixtures by their nature as well as by pharmaceutical definition. Being a multicomponent mixture is not only a crucial property of herbal remedies, it also represents a precondition for interactions such as synergism or antagonism. Until now, only a few phytomedicines are accurately described concerning the interactions of their active components. The aim of this study was to search for interactions within such a naturally given multi-component mixture and to discuss the pharmaceutical and clinical impacts. The thyme oil chosen for the examination belongs to the essential oils with the most pronounced antimicrobial activity. Antibiotic activity of thyme oil and single active components were tested against six different strains of microorganisms. The checkerboard assay was used to search for interactions. The time-kill assay was used to verify the observed effects and to get information about the temporal resolution of the antimicrobial activity. The degree of the detected interactions corresponded with the demarcating FICI measure of 0.5, which separates the additive from the over-additive (synergistic) effects. Therefore, the observed effect was called a "borderline case of synergism" or, respectively, "partial synergism". Partial synergism was observed only in the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Additive antimicrobial activity was observed for the combination of the two monosubstances carvacrol plus linalool and thymol plus linalool as well as with the combination of the two essential oils of the carvacrol and linalool chemotypes. An increase of the carvacrol oil concentration from one to two times the MIC resulted in a considerable acceleration of the kill-rate. Thyme oil is composed of several different components that show antimicrobial activity (at least: carvacrol, thymol and linalool). The antimicrobial activity of thyme oil is partly based on additive effects, which might especially enhance the rapidity of the

  11. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  12. Microbial oils as food additives: recent approaches for improving microbial oil production and its polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Triantaphyllidou, Irene-Eva; Aggeli, Dimitra; Elazzazy, Ahmed Mohammed; Baeshen, Mohammed Nabih; Aggelis, George

    2016-02-01

    In this short review, we summarize the latest research in the production of polyunsaturated microbial oils that are of interest in food technology. The current research targets the productivity of oleaginous microorganisms, as well as the biosynthesis of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most important efforts target the efficiency of the oleaginous machinery, via overexpression of key-enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as well as the minimization of lipid degradation, by repressing genes involved in the β-oxidation pathway. The production of specific PUFAs is approached by homologous or heterologous expression of specific desaturases and elongases involved in PUFA biosynthesis in oleaginous microorganisms. New perspectives, such as the production of triacylglycerols of specific structure and the employment of adaptive experimental evolution for creating robust oleaginous strains able to produce PUFAs are also discussed.

  13. Oil removal from waterflooding injection water

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, W.B.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a process of recovering crude oil from a subterranean formation by injecting flooding water into an injection well extending into the formation and recovering produced oil and water from at least one production well extending into the formation, and wherein the produced oil and water are separated and the water is reinjected through the injection well as flooding water. The improvement consists of: (a) the produced oil and water is initially subjected to a rough separation step providing a produced oil stream and an oily water stream; (b) mixing the oily water stream with a solvent for crude oil which is substantially insoluble in water and which has a specific gravity of at least 1.2; (c) passing the oily water and solvent to a hydrocyclone; (d) recovering substantially oil-free water from a first outlet of the hydrocyclone; (e) recovering the solvent containing crude oil from the oily water from a second outlet of the hydrocyclone; (f) separating the solvent from its contained crude oil; (g) returning the recovered solvent to step (b); and (h) reinjecting the oil-free water from step (d) as additional flooding water.

  14. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  15. Investigation of the tribology behaviour of the graphene nanosheets as oil additives on textured alloy cast iron surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dan; Cai, Zhen-bing; Shen, Ming-xue; Li, Zheng-yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-11-01

    Tribological properties of graphene nanosheets (GNS) as lubricating oil additives on textured surfaces were investigated using a UMT-2 tribotester. The lubricating fluids keeping a constant temperature of 100 °C were applied to a GCr15 steel ball and an RTCr2 alloy cast iron plate with various texture designs (original surface, dimple density of 22.1%, 19.6% and 44.2%). The oil with GNS adding showed good tribological properties (wear reduced 50%), especially on the textured surfaces (the reduction in wear was high at over 90%). A combined effect between GNS additives and laser surface texturing (LST) was revealed, which is not a simple superposition of the two factors mentioned. A mechanism is proposed to explain for these results -the graphene layers sheared at the sliding contact interfaces, and form a protective film, which is closely related with the GNS structures and surface texture patterns.

  16. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  17. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  18. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  19. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage. PMID:24455261

  20. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder.

  1. Effect of catalyst additives on the production of biofuels from palm oil cracking in a transport riser reactor.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2009-05-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) and used palm oil (UPO) were studied in a transport riser reactor for the production of biofuels at a reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, with residence time of 20s and catalyst-to-oil ratio (CTO) of 5 gg(-1). The effect of HZSM-5 (different Si/Al ratios), beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 were studied as physically mixed additives with cracking catalyst Rare earth-Y (REY). REY catalyst alone gave 75.8 wt% conversion with 34.5 wt% of gasoline fraction yield using CPO, whereas with UPO, the conversion was 70.9 wt% with gasoline fraction yield of 33.0 wt%. HZSM-5, beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 as additives with REY increased the conversion and the yield of organic liquid product. The transport riser reactor can be used for the continuous production of biofuels from cracking of CPO and UPO over REY catalyst.

  2. Effect of Potassium Addition on Coprecipitated Iron Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using Bio-oil-syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-xiang; Dong, Ting; Kan, Tao; Li, Quan-xin

    2008-04-01

    The effects of potassium addition and the potassium content on the activity and selectivity of coprecipitated iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were studied in a fixed bed reactor at 1.5 MPa, 300°C, and contact time (W/F) of 12.5 gcath/mol using the model bio-oil-syngas of H2/CO/CO2/N2 (62/8/25/5, vol%). It was found that potassium addition increases the catalyst activity for FTS and the reverse water gas shift reaction. Moreover, potassium increases the average molecular weight (chain length) of the hydrocarbon products. With the increase of potassium content, it was found that CH4 selectivity decreases and the selectivity of liquid phase products (C5+) increases. The characteristics of FTS catalysts with different potassium content were also investigated by various characterization measurements including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. Based on experimental results, 100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K (weight ratio) was selected as the optimal catalyst for FTS from bio-oil-syngas. The results indicate that the 100Fe/6Cu/16Al/6K catalyst is one of the most promising candidates to directly synthesize liquid bio-fuel using bio-oil-syngas.

  3. Evaluation of rhamnolipid addition on the natural attenuation of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Mitsue M; Gavazza, Sávia; Kato, Mario T; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2016-07-07

    The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation of estuarine sediments contaminated with diesel oil. The following two experiments were performed: natural attenuation (NA) and stimulated natural attenuation (SNA), using rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. Sediment samples were accommodated into glass columns and then contaminated with diesel oil on the top. The column profiles were separated into surface, middle, and bottom for the analyses. The 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) prioritized by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were monitored for 349 days. Those with three and four rings showed increasing concentrations through the operation period in the middle and bottom samples, particularly between days 111 and 338, and in the SNA experiment. Those with five and six rings were also detected in the deeper portions of the columns, suggesting the percolation of PAHs with a high molecular weight. Total organic carbon was reduced by 91 and 89 % in the NA and SNA samples, respectively, although no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the two treatments. The analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated a slight shift in the microbial community structure over the experiments. Microorganisms belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria phylum were the main bacteria involved. The archaeal community exhibited dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, indicating the obligate anaerobic biodegradation of intermediate compounds from hydrocarbon degradation.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of peat with additions of oil-slime and polymeric waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, E.; Kosivtsov, Yu.; Sulman, M.; Alfyorov, V.; Lugovoy, Yu.; Chalov, K.; Misnikov, O.; Afanasjev, A.; Kumar, N.; Murzin, D.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the influence of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates, metal chlorides of iron subgroup on the peat low-temperature pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of peat with oil-slime and polymeric waste was studied in variety of conditions (t = 350-650δC, catalyst loading: from 1 up to 30 % (wt.)). The use of bentonite clay (30 % (wt.)) at 460δC as a catalyst in peat pyrolysis resulted in increase of weight of gaseous and liquid products from 23 up to 30 % (wt.) and from 32 up to 45 % (wt.), respectively. Co-pyrolysis of peat and oil-slime in the presence of bentonite clay resulted in increase of gaseous product weight from 18 up to 26 % (wt.) and liquid fraction yield - from 45 up to 55 % (wt.) in comparison with precalculated value. The use of metal chlorides of iron subgroup (2 % (wt.) concentration) at 500 δC in the co-pyrolysis of peat and polymeric waste led to optimal conversion of substrate in desired products, 15 % increase of total weight of gaseous and liquid products formed during the pyrolysis process and simultaneous decrease of char formation.

  5. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.

  6. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  7. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  8. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  9. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed).

  10. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  11. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  12. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum.

  13. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L.; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast. PMID:25049950

  14. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation by cultures enriched from oil sands tailings ponds involves multiple species capable of fumarate addition.

    PubMed

    Tan, BoonFei; Semple, Kathleen; Foght, Julia

    2015-05-01

    A methanogenic short-chain alkane-degrading culture (SCADC) was enriched from oil sands tailings and transferred several times with a mixture of C6, C7, C8 and C10 n-alkanes as the predominant organic carbon source, plus 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane as minor components. Cultures produced ∼40% of the maximum theoretical methane during 18 months incubation while depleting the n-alkanes, 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane. Substrate depletion correlated with detection of metabolites characteristic of fumarate activation of 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane, but not n-alkane metabolites. During active methanogenesis with the mixed alkanes, reverse-transcription PCR confirmed the expression of functional genes (assA and bssA) associated with hydrocarbon addition to fumarate. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified during active alkane degradation revealed enrichment of Clostridia (particularly Peptococcaceae) and methanogenic Archaea (Methanosaetaceae and Methanomicrobiaceae). Methanogenic cultures transferred into medium containing sulphate produced sulphide, depleted n-alkanes and produced the corresponding succinylated alkane metabolites, but were slow to degrade 2-methylpentane and methylcyclopentane; these cultures were enriched in Deltaproteobacteria rather than Clostridia. 3-Methylpentane was not degraded by any cultures. Thus, nominally methanogenic oil sands tailings harbour dynamic and versatile hydrocarbon-degrading fermentative syntrophs and sulphate reducers capable of degrading n-, iso- and cyclo-alkanes by addition to fumarate.

  15. An Approach to the Classification of Potential Reserve Additions of Giant Oil Fields of the World

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains slides and notes for slides for a presentation given to the Committee on Sustainable Energy and the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Harmonization of Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources Terminology on 17 October 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. The presentation describes the U.S. Geological Survey study to characterize and quantify petroleum-reserve additions, and the application of this study to help classify the quantities.

  16. Effects on Fuel Consumption and Diesel Engine Deposits from Nano-Particle Oil Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Products HTBCT High Temperature Benchtop Corrosion Test HwFET Highway Fuel Economy Test IF Inorganic Fullerene JP-8 A kerosene based jet fuel lbs...engine crankcase lubricants at the request of TARDEC. This additive contains inorganic fullerene -like (IF) nano- particles of WS2 which were claimed...volume and hardness change are shown in Table 4 with MIL-PRF-46167D specified limits. Table 4: Seal Compatibility Test Results Material Property

  17. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  18. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  19. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  20. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  1. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-03-01

    Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P < 0.003), resulting in 4.4 and 2.6 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P < 0.01), resulting in 7.2, 15.3, and 5.1 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.

  2. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  3. Modified lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1982-08-17

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of modified lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the modified lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well. The lignosulfonates may be modified by any combination of any two or more of: reaction with chloroacetic acid, reaction with carbon dioxide, addition of the methylene sulfonate radical to the lignosulfonate molecule and oxidation with oxygen.

  4. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  5. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  6. Kuwaiti oil sector shows more signs of recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    This paper reports that Kuwait's oil sector continues to show signs of recovery from the Persian Gulf war. On Mar. 23 Kuwait Petroleum Co. (KPC) loaded the country's first shipment of liquefied petroleum gas for export since the Iraqi invasion in August 1990. In addition, the first shipment of Kuwaiti crude recovered from giant oil lakes formed by hundreds of wild wells sabotaged in the war was to arrive by tanker in Naples, Italy, late last month. The tanker is carrying 210,000 bbl of crude. However, the project to clean up the lakes and recover more oil, undertaken by Bechtel Corp. with Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC), has reached a stand still.

  7. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  8. Addition of fish oil to diets for dairy cows. II. Effects on milk fat and gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ahnadi, Charaf E; Beswick, Naomi; Delbecchi, Louis; Kennelly, John J; Lacasse, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used to determine whether alterations of mammary fatty acid metabolism are responsible for the milk fat depression associated with consumption of fish oil. Cows were given a total mixed ration with no added fish oil (control), unprotected fish oil (3.7 % of dry matter), or glutaraldehyde-protected microcapsules of fish oil (1.5% or 3.0% of dry matter) for 4 weeks. Milk samples were taken once a week and a mammary biopsy was taken from a rear quarter at the end of the treatment period. Milk fat content was lower in cows given unprotected fish oil (26.0 g/kg), 1.5% protected fish oil (24.6 g/kg) and 3% protected fish oil (20.4 g/kg) than in cows fed the control diet (36.0 g/kg). This was mainly due to a decrease in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of protected fish oil decreased the abundance of lipogenic enzymes mRNA in the mammary gland. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs for cows given 3% protected fish oil averaged only 30%, 25% and 25% of control values, respectively. Dietary addition of unprotected fish oil slightly decreased mRNA abundance of these enzymes but markedly reduced the amount of lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Milk fat content was significantly correlated with gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase but not lipoprotein lipase. These results suggest that fish oil reduces milk fat percentage by inhibiting gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

  9. Effect of the addition of basil essential oil on the degradation of palm olein during repeated deep frying of French fries.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Ugarte, Gabriel Abraham; Morlán-Palmas, C Christian; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2013-07-01

    The potential antioxidant power of basil essential oil under frying conditions was explored. Two concentrations (200 or 500 ppm) were added to palm olein (PO) to evaluate their effect on fat oxidation/degradation during repeated frying of French fries at 180 °C. A higher oxidative stability index was detected for PO with basil essential oil at 200 ppm. Both concentrations showed lower p-anisidine values than PO without basil essential oil after 5 d of frying. Addition at 500 ppm resulted in the lowest total polar compounds and free fatty acids contents. Thus, the addition of basil essential oil improved the performance of PO during repeated frying of French fries.

  10. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  11. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  12. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2.

  13. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    PubMed

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering.

  14. Effect of talc addition on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina cultivar after production and during storage.

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Monteleone, Julieta I; Martellini, Giovanni; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of talc on the extraction yield and quality of extra virgin olive oils from Coratina olives after production and during storage. A significant effect of talc, added in the malaxer, on both yield and oil quality was observed. The addition of 1% talc lead to a 15% decrease of the residual oil in the olive-pomace, while higher amounts of talc did not determine further significant variations. The use of talc caused also a significant decrease of the peroxide value and tocopherols and a significant increase of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, antioxidant activity and K270, while no influence was detected on free fatty acids and K232. Finally, during storage the differences among the oils were maintained as immediately after their production, with the exception of chlorophylls.

  15. Study of adsorption of detergent-dispersion additives on solid particles dispersed in oil using the method of electrical conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Waligora, B.; Buczak, H.; Olszewska, A.; Szeglowski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    By measuring electrical conductivity of paraffin oil solutions in isooctane (1:1 by volume) the variation in concentration of detergent-dispersant additives is studied; this variation is caused by their adsorption on solid particles (carbon black, aluminum powder). It is shown that dispersants have an improved ability to undergo adsorption, compared with detergents. Studies of adsorption of additives on model sorbents may be used to develop tests for evaluating additive properties. 7 references, 4 figures.

  16. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water/organic solvent addition and pH adjustment

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Lydia Kyoung-Eun; Ren, Shoujie; Yiacoumi, Sotira; ...

    2016-01-29

    Applications of bio-oil are limited by its challenging properties including high moisture content, low pH, high viscosity, high oxygen content, and low heating value. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil components by adding water, organic solvents (hexadecane and octane), and sodium hydroxide may help to overcome these issues. Acetic acid and phenolic compounds were extracted in aqueous and organic phases, respectively. Polar chemicals, such as acetic acid, did not partition in the organic solvent phase. Acetic acid in the aqueous phase after extraction is beneficial for a microbial-electrolysis-cell application to produce hydrogen as an energy source for further hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil. Organicmore » solvents extracted more chemicals from bio-oil in combined than in sequential extraction; however, organic solvents partitioned into the aqueous phase in combined extraction. When sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH of aqueous bio-oil, organic-phase precipitation occurred. As the pH was increased, a biphasic aqueous/organic dispersion was formed, and phase separation was optimized at approximately pH 6. The neutralized organic bio-oil had approximately 37% less oxygen and 100% increased heating value than the initial centrifuged bio-oil. In conclusion, the less oxygen content and increased heating value indicated a significant improvement of the bio-oil quality through neutralization.« less

  17. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water/organic solvent addition and pH adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Lydia Kyoung-Eun; Ren, Shoujie; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-29

    Applications of bio-oil are limited by its challenging properties including high moisture content, low pH, high viscosity, high oxygen content, and low heating value. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil components by adding water, organic solvents (hexadecane and octane), and sodium hydroxide may help to overcome these issues. Acetic acid and phenolic compounds were extracted in aqueous and organic phases, respectively. Polar chemicals, such as acetic acid, did not partition in the organic solvent phase. Acetic acid in the aqueous phase after extraction is beneficial for a microbial-electrolysis-cell application to produce hydrogen as an energy source for further hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil. Organic solvents extracted more chemicals from bio-oil in combined than in sequential extraction; however, organic solvents partitioned into the aqueous phase in combined extraction. When sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH of aqueous bio-oil, organic-phase precipitation occurred. As the pH was increased, a biphasic aqueous/organic dispersion was formed, and phase separation was optimized at approximately pH 6. The neutralized organic bio-oil had approximately 37% less oxygen and 100% increased heating value than the initial centrifuged bio-oil. In conclusion, the less oxygen content and increased heating value indicated a significant improvement of the bio-oil quality through neutralization.

  18. Effect of dietary soybean oil addition on the odd-numbered and branched-chain fatty acids in rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Papadomichelakis, George; Karagiannidou, Areti; Anastasopoulos, Vasilios; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary soybean oil (SO) inclusion (20g/kg) on the odd-numbered (ONFA) and branched-chain (BCFA) fatty acids (FA) of two muscles, differing in fatness (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris), was studied in 24 New ZealandxCalifornian rabbits. The increased muscle fatness in Biceps femoris (P<0.001) was related to higher saturated (P<0.01) and monounsaturated (P<0.01) fatty acids. Intramuscular ONFA and BCFA contents were not affected, but their proportions were reduced (P<0.01 and P<0.001) by SO addition, suggesting a dilution effect of the dietary polyunsaturates accumulated in both muscles, except for 17:0i which decreased only in Longissimus lumborum due to significant (P<0.05) soybean oilxmuscle interaction. The higher (P<0.05) BCFA contents and the FA profile in Biceps femoris were not affected by fatness, indicating an association with other muscle properties. The present study supplies new information on ONFA and BCFA in rabbit meat.

  19. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  20. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  1. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  2. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  3. Process for sulfonation of gas oils

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R. C.

    1980-12-23

    A process for the production of oil-soluble sulfonates from a gas oil such as a vacuum gas oil. Water-soluble sulfonic acids are separated from the effluent of the sulfonation zone, and the remainder of the effluent is then passed through a saponification zone to produce oil-soluble sulfonates which are then recovered. The remaining hydrocarbons are fractionated, with the resultant heavy fraction being passed through a reforming zone to produce additional aromatics which are then recycled to the sulfonation zone.

  4. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices.

  5. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces.

  6. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing.

  8. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  9. Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.

  10. Synergistic and Additive Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Biological Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Scandorieiro, Sara; de Camargo, Larissa C.; Lancheros, Cesar A. C.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Nakamura, Celso V.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Célia G. T. J.; Duran, Nelson; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. Plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. Studies have shown that oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil (OEO) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of OEO and the development of resistance to these metal nanoparticles can limit their use. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of a two-drug combination of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNP), produced by Fusarium oxysporum, and OEO against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. OEO and bio-AgNP showed bactericidal effects against all 17 strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.298 to 1.193 mg/mL and 62.5 to 250 μM, respectively. Time-kill curves indicated that OEO acted rapidly (within 10 min), while the metallic nanoparticles took 4 h to kill Gram-negative bacteria and 24 h to kill Gram-positive bacteria. The combination of the two compounds resulted in a synergistic or additive effect, reducing their MIC values and reducing the time of action compared to bio-AgNP used alone, i.e., 20 min for Gram-negative bacteria and 7 h for Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar morphological alterations in Staphylococcus aureus (non-methicillin-resistant S. aureus, non-MRSA) cells exposed to three different treatments (OEO, bio-AgNP and combination of the two), which appeared cell surface blebbing. Individual and combined treatments showed reduction in cell density and decrease in exopolysaccharide matrix compared to untreated bacterial cells. It indicated that this composition have an antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by disrupting cells. Both compounds showed very low

  11. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  12. Enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) by addition of a synergist, cade oil.

    PubMed

    McQuate, G T; Peck, S L

    2001-02-01

    Male lures are known for many tephritid fruit fly species and are often preferred over food bait based traps for detection trapping because of their high specificity and ability to attract flies over a wide area. Alpha-ionol has been identified as a male lure for the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). The attraction of this compound to male B. latifrons individuals, however, is not as strong as is the attraction of other tephritid fruit fly species to their respective male lures. Cade oil, an essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus L.) twigs, synergizes the attraction of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons. Catches of male B. latifrons at traps baited with a mixture of alpha-ionol and cade oil were more than three times greater than at traps baited with alpha-ionol alone. Substitution of alpha-ionol + cade oil for alpha-ionol alone in detection programs could considerably improve the chance of detecting invading or incipient populations of B. latifrons. However, detection programs should not rely solely on this lure but also make use of protein baited traps as well as fruit collections. Further work with fractions of cade oil may help to identify the active ingredient(s), which could help to further improve this male lure for B. latifrons.

  13. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  14. Recovering from Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf Coast region suffered an unusually severe hurricane season in 2005: Hurricane Katrina (August 28-29, 2005) devastated much of southern Mississippi and Louisiana. Approximately 2,700 licensed early care and education facilities in those states and in Alabama were affected by Katrina, in addition to an unknown number of family child care…

  15. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  16. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives.

  17. FORMATION OF FINE PARTICLES FROM RESIDUAL OIL COMBUSTION: REDUCING ULTRAFINE NUCLEI THROUGH THE ADDITION OF INORGANIC SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation, using an 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor, of the characteristics of particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and the reduction of ultrafine nuclei by postflame sorbent injection. Without sorbent a...

  18. Facilitated Leaching of Additive-Derived PBDEs from Plastic by Seabirds' Stomach Oil and Accumulation in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2015-10-06

    Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procellariiformes, acts as an organic solvent, facilitating the leaching of hydrophobic chemicals. Pieces of plastic compounded with deca-BDE were soaked in several leaching solutions. Trace amounts were leached into distilled water, seawater, and acidic pepsin solution. In contrast, over 20 times as much material was leached into stomach oil, and over 50 times as much into fish oil (a major component of stomach oil). Analysis of abdominal adipose, liver tissue, and ingested plastics from 18 wild seabirds collected from the North Pacific Ocean showed the occurrence of deca-BDE or hexa-BDEs in both the tissues and the ingested plastics in three of the birds, suggesting transfer from the plastic to the tissues. In birds with BDE209 in their tissues, the dominance of BDE207 over other nona-BDE isomers suggested biological debromination at the meta position. Model calculation of PBDE exposure to birds based on the results of the leaching experiments combined with field observations suggested the dominance of plastic-mediated internal exposure to BDE209 over exposure via prey.

  19. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  20. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  1. Method for flattening the combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort by the addition of fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1980-09-30

    A secondary combustion zone is established and its location is controlled in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. A processing zone including a primary combustion zone is established in the retort by igniting a portion of the mass of particles. An oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the retort to advance the processing zone through the fragmented mass. If the primary combustion zone is not substantially planar or has not progressed uniformly, a secondary combustion zone is established upstream of the primary combustion zone by introducing into the retort a retort inlet mixture comprising fuel and at least sufficient oxygen for combustion of the fuel at a temperature no greater than the primary combustion zone temperature. The secondary combustion zone is maintained at an upstream location and allowed to spread laterally through the fragmented mass, heating portions of such fragmented mass, to the self-ignition temperature of oil shale which spreads the primary combustion zone laterally across the fragmented mass at the upstream location. 48 claims.

  2. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P. Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. Methods ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Results Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Conclusions Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis

  3. Simultaneous determination of five common additives in insulating mineral oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Rivoira, Luca; Tumiatti, Vander; Maina, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric mineral oils are used to impregnate power transformers and large electrical apparatus, acting as both liquid insulation and heat dissipation media. Antioxidants and passivators are frequently added to mineral oils to enhance oxidation stability and reduce the electrostatic charging tendency, respectively. Since existing standard test methods only allow analysis of individual additives, new approaches are needed for the detection of mixtures. For the first time we investigate and discuss the performance of analytical methods, which require or do not require extraction as sample pretreatment, for the simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of passivators (benzotriazole, Irgamet(®) 39) and antioxidants (N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), chosen for their presence in marketed oils. Quick easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe and solid phase extractions were evaluated as sample pretreatments. Direct sample-injection was also studied. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and direct-current coulometry detection were explored. As less prone to additive concentrations variability, the direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection method was validated through comparison with Standard Method IEC 60666 and through an ASTM interlaboratory proficiency test. Obtained detection limits are (mg kg(-1) ): benzotriazole (2.8), Irgamet(®) 39 (13.8), N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (11.9), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (13.1), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (10.2). Simultaneous determination of selected additives was possible both in unused and used oils, with good precision and accuracy.

  4. Recovering Seasat SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, T. A.; Arko, S. A.; Rosen, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    supposedly 'steadily' changing millisecond (MSEC) timing values. The elevated BER made even a basic linear fit difficult. In addition, the MSEC field often shows a 'stair step' function, assumed to be a spacecraft clock malfunction. To fix these issues, three separate levels of time filtering were applied. After the initial three-pass time filter, a fourth procedure located and removed discontinuities - missing data sections that occurred randomly throughout the data takes - by inserting random valued lines into the effected data file and repeated value lines into the corresponding header file. Finally, a fifth pass through the metadata was required to fix remaining start time anomalies. After the data were filtered, all times were linearly increasing, and all discontinuities filled, images could finally be formed. ASF DAAC utilized a custom version of ROI, the Repeat Orbit Interferometric SAR processor, to focus the data. Special focusing tasks for Seasat included dealing with Doppler ambiguity issues and filtering out 'spikes' in the power spectra. Once these obstacles were overcome via additional pre-processing software developed in house, well-focused SAR imagery was obtained from approximately 80% the ASF DAAC archives. These focused products, packaged in either HDF5 or geotiff formats with XML metadata, are downloadable from ASF DAAC free of charge.

  5. Study of Brayco Corrosion Inhibitor Additive in MIL-PRF-23699 Class C/I Turbine Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Elastomer compatibility testing was performed to determine the effect of the blends on nitrile and fluorocarbon elastomers. The test was performed using...materials indicative of those seen in engine or gearbox O-rings and is run at 70°C (158°F) for nitrile rubber and 204°C (400°F) for fluorocarbon rubber ...unknown, a study was initiated by AIR-4.4.5 to access the physical and chemical properties of the oil blended with Brayco 599. This report only

  6. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  7. Stimulating the biosynthesis of antroquinonol by addition of effectors and soybean oil in submerged fermentation of Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-Dan; Lu, Rui-Qiu; Liao, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2016-05-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a precious medicinal mushroom that has attracted increasing attentions. Antroquinonol has been considered as being among the most biologically active components of A. camphorata. However, it was hardly biosynthesized via conventional submerged fermentation. Two approaches were applied to stimulate the biosynthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. On one hand, different kinds of effectors that may involve in the antroquinonol biosynthesis were investigated. Among the tested effectors, camphorwood leach liquor was the most effective for stimulating the antroquinonol production. On the other hand, because of the hydrophobic characteristics of antroquinonol, soybean oil was added to establish an extractive fermentation system for alleviating the product inhibition and resulting in enhanced productivity. The highest antroquinonol concentration could be achieved at 89.06 ± 0.14 mg/L when 10% (v/v) soybean oil was added at the beginning of the fermentation. This study will be of great significance for the study of A. camphorata and the bioprocess regulation of antroquinonol production.

  8. The addition of rosehip oil to Aloe gels improves their properties as postharvest coatings for maintaining quality in plum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Zapata, Pedro J; Guillén, Fabián; Paladines, Diego; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María

    2017-02-15

    The effect of Aloe vera gel (AV) and Aloe arborescens gel (AA) alone or in combination with rosehip oil (RO) at 2% on ethylene production, respiration rate, quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during plum postharvest storage was studied. Coated plums showed a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate at 20°C and during cold storage and subsequent shelf life, the main effect being observed for those fruits coated with AA+RO. Quality parameters such as softening, colour and maturity index was also delayed during storage by the use of the coatings, which led to a 2-fold increase in plum storability. Accumulation of bioactive compounds was also delayed although at the end of the experiment the content of bioactive compounds was higher than those found for control fruits at the estimated shelf life. The most effective coating for maintaining plum quality and bioactive compounds was AA+RO.

  9. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  10. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  11. SYNTHETIC OIL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a dicarboxylate-base synthetic oil with antiwear and antioxidation additives. The oil is prepared from the esterification of 2- or 3-methylcyclohexanol and 2-ethylhexanol with adipic acid. (Author)

  12. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  13. [Rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients studied by the addition of Ca soaps of palm oil fatty acids and their analogous fatty acids in the sheep model].

    PubMed

    Drochner, W; Yildiz, G

    1999-12-01

    The ruminally fistulated sheep was used as a model to study the effects of fat supplementation (Ca-soaps and free long chain fatty acids from palm oil) on rumen physiology and digestibility of the nutrients. The animals were fed with a typical ration of hay and concentrate supplying nutrients according to maintenance levels. The following results should be pointed out: The addition of free fatty acids and their Ca-soaps induced a retarded recovery of postprandially decreased pH-values in ruminal fluid. This retardation was more pronounced after addition of free long chain fatty acids than with their Ca-soap-analogous acids. Compared to the control, the concentration of short chain fatty acids was depressed by fat addition in the period 2 hours after feed intake. The release of ammonia in the first period after feed intake was reduced by fat addition. A lack of synchronity could be observed in this post-prandial period in ruminal fluid between concentration of short chain fatty acids and ammonia. This effect was most obvious with supplementation of unprotected fatty acids. This might be one reason for the better tolerance of Ca soaps from palm oil fatty acids. Formation of hydrides, branched chains and transforms proceeds more effectively with free fatty acids than with their analogous forms of Ca-soaps. The well-known effect of depression of digestibility of nutrients due to fat supplementation was--under present conditions--quite low. This might be different in lactating dairy cows with higher levels of feed intake. With high feed intake, passage time is reduced. This will affect digestibility and interactions with fat supplementation.

  14. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  15. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  16. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity.

  17. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  18. Sulfonic acid resin-catalyzed addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and water to olefins: Model reactions for catalytic upgrading of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wen; Yang, Xu-Lai; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Pittman, Charles U

    2010-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed 1-octene reactions with phenol and mixtures of phenol with water, acetic acid and 1-butanol were studied as partial bio-oil upgrading models. Bio-oil from fast biomass pyrolysis has poor fuel properties due to the presence of substantial amounts of water, carboxylic acid, phenolic derivatives and other hydroxyl-containing compounds. Additions across olefins offer a route to simultaneously lower water content and acidity while increasing hydrophobicity, stability and heating value. Amberlyst15, Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 effectively catalyzed phenol O- and C-alkylation from 65 to 120 degrees C, giving high O-alkylation selectivities in the presence of water, acetic acid and 1-butanol. Octanols and dioctyl ethers were formed from water and octyl acetates and phenol acetates from acetic acid. Phenol alkylation slowed in the presence of water. Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 were more stable in the presence of water than Amberlyst15 and were successfully recycled. Adding 1-butanol to phenol/water/1-octene, gave emulsion-like mixtures which improved phenol conversion and olefin hydration.

  19. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

  20. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation.

  1. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe

    PubMed Central

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

  2. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  3. The advantage of polymer addition to a non-ionic oil in water microemulsion for the dermal delivery of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Biruss, Babette; Valenta, Claudia

    2008-02-12

    The influence of progesterone on the physicochemical behaviour of the o/w microemulsion consisting of the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether, tributyrin and water was investigated. Thereby no significant influence could be detected in terms of droplet size, zeta potential, conductivity and pH by progesterone. However the chemical stability of progesterone was insufficient during the storage of 6 months. Therefore, two different polymeric agents, named silicon dioxide and polymeric emulsifier, were added to the progesterone containing microemulsions. These polymers increased the chemical stability of progesterone significantly. Moreover the polymeric additives improved the skin permeation 1.24- and 1.63-fold and decreased the skin retention in relation to the pure microemulsion. The polymer-stabilized progesterone microemulsions are interesting vehicles for skin application of progesterone.

  4. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  5. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  6. Degradation of a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 mumol of ether degraded h(-1) g(-1) (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced.

  7. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  8. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    PubMed

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs.

  9. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  10. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; Brookshear, Daniel W.; Stump, Benjamin C.; Viola, Michael B.; Zreik, Khaled; Ahmed, Tasfia

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  11. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) in some parameters, mainly in peroxide value, phenols and tocopherol contents, and oxidative stability. Aroma profiles were also influenced by the different varieties and the addition of different amounts (0% and 3%) of olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  12. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources of the world (outside the United States) from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, Phil A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Gautier, Donald L.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil, 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world's oil and gas resources.

  13. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  14. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  15. Process for recovering acidic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, O.L. Jr.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a continuous process for recovering carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-rich gas stream. The gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alknolamine solution in an absorption section contained in an absorption zone to produce a carbon dioxide-lean gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-rich liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-rich effluent stream is heated in a regeneration zone to produce a carbon dioxide-rich gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream comprising a regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution. The regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution is returned to and introduced into the absorption zone.

  16. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  17. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Whyte, T D; Chouinard, P Y

    2006-11-01

    Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary addition of essential oils (0 vs. 2 g/d; EO) and monensin (0 vs. 350 mg/d; MO) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Intake of dry matter averaged 22.7 kg/d and was not significantly affected by dietary additives. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were similar among treatments. Apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber was increased when diets were supplemented with EO (48.9 vs. 46.0%). Apparent digestibility of crude protein was higher for cows fed MO compared with those fed no MO (65.0 vs. 63.6%). Nitrogen retention was not changed by additive treatments and averaged 27.1 g/d across treatments. Ruminal pH was increased with the addition of EO (6.50 vs. 6.39). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration was lower with MO-supplemented diets compared with diets without MO (12.7 vs. 14.3 mg/100 mL). No effect of EO and MO was observed on total volatile fatty acid concentrations and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Protozoa counts were not affected by EO and MO addition. Production of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk was similar among treatments (33.6 and 33.4 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content was lower for cows fed MO than for cows fed diets without MO (3.8 vs. 4.1%). The reduced milk fat concentration in cows fed MO was associated with a higher level of trans-10 18:1, a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was increased by MO supplementation, but this effect was not apparent when MO was fed in combination with EO (interaction EO x MO). Results from this study suggest that feeding EO (2 g/d) and MO (350 mg/d) to lactating dairy cows had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk

  18. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  19. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  20. Fish oil and 3-thia fatty acid have additive effects on lipid metabolism but antagonistic effects on oxidative damage when fed to rats for 50 weeks.

    PubMed

    Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Cacabelos, Daniel; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; Wergedahl, Hege; Christensen, Bjørn; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Viste, Asgaut; Pamplona, Reinald; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Bjørndal, Bodil

    2012-11-01

    The 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a synthetic modified fatty acid, which, similar with dietary fish oil (FO), influences the regulation of lipid metabolism, the inflammatory response and redox status. This study was aimed to penetrate the difference in TTA's mode of action compared to FO in a long-term experiment (50 weeks of feeding). Male Wistar rats were fed a control, high-fat (25% w/v) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either TTA (0.375% w/v) or FO (10% w/v) or their combination. Plasma fatty acid composition, hepatic lipids and expression of relevant genes in the liver and biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein were assessed at the end point of the experiment. Both supplements given in combination demonstrated an additive effect on the decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. The FO diet alone led to removal of plasma cholesterol and a concurrent cholesterol accumulation in liver; however, with TTA cotreatment, the hepatic cholesterol level was significantly reduced. Dietary FO supplementation led to an increased oxidative damage, as seen by biomarkers of protein oxidation and lipoxidation. Tetradecylthioacetic acid administration reduced the levels of these biomarkers confirming its protective role against lipoxidation and protein oxidative damage. Our findings explore the lipid reducing effects of TTA and FO and demonstrate that these bioactive dietary compounds might act in a different manner. The experiment confirms the antioxidant capacity of TTA, showing an improvement in FO-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  2. Recovering Velocity Distributions Via Penalized Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    1997-07-01

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions are crucial for unravelling the dynamics of hot stellar systems. We present a new formalism based on penalized likelihood for deriving such distributions from kinematical data, and evaluate the performance of two algorithms that extract N(V) from absorption-line spectra and from sets of individual velocities. Both algorithms are superior to existing ones in that the solutions are nearly unbiased even when the data are so poor that a great deal of smoothing is required. In addition, the discrete-velocity algorithm is able to remove a known distribution of measurement errors from the estimate of N(V). The formalism is used to recover the velocity distribution of stars in five fields near the center of the globular cluster omega Centauri.

  3. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  4. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; ...

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  5. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. Effects of addition of different vegetable oils to lactating dairy ewes' diet on meat quality characteristics of suckling lambs reared on the ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ceferina; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Mateo, Javier; Bodas, Raul; Soto, Sergio; Manso, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    The effect of different vegetable oils used in the diet of lactating ewes on the meat quality of their suckling lambs has been evaluated. Lambs (males and females) were slaughtered at 11 kg. Fortyeight lactating Churra ewes (prolificacy 1.5) and their suckling lambs were assigned to four treatments according to the oil added (3% on weight basis) to the ewes' daily ration: palm oil as control (CON); olive oil (OLI); soybean oil (SOY); and linseed oil (LIN). Analyses of pH, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), tocopherol levels, volatile compounds and a sensory evaluation were carried out on suckling lambs' meat. Results showed no substantial effect on pH, colour, TBARS and tocopherol levels. Volatiles typically derived from lipid oxidation were higher in SOY group. However, panellists were only able to correctly identify samples from LIN group. Furthermore, the meat from LIN group showed lower scores towards odour and flavour quality and overall liking than that from the rest of treatments.

  8. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  9. Criteria for solid recovered fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels--a review.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Michael; Pohl, Martin; Bernhardt, Daniel; Gebauer, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    The waste treatment, particularly the thermal treatment of waste has changed fundamentally in the last 20 years, i.e. from facilities solely dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste to facilities, which in addition to that ensure the safe plant operation and fulfill very ambitious criteria regarding emission reduction, resource recovery and energy efficiency as well. Therefore this contributes to the economic use of raw materials and due to the energy recovered from waste also to the energy provision. The development described had the consequence that waste and solid recovered fuels (SRF) has to be evaluated based on fuel criteria as well. Fossil fuels - coal, crude oil, natural gas etc. have been extensively investigated due to their application in plants for energy conversion and also due to their use in the primary industry. Thereby depending on the respective processes, criteria on fuel technical properties can be derived. The methods for engineering analysis of regular fuels (fossil fuels) can be transferred only partially to SRF. For this reason methods are being developed or adapted to current analytical methods for the characterization of SRF. In this paper the possibilities of the energetic utilization of SRF and the characterization of SRF before and during the energetic utilization will be discussed.

  10. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston counties, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mory, Peter C.; Behum, Paul T.; Ross, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    No mining activities are being conducted in the study area at present.  Previous mining has been limited to small-scale production of limestone and coal.  Two oil and gas test holes have been drilled inside the study area.

  11. Remediation of oil-contaminated sand by coal agglomeration using ball milling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2011-10-01

    The mechanical shear force provided by a less energy intensive device (usually operating at 20-200 rpm), a ball mill, was used toperform coal agglomeration and its effects on remediation of a model fuel oil-contaminated sand were evaluated. Important process parameters such as the amount of coal added, milling time, milling speed and the size of milling elements are discussed. The results suggested that highly hydrophobic oil-coal agglomerates, formed by adding suitable amounts of coal into the oil-contaminated sand, could be mechanically liberated from cleaned sand during ball milling and recovered as a surface coating on the steel balls. Over 90% removal of oil from oil-contaminated sand was achieved with 6 wt% of coal addition and an optimum ball milling time of 20 min and speed of 200 rpm. This novel process has considerable potential for cleaning oil-contaminated sands.

  12. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  13. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  14. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  16. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  19. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  20. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  1. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  2. Oil spill recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, H.A.; Meneghetti, L.M.

    1980-10-07

    The recovery of oil in an oil spill on water is achieved by a medium which not only absorbs the oil but causes it to become heavy and loose its buoyancy in relation to water so it can be made to sink, together with apparatus for effecting the deposit of the medium upon the oil in an oil spill and for collecting the sinking oil below the surface and before it attaches itself to the bottom surface so it can be removed to a place where the recovered oil may be extracted from the medium which sank the oil.

  3. 15 CFR 990.65 - Opening an account for recovered damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Opening an account for recovered damages. 990.65 Section 990.65 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  4. 15 CFR 990.65 - Opening an account for recovered damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Opening an account for recovered damages. 990.65 Section 990.65 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  5. 15 CFR 990.65 - Opening an account for recovered damages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Opening an account for recovered damages. 990.65 Section 990.65 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  6. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  7. Breaking oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Guilherme F; Picone, Carolina S F; Cuellar, Maria C; Cunha, Rosiane L

    2015-04-01

    Several biotechnological processes can show an undesirable formation of emulsions making difficult phase separation and product recovery. The breakup of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast was studied using different physical and chemical methods. These emulsions were composed by deionized water, hexadecane and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The stability of the emulsions was evaluated varying the yeast concentration from 7.47 to 22.11% (w/w) and the phases obtained after gravity separation were evaluated on chemical composition, droplet size distribution, rheological behavior and optical microscopy. The cream phase showed kinetic stability attributed to mechanisms as electrostatic repulsion between the droplets, a possible Pickering-type stabilization and the viscoelastic properties of the concentrated emulsion. Oil recovery from cream phase was performed using gravity separation, centrifugation, heating and addition of demulsifier agents (alcohols and magnetic nanoparticles). Long centrifugation time and high centrifugal forces (2 h/150,000×g) were necessary to obtain a complete oil recovery. The heat treatment (60°C) was not enough to promote a satisfactory oil separation. Addition of alcohols followed by centrifugation enhanced oil recovery: butanol addition allowed almost complete phase separation of the emulsion while ethanol addition resulted in 84% of oil recovery. Implementation of this method, however, would require additional steps for solvent separation. Addition of charged magnetic nanoparticles was effective by interacting electrostatically with the interface, resulting in emulsion destabilization under a magnetic field. This method reached almost 96% of oil recovery and it was potentially advantageous since no additional steps might be necessary for further purifying the recovered oil.

  8. Pollution control instrumentation for oil and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, H.; Pitt, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discusses recent developments in oil pollution control instrumentation. Some of the topics covered are as follows: 1. Technical requirements of the IMCO International Performance and Test Specification A393x concerning oil content meters; and 2. Oil in water detection; and 3. Methods for the disposal of recovered oil and oily sludge; and 4. Oil content monitoring at ballast water treatment facilities and offshore production platforms.

  9. Effect of low-shear extrusion on corn fermentation and oil partition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Tong; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2009-03-25

    To study oil distribution in fermentation liquid and solids for the purpose of recovering oil from corn stillage by centrifugation, a low-shear single-screw extruder was used to treat corn for dry-grind ethanol fermentation. Five different treatments for corn were used, and their effects on ethanol fermentation, oil distribution, and oil extractability were studied. Extruded corn with different particles sizes had similar ethanol yields (33% based on corn) because the starch was equally gelatinized by extrusion. Pretreatment with larger particle size before extrusion tended to have higher free oil than pretreatment with smaller particle sizes, but the effect was not dramatic, which indicates that manipulating particle size has limited effect on oil distribution in the liquid. Autoclaved flaked corn had lower ethanol yield because autoclaving at 28% moisture did not fully gelatinize the starch. Addition of protease and cellulase significantly increased the ethanol yield by at least 4%. A significant amount of bound oil became more extractable after enzyme treatment. Such oil can be effectively extracted into liquid phase by using a surfactant. In general, oil tended to be strongly associated with the solids in the thin stillage. By enzymatic treatment, 70% oil distribution was achieved in the thin stillage, compared to the conventional fermentation, where only 50% oil goes into the liquid. It was also demonstrated that mass loss after fermentation can be used to accurately quantify ethanol yield.

  10. The effect of addition of olive oil and "Aceto balsamico di Modena" wine vinegar in conjunction with active atmosphere packaging on the microbial and sensory quality of "Lollo Verde" lettuce and rocket salad.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Bouletis, Achilleas D; Papa, Eirini A; Gkagtzis, Dimitrios C; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Papaloucas, C

    2011-12-01

    Fresh rocket "Eruca Sativa" and lettuce "Lollo Verde" leaves were stored with the addition of olive oil and wine vinegar "Aceto balsamico di Modena" under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (5% O(2)/10% CO(2)/85% N(2) for MAP A and 2% O(2)/5% CO(2)/93% N(2) for MAP B). The microbial (mesophilic, psychrotrophic bacteria and Enterobacteriacae), physical (color and firmness) and sensory parameters of samples were studied in relation to storage time (up to 10 days at 5 ± 1 °C). The effect of wine vinegar and the application of both MAP treatments reduced the growth of all bacteria populations (p < 0.05). Samples with olive oil stored under MAP A gave the best score for overall impression (3 and 2.1 for MAP A and B respectively at the 9th day of storage) while the addition of vinegar limited sensory shelf-life to 3 days (p < 0.05). Firmness was negatively affected by wine vinegar while samples with olive oil stored under MAP A maintained firmness close to normal. Color attributes were maintained better under both MAP treatments (p < 0.05).

  11. Lycopene degradation, isomerization and in vitro bioaccessibility in high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil: effect of additional thermal and high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Knockaert, Griet; Pulissery, Sudheer K; Colle, Ines; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Hendrickx, Marc; Loey, Ann Van

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of equivalent thermal and high pressure processes at pasteurization and sterilization intensities on some health related properties of high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil were investigated. Total lycopene concentration, cis-lycopene content and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility were examined as health related properties. Results showed that pasteurization hardly affected the health related properties of tomato puree. Only the formation of cis-lycopene during intense thermal pasteurization was observed. Sterilization processes on the other hand had a significant effect on the health related properties. A significant decrease in total lycopene concentration was found after the sterilization processes. Next to degradation, significant isomerization was also observed: all-trans-lycopene was mainly converted to 9-cis- and 13-cis-lycopene. High pressure sterilization limited the overall lycopene isomerization, when compared to the equivalent thermal sterilization processes. The formation of 5-cis-lycopene on the other hand seemed to be favoured by high pressure. The in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of high pressure homogenized tomato puree containing oil was decreased during subsequent thermal or high pressure processing, whereby significant changes were observed for all the sterilization processes.

  12. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  13. Dynamic investigation of nutrient consumption and injection strategy in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) by means of large-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiyong; Zhu, Weiyao; Sun, Gangzheng; Blanckaert, Koen

    2015-08-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) depends on the in situ microbial activity to release trapped oil in reservoirs. In practice, undesired consumption is a universal phenomenon but cannot be observed effectively in small-scale physical simulations due to the scale effect. The present paper investigates the dynamics of oil recovery, biomass and nutrient consumption in a series of flooding experiments in a dedicated large-scale sand-pack column. First, control experiments of nutrient transportation with and without microbial consumption were conducted, which characterized the nutrient loss during transportation. Then, a standard microbial flooding experiment was performed recovering additional oil (4.9 % Original Oil in Place, OOIP), during which microbial activity mostly occurred upstream, where oil saturation declined earlier and steeper than downstream in the column. Subsequently, more oil remained downstream due to nutrient shortage. Finally, further research was conducted to enhance the ultimate recovery by optimizing the injection strategy. An extra 3.5 % OOIP was recovered when the nutrients were injected in the middle of the column, and another additional 11.9 % OOIP were recovered by altering the timing of nutrient injection.

  14. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  15. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  16. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  17. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  18. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  19. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2017-01-01

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  20. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat

    2017-02-09

    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h.

  1. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J; Llamas-Elvira, José M; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2017-02-22

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F₂-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F₂-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  2. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  3. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  4. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  5. 27 CFR 17.168 - Recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovered spirits. 17.168 Section 17.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... separate alcohol is subject to the registration requirements of 26 U.S.C. 5179 and subpart C of part 29...

  6. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  7. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  8. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse.

  9. Solubilization of oils or addition of monoglycerides drives the formation of wormlike micelles with an elliptical cross-section in cholesterol-based surfactants: a study by rheology, SANS, and cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hala; Karlsson, Göran; Heenan, Richard K; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2011-06-21

    We report the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM) in poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(10)) aqueous solutions by the addition of lipophilic monoglycerides at room temperature (monolaurin (ML), monocaprin (MC), and monocaprylin (MCL)) bearing 12-, 10-, and 8-carbon alkyl chains, respectively. A combination of rheology, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and cryo-TEM was used to study their viscoelastic properties and structure. With the successive addition of cosurfactant, a significant increase in viscosity and a clear solidlike behavior is obtained, suggesting the formation of a viscoelastic network of wormlike micelles. Only for MCL is typical Maxwellian behavior obtained. The onset of micellar growth, as detected by the occurrence of solidlike behavior and a significant increase in viscosity, is obtained for 0.30 (1 wt%), 0.34 (1 wt%), and 0.60 (1.5 wt%) cosurfactant/ChEO(10) molar ratios with ML, MC, and MCL, respectively. With ML and MC, extremely long relaxation times (exceeding 20 s) compared to those of MCL are obtained, and zero-shear viscosity values are more than 1 order of magnitude higher than with MCL. These results show that cosurfactants with longer alkyl chain lengths (ML and MC) induce the formation of longer wormlike micelles and do so at lower concentrations. SANS measurements on dilute solutions confirm that the viscoelastic behavior correlates with an increase in contour length and reveals an elliptical cross-section with an axial ratio of around 2. Cryo-TEM images provide visual evidence of the wormlike micelles and confirm the elliptical shape of the cross-section. The addition of small amounts of aliphatic oils (ethyl butyrate, EB, and ethyl caprylate, EC) and cyclic oils (peppermint, PP, and tea tree, TT, oils) to ChEO(10) solutions induces wormlike micelle formation at a lower cosurfactant concentration or even in its absence (for PP, TT, and EC) because of their probable localization in the palisade layer. The viscosity peak

  10. Oil-Well Cement and C3S Hydration Under High Pressure as Seen by In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Temperatures ;= 80 degrees C with No Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Garry P.

    2012-06-28

    The hydration kinetics of a white cement and batches of both Class G and H oil-well cements were examined between 0 and 60 MPa, at {le}80 C, using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This gives a continuous measure of the C{sub 3}S (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), CH (Ca(OH){sub 2}), C{sub 4}AF (Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}), ettringite, and other phases in the hydrating slurries. Slurries prepared from single-phase C{sub 3}S; synthetic C{sub 4}AF, and gypsum; and white cement, synthetic C{sub 4}AF and gypsum were also examined. An increasing pressure enhanced the rate of hydration for all slurries. Analysis of the data, using a kinetic model, provided rate constants that were used to obtain activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration. For all the cement and C{sub 3}S slurries studied, similar activation volumes were obtained (average {Delta}V{double_dagger}{sup -}-35 cm{sup 3}/mol), indicating that the presence of cement phases other than C{sub 3}S has a modest influence on the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration. An alternative analysis, using the time at which 90% of the initial C{sub 3}S remained, gave similar activation volumes. Pressure accelerated the formation of ettringite from synthetic C{sub 4}AF in the presence of gypsum. However, in slurries containing cement, the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration plays a major role in determining the pressure dependence of ettringite formation.

  11. A laboratory and field evaluation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for light oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Monger, T.G.; Coma, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a laboratory and field investigation of the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process for the enhanced recovery of light crude oil. The results of continuous and cyclic CO/sub 2/ displacements using a 31.2 /sup 0/API (870 kg/m/sup 3/) stock tank oil in watered-out Berea cores are presented. Fourteen single-well cyclic CO/sub 2/ field tests in south Louisianan sands are examined. Laboratory results demonstrate that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil. Incremental oil recovery increased with the amount of CO/sub 2/ injected, and was not benefited by operating at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Maximum ultimate incremental oil recovery required a soak period and additional water influx. Incremental oil recovery continued with a second cycle of CO/sub 2/, but a third cycle showed significant decline. Recovery factors averaging less than 2 Mscf (57 m/sup 3/) of CO/sub 2/ per barrel of incremental oil were achieved in nine out of fourteen field tests. Field results suggest that in the absence of mechanical problems, initial response improved with larger space occupied by CO/sub 2/, thicker perforation interval, and lower CO/sub 2/ reservoir viscosities; while lifetime response improved with lower prior water cut. Field results confirm that the CO/sub 2/ huff 'n puff process recovers waterflood residual oil, and that a second cycle can be successful.

  12. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  13. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  14. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  15. Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred; Hendriks, Benno H W

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel way to recover intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media based on Monte Carlo generated look-up tables and making use of a diffuse reflectance measurement taken at the same location. The method has been validated on various phantoms with known intrinsic fluorescence and is benchmarked against photon-migration methods. This new method combines more flexibility in the probe design with fast reconstruction and showed similar reconstruction accuracy as found in other reconstruction methods.

  16. Recovering selenium from copper refinery slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Olli; Lindroos, Leo; Yllö, Erkki

    1989-07-01

    The selenium contained within copper refinery slimes may be recovered advantageously by roasting at about 600°C. While roasting in air is inefficient, roasting in a sulfating atmosphere enables practically complete selenium recovery. Based on laboratory tests, a new selenium recovery process was adopted at Outokumpu Copper Refinery. In this process, sulfation is achieved by feeding sulfur dioxide and oxygen into the roasting furnace.

  17. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  18. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  19. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  20. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  1. Use of RDF to dry recovered froth-floated glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the technical and economic feasibility of using waste- or refuse-derived fuel, at a resource recovery site, to provide the energy for drying glass recovered by froth flotation. A survey of equipment manufacturers and a technical study of an assembly, including a waste combusting unit, heat exchanger, and dryer is conducted. An equipment package is defined and costed. The analysis shows that, at the present price of oil, and probably for the next decade, drying froth-floated glass is done more economically, simply, and compactly with fuel oil than with refuse-derived fuel in a single-use, dedicated combustor.

  2. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  3. Association of oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities with oil discoveries, upper continental slope, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.; Brooks, J.M.; MacDonald, I.R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Guinasso, N.L. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    A belt of sea-floor oil seeps and chemosynthetic communities has been mapped across the upper continental slope, offshore Louisiana, at depths ranging from 2000 to 1000 m. Visibly oil-stained sediments and thelmogenic gas hydrates have been recovered using piston cores and research submarines. Biomarker fingerprinting of seep oils suggests an origin from deeply buried Cretaceous or Jurassic source rocks characterized by marine kerogen. The abundance of seeps provides a unique opportunity to define their relationship to oil discoveries including Auger, Cooper, Jolliet, Marquette, Vancouver, Popeye, and Mars. Seeps are preferentially distributed over shallow salt ridges that rim intrasalt basin cooking pots, over salt diapirs, and along shallow fault traces near discoveries. Diagnostic seep-related features on the sea floor include gas hydrate mounds and outcrops, pockmarks and craters, mud volcanoes, and carbonate buildups. Many of the 50 chemosynthetic communities including tube worms, mussels, or clams thus far documented in the gulf occur near discoveries. Recent imagery from orbital platforms, including the space shuttle, shows that natural oil slicks are common on the sea surface in this area. Additional mapping of seep distributions should contribute to better defining of the limits of the deep Gulf play fairway.

  4. Improving the determination of moisture in edible oils by FTIR spectroscopy using acetonitrile extraction.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianghe; Sedman, J; van de Voort, F R

    2012-11-15

    A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method developed for the analysis of moisture in edible oils using dry acetonitrile as the extraction solvent was re-examined with the objective of improving its overall sensitivity and reproducibility. Quantitation was based on the H-O-H bending absorption at ∼1630 cm(-1) instead of the bands in the OH stretching region, fewer interferences being an issue in the former as opposed to the latter region. In addition, a spectroscopic dilution correction procedure was developed to compensate for any miscibility of oil samples with acetonitrile, and gap-segment 2nd derivative spectra were employed to minimise the associated possibility of spectral interferences from absorptions of the oils. In comprehensive standard addition experiments using a variety of edible oils, the FTIR method was shown to recover the amounts of water quantitatively added to dry oil with an accuracy of ±20 ppm when the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the water-spiked oils were ratioed against the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the corresponding dry oils. The accuracy deteriorated substantially when the spectra of the acetonitrile extracts of the water-spiked oils were ratioed against the spectrum of the acetonitrile extraction solvent only. However, the primary variable affecting the apparent difference in the accuracy of the two approaches was determined to be the variability in the residual moisture content of the dried oils used in the standard addition experiments, as confirmed by an FTIR procedure based on H-D exchange with D(2)O. The FTIR method as structured is amenable to automation (>120 samples/h) and provides a very competitive means by which to routinely measure moisture present in a variety of hydrophobic materials that are normally the domain of Karl Fischer titration, such as edible oils, mineral oils, biodiesel and fuels.

  5. Foam formation in a downstream digester of a cascade running full-scale biogas plant: Influence of fat, oil and grease addition and abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella.

    PubMed

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-02-01

    The microbial community composition in a full-scale biogas plant fed with sewage sludge and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was investigated over a 15-month period, including two foam formation events. Addition of FOG as a substrate in the biogas plant together with high abundances of Microthrix parvicella were found to promote foam formation in the downstream digester of a cascade of two biogas digesters. Genetic fingerprinting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated a higher abundance of M. parvicella in the digester, when the digestion process was accompanied by excessive foaming relative to the reference digesters without disturbance. The creation of foam depended on the introduced proportion of FOG and the abundance of M. parvicella. Furthermore, shifts in the abundance of M. parvicella in the biogas plant were observed within the 15-month monitoring period corresponding to its seasonal abundance in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

  6. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  7. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  8. Used float shoe recovered and tested

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    A cement float valve has been recovered after it was circulated through and cemented downhole. It was retrieved by coring as part of an investigation into a cementing failure. The float equipment was then analyzed for downhole performance. This is believed to be the first instance of intact recovery of full-scale cementing hardware after it has been cemented in place. In this instance, the valve performed as designed. Flash set proved to be the probable cause of job failure. This article documents the job and includes photographs of the used float shoe and its components.

  9. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  10. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  11. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  12. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  13. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  14. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  15. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  16. BACKUP -- Recovering from incremental tape backups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.

    The importance of making regular backups of your disks in well known, but it can be very frustrating to have a head crash and then discover that you cannot recover from your backups because the manuals do not tell you what to do. The DEC documentation covers most possibilities, but not the case where a removable pack is copied to a new pack, the new pack is then used as the current pack, and incremental backups to tape are then made. This situation is a fairly common one when you have two or more removable disk drives. This note covers backup and recovery in general terms, and details exactly what to do in the above mentioned case.

  17. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  18. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (<100mg/L) and salt (<1%) to the sludge could help improve the oil recovery from the combined treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles.

  19. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  20. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  1. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  2. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  3. First report: Yersinia enterocolitica recovered from canine tonsils.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brenda P; Drummond, Niall; Ringwood, Tamara; O'Sullivan, Edmund; Buckley, James F; Whyte, Paul; Prentice, Mike B; Fanning, Séamus

    2010-12-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is a known zoonotic pathogen and is often found in pig tonsils as the primary site of colonisation. In this study we investigated whether or not Y. enterocolitica could be recovered from canine tonsils. During a study on the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in animal populations in Ireland, 144 canine tonsils and 72 canine rectal swabs were procured over a ten-month period and subjected to microbiological examination for the presence of this human pathogen. Molecular methods were used to determine virulence and all strains were negative for the chromosomally mediated virulence factor (ail) and plasmid-encoded adhesion molecule (pYad). Y. enterocolitica was recovered from 25 of 216 (12%) samples. Twenty-four strains were from tonsils along with one from a rectal swab. All were biotype 1A. Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed two of 25 (8%) were resistant to cephalothin and the remaining strains were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin with six of these additionally resistant to streptomycin. Our evidence that a human pathogen may be harboured in the oral cavity of dogs' adds a new dimension to the epidemiology of this organism, identifying a potential public health risk following exposure to dogs.

  4. Theoretical design of a compact energy recovering divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    An energy recovering divertor (ERD) is a type of plasma direct converter (PDC) designed to fit in the divertor channel of a tokamak. Such a device reduces the heat load to the divertor plate by converting a portion of it into electrical energy. This recovered energy can then be used for auxiliary heating and current drive, fundamentally altering the relationship between scientific and engineering breakeven and reducing dependence on bootstrap current. Previous work on the ERD concept focused on amplification of Alfven waves in a manner similar to a free-electron laser. While conceptually straightforward, this concept was also bulky, thus limiting its applicability to existing tokamak experiments. A design is presented for an ERD based on sheath-localized waves. This makes possible a device sufficiently compact to fit in the divertor channel of many existing tokamak experiments, and moreover requires no new shaping coils to achieve the desired magnetic geometry or topology. In addition, incidental advantages of this concept will be discussed.

  5. Effects of oil on avian reproduction: A review and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Rosie, Don; Barnes, Stephen N.

    1983-01-01

    Oil pollution is a highly visible form of environmental contamination that affects avian reproduction in a variety of ways. Plumage oiling causes widespread and locally severe mortality of adult birds. Egg oiling can be a serious hazard for bird embryos but only a few field observationons of this have been reported. Oil ingestion seldom kills birds directly but it causes sublethal change~ in the bodily functions and behavior of adults and nestlings. Studies of the effects of oil on avian reproduction have produced varied and, in ingestion studies, sometimes conflicting results because of inconsistent experimental design and the use of different test species and types of oil. Field experimentation with the sublethal effects of ingested oil on avian reproduction has been limited. Simulation modelling of seabird populations has shown that (l) an occasional decrease in survival of breeding adults will have a greater impact on seabird populations than an occasional decrease in reproductive success, and (2) populations of long-lived seabirds with low reproductive potential have great difficulty recovering from high one-time mortality when experiencing even small sustained annual decreases in either natality or breeding adult survival. The impact of oil-related decreases in survival or reproduction will be more noticeable at the local or colony level than at the regional or species level. Immigration, surplus breeders, and possible compensatory changes in natality and mortality resulting from population reductions usually prevent local population reductions from lasting very long (unless the species is rare or at the edge of its range). A study of west European seabird populations indicates that the natural annual mortality of the region greatly exceeds the annual mortality due to plumage oiling; effects of oil ingestion and egg oiling were not measured but were thought to be less than the mortality from plu~age oiling. Oil-related mortality, even if in addition to

  6. Toluene diisocyanate based phase-selective supramolecular oil gelator for effective removal of oil spills from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhen; Wang, Youshan; Yan, Xingru; Wu, Songquan; Shao, Lu; Liu, Yuyan; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    Due to tremendous resource wastes and great harm to ecological environment caused by the accidental oil spills, an alkyl bicarbamate supramolecular oil gelator was synthesized and applied to selectively gelate oils from oil/water mixtures. Interestingly, the oil gelator could be self-assembled in a series of organic solvents, i.e., edible oils and fuel oils to form 3D networks and then turned into thermally reversible organogels, allowing easy separation and removal of oil spills from oil/water mixtures. The possible self-assembly mode for the formation of organogels was proposed. What's more, the optimal conditions for using the oil gelator to recover oils were experimentally determined. Inspiringly, taking gasoline as the co-congealed solvent, a complete gelation of oil phase was achieved within 15 min with high oil removal rate and oil retention rate after convenient salvage and cleanup of oil gels from oil/water mixtures. The oil gelator had some advantages in solidifying oil spills on water surface, exhibiting fast oil gelation, convenient and thorough oil removal and easy recovery. This work illustrates the significant role of oil gelators in the potential cleanup of spilled oils for water purification.

  7. Effect of wettability on light oil steamflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes NIPER's research on four interrelated topics for Light Oil Steamflooding. Four interrelated topics are described: The methodology for measuring capillary pressure and wettability at elevated temperature, the use of silylating agents to convert water-wet Berea sandstones or unconsolidated quartz sands to oil-wetted surfaces, the evaluation of the thermal hydrolytic stability of these oil-wet surfaces for possible use in laboratory studies using steam and hot water to recover oil, and the effect of porous media of different wettabilities on oil recovery where the porous media is first waterflooded and then steamflooded.

  8. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  9. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  10. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  11. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  12. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. Method for recovering metal from waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a method for recovering metal from a waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. It comprises passing a waste stream comprised of heavy metal salts in dilute solution into a cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell, wherein the metals are selected from the group having a standard reduction potential more negative than that of hydrogen in the electromotive force series and the heavy metal ion concentration of the solution is less than about 10,000 parts per million of dissolved material; subjecting the waste stream to high current density electrolysis at up to about 25 volts to enhance the controlled regular formation of a noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystalline precipitate in the cathode chamber; separating the precipitate from the waste stream; and splitting the clarified liquid waste stream so that a portion of the clarified liquid waste stream is discharged and a portion is returned downstream for commingling with the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.

  20. Learning and Recovering Additive and Multiplicative Value Functions: A Criterion Validation of Multiattribute Utility Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    multiattribute value functions. Operations Research, 1979, 27, 810-822. Fishburn, P. Utility theory for decision making. New York: Wiley, 1970...Psychology, 1980, 21, 66-82. v. Winterfeldt, D. and Fischer, G.W. Multiattribute utility theory : models and assessment procedres. In D. Wendt and...plicative value functions: A criterion _____________ validation of multiattribute utility 6. 7EPPORMING ONG. RgPeR? NUgMBER techn iclues 82-1 AijWOR*JS

  1. Survival of oocytes recovered from vitrified sheep ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Al-aghbari, A M; Menino, A R

    2002-05-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an effective vitrification technique for cryopreserving oocytes in sheep ovarian tissues. Ovaries were surgically recovered from 15 pubertal ewes and the ovarian cortex was cut into sections. Ovarian tissues were placed in equilibration medium consisting of 4% (v/v) ethylene glycol (EG) and 20% (v/v) FBS in TCM-199 on ice for 30 min and transferred to vitrification solution (35% EG, 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 0.4M trehalose and 20% FBS in TCM-199) for 5 min. Ovarian tissues were vitrified by dropping the tissue on the surface of a steel cube cooled by liquid nitrogen. Cumulus-enclosed oocyte complexes (COC) were also collected and vitrified following the procedure used for ovarian tissues. After 2-3 weeks of storage in liquid nitrogen, ovarian tissues and COC were thawed at 37 degrees C in 0.3M trehalose and COC in ovarian tissues were mechanically and enzymatically isolated. Vitrified COC and freshly collected COC were washed twice in maturation medium (TCM-199 supplemented with 0.255 mM pyruvate and 10% heat-treated estrus cow serum) and cultured in 50 microl drops of maturation medium under paraffin oil for 23-25h at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air. After culture, cumulus cells were removed by hyaluronidase treatment and vortexing and oocytes were fixed and stained. No significant differences were observed between vitrified oocytes, oocytes recovered from vitrified ovarian tissues and non-vitrified control oocytes in the percentage of oocytes with acceptable staining per total number of oocytes fixed or with visible chromatin per total number of oocytes with acceptable staining. However, fewer (P<0.05) oocytes obtained from vitrified ovarian tissues (70%) reached metaphase II compared to vitrified oocytes (88%) and non-vitrified control oocytes (90%). In contrast, when oocytes with at least 3-5 layers of cumulus cells were considered from each of the three groups, no differences (P>0.05) were

  2. Getty Oil Company Diatomite project

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, I.L.

    1984-09-01

    The feasibility of using Diatomite as a synthetic fuels feedstock is discussed. The asphaltic outcropping near McKittrick, California are evidence of oil bearing deposits. Two different processes have been taken to the pilot plant stage to evaluate the viability of recovering oil from the Diatomite ore. One approach was the retorting process which was developed by Lurgi. The other process is based on a totally different concept of solvent extracting the oil from the ore. The operation and performance of the pilot plants are described.

  3. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  5. Effect of a simulated oil spill on natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton enclosed in microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J.; Figueiras, F. G.; Aranguren-Gassis, M.; Crespo, B. G.; Fernández, E.; Morán, X. A. G.; Nieto-Cid, M.

    2009-07-01

    Two microcosm experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of sporadic oil spills derived from tanker accidents on oceanic and coastal marine phytoplankton assemblages. Treatments were designed to reproduce the spill from the Prestige, which took place in Galician coastal waters (NW Iberia) in November 2002. Two different concentrations of the water soluble fraction of oil were used: low (8.6 ± 0.7 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents) and high (23 ± 5 μg l -1 of chrysene equivalents l -1). Photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll a concentration decreased in both assemblages after 24-72 h of exposure to the two oil concentrations, even though the effect was more severe on the oceanic assemblage. These variables progressively recovered up to values close or higher than those in the controls, but the short-term negative effect of oil, which was generally stronger at the high concentration, also induced changes in the structure of the plankton community. While the biomass of nanoflagellates increased in both assemblages, oceanic picophytoplankton was drastically reduced by the addition of oil. Effects on diatoms were also observed, particularly in the coastal assemblage. The response of coastal diatoms to oil addition showed a clear dependence on size. Small diatoms (<20 μm) were apparently stimulated by oil, whereas diatoms >20 μm were only negatively affected by the high oil concentration. These differences, which could be partially due to indirect trophic interactions, might also be related to different sensitivity of species to PAHs. These results, in agreement with previous observations, additionally show that the negative effect of the water soluble fraction of oil on oceanic phytoplankton was stronger than on coastal phytoplankton.

  6. Simulation and optimization of a supercritical extraction process for recovering provitamin A.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Elenise Bannwart; Alvarez, Mario Eusebio Torres; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a simulation procedure of a supercritical extraction process was developed through the use of the commercial simulator HYSYS (Hyprotech Ltd.), adapting the existing units to the operating conditions typical of the supercritical extraction process. The objective is to recover provitamin A (beta-carotene) from palm oil (esterified) using carbon dioxide/ethanol as the supercritical mixed solvent. This example characterizes the problem for recovering high added value product from natural sources, as the palm oil, which is desired by the market. Owing to the fact that esterified palm oil is a complex mixture, made by several components, in order to characterize this system in the simulator, it was necessary to create hypothetical components using the UNIFAC (universal function-group activity coefficients model) group contribution, because they are not present in a conventional database and, then, their physical properties must be estimated and/or predicted before the simulation. The optimization was carried out in each simulation for each equipment, in terms of operating conditions (temperature and pressure), in order to obtain the maximum recovery of carotenes. According to the results, it was possible to concentrate carotenes through two cycles of supercritical extraction with high yield. Furthermore, ethyl esters (biodiesel) were also obtained, as a byproduct of the proposed process, which can also be used as an alternative fuel, with the important characteristic that it is renewable.

  7. Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical alcohols: effects of the alcohol to oil molar ratios on the biofuel chemical composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Bunyakiat, Kunchana; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2011-11-01

    Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical methanol (SCM) and supercritical ethanol (SCE) at 400 °C and 15 MPa were evaluated. At the optimal alcohol to oil molar ratios of 12:1 and 18:1 for the SCM and SCE processes, respectively, the biofuel samples were synthesized in a 1.2-L reactor and the resulting biofuel was analyzed for the key properties including those for the diesel and biodiesel standard specifications. Biofuel samples derived from both the SCM and SCE processes could be used as an alternative fuel after slight improvement in their acid value and free glycerol content. The remarkable advantages of this novel process were: the additional fuel yield of approximately of 5% and 10% for SCM and SCE, respectively; the lower energy consumption for alcohol preheating, pumping and recovering than the biodiesel production with supercritical alcohols that use a high alcohol to oil molar ratio of 42:1.

  8. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  9. Desalination of brackish water from oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing non-brackish water from brackish water found in an inactivated oil well. It comprises at least one inactive oil well located on an offshore oil platform, the well having a perforated well casing at a level of a geological formation known to contain flowable brackish water; a desalination plant located on the offshore platform receiving flowable brackish water from the inactive oil well; and means to transport the non-brackish water produced by the desalination plant. This patent also describes a method of using an inactivated oil well. It comprises ceasing oil production in an inactive oil well having a well casing that penetrates a plurality of geological formations; recovering brackish water from the inactive oil well from a geological formation containing flowable brackish water; and desalinating the brackish water producing non-brackish water.

  10. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  11. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  12. Evaluation of polypropylene and poly (butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) nonwoven material as oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Xiao, Changfa; Xu, Naiku

    2013-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and poly(butylmethacrylate-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PBMA-co-HEMA) nonwoven materials as oil absorbents have been fabricated for the first time via melt blown method. As-prepared nonwovens were investigated in terms of mass per unit area, density, air permeability, contact angle, and morphology observations for fiber diameter distribution and single fiber surface by a field emission scanning electron microscope. The nonwovens are demonstrated as fast and efficient absorbents for various kinds of oils with oil absorbency up to seven to ten times their own weight. The nonwovens show excellent water repulsion but superoleophilic properties. The measured contact angles for water and toluene are more than 127° and ca. 0°, respectively. The addition of PBMA-co-HEMA makes the nonwoven surface more hydrophobic while conserving superoleophilicity. Compared with PP nonwoven, broad diameter distribution of the blend nonwoven is attributed to poor melt fluidity of PBMA-co-HEMA. In terms of single fiber, coarse surface and the presence of point-like convexities lead to the fibers being more readily wetted by oil. More interesting, oil-water separation and oil recovery can be easily carried out by filter and absorption-desorption process, the recovered materials contained hardly any oil droplet and could be reused for next cycles.

  13. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  14. PROTOTYPIC CONTINUITY METHODS FOR FASTER RECOVERY OF OIL PRODUCTS SUPPLY AFTER GREAT QUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuno, Takato

    In the Great East Japan Earthquake, some oil product farms and tanks had a lot of damages. Then we temporally run short of oil products such as gasoline, lamp oil. The oil product is indispensable to make cargo shipment, or rescue operations, and some trouble must come for everyday shopping and movement of business. The lifeline damages come out electric power, water service, gas and communication. In addition the oil product shortage overlaps then the importance to restore was recognized. After earthquake disaster, there is a possibility to interrupt supply services such as shipping from oil tanks and sale at stations. Even if their discontinuation comes, it needs some business continuity policies in order to recover supply service at early stage. This paper grasps oil product discontinuation of supply and restoration transition and tries to get disaster lessons. This paper proposes prototypic techniques to minimize the sum of penalties to supply no service for neighbor region with capacities of critical stations. It applies to Tohoku regions and their gas stations and comments the usefulness of techniques and implication of supply service continuity policy.

  15. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice.

  16. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  17. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  18. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  19. Quantitation of volatile oils in ground cumin by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Heikes, D L; Scott, B; Gorzovalitis, N A

    2001-01-01

    Ground cumin is used as a flavoring agent in a number of ethnic cuisines. The chemical entities, which primarily establish its characteristically pungent flavor, are found in the volatile oil of cumin. Fixed oils and carbohydrates tend to round out the harshness of the volatile oil components. However, the quantity of volatile oil is commonly the measure of the quality of this spice. For several decades, the spice industry has used a classical distillation procedure for the determination of volatile oil in cumin and other spices. However, the method is cumbersome and requires nearly 8 h to complete. Supercritical fluid extraction with capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection is utilized in the formulation of a rapid, accurate, and specific method for the determination of volatile oil in ground cumin. Samples are extracted in a static-dynamic mode with CO2 at 550 bar and 100 degrees C. Toluene is used as a static modifier addition. The extracted volatile oil, collected in toluene, is analyzed directly using tetradecane as the internal standard. Integration is performed as grouped peaks to include all chemical entities found in cumin volatile oil recovered from the official distillation procedure. Results from this procedure compare favorably with those obtained by the official procedure (coefficient of correlation = 0.995, 24 samples).

  20. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  3. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  4. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  5. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  6. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  7. Oil recovery process using a treated polymer solution

    SciTech Connect

    Luetzelschwab, W.E.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a process for recovering oil from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. It comprises the sequential steps of: contacting an aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid with an oxygenating agent, wherein the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid initially contains hydrogen sulfide in a sufficient concentration to substantially degrade an acrylamide polymer; reducing the initial hydrogen sulfide concentration of the aqueous acrylamide polymer-free liquid; mixing the aqueous liquid with the acrylamide polymer to form an aqueous acrylamide polymer solution; injecting the aqueous acrylamide polymer solution into the subterranean oil-bearing formation; and recovering oil from the formation.

  8. Effect of phase transition in shock-recovered silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    A series of shock-recovery experiments on a single crystal of silicon up to 38 GPa and characterizations of the recovered samples by x-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopic observations were performed for a better understanding of residual effects after shock loading by using a propellant gun. The x-ray diffraction trace of each sample revealed the absence of additional constituents including metastable phases and high-pressure phases of silicon except for 11 and 38 GPa. At 11 GPa, small amounts of metastable phases of silicon were obtained. The formation of copper silicide (Cu3Si) was confirmed in the sample shocked at 38 GPa. Considering the surface morphology revealed by microscopic observation, a thermochemical reaction through the melting of silicon resulted in the formation of Cu3Si. An additional band and the center frequency deviation of a peak were shown in the Raman spectroscopy results. The results of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicated that crystalline size reduction rather than the formation of metastable phases occurred. Structural deformation rather than the thermal effect caused by a shock-induced temperature rise may be responsible for the disappearance of metastable phases, which were observed in other high-pressure experiments.

  9. NASTRAN modifications for recovering strains and curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennrich, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications to the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program are described. The modifications allow the recovery of strain and curvature data for the general two-dimensional elements, in addition to the usual stress data. Option features allow the transformation of the strain/curvature (or stress) data to a common coordinate system and representation at the grid points of the structural model rather than at the conventional element center locations. Usage information is provided which will allow present users of NASTRAN to easily utilize the new capability.

  10. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  11. Light-oil steamflooding; A laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Roark, S.D.; Stryker, A.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments have been conducted in a 2D elemental model to determine the response of light crudes to steam injection and to verify reported numerical simulation results. The results show that light-oil steamfloods are typified by an early production response to steam injection and that recovery efficiencies are strongly influenced by the chemical nature of the crude. The data also indicate that gravity override of steam remains a potential problem in light-oil steamflooding and that as much as 65% of oil in place (OIP) can be recovered economically by steamflooding light oils.

  12. A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery with CO/sub 2/ injection

    SciTech Connect

    Sankur, V.; Emanuel, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    Recovery of a California heavy oil by CO/sub 2/ injection was investigated using laboratory core floods and computer simulation. CO/sub 2/ drive and huff-n-puff techniques were studied for tertiary recovery of a 14/sup 0/ API gravity, 3000 cp viscosity oil from a waterflooded core. The core material was poorly consolidated sandstone under simulated reservoir stress. At 1250 psia, CO/sub 2/ drive recovered up to 54% of the remaining oil in place (ROIP), the recovery increasing with increasing slug size. The CO/sub 2/ utilization factors also increased with CO/sub 2/ slug size, ranging from 1.1 MSCF/BBL to 8.0 MSCF/BBL. The addition of 18% N/sub 2/ into CO/sub 2/ at this pressure resulted in earlier gas breakthrough and lower recoveries compared to pure CO/sub 2/ injection. At 750 psia a 3.0 PV slug of CO/sub 2/ recovered 20% of the ROIP, reflecting lower recoveries at lower pressures. The use of small slugs improved CO/sub 2/ utilization also at this pressure with an accompanying decrease in overall recovery to 16% of ROIP. The CO/sub 2/ huff-n-puff technique was tested on the same system at 1250 psia pressure. The first cycle recovered 6% of the ROIP with a CO/sub 2/ utilization factor of 11 MSCF/BBL. The second cycle recovered an additional 3% with a utilization factor of 33 MSCF/BBL. The core floods were simulated using a compositional simulator with a three-component Peng-Robinson model for fluid properties. The simulator predictions agree qualitatively with the experimental results. Calculated saturation profiles through the core are presented.

  13. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  14. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    PubMed

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized.

  15. Statistical approach to meteoroid shape estimation based on recovered meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnikov, V.; Gritsevich, M.; Turchak, L.

    2014-07-01

    Each meteorite sample can provide data on the chemical and physical properties of interplanetary matter. The set of recovered fragments within one meteorite fall can give additional information on the history of its parent asteroid. A reliably estimated meteoroid shape is a valuable input parameter for the atmospheric entry scenario, since the pre-entry mass, terminal meteorite mass, and fireball luminosity are proportional to the pre-entry shape factor of the meteoroid to the power of 3 [1]. We present a statistical approach to the estimation of meteoroid pre-entry shape [2], applied to the detailed data on recovered meteorite fragments. This is a development of our recent study on the fragment mass distribution functions for the Košice meteorite fall [3]. The idea of the shape estimation technique is based on experiments that show that brittle fracturing produces multiple fragments of sizes smaller than or equal to the smallest dimension of the body [2]. Such shattering has fractal properties similar to many other natural phenomena [4]. Thus, this self-similarity for scaling mass sequences can be described by the power law statistical expressions [5]. The finite mass and the number of fragments N are represented via an exponential cutoff for the maximum fragment mass m_U. The undersampling of tiny unrecoverable fragments is handled via an additional constraint on the minimum fragment mass m_L. The complementary cumulative distribution function has the form F( m)={N-j}/{m_j}( {m}/{m_j})^{-β_0}exp( {m-m_j}/{m_U}). The resulting parameters sought (scaling exponent β_0 and mass limits) are computed to fit the empirical fragment mass distribution: S(β_0, j, m_U) = sum_{i=j}^{N}[F(m_i)-{N-j}/{m_j}]^2, m_j = m_L. The scaling exponent correlates with the dimensionless shape parameter d [2]: 0.13d^2-0.21d+1.1-β=0, which, in turn, is expressed via the ratio of the linear dimensions a, b, c of the shattering body [2]: d = 1+2(ab+ac+bc)(a^2+b^2+c^2)^{-1}. We apply the

  16. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  17. Senescing sexual ornaments recover after a sabbatical

    PubMed Central

    Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    Somatic deterioration in ageing animals may arise from allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of repair and maintenance. Thus, accumulated reproductive effort is likely to progressively limit the expression of sexual ornaments at older ages. We analysed the effect of age and reproductive effort on the sexual attractiveness (foot colour) of male blue-footed boobies. Using a long-term dataset, we found that, as animals age and accumulate reproductive events, the expression of foot colour deteriorates. In addition, after non-breeding events males displayed more colourful feet compared with males that reproduced the year before, suggesting that sabbatical years facilitate recovery. Our results indirectly support the idea that allocation of resources to reproduction limits sexual attractiveness and that animals could cope with the negative effects of senescence on sexual ornaments by skipping some breeding events. PMID:19955170

  18. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General rule. (1... considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery with the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  3. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  4. The 14 Worst Myths about Recovered Mental Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Fourteen myths about recovered mental patients are discussed in this pamphlet. The myths are introduced in a true/false checklist. Famous recovered victims of mental illness are cited, most notably Abraham Lincoln. Three vignettes concerning non-famous people and the rebuffs they faced as they attempted to become self-sufficient are presented.…

  5. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  6. 48 CFR 245.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.607-2 Recovering precious metals. (b) Precious metals are silver, gold... office with disposition instructions for certain categories of precious metals-bearing...

  7. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  8. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  9. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  10. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Differences among substance abusers in Spain who recovered with treatment or on their own.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José Luis; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramon; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Errasti-Pérez, José Manuel; Alhalabí-Diaz, Susana

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study compared the differences among substance abusers in Spain who recovered with treatment or on their own. Advertisements were used to recruit 58 individuals (29 self-changers and 29 treatment-changers) who had had problems with alcohol or drugs, and who had been recovered for at least one year. The groups differed significantly in severity of dependence, psychiatric treatment prior to recovery, and coping strategies to maintain recovery. Consistent with previous studies, those who had recovered through treatment had a more serious substance use history than those who changed on their own. In addition, social support was associated with maintenance of change for both groups. These findings parallel those for English-speaking populations.

  13. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011.

  14. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a Space Station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  15. Alkyl amine and vegetable oil mixture-a viable candidate for CO2 capture and utilization.

    PubMed

    Uma Maheswari, A; Palanivelu, K

    2017-02-01

    In this present work, the absorption of CO2 in alkyl amines and vegetable oil mixture has been evaluated. The results showed that the absorption is higher in alkyl amines and vegetable oil mixture compared with the aqueous alkyl amines. In addition to that, by employing the greener and non-toxic vegetable oil media, the CO2 gas has been captured as well as converted into value-added products, such as carbamates of ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, and triethylenetetramine. The carbamates have been isolated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. The formation of these products in precipitate form has not been observed in the case of aqueous medium. Among the various alkyl amine and vegetable oil combinations, triethylenetetramine in coconut oil medium showed the maximum CO2 capture capacity of 72%. The coconut oil used for the process has been recovered, recycled, and reused for 3 cycles. Thus, this novel scheme seems to be a better alternative to conquer the drawback of aqueous amine-based CO2 capture as well as for the capture and utilization of the CO2 gas to gain the value-added products.

  16. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  17. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of a supplementary biotechnology that will potentially aid in obtaining greater oil production and processing capabilities. This supplementary technology involves the application of microbiological processes to specific and well-defined problems in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The discussion outlines scenarios for various microbiological processes that have been identified as promising areas for research and development, many of which are currently being addressed within the petroleum industry and by the Department of Energy. Microorganisms and microbial products can be used to recover oil from reservoirs. To be successful, the complexity of oil and the physical constraints in the reservoir must be taken into account. The three general approaches are: stimulation of the endogenous microbial population; injection of microorganisms with proven ability to perform well in situ; and the use of microbial products, such as xanthan gum, produced by Xanthomonas campestris.

  18. All About Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Some oils are used ... such as canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) 1 Tbsp 3 tsp/14 g ...

  19. Rock and Roll - How Do Flies Recover From Serial Stumbles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John; Cohen, Itai

    2012-11-01

    Flying insects manage to maintain aerodynamic stability despite the facts that flapping flight is inherently unstable and that they are constantly subject to mechanical perturbations, such as gusts of wind. To maintain stability against such perturbations, insects rely on fast and robust flight control mechanisms, which are poorly understood. Here, we directly study flight control in the fruit fly D. melanogaster by applying mechanical perturbations in mid-air and measuring the insects' correction maneuvers. On each fly we glue a small magnet and use pulses of magnetic field to apply torque perturbations along the fly's roll axis. We then use high-speed filming and 3D reconstruction to characterize the kinematics of their correction maneuver and show how the flies fully recover from roll perturbations of up to 70° within 7-8 wing beats (30-40ms), which is faster than their visual response time. In addition, we study the dynamics of the maneuver by calculating the aerodynamic forces and torques the fly produces. Finally, we present a control mechanism that can explain the roll correction maneuver. These results have implications ranging from the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie flight control to the design of flapping robots.

  20. Microscopic fungi recovered from honey and their toxinogenity.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Felšöciová, Soňa; Rovná, Katarína

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to contribute towards the knowledge of microbiology of honey, more than 50 samples of honey from Slovakia and other countries were mycologically investigated in terms of the overall fungal diversity and toxicological potential of isolated fungi from Penicillium genera. The study revealed that out of 13 genera recovered, Penicillium was the most frequent and diverse genus, followed by Aspergillus and Cladosporium being found in 65.91 % (29 samples), 34.1 % (15 samples) and 29.55 % (13 samples), respectively. The most frequently encountered taxa from Penicillium genera were Penicillium chrysogenum (found in 22.73 %), Penicillium brevicompactum (13.64 %), Penicillium crustosum (11.36 %) and Penicillium griseofulvum (11.36 %). In addition, the following genera were recorded (in descending order) Mycelia (18.18 %), Fusarium (11.36 %), Mucor (9.09 %), Acremonium (6.82 %), Alternaria (4.55 %), Epicoccum (4.55 %), and finally Botrytis, Eurotium Trichoderma and Phoma all were encountered in 2.27 % of the samples being represented. The mean value counts of total fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2 × 10(2) cfu.g(-1). Outcomes from mycotoxin screening within the appropriate potentially toxinogenic species from Penicillium genera showed a number of mycotoxin producers, namely those forming citrinin (n = 1), cyclopiazonic acid (n = 5), griseofulvin (n = 5), patulin (n = 5), penitrem A (n = 2) and roquefortin C (n = 13).

  1. Experimental QR code optical encryption: noise-free data recovering.

    PubMed

    Barrera, John Fredy; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the experimental implementation of a quick response (QR) code as a "container" in an optical encryption system. A joint transform correlator architecture in an interferometric configuration is chosen as the experimental scheme. As the implementation is not possible in a single step, a multiplexing procedure to encrypt the QR code of the original information is applied. Once the QR code is correctly decrypted, the speckle noise present in the recovered QR code is eliminated by a simple digital procedure. Finally, the original information is retrieved completely free of any kind of degradation after reading the QR code. Additionally, we propose and implement a new protocol in which the reception of the encrypted QR code and its decryption, the digital block processing, and the reading of the decrypted QR code are performed employing only one device (smartphone, tablet, or computer). The overall method probes to produce an outcome far more attractive to make the adoption of the technique a plausible option. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed security system.

  2. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  3. 77 FR 42230 - Indian Oil Valuation Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue 30 CFR Part 1206 Indian Oil Valuation Negotiated Rulemaking Committee... Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) announces additional meetings for the Indian Oil Valuation Negotiated... specific recommendations regarding proposed revisions to the existing regulations for oil production...

  4. Single droplet combustion of sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, K.; Tsunematsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    When sunflower oil (or plant oil, in general) was used as diesel engine fuel, the ignitability at low temperatures was much poorer than for No. 2 diesel oil. In addition, unburned carbon accumulated in the combustion chamber when the engine was idling. The research reported in this paper was conducted to investigate the causes of these problems. A single fuel droplet set at the tip of a combustion thread was inserted into an electric furnace and ignited. The behavior of the combustion was observed and analyzed by a high speed rotary video camera. The fuels studied were sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel oil, sunflower oil methyl ester and fish oil methyl ester. As a result, even if the droplet size of sunflower oil was the same as that of No. 2 diesel oil, its ignition delay was much longer than No. 2 diesel oil. This may be the main cause of poor ignitability of sunflower oil at low temperatures.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SOLVENT RECOVERED FROM WRIGHT INDUSTRIES, INCORPORATED TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-11

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to process liquid waste for an interim period. The MCU Project Team conducted testing of the contactors, coalescers, and decanters at Wright Industries, Incorporated (WII) in Nashville, Tennessee. That testing used MCU solvent and simulated SRS dissolved salt. Because of the value of the solvent, the MCU Project wishes to recover it for use in the MCU process in the H-Tank Farm. Following testing, WII recovered approximately 62 gallons of solvent (with entrained aqueous) and shipped it to SRS. The solvent arrived in two stainless steel drums. The MCU Project requested SRNL to analyze the solvent to determine whether it is suitable for use in the MCU Process. SRNL analyzed the solvent for Isopar{reg_sign} L by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), for Modifier and BOBCalixC6 by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and for Isopar{reg_sign} L-to-Modifier ratio by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. They also measured the solvent density gravimetrically and used that measurement to calculate the Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier concentration. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The constituents of the used WII solvent are collectively low in Isopar{reg_sign} L, most likely due to evaporation. This can be easily corrected through the addition of Isopar{reg_sign} L. (2) Compared to a sample of the WII Partial Solvent (without BOBCalixC6) archived before transfer to WII, the Reworked WII Solvent showed a significant improvement (i.e., nearly doubling) in the dispersion numbers for tests with simulated salt solution and with strip acid. Hence, the presence of the plasticizer impurity has no detrimental impact on phase separation. While there are no previous dispersion tests using the exact same materials, the results seem to indicate that the washing of the solvent gives a

  6. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  7. Recovering Bi and Sb from electrolyte in copper electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K.; Tsuchida, N.

    1997-12-01

    The separation of antimony and bismuth in copper electrorefining is somewhat difficult and costly. An ion-exchange technique for the removal of the metals from the electrolyte has been practiced recently, although the metals recovered require further processing. Sumitomo Metal Mining has developed a process to recover antimony and bismuth directly from the eluant by an electrowinning process using a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride as an eluant for the desorption from the resin. The content of bismuth in the antimony metal recovered by this process was less than 0.2%, while the content of antimony in the bismuth metal was less than 0.4%.

  8. Proportion of recovered goose and brant bands that are reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, R.K.; McCann, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    A few more than one-third of the goose and brant bands recovered by hunters were reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory (a rate of 0.361) during the 1962-64 hunting seasons. We calculated this band-reporting rate by comparing the estimated number of goose and brant bands recovered by hunters, based on a mail questionnaire survey, with the number of bands actually reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. This band-reporting rate is probably representative only of the 1962-65 period. It is likely that, in earlier years, a greater proportion (perhaps about 0.60) of recovered goose and brant bands were reported.

  9. Tests of Oil Recovery Devices in Broken Ice Fields. Phase I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conducted with both devices in broken fresh water ice and salt water ice, with No. 2 diesel oil and a crude oil selected to closely match the...properties of Prudhoe Bay crude oil , at temperatures of +25F and +15F. These tests demonstrated that with minor hardware modifications and the proper...operating procedures, both devices will successfully recover crude oil and No. 2 diesel oil spilled in a broken ice field of moderate icepiece size.

  10. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds).

  11. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  12. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  13. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  14. 21 CFR 172.876 - Castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Castor oil. 172.876 Section 172.876 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Multipurpose Additives § 172.876 Castor oil. The food additive castor oil may be safely used in accordance...

  15. Local and Global Impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage Combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery in Four Depleted Oil Fields, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, J.; Jordan, P. D.; Goodell, J. A.; Harrington, K.; Jameson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil reservoirs are attractive targets for geologic carbon storage (GCS) because they possess proven trapping mechanisms and large amounts of data pertaining to production and reservoir geometry. In addition, CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can improve recovery of the remaining oil at recovery factors of 6 to 20% of original oil in place in appropriate reservoirs. CO2 EOR increases the attractiveness of depleted oil and gas reservoirs as a starting point for CCS because the CO2 becomes a commodity that can be purchased by field operators for EOR purposes thereby offsetting the costs of CO2 capture at the power plant. In California, Kern County contains the largest oil reservoirs and produces 76% of California's oil. Most of the production at depths suitable for CCS combined with CO2 EOR comes from three reservoirs: the Vedder and Temblor formations and the Stevens Sandstone of the Monterey Formation. These formations were evaluated for GCS and CO2 EOR potential at the North and South Coles Levee (Stevens Sandstone), Greeley (Vedder) and McKittrick (Temblor) fields. CO2 EOR could be expected to produce an additional 150 million bbls of oil. The total storage space created by pre- and post-EOR fluid production for all three reservoirs is approximately 104 million metric tons (MMT). Large fixed sources in California produce 156 MMT/yr of CO2, and sources in Kern County produce 26 MMT/yr (WESTCARB, 2012). Therefore, the fields could store about four years of local large fixed source emissions and about two thirds of statewide emissions. However, from a global perspective, burning the additional oil produced by CO2 EOR would generate an additional 65 MMT of CO2 if not captured. This would result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas of only 39 MMT rather than the full 104 MMT. If the water produced along with the oil recovered during CO2 EOR operations is not reinjected into the reservoir, the storage space could be much higher.

  16. Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; Mountford, Victoria A; Tchanturia, Kate

    2014-08-15

    Interpersonal difficulties are proposed to maintain eating disorders (EDs). This study explored whether social anhedonia (SA) was an additional social emotional maintenance factor which might also explain work/social problems in EDs. Additionally, the study explored SA and work and social adjustment in recovered participants. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n=105), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=46), recovered from AN (RAN; n=30) and non-ED controls (n=136) completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. ED participants reported greater SA and WSAS scores than non-ED controls; the RAN group reported an intermediate profile. AN participants had poorer work/social adjustment than BN participants. SA was associated with longer illness duration. SA, current severity (BMI) and lifetime severity (lowest adult BMI) significantly predicted work/social difficulties. Recovered participants scoring in the clinical range for SA experienced significantly greater work/social difficulties than recovered participants scoring outside the clinical range for SA. EDs are associated with clinical levels of SA and poor work/social functioning which reduce in recovery. SA may maintain the interpersonal functioning difficulties.

  17. Short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging for recovered post-consumer single and mixed polymers characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Palmieri, Roberta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Postconsumer plastics from packing and packaging represent about the 60% of the total plastic wastes (i.e. 23 million of tons) produced in Europe. The EU Directive (2014/12/EC) fixes as target that the 60%, by weight, of packaging waste has to be recovered, or thermally valorized. When recovered, the same directive established that packaging waste has to be recycled in a percentage ranging between 55% (minimum) and 60% (maximum). The non-respect of these rules can produce that large quantities of end-of-life plastic products, specifically those utilized for packaging, are disposed-off, with a strong environmental impact. The application of recycling strategies, finalized to polymer recovery, can represent an opportunity to reduce: i) not renewable raw materials (i.e. oil) utilization, ii) carbon dioxide emissions and iii) amount of plastic waste disposed-off. Aim of this work was to perform a full characterization of different end-of-life polymers based products, constituted not only by single polymers but also of mixtures, in order to realize their identification for quality control and/or certification assessment. The study was specifically addressed to characterize the different recovered products as resulting from a recycling plant where classical processing flow-sheets, based on milling, classification and separation, are applied. To reach this goal, an innovative sensing technique, based on the utilization of a HyperSpectral[b] I[/b]maging (HSI) device working in the SWIR region (1000-2500 nm), was investigated. Following this strategy, single polymers and/or mixed polymers recovered were correctly recognized. The main advantage of the proposed approach is linked to the possibility to perform "on-line" analyses, that is directly on the different material flow streams, as resulting from processing, without any physical sampling and classical laboratory "off-line" determination.

  18. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  19. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used oil generators are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this Subpart. Used oil generators are also subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 279.22 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.22 Used oil storage. Used oil generators are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this Subpart. Used oil generators are also subject to...

  1. Separation of oil-soluble sulfonates from sulfonated oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanenko, V.I.; Yur'eva, N.P.; Sergeev, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors aimed at developing a method for the complete recovery, from oil solutions, of oil-water-soluble sulfonates meeting the specifications, along with oils at least 99% pure, suitable for further processing. As the starting material the authors used an experimental batch of sulfonated and neutralized distillate lube stocks produced by selective solvent treatment. In determining the optimal extraction parameters, the authors investigated the influence of the solvent to original feed (S:F) weight ratio and the influence of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration on the composition of the sulfonates and oils recovered at 60/sup 0/C with a settling time of 2 h. The optimal conditions for two-stage extraction were found through a study of the influence of temperature and settling time on the compositions of the sulfonates and oils with S:F = 1.2:1 and with an IPA concentration of 40%. The process technology for two-stage recovery of oils and sulfonates from oil solutions was worked out in a pilot unit.

  2. Potential application of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSA) on the remediation of reflective beaches impacted by petroleum: a mesocosm simulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Moreira, Icaro T A; Queiroz, Antonio F S; de Almeida, Marcos; Silva, Jessica V L; da Silva Andrade, Igor Oliveira

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents the oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) resulted from the interaction of droplets of dispersed oil in a water column and particulate matter. This structure reduces the adhesion of oil on solid surfaces, promotes dispersion, and may accelerate degradation processes. The effects of the addition of fine sediments (clay + silt) on the formation of OSA, their impact on the dispersion and degradation of the oil, and their potential use in recovering reflective sandy beaches were evaluated in a mesoscale simulation model. Two simulations were performed (21 days), in the absence and presence of fine sediments, with four units in each simulation using oil from the Recôncavo Basin. The results showed that the use of fine sediment increased the dispersion of the oil in the water column up to four times in relation to the sandy sediment. There was no evidence of the transport of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments associated with fine sediments that would have accelerated the dispersion and degradation rates of the oil. Most of the OSA that formed in this process remained in the water column, where the degradation processes were more effective. Over the 21 days of simulation, we observed a 40 % reduction on average of the levels of saturated hydrocarbons staining the surface oil.

  3. Early Brain Stimulation May Help Stroke Survivors Recover Language Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... Making News on Heart.org Learn More Early brain stimulation may help stroke survivors recover language function ... org and strokeassociation.org Related Images Infographic - Thiel-Brain Stimulation copyright American Heart Association Download (311.8 ...

  4. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6962(c)(3)(A)(i)), the offeror certifies, by signing this offer, that the percentage of....223-4 Recovered Material Certification. As prescribed in 23.406(c), insert the following...

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6962(c)(3)(A)(i)), the offeror certifies, by signing this offer, that the percentage of....223-4 Recovered Material Certification. As prescribed in 23.406(c), insert the following...

  6. Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover from Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover From Brain Injury Scans reveal white-matter decline after some ... 15, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Brain scans may reveal which children will take longer ...

  7. Analysis of ``soft`` recovered shaped charge jet particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    A shaped charge with an 81 mm diameter, 42{degree} apex angle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper conical liner was fired into a ``soft`` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 g, of which 184 g was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g., dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work the authors present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet they find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  8. Acrylamide content of commercial frying oil.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Takada, Mitsunobu; Moriya, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    After Swedish researchers reported that heated foods such as potato chips and French fries contain acrylamide, the potential for health damage resulting from the consumption of these foods became a widespread concern. Used frying oils collected from food manufacturing companies were subjected to acrylamide determination using GC/MS-SIM, but the compound was not detected. Thus, we conclude that frying oil used in deep frying would not contaminate foodstuffs with acrylamide and that the recovered oil, much of which is used as a component of animal feeds, would be safe for livestock. Model experiments heating oil at 180 degrees C suggested that no acrylamide was formed either from a mixture of major amino acids exuded from frying foodstuffs and carbonyl compounds generated from oxidized oil, or from oil and ammonia generated from amino acids.

  9. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  10. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  11. Rapid-extraction oxidation process to recover and reuse copper chromium and arsenic from industrial wood preservative sludge.

    PubMed

    Kazi, F K M; Cooper, P A

    2002-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative can form insoluble sludges when the hexavalent chromium component is reduced by wood extractives, wood particles and preservative additives in the solution. This sludge accumulates in treating solution work tanks, sumps and in-line filters and must be disposed of as hazardous wastes by waste disposal companies at high costs. A number of commercial sludges were investigated and found to contain 18-94% copper, chromium and arsenic as oxides combined with sand, oil, wood particles, additives and wood extractives. We have developed a multi-stage recycling process whereby approximately 97% of the CCA components are recovered from the sludge. It involves extraction with sodium hypochlorite to remove and oxidize chromium (more than 90%) and extract most of the arsenic (approx. 80%) followed by extraction of the copper and remaining arsenic and chromium with phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid extract contains some trivalent chromium, which is subsequently oxidized by sodium hypochlorite. The combined oxidized extract containing CrVI, CuII and AsV was compatible with CCA treating solutions and could be re-used commercially for treating wood without having a significant effect on the preservative fixation rate or the leach resistance of the treated wood. A cost analysis showed that the economic savings from recovery of CCA chemicals and reduced landfill costs exceeded the variable costs for materials and energy for the process by as much as Can $966 per tonne of sludge if sodium sulfite can be acquired in bulk quantities for the process.

  12. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil comes from the nut (fruit) of the coconut palm. The oil of the nut is used to ... Gras de Noix de Coco, Coconut Fatty Acid, Coconut Palm, Coco Palm, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed ...

  13. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  14. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  15. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  16. Sequentially flooding and oil-bearing formation with a surfactant and hot aqueous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, D.C.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process for recovering oil from an oil-wet fractured subterranean oil-bearing formation having an ambient formation temperature and penetrated by at least two wells from the surface which are in fluid communication with the formation. It comprises: injecting a first slug; contacting a face; injecting a second slug; and contacting the face.

  17. Fish protein recovered using ph shifting method and its physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. Yeung; Kim, Jinx-Soo

    2005-07-01

    The solubility of meat protein of croaker and jack mackerel was significantly affected by pH shifting. The protein yield of alkali-aided processing is higher than those of conventional and acid-aided processing. The addition of sarcoplasmic protein increases the breaking force and deformation value. The breaking force of recovered protein gel from alkali-aided processing is decreased by the addition of NaCl. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that fish protein of alkali is similar to that at pH7.0. Alkali-aided processing for recovering fish protein is a valuable method for increasing the utilization of frozen and pelagic fishes and for making kamaboko products.

  18. 21 CFR 73.300 - Carrot oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.300 Carrot oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive carrot... of identity as a color additive only and shall not be construed as setting forth an official standard for carrot oil or carrot oleoresin under section 401 of the act. (2) Color additive mixtures for...

  19. Lubricating oil compositions containing hydroxy polyether polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1987-09-29

    This patent describes a hydroxy polyether amine or polyamine additive, and a lubricating oil composition containing a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent of the additive. The additives consist of certain lubricating oil soluble hydroxy polyoxyalkylene polyamines. The compositions may be either mono or polyamines, but polyamines are preferred. The additive compounds have molecular weights of from about 500 to 2000, and preferably from about 700 to 1200.

  20. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  1. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  2. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  3. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  4. Utilization of the Fine Particles Obtained from Cold Pressed Vegetable Oils: A Case Study in Organic Rice Bran, Sunflower and Sesame Oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Poungsampao, Phuttan; Phuong, Nguyen Thi

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles obtained from the physical refining of organic cold pressed vegetable oils which are normally discarded as a process waste can be utilized as cosmetic and food ingredients. This paper demonstrated the use of the fine particles from rice bran (Thai Jasmine and Riceberry varieties), sunflower and sesame oils as the ingredient in body mask and as dietary fiber. It was found that the fine particles from rice brans exhibited better antioxidant properties than those of sunflower and sesame. The mixed fine particles were added to body mask formula. The addition of the fine particles affected the physical properties and stability of the body mask especially viscosity and pH. Total dietary fiber recovered from the fine particles ranged from 17.91-23.83 g/100g dry sample. Dietary fiber from Riceberry exhibited the best antioxidant properties as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power.

  5. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    operators for enhanced oil recovery. The second essay extends the CO2--EOR economic model described in a recent Energy Journal article by Klaas van 't Veld and Owen R. Phillips (2010). This essay takes a Monte Carlo approach to the economic scoping model which focuses more directly on the probabilistic outcomes for each individual oil field-reservoir combination (FRC). Using data on Wyoming oil fields the essay analyzes 197 FRCs in order to identify oil units with robust CO2--EOR profit potential over a wide range of uncertainty regarding future oil prices and reservoir characteristics. Of the 197 FRCs considered, 93 of them are found to meet an industry threshold IRR of 20 percent in at least half of scenarios with limited chance of actually taking losses. The third essay continues to employ the CO2--EOR economic scoping model, but focuses on Wyoming's aggregate EOR potential and attendant CO2 requirements. A similar Monte Carlo analysis is used to construct incremental oil "supply" and cumulative CO2 purchase "demand" curve estimates. Finally, the study uses a resampling technique similar to bootstrapping in order to create probabilistic distributions of Wyoming's aggregate EOR potential by assigning probabilities to individual oil prices. Although the data only covers oil fields with at least 5 MMbo of production, the analysis suggests around 768 MMbo of additional oil is likely to be recovered with CO2--EOR utilizing roughly 5.5 Tcf of injectable CO2.

  6. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  7. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2015-09-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes.

  8. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters.

  9. Executive dysfunction and autobiographical memory retrieval in recovered depressed women☆

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D.M.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events. These deficits often persist after recovery of mood symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying impaired memory specificity in recovered depressed individuals remain unclear. Here, we sought to examine whether performance on two cognitive measures might be related to deficits in autobiographical memory retrieval in individuals with a history of depression. Methods Twenty-four recovered depressed women (12 with more than one previous episode) and 24 never depressed women completed two cognitive measures (Digit Span and a Number Generation Task) and tests of autobiographical memory recall. Results Overall, the recovered depressed women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval. However, those with more than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Moreover, depression history moderated the relationship between Digit Span and retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories such that within the whole recovered depressed group (but not the never depressed group), those with lower Digit Span also had poorer retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Limitations Our sample size was small and included only women. Moreover, order effects may have been a significant factor. Conclusions These findings support the notion that working memory is an important factor in impairing autobiographical memory in those who have recovered from depression, but suggest a complex relationship with autobiographical recall. PMID:24374578

  10. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  11. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    , cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  12. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  13. Geological model for oil gravity variations in Oriente Basin, Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Dashwood, M.F.; Abbotts, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Oriente basin is one of the major productive Subandean basins. Most of the fields produce 29/sup 0/-33/sup 0/ API paraffinic oils, but oils have been discovered with gravities ranging from 10/sup 0/to 35/sup 0/ API. All the oils have been recovered from multiple middle to Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (Hollin and Napo Formations). Wells display a variety of oil gravities by reservoir. The origin of the Oriente oils is problematical and controversial, but structural, geochemical, and well evidence suggest a vast oil kitchen west of the present Andean foothills that was mature for oil generation by at least early Tertiary. Oil analyses indicate a single family of oils is present. Oil gravity variations can be explained systematically in terms of the various alteration processes suffered by the oil in each reservoir. Intermittent early Andean uplift (latest Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene) resulted in biodegradation and water-washing of oils, particularly in the uppermost Napo reservoirs. The main Andean orogeny (Pliocene) uplifted the Hollin reservoir to outcrop in the west, and tilted the basin down to the south. This movement resulted in water washing or flushing of the Hollin aquifer and a phase of northward remigration of oil. Late Andean structures postdated primary oil migration. Almost all structures displaying growth during the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene have been oil bearing, but some, particularly those located on the present-day basin flanks, were later severely biodegraded or breached.

  14. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times

    PubMed Central

    Heupink, Tim H.; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction. PMID:22357937

  15. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    PubMed

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  16. Recovering pointwise values of discontinuous data within spectral accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pointwise values of a function, f(x), can be accurately recovered either from its spectral or pseudospectral approximations, so that the accuracy solely depends on the local smoothness of f in the neighborhood of the point x. Most notably, given the equidistant function grid values, its intermediate point values are recovered within spectral accuracy, despite the possible presence of discontinuities scattered in the domain. (Recall that the usual spectral convergence rate decelerates otherwise to first order, throughout). To this end, a highly oscillatory smoothing kernel is employed in contrast to the more standard positive unit-mass mollifiers. In particular, post-processing of a stable Fourier method applied to hyperbolic equations with discontinuous data, recovers the exact solution modulo a spectrally small error. Numerical examples are presented.

  17. Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  19. Mechanisms of Recovering Low Cycle Fatigue Damage in Incoloy 901.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Quality at Less Cost," Metals Prog. 106/2, 80-82 (July 1974). 20. D. Raynor and J. M. Silcock, "Strengthening Mechanisms in Gamma -Prime Precipitating...Z AO-A107 255 AIR FORCE INST OF TLCH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/A Il/A MECHANISMS OF RECOVERING LOW CYCLE FATIGUE OAMAGE IN INCOLOY 90-ETC(U) 1979 R E... MECHANISMS OF RECOVERING LOW CYCLE FATIGUE DAMAGE IN INCOLOY 901 Robert E. Schafrik, Capt. USAF (Ph.D.) The Ohio State University, 1979 Professor James A

  20. Susceptible-infected-recovered model with recurrent infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze a stochastic lattice model describing the spreading of a disease among a community composed by susceptible, infected and removed individuals. A susceptible individual becomes infected catalytically. An infected individual may, spontaneously, either become recovered, that is, acquire a permanent immunization, or become again susceptible. The critical properties including the phase diagram is obtained by means of mean-field theories as well as numerical simulations. The model is found to belong to the universality class of dynamic percolation except when the recovering rate vanishes in which case the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  1. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil

  2. 21 CFR 73.3110 - Chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... replaced with copper. This mixture is diluted to a 5 percent concentration with a mixture of palm oil... complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut oil), shall conform to... and restrictions. (1) The color additive chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble (5 percent in...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3110 - Chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... replaced with copper. This mixture is diluted to a 5 percent concentration with a mixture of palm oil... complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut oil), shall conform to... and restrictions. (1) The color additive chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble (5 percent in...

  4. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  5. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  6. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields.

  7. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  8. Separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions coming from palm oil mill process through microwave techniques.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Páez, Rocío; Catalá-Civera, José Manuel; García-Baños, Beatriz; Castillo, Edgar F; Bastos, Johanna M; Zambrano, Luz S

    2008-01-01

    The palm oil mills extraction process requires the separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions. For this purpose, the use of sedimentation and/or centrifugation techniques have been required until now. However, significant losses persist in different process flows and new methods are needed to further decrease them, such as methods based on electromagnetic waves application. In the study, emulsions obtained from two flow processes, namely press liquor stream (PL) and recovered stream of the centrifugal step (RC), were exposed to microwave radiation with different exposure times. In the case of the press liquor stream, different oil/water dilution ratios were also studied. The sedimentation speed and efficiency were studied for the irradiated samples and compared to those obtained for the same fluids with no radiation. Also, chromatographic tests were performed on the recovered oil to determine the effect on the oil quality after microwave radiation. The obtained results allow us to conclude that microwave exposure during periods below 1 minute lead to better sedimentation speed and efficiency. It was observed that microwaves facilitate the break of the charges and polarities balances in the emulsions at considerably lower temperatures than the corresponding in the conventional process, without affecting the recovered oil quality.

  9. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-10-31

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 Trillion barrels. Horizontal drilling will likely revolutionize the development of old carbonate fields such as those in the Dundee of Michigan.

  10. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-01-29

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was immensely successful. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced domestically will probably be about 80 to 100 million bbls.

  11. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  12. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recove...

  13. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  14. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  15. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  16. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities such as: developing system-wide performance measures; developing and implementing the monitoring... goals and purposes of the Plan; conducting system-wide water quality analyses; developing, refining, and applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a...

  17. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities such as: developing system-wide performance measures; developing and implementing the monitoring... goals and purposes of the Plan; conducting system-wide water quality analyses; developing, refining, and applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a...

  18. 33 CFR 385.20 - Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities such as: developing system-wide performance measures; developing and implementing the monitoring... goals and purposes of the Plan; conducting system-wide water quality analyses; developing, refining, and applying system-wide models and tools; and evaluating modifications to the Plan. RECOVER is not a...

  19. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Recovery of...

  20. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Recovery of...