Science.gov

Sample records for additional order type

  1. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  2. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  3. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  4. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  5. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  6. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  7. Development of autoclavable addition type polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two highly promising approaches to yield autoclavable addition-type polyimides were identified and evaluated in the program. Conditions were established for autoclave preparation of Hercules HMS graphite fiber reinforced composites in the temperature range of 473 K to 505 K under an applied pressure of 0.7 MN/m2 (100 psi) for time durations up to four hours. Upon oven postcure in air at 589 K, composite samples demonstrated high mechanical property retention at 561 K after isothermal aging in air for 1000 hours. Promise was shown for shorter term mechanical property retention at 589 K upon exposure in air at this temperature.

  8. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  9. Higher-Order Superposition for Dependent Types,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proofs for Higher-Order Rewrite Systems, J. Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in...Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci., Vol 816, Springer Verlag, 1994, pp. 305-325

  10. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  11. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  12. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  13. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  14. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  15. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  16. Ordering dynamics in type-II superconductors.

    PubMed

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-12-01

    We use analytic and numerical methods to analyze the dynamics of vortices following the quench of a type-II superconductor under the application of an external magnetic field. In three dimensions, in the absence of a field, the spacing between vortices scales with time t with an exponent phi=0.414+/-0.01, in a thin sheet of a superconductor, the scaling exponent is phi=0.294+/-0.01. When an external magnetic field h is applied, the vortices are confined with respect to the length scale of the Abrikosov lattice, leading to a crossover between the power-law scaling length scale and the lattice length scale. From this we suggest a one-parameter scaling of r with h and r that is consistent with numerical data.

  17. Processable high temperature resistant addition type polyimide laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1973-01-01

    Basic studies that were performed using model compounds to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of the so-called addition-type (A-type) polyimides are reviewed. The fabrication and properties of polyimide/graphite fiber composites using A-type polyimide prepolymers as the matrix are also reviewed. An alternate method for preparing processable A-type polyimides by means of in situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) on the fiber reinforcement is described. The elevated temperature properties of A-type PMR/graphite fiber composites are also presented.

  18. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4'-methylenedianiline/3,3'4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  19. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4'-methylenedianiline/3,3'4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  20. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2.3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4(')-methylenedianiline/3,3(')4,4(')-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  1. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  2. Development of new addition-type composite resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kray, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising of a number of new addition type polyimides and polyaromatic melamine (NCNS) resins for use in high performance composite materials. Three different cure temperature ranges were of interest: 530-560 K (500-550 F), 475-530 K (400-500 F), and 450 K (350 F). Examined were a wide variety of polyimide precursors terminated with 5 norbornene groups and addition polymerized at 560 K similar to PMR-15 and LARC-160 polyimides. In addition, a number of lower curing cinnamal end capped polyimides and a bismaleimide were investigated but were not found promising. A group of NCNS resins were investigated and some were found to be superior to current epoxy resins in moisture resistance, oxidative aging and flame and smoke properties.

  3. Experiments with a variable-order type 1 DIMSIM code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, J. C.; Chartier, P.; Jackiewicz, Z.

    1999-02-01

    The issues related to the development of a new code for nonstiff ordinary differential equations are discussed. This code is based on the Nordsieck representation of type 1 DIMSIMs, implemented in a variable-step size variable-order mode. Numerical results demonstrate that the error estimation employed in the code is very reliable and that the step and order changing strategies are very robust. This code outperforms the Matlab ode45 code for moderate and stringent tolerances.

  4. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  5. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  6. Addition of higher order plate and shell elements into NASTRAN computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Goglia, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Two higher order plate elements, the linear strain triangular membrane element and the quintic bending element, along with a shallow shell element, suitable for inclusion into the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) program are described. Additions to the NASTRAN Theoretical Manual, Users' Manual, Programmers' Manual and the NASTRAN Demonstration Problem Manual, for inclusion of these elements into the NASTRAN program are also presented.

  7. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The addition by the Director of... sanctions on persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. The President identified in the... Middle East peace ] process; or (2) assist in, sponsor, or provide financial, material, or...

  8. Type II collagenopathies: Are there additional family members?

    SciTech Connect

    Freisinger, P.; Pontz, B.F.; Emmrich, P.; Stoess, H.; Bonaventure, J.

    1996-05-03

    The type II collagenopathies represent a group of chondrodysplasia sharing clinical and radiological manifestations which are expressed as a continuous spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from perinatally lethal to very mild conditions. Their common molecular bases are mutations in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). We describe one case of lethal platyspondylic dysplasia, Torrance type, and a variant of lethal Kniest dysplasia, neither of which has been reported as a type II collagenopathy. Biochemical studies of cartilage collagens and morphological analysis of cartilage sections suggest that abnormalities of type II collagen structure and biosynthesis are the main pathogenetic factors in both cases. Thus, the phenotypic spectrum of type II collagenopathies might be greater than hitherto suspected. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  9. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  10. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy.

    PubMed

    Hollett, Joshua W

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is -0.11 kJ mol(-1) well(-1), which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  11. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  12. Third order LPF type compensator for flexible rotor suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, Osami; Takahashi, Naohiko; Takagi, Michiyuki

    1994-01-01

    The tuning job of the compensator for levitating flexible rotors supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB) concerns providing a good damping effect to the critical speed modes while avoiding the spillover problem on the instability of higher bending modes. In this paper, an idea for design of the control law of the compensator based on utilizing a third order low pass filter (LPF) is proposed to essentially enable elimination of the spillover instability. According to the proposed design method, good damping effects for the critical speeds are obtained by the usual phase lead/lag function. Stabilization for all of higher bending modes is completed by the additional function of the 3rd order LPF due to its phase lag approaching about -270 degrees in the high frequency domain. This idea is made clear by experiments and simulations.

  13. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  14. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, Joshua W.

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is −0.11 kJ mol{sup −1} well{sup −1}, which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  15. Extreme point and halving edge search in abstract order types.

    PubMed

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Miltzow, Tillmann; Pilz, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Many properties of finite point sets only depend on the relative position of the points, e.g., on the order type of the set. However, many fundamental algorithms in computational geometry rely on coordinate representations. This includes the straightforward algorithms for finding a halving line for a given planar point set, as well as finding a point on the convex hull, both in linear time. In his monograph Axioms and Hulls, Knuth asks whether these problems can be solved in linear time in a more abstract setting, given only the orientation of each point triple, i.e., the set's chirotope, as a source of information. We answer this question in the affirmative. More precisely, we can find a halving line through any given point, as well as the vertices of the convex hull edges that are intersected by the supporting line of any two given points of the set in linear time. We first give a proof for sets realizable in the Euclidean plane and then extend the result to non-realizable abstract order types.

  16. Reducing the ordering temperature of CoPt nanoparticles by B additive

    SciTech Connect

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya; Pinitsoontorn, Supree Chompoosor, Apiwat; Maensiri, Santi

    2014-08-07

    We reported the effect of boron addition on magnetic properties and structure of CoPt nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. The magnetic property measurement showed that the CoPt-B sample exhibited a much larger coercivity compared to the sample without B additive at the same annealing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the average particle size was about 2 nm for the as-synthesized sample with the ratio of Co and Pt close to 1:1. After annealing, the particle sizes increased but the composition was maintained. The phase transformation of the nanoparticles versus temperature was investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and in-situ X-ray absorption analysis. It was shown that the phase transition temperature at which the nanoparticles change from the disordered A1 phase to the ordered L1{sub 0} phase occurs at temperature of 600 °C. We concluded that boron additives could reduce the ordering temperature of CoPt of about 100 °C.

  17. Influence of the order of reagent addition on NDMA formation during chloramination.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, I Marie; Mitch, William A

    2005-05-15

    The formation of the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), during chlorine disinfection has caused significant concern among drinking water and wastewater recycling utilities practicing intentional or unintentional chloramination. Previous research modeled NDMA formation as arising from a reaction between monochloramine and organic nitrogen precursors, such as dimethylamine, via an unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) intermediate. Contrary to the importance of monochloramine indicated by previous studies, hypochlorite formed an order of magnitude more NDMA than monochloramine when applied to a secondary municipal wastewater effluent containing excess ammonia. Experiments involving variation of the order that each reagent (i.e., hypochlorite, ammonium chloride, and dimethylamine) was added to solution suggest two factors that may be more important for NDMA formation than the presence of monochloramine: (i) the chlorination state of organic nitrogen precursors and (ii) the partial formation of dichloramine. Although dichloramine formation was most influenced by the pH conditions under which inorganic chloramine formation was performed, mixing effects related to the order of reagent addition may be important at full-scale plants. Chloramination strategies are suggested that may reduce NDMA formation by nearly an order of magnitude.

  18. 3 CFR 13622 - Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012. Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran 13622 Order 13622 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012 EO 13622 Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran By the... subsequent Executive Orders, particularly in light of the Government of Iran's use of revenues from...

  19. Role of Ag addition in L10 ordering of FePt-based nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A. D.; Vasiliu, F.; Mercioniu, I.; Crisan, O.

    2014-01-01

    The FePt system has important perspectives as high-temperature corrosion-resistant magnets. In the form of rapidly solidified melt-spun ribbons, FePt-based magnets may exhibit in certain cases a two-phase hard-soft magnetic behaviour. The present paper deals with a microstructural and magnetic study of FePtAgB alloys with increasing Ag content. The aim is to identify and confirm the effect of Ag addition in decreasing the temperature of the FePt disorder-order structural phase transformation. A detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study is employed, and the alternative disposal of hard and soft regions within the two-phase microstructure is observed and interpreted with respect to the X-ray diffraction results. In the as-cast Ag-containing samples, it is shown that there is an optimum of the Ag content for which best magnetic properties are obtained. Ag addition creates a nonlinear behaviour of the coercive field and the ordering parameter, similar to the RKKY interaction-induced interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) observed in magnetic layers separated by non-magnetic spacer layers. Direct formation of the L10 phase from the as-cast state in the FePtAgB alloys is reported with magnetic parameters compatible to other exchange spring permanent nanomagnets. These findings open novel perspectives into utilization of such alloys in applications requiring magnets operating in high-temperature industrial environments.

  20. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  1. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  2. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  3. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  4. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional tests for Type A packagings designed...) Materials § 173.466 Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases. (a) In addition to the tests prescribed in § 173.465, Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases must...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements applicable to specific types of... Scaffolds § 1926.452 Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of...

  9. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  10. [Effect of concomitant substances and addition order on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Li, Sui; Dai, Ning

    2008-08-01

    Adsorption of Tween 80 on sand was investigated, and the effect of inorganic salts (CaCl2), anionic surfactant (SDS) and lignosulphonates (sodium lignosulphonate or ammonium lignosulphonate) on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand were evaluated at 25 degrees C. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand enhance when CaCl2 or SDS is added into flushing solution of Tween 80. And the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand increase with the increase of molar fraction of CaCl2 or SDS in mixed flushing solution. And adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand also enhance when SDS is added into sand firstly. The effects of mixing ratios and addition order of lignosulphonates on adsorption of Tween 80 were considered. The results show that with the increase of molar fraction of lignosulphonates in mixing flushing solution, adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand decrease. The adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 20%-75% due to the exist of ammonium lignosulphonate is superior to sodium lignosulphonate (10%-60%) when mix the lignosulphonates-Tween 80 at the total mass ratios of 1:10, while the adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 70%-90% at the total mass ratios of 1:2. Lignosulphonates added into sand firstly is more efficient than that together. Therefore,use of lignosulphonates as a preflush can reduce the adsorption of surfactants on sand and is a better method to applied in in situ flushing.

  11. Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus, order Perciformes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Rod S; Shears, Margaret A; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Fletcher, Garth L

    2011-10-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced by many species of teleost fish that inhabit potentially lethal ice-laden seawater and afford them protection from freezing. To date type I AFPs have been fully characterized in two teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes. In this study, we report the isolation and complete characterization of a type I AFP present in fish from a third order: cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), order Perciformes (family Labridae). This protein was purified from blood plasma and found to belong to what is now known as classical type I AFP with their small size (mass 4095.16 Da), alanine richness (> 57 mol%), high α-helicity (> 99%) with the ability to undergo reversible thermal denaturation, 11 amino acid (ThrX(10)) repeat regions within the primary structure, the capacity to impart a hexagonal bipyramidal shaping to ice crystals and the conservation of an ice-binding site found in many of the other type I AFPs. Partial de novo sequencing of the plasma AFP accounted for approximately half of the peptide mass. Sequencing of a combined liver and skin cDNA library indicated that the protein is produced without a signal sequence. In addition the translated product of the AFP cDNA suggests that it codes for the AFP isolated from plasma. These results further solidify the hypothesis that type I AFPs are multiphyletic in origin and suggest that they represent remarkable examples of convergent evolution within three orders of teleost fish.

  12. Elastic softening of β-type Ti-Nb alloys by indium (In) additions.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mariana; Helth, Arne; Gutierrez Moreno, Julio J; Bönisch, Matthias; Brackmann, Varvara; Giebeler, Lars; Gemming, Thomas; Lekka, Christina E; Gebert, Annett; Schnettler, Reinhard; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Recent developments showed that β-type Ti-Nb alloys are good candidates for hard tissue replacement and repair. However, their elastic moduli are still to be further reduced to match Young׳s modulus values of human bone, in order to avoid stress shielding. In the present study, the effect of indium (In) additions on the structural characteristics and elastic modulus of Ti-40 Nb was investigated by experimental and theoretical (ab initio) methods. Several β-type (Ti-40 Nb)-xIn alloys (with x ≤ 5.2 wt%) were produced by cold-crucible casting and subsequent heat treatments (solid solutioning in the β-field followed by water quenching). All studied alloys completely retain the β-phase in the quenched condition. Room temperature mechanical tests revealed ultimate compressive strengths exceeding 770 MPa, large plastic strains (>20%) and a remarkable strain hardening. The addition of up to 5.2 wt% indium leads to a noticeable decrease of the elastic modulus from 69 GPa to 49 GPa, which is closer to that of cortical bone (<30 GPa). Young's modulus is closely related to the bcc lattice stability and bonding characteristics. The presence of In atoms softens the parent bcc crystal lattice, as reflected by a lower elastic modulus and reduced yield strength. Ab initio and XRD data agree that upon In substitution the bcc unit cell volume increases almost linearly. The bonding characteristics of In were studied in detail, focusing on the energies that appeared from the EDOSs significant for possible hybridizations. It came out that minor In additions introduce low energy states with s character that present antibonding features with the Ti first neighboring atoms as well as with the Ti-Nb second neighboring atoms thus weakening the chemical bonds and leading to elastic softening. These results could be of use in the design of low rigidity β-type Ti-alloys with non-toxic additions, suitable for orthopedic applications.

  13. 49 CFR 192.177 - Additional provisions for bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. 192... AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.177 Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. (a) Each bottle-type...

  14. 76 FR 40773 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 and Information Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    2010-08-23

    ... Executive Order 13382 of June 28, 2005, ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and... of weapons of mass destruction and the means of delivering them. Section 1 of the Order blocks, with... proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or their means of delivery (including missiles capable...

  16. Birth Order Effects on Holland Type, Occupational Interests, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Grotti, Shannon D.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    This investigation examined in two different samples, whether only children differ significantly from firstborn and later-born children in terms of their vocational personality type as described in Holland's RIASEC model, occupational interests, and work values. Literature on family configuration and vocational behavior is reviewed, and current…

  17. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

  18. Blow-up rates for higher-order semilinear parabolic equations and systems and some Fujita-type theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongjing; Xing, Ruixiang

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we derive blow-up rates for higher-order semilinear parabolic equations and systems. Our proof is by contradiction and uses a scaling argument. This procedure reduces the problems of blow-up rate to Fujita-type theorems. In addition, we also give some new Fujita-type theorems for higher-order semilinear parabolic equations and systems with the time variable on . These results are not restricted to positive solutions.

  19. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Susanne; Werdelin, Lars; Seiffert, Erik R.; Barry, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Kelba quadeemae, a fossil mammal from the Early Miocene of East Africa, was originally named on the basis of three isolated upper molars. Kelba has previously been interpreted as a creodont, a pantolestid, an insectivoran, and a hemigaline viverrid. The true affinities of this taxon have remained unclear because of the limited material and its unique morphology relative to other Miocene African mammals. New material of Kelba from several East African Miocene localities, most notably a skull from the Early Miocene locality of Songhor in Western Kenya, permits analysis of the affinities of Kelba and documents the lower dentition of this taxon. Morphological comparison of this new material clearly demonstrates that Kelba is a member of the order Ptolemaiida, a poorly understood group whose fossil record was previously restricted to the Oligocene Fayum deposits of northern Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the Ptolemaiida, including Kelba, and recovers two monophyletic clades within the order. We provide new family names for these groups and an emended diagnosis for the order. The discovery of ptolemaiidans from the Miocene of East Africa is significant because it extends the known temporal range of the order by >10 million years and the geographic range by >3,200 km. Although the higher-level affinities of the Ptolemaiida remain obscure, their unique morphology and distribution through a larger area of Africa (and exclusively Africa) lend support to the idea that Ptolemaiida may have an ancient African origin. PMID:17372202

  20. 76 FR 15366 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their Supporters.'' DATES: The... described and declared in Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, regarding the proliferation of weapons... materially contributed to, or pose a risk of materially contributing to, the proliferation of weapons of...

  1. 78 FR 13140 - Additional Designation of Amr Armanazi Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

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  2. 76 FR 7241 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  4. 76 FR 12414 - Additional Designation of Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their Supporters.'' DATES: The... described and declared in Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, regarding the proliferation of weapons... materially contributed to, or pose a risk of materially contributing to, the proliferation of weapons of...

  5. 76 FR 40772 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their Supporters.'' DATES: The... described and declared in Executive Order 12938 of November 14, 1994, regarding the proliferation of weapons... materially contributed to, or pose a risk of materially contributing to, the proliferation of weapons of...

  6. 75 FR 54689 - Additional Designation of an Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...) of Executive Order 13382, ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their... materially contributing to, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or their means of delivery (including missiles capable of delivering such weapons), including any efforts to manufacture,...

  7. 75 FR 70352 - Additional Designation of Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Order 13382 of June 28, 2005, ``Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their..., regarding the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of delivering them. Section 1 of..., the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or their means of delivery (including...

  8. 76 FR 52384 - Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus.'' DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the four... repression, electoral fraud, and public corruption in Belarus. The Order imposes economic sanctions on persons responsible for actions or policies that undermine democratic processes or institutions in...

  9. Synthesis of ordered L10-type FeNi nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, Frederick E.

    2015-09-22

    Particles of iron and nickel are added to a flowing plasma stream which does not chemically alter the iron or nickel. The iron and nickel are heated and vaporized in the stream, and then a cryogenic fluid is added to the stream to rapidly cause the formation of nanometer size particles of iron and nickel. The particles are separated from the stream. The particles are preferably formed as single crystals in which the iron and nickel atoms are organized in a tetragonal L1.sub.0 crystal structure which displays magnetic anisotropy. A minor portion of an additive, such as titanium, vanadium, aluminum, boron, carbon, phosphorous, or sulfur, may be added to the plasma stream with the iron and nickel to enhance formation of the desired crystal structure.

  10. Effects of the order of addition of reagents and alkali on modification of wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhongquan; Huber, Kerry C; BeMiller, James N

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this research was to determine if adding reactive reagents to wheat starch granules before addition of alkali (the TRF method) would produce products that are different than those obtained with the conventional procedure (adding alkali before addition of reagent). Laboratory-isolated (LI) and commercial (C) normal (NWS) and waxy (WWS) wheat starches were each reacted with 6 reagents (acetic-adipic mixed anhydride (AAMA), phosphoryl chloride (POCl3), sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), acetic anhydride (AA), succinic anhydride (SA), octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)). Data obtained were similar to those previously obtained with maize starches (Sui, Huber, & BeMiller, 2013). Almost no starch polymer molecule modification occurred when the TRF method and AAMA or AA were used; less than a third as much reaction when SA was the reagent used, and about the same amount of reaction when POCl3, STMP, or OSA were the reagents used (for different reasons).

  11. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  12. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr+2 and substitutional Fe+1 order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μB) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μB), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe+1 exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond's extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  13. Effects of Perovskite Additives on the Electromagnetic Properties of Z-Type Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijun Jia,; Yingming Tang,; Huaiwu Zhang,; Pingfeng Deng,; Yingli Liu,; Baoyuan Liu,

    2010-06-01

    In order to modulate the electromagnetic properties of Z-type hexaferrites for high-frequency applications, perovskite additives have been introduced. The effects of these additives on the phase composition, densification, microstructures and electromagnetic properties of the ceramics have been investigated. The results indicate that Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) can promote the grain growth and enhance the sintering by increasing the displacement of ions due to the lattice distortion, which is a result of the solid solubility of Ti4+ in the hexaferrite. The increase of grain size and bulk density and the decrease of magnetocrystalline anisotropy give rise to the improvement of the static permeability. Meanwhile, the dielectric constant increases with BST content due to the changing of the valence of Fe ions in octahedral sites and the polarization of the perovskite phase. In contrast, Pb0.95Sr0.05(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) is not effective for improving the electromagnetic properties of hexaferrites due to the strong coupling of Ti-O and Zr-O.

  14. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  15. Structure and order in cobalt/platinum-type nanoalloys: from thin films to supported clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreazza, Pascal; Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique; Tournus, Florent; Andreazza-Vignolle, Caroline; Dupuis, Véronique

    2015-06-01

    Among nanoalloys, Co-Pt type (CoPt or FePt) supported nanostructures are very interesting systems due to the direct link between atom arrangement and magnetic behavior. In addition, these alloys become model systems in the field of nanoalloys, due to the diversity of atom arrangements either present in the bulk state or specific to the nanoscale (chemically ordered L10, L12, or disordered fcc structures, core-shell, five-fold structures - icosahedral or decahedral, etc.). The synergy between experimental and modeling efforts has allowed the emergence of an overview of the structural, morphological and chemical behaviors of CoPt-based supported nanoparticles in terms of phase diagrams (temperature, composition, size effect), kinetic behavior (growth, annealing, ordering), and also in terms of environment effects (substrate, capping, matrix, gas) and of magnetic properties. All aspects of this complexity are reviewed: synthesis strategies (physical deposition, cluster beam deposition and wet chemical methods), magnetic behavior (atomic magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy energy), structural transitions (non-crystalline/crystalline structures, order/disorder, surface/interface segregation), etc. In this field, the investigation techniques, such as electron microscopy and X-ray scattering or absorption techniques, are generally used at their ultimate limit due the small size of the studied objects. Finally, several aspects of the annealing process, which is a key phenomenon to achieve the chemical order, have been discussed in both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view (size effect, critical temperature, annealing time, twinning, coalescence, etc.).

  16. E -type noncollinear magnetic ordering in multiferroic o -LuMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saumya; Dönni, Andreas; Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Tachibana, Makoto; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Keller, Lukas; Niedermayer, Christof; Scaramucci, Andrea; Kenzelmann, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Multiferroic orthorhombic o -LuMnO3 exhibits large ferroelectric polarization induced by an E -type magnetic order. Recently, the E -type magnetic phase in LuMnO3 was proposed to feature magnetic moments tilted away from the collinear ordering. We employed neutron diffraction to determine the symmetry of the magnetic order in o -LuMnO3 . We observed that below TN=39 K, the Mn3 + spins order into an incommensurate amplitude-modulated phase that obeys the Pbnm crystal symmetry and is paraelectric. The incommensurate phase locks into a commensurate phase at TC=35.5 K described by a fully antiferromagnetic and noncollinear E -type order. This noncollinear E -type ordering breaks the spatial inversion symmetry and induces a spontaneous polarization at TC. At T =2 K, an appreciably large electric polarization was observed similar to that of other orthorhombic manganites featuring E -type magnetic order. We also present a Pbnm symmetry-allowed Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that explains the noncollinear E -type order in the commensurate phase. These results are in qualitative agreement with the type of distortions from collinear E -type antiferromagnetic order found using Monte Carlo simulation for rare-earth manganites [M. Mochizuki et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 144409 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.144409].

  17. Universal filters of arbitrary order and type employing square-root-domain technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanday, F. A.; Psychalinos, C.; Shah, N. A.

    2014-07-01

    Novel Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) and Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) universal filter topologies of arbitrary order and type are introduced in this paper. The proposed topologies have been realised by employing Square-Root Domain (SRD) technique. An offered benefit of the universal filter topologies is that only grounded capacitors are required for their implementations and the resonant frequency of the filters can be electronically controlled by an appropriate dc current. The proposed universal filters simultaneously offer all the five standard filtering functions i.e. Lowpass (LP), Highpass (HP) and Bandpass (BP), Bandstop (BS) and Allpass (AP) frequency responses. In addition, the SIMO topology is generic in the sense that it can yield four different stable filter configurations. Two design examples are provided in each configuration and the correct operation of the corresponding topologies has been evaluated through the PSPICE software with BSIM 0.35-µm CMOS process model parameters.

  18. Enantioselective Aza Michael-Type Addition to Alkenyl Benzimidazoles Catalyzed by a Chiral Phosphoric Acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Yi; Kanomata, Kyohei; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-01-18

    Highly enantioselective Michael-type addition (MTA) reactions between N-protected alkenyl benzimidazoles and either pyrazoles or indazoles as nitrogen nucleophiles are accomplished for the first time using chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. Theoretical studies elucidated the reaction pathway and the origin of the stereochemical outcomes, where the catalyst substituent and the N-protecting group of benzimidazole contributed to the resulting high enantioselectivity.

  19. Variation in Additional Breast Imaging Orders and Impact on Surgical Wait Times at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Mehra; Losk, Katya; Mallory, Melissa A.; Camuso, Kristen; Troyan, Susan; Lin, Nancy U.; Kadish, Sarah; Bunnell, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the multidisciplinary care model, breast imagers frequently provide second opinion reviews of imaging studies performed at outside institutions. However, the need for additional imaging and timeliness of obtaining these studies has yet to be established. We sought to evaluate the frequency of additional imaging orders by breast surgeons and to evaluate the impact of this supplementary imaging on timeliness of surgery. Methods We identified 2,489 consecutive women with breast cancer who underwent first definitive surgery (FDS) at our comprehensive cancer center between 2011 and 2013. The number of breast-specific imaging studies performed for each patient between initial consultation and FDS was obtained. Chi-squared tests were used to quantify the proportion of patients undergoing additional imaging by surgeon. Interval time between initial consultation and additional imaging and/or biopsy was calculated. The delay of additional imaging on time to FDS was assessed by t-test. Results Of 2,489 patients, 615 (24.7%) had at least one additional breast-specific imaging study performed between initial consultation and FDS, with 222 patients undergoing additional biopsies (8.9%). The proportion of patients receiving imaging tests by breast surgeon ranged from 15% to 39% (p<0.0001). Patients receiving additional imaging had statistically longer wait times to FDS for BCT (21.4 to 28.5 days, p<0.0001). Conclusions Substantial variability exists in the utilization of additional breast-specific imaging and in the timeliness of obtaining these tests among breast surgeons. Further research is warranted to assess the sources and impact of this variation on patient care, cost and outcomes. PMID:26307233

  20. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  1. A review of processable high temperature resistant addition-type laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1973-01-01

    An important finding that resulted from research that was conducted to develop improved ablative resins was the discovery of a novel approach to synthesize processable high temperature resistant polymers. Low molecular weight polyimide prepolymers end-capped with norbornene groups were polymerized into thermo-oxidatively stable modified polyimides without the evolution of void producing volatile materials. This paper reviews basic studies that were performed using model compounds to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of the so-called addition-type polyimides. The fabrication and properties of polyimide/graphite fiber composites using A-type polyimide prepolymer as the matrix are described. An alternate method for preparing processable A-type polyimides by means of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants on the fiber reinforcement is also described. Polyimide/graphite fiber composite performance at elevated temperatures is presented for A-type polyimides.

  2. Catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reactions of simple amides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Sato, Io; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-04-08

    The development of catalytic asymmetric direct-type reactions of less acidic carbonyl compounds such as amides and esters has been a challenging theme in organic chemistry for decades. Here we describe the asymmetric direct 1,4-addition reactions of simple amides with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds using a catalytic amount of a novel chiral catalyst consisting of a potassium base and a macrocyclic chiral crown ether. The desired 1,5-dicarbonyl compounds were obtained in high yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. This is the first example of a highly enantioselective catalytic direct-type reaction of simple amides. In addition, the structure of the chiral potassium catalyst has been investigated by X-ray crystallographic, dynamic (1)H NMR, and MALDI-TOF MS analyses.

  3. Reduction of Ordering Temperature of FePt Al2O3 Thin Films by N2 Addition During Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiang-Wei; Katayama, N.; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Fu-Lin; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Liu, Xiao-Xi; Takei, S.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the effect of N2 addition during sputtering on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt-Al2O3 thin films. The texture of FePt phase in FePt-Al2O3 thin films changes from (111) to a more random orientation by N2 addition during sputtering. The ordering temperature of FePt phase reduces about 100°C with appropriate N2 partial pressure. A larger coercivity of 6.0×105 A/m is obtained with N2 partial pressure about 15%. Structural analysis reveals that a small quantity of Fe3N phase forms during sputtering and the release of N atoms during the post annealing induces a large number of vacancies in the films, which benefits to the transformation of FePt phase from fcc to fct.

  4. Influence of graphite flake addition to sediment on electrogenesis in a sediment-type fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lenin Babu, M; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Graphite flakes at levels of 5%, 15%, 20% and 40% (weight per sediment volume) were added to lake bed sediment and electrogenesis in a sediment-type fuel cell was evaluated. Addition of graphite flakes by 20% to the sediment showed higher electrogenic activity of the fuel cell (578mV; 0.37mW) compared to control (304mV; 0.26mW). Further increment in the graphite loading showed a negative influence on the fuel cell behavior. A higher energy and capacitance were recorded with 20% addition of graphite flakes compared to the control. Increase in the exchange current density and decrease in the Tafel slope and electron transfer coefficient was observed with addition of graphite flakes. Apparent surface coverage analysis also supported the higher performance upon addition of 20% graphite flakes. The relative increase in the conductivity of bed due to addition of graphite flakes might be the reason for observed electrogenic activity. Marginal variation in the substrate utilization ( [Formula: see text] 50-55%) was observed with the addition of graphite flakes. By adding an optimum level of graphite flakes to sediment influences the fuel cell performance.

  5. New Ramanujan-Type Formulas and Quasi-Fibonacci Numbers of Order 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituła, Roman; Słota, Damian

    2007-06-01

    We give applications of the quasi-Fibonacci numbers of order 7, the so-called sine-Fibonacci numbers of order 7, and many other new kinds of recurrent sequences to the decompositions of some polynomials. We also present the characteristic equations, generating functions and some properties of all these sequences. Finally, some new Ramanujan-type formulas are generated.

  6. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  7. First-order electroweak phase transition powered by additional F-term loop effects in an extended supersymmetric Higgs sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Senaha, Eibun; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the one-loop effect of new charged scalar bosons on the Higgs potential at finite temperatures in the supersymmetric standard model with four Higgs doublet chiral superfields as well as a pair of charged singlet chiral superfields. In this model, the mass of the lightest Higgs boson h is determined only by the D-term in the Higgs potential at the tree-level, while the triple Higgs boson coupling for hhh can receive a significant radiative correction due to nondecoupling one-loop contributions of the additional charged scalar bosons. We find that the same nondecoupling mechanism can also contribute to realize stronger first order electroweak phase transition than that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is definitely required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. Therefore, this model can be a new candidate for a model in which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is explained at the electroweak scale.

  8. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Construction of Spiroindane Derivatives by Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-Type 1,4-Addition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Itatsu, Yukihiro; Fujino, Yuta; Inoue, Hiroki; Takao, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic construction of spiroindanes containing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type 1,4-addition is described. The reaction was catalyzed by a cinchonidine-based primary amine and accelerated by water and p-bromophenol. A variety of spiro compounds containing quaternary stereocenters were obtained with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 95 % ee). The reaction was applied to the asymmetric formal synthesis of the spirocyclic natural products (-)-cannabispirenones A and B.

  9. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  10. Additional approach to PDT: type III mechanism and the role of native free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Dezso; Kriska, Tamas; Shutova, Tatiana G.; Nemeth, Andras

    2001-04-01

    It has been suggested by us earlier that interactions of excited triplet sensitizer (3PS) and native free radicals compete with Type I (sensitizer radical mediated) and Type II (singlet oxygen mediated) mechanisms during PDT. Evidence such as fall in the overall radical concentration in vivo ( in mice tumors) during PDT and in the life time of 3PS caused by free radicals supported this assumption In addition, following results have been obtained recently. 1.) Excited Photofrin II and m-THPC affected luminol dependent chemiluminescence (CL) generated by respiratory burst of macrophages like free radical inhibitors. 2.) Quantification of spin trapping for chemical and in vitro systems by kinetic ESR spectrometry yielded detailed knowledge of triplet-doublet interactions 3.)Measurements in open systems (tank reactor) yielded data for the interactions between 3PS and peroxy type radicals 4.)Simulation of experimental data based on mechanisms suggested gave fair agreement. Based on experimental results new PS-s called Antioxidant Carrier Sensiters (ACS-s) have been devised, synthesized and tested one of them showing enhanced activity for PDT.

  11. Comparison between different types of carboxylmethylcellulose and other oenological additives used for white wine tartaric stabilization.

    PubMed

    Guise, R; Filipe-Ribeiro, L; Nascimento, D; Bessa, O; Nunes, F M; Cosme, F

    2014-08-01

    Carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) is authorised to prevent wine tartaric instability. The effect of CMC structural characteristics on their effectiveness is not well understood. The main purpose of this study was to compare the impact of CMC's with different degrees of substitution and molecular weight, on tartaric stability, tartaric acid, mineral concentration, phenolic compounds, chromatic and sensory characteristics in white wines, and compare its effectiveness with other oenological additives. Mini-contact test showed that all CMC's and metatartaric acid stabilized the wines; however, some arabic gums and mannoproteins do not stabilized the wines. CMC's had no significant effect on tartaric acid, potassium, calcium and sensory attributes. Tartaric stabilization effectiveness depends on CMC's degree of substitution, but also on wine matrix, probably its initial potassium content. Results suggest that CMC is a good alternative to white wine tartaric stabilization; nevertheless deeper structure knowledge is necessary in order to choose the appropriate CMC for a given tartaric instability.

  12. Order and Disorder in Conversation: Encounters with Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Nicole; Guendouzi, Jacqueline A.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction to Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT), its behavioral diagnostic symptom complex and a summary of communicative implications, we present data from two conversations involving participants with and without DAT. We discuss the concept of "order" in conversation, and the central importance of interactional monitoring.…

  13. Integrability Test and Travelling-Wave Solutions of Higher-Order Shallow- Water Type Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Molinero, María Celeste; Pickering, Andrew; Prada, Julia

    2010-04-01

    We apply the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale (WTC) Painlevé test to members of a sequence of higher-order shallow-water type equations. We obtain the result that the equations considered are non-integrable, although compatibility conditions at real resonances are satisfied. We also construct travelling-wave solutions for these and related equations.

  14. Extension of local-type inequality for the higher order correlation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2011-07-01

    For the local-type primordial perturbation, it is known that there is an inequality between the bispectrum and the trispectrum. By using the diagrammatic method, we develop a general formalism to systematically construct the similar inequalities up to any order correlation function. As an application, we explicitly derive all the inequalities up to six and eight-point functions.

  15. Influence of addition order and contact time on thorium(IV) retention by hematite in the presence of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Reiller, Pascal; Casanova, Florence; Moulin, Valérie

    2005-03-15

    The influence of addition order and contact time in the system hematite (alpha-Fe2O3)-humic acid (HA)-thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) was studied in batch experiments. Th(IV) is considered here as a chemical analogue of other actinides (IV). The sorption isotherms were acquired varying pH in the range 2-10 and HA concentration in the range 1-100 mg/L. As already observed by numerous authors, Th(IV) retention was hindered when HA and hematite were equilibrated beforehand during 24 h. As it has been observed in a previous study, this effect was drastic when the ratio between humic and surface (iron oxide) sites exceeds a critical value. However, when HA was added after a 24-h equilibration of the hematite-Th(IV) system, Th(IV) was barely desorbed from the iron oxide surface. Furthermore, no drastic effect of the ratio between humic and surface sites could be evidenced, as the increase of HA concentration only results in a slight monotonic decrease in Th(IV) retention. Increasing contact time between components of the systems only indicated slight Th(IV) retention variation. This was interpreted as a consequence of slow kinetic controls of both the Th(IV)-HA complexation and HA-hematite sorption.

  16. Observation of atomic ordering of triple-period-A and -B type in GaAsBi

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Mingjian Luna, Esperanza; Trampert, Achim; Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea

    2014-07-28

    We report the observation of atomic ordering of triple-period (TP)-A and -B type in low temperature (LT) grown GaAsBi alloy using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition to previous reports, where only TP-A ordering was identified in III-V alloys, here, we confirm by electron diffraction, high-resolution (HR) TEM, and HR Z-contrast scanning TEM that two ordering variants coexists for LT-GaAsBi. We find that the TP-A ordering variant dominates over the TP-B variant. TP-A domains extend over 50–100 nm (projected lateral width) and are of higher perfection compared to TP-B domains. HR Z-contrast scanning TEM on different domains reveals a variation in the Bi occupancy in the (111) planes with triple period sequence. Since the formation of ordered phases has been directly linked to the occurrence of specific surface reconstructions, our results suggest a correlation between the TP-A and B type domains and the multiple stability of n × 3 and 3 × n reconstructions on the (001) surface of GaAsBi under low temperature growth.

  17. Resonant-type third-order optical nonlinearity and optical bandgap in multicomponent oxide glasses.

    PubMed

    el-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Bakry, Assem M

    2009-05-01

    Optical nonlinearity or the nonlinear hyperpolarizability of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses) is related directly to the complex third-order susceptibility. The imaginary part of third-order susceptibility affects negatively the maximum data rate in telecommunication systems. In addition, many transition metals containing glasses have bandgaps with semiconductor-like behavior. So, due to the necessity of operation near the absorption band edge, the study of optical nonlinearity and band structure in glasses is very essential. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the imaginary third-order nonlinear susceptibility and the bandgap of some different series of prepared oxide glasses. A universal empirical formula is given to correlate the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the glasses and their optical bandgaps. The obtained nonlinearity is discussed in view of available theories and mechanisms.

  18. Resonant-type third-order optical nonlinearity and optical bandgap in multicomponent oxide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Bakry, Assem M.

    2009-05-01

    Optical nonlinearity or the nonlinear hyperpolarizability of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses) is related directly to the complex third-order susceptibility. The imaginary part of third-order susceptibility affects negatively the maximum data rate in telecommunication systems. In addition, many transition metals containing glasses have bandgaps with semiconductor-like behavior. So, due to the necessity of operation near the absorption band edge, the study of optical nonlinearity and band structure in glasses is very essential. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the imaginary third-order nonlinear susceptibility and the bandgap of some different series of prepared oxide glasses. A universal empirical formula is given to correlate the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the glasses and their optical bandgaps. The obtained nonlinearity is discussed in view of available theories and mechanisms.

  19. A ROBUST ARBITRARILY HIGH ORDER TRANSPORT METHOD OF THE CHARACTERISTIC TYPE FOR UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL GRIDS

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; Y. Y. Azmy

    2009-05-01

    We present a robust arbitrarily high order transport method of the characteristic type for unstructured tetrahedral grids. Previously encountered difficulties have been addressed through the reformulation of the method based on coordinate transformations, evaluation of the moments balance relation as a linear system of equations involving the expansion coefficients of the projected basis, and the asymptotic expansion of the integral kernels in the thin cell limit. The proper choice of basis functions for the high-order spatial expansion of the solution is discussed and its effect on problems involving scattering discussed. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the beneficial effect of these improvements, and the improved robustness they yield.

  20. Landau-type order parameter equation for shear banding in granular Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Priyanka; Alam, Meheboob

    2009-08-07

    We show that a Landau-type "order-parameter" equation describes the onset of shear-band formation in granular plane Couette flow wherein the flow undergoes an ordering transition into alternate layers of dense and dilute regions of low and high shear rates, respectively, parallel to the flow direction. Even though the linear theory predicts the stability of the homogeneous shear solution in dilute flows, our analytical bifurcation theory suggests that there is a subcritical finite-amplitude instability that is likely to lead to shear-band formation in dilute flows, which is in agreement with previous numerical simulations.

  1. Copper, Boron, and Cerium Additions in Type 347 Austenitic Steel to Improve Creep Rupture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Kinkar; Kyono, J.; Shinya, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Type 347 austenitic stainless steel (18Cr-12Ni-Nb) was alloyed with copper (3 wt pct), boron (0.01 to 0.06 wt pct), and cerium (0.01 wt pct) with an aim to increase the creep rupture strength of the steel through the improved deformation and cavitation resistance. Short-term creep rupture strength was found to increase with the addition of copper in the 347 steel, but the long-term strength was inferior. Extensive creep cavitation deprived the steel of the beneficial effect of creep deformation resistance induced by nano-size copper particles. Boron and cerium additions in the copper-containing steel increased its creep rupture strength and ductility, which were more for higher boron content. Creep deformation, grain boundary sliding, and creep cavity nucleation and growth in the steel were found to be suppressed by microalloying the copper-containing steel with boron and cerium, and the suppression was more for higher boron content. An auger electron spectroscopic study revealed the segregation of boron instead of sulfur on the cavity surface of the boron- and cerium-microalloyed steel. Cerium acted as a scavenger for soluble sulfur in the steels through the precipitation of cerium sulfide (CeS). This inhibited the segregation of sulfur and facilitated the segregation of boron on cavity surface. Boron segregation on the nucleated cavity surface reduced its growth rate. Microalloying the copper-containing 347 steel with boron and cerium thus enabled to use the full extent of creep deformation resistance rendered by copper nano-size particle by increase in creep rupture strength and ductility.

  2. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°.

  3. A high-current rail-type gas switch with preionization by an additional corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, E. I.; Belozerov, O. S.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of a high-current rail-type gas switch with preionization of the gas (air) in a spark gap by an additional corona discharge are investigated. The experiments were performed in a voltage range of 10-45 kV using a two-electrode switch consisting of two cylindrical electrodes with a diameter of 22 mm and a length of 100 mm and a set of laterally located corona-discharge needles. The requirements for the position and size of the needles are defined for which a corona discharge is ignited before a breakdown of the main gap and does not change to a sparking form, and the entire length of the rail electrodes is efficiently used. The fulfillment of these requirements ensures stable operation of the switch with a small variation of the pulse breakdown voltage, which is not more than 1% for a fixed voltage-pulse rise time in the range from 150 ns to 3.5 μs. A short delay time of the switch breakdown makes it possible to control the two-electrode switch by an overvoltage pulse of nanosecond duration.

  4. Spin-flop transition accompanied with changing the type of magnetic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss theoretically rather rear example of spin-flop transition which is accompanied with changing the type of magnetic ordering and which seemingly has not been addressed yet. We demonstrate that changing the type of magnetic ordering can manifest itself in antiferromagnetic (AF) resonance experiments as an apparent peculiar switching of the anisotropy at the transition from the easy-axis type to the easy-plane one. We argue that this kind of spin-flop transition is observed recently by Povarov et al. (2013) [12] in Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 (where pz denotes pyrazine), one of the best realizations of spin-1/2 Heisenberg AFs on square lattice having a very small anisotropy. We show that the magnetic ordering changes at the spin-flop transition in this material in the direction perpendicular to AF square planes. We examine the microscopic mechanism of such behavior in Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 and find that dipolar forces and extremely small exchange coupling between spins from neighboring planes are responsible for it.

  5. Rank-ordered filter for edge enhancement of cellular images using interval type II fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2015-10-01

    An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as "fuzzy," so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better.

  6. Rank-ordered filter for edge enhancement of cellular images using interval type II fuzzy set

    PubMed Central

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as “fuzzy,” so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better. PMID:26702406

  7. Order-disorder transition in B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 and limitations of ordering through thermal treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisch, Katharina; Ren, Yi; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Scragg, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    B-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with varying degrees of cation order were produced and examined with resonant Raman spectroscopy. Simulations based on Vineyard's theory of order allowed kinetic analysis of the final degree of order after the applied thermal treatments. Combining the results from the simulations and the resonant Raman spectra, the kinetic parameters within the Vineyard model for the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS were determined, as well as a method which allows quantification of the degree of order based on resonant Raman spectra. The knowledge gained about the order-disorder transition in B-type CZTS allowed the prediction of a best practice thermal treatment for high ordering. This further leads to awareness about practical limits of thermal treatments regarding the cation ordering in B-type CZTS, and suggests that such treatments are not able to produce the high cation order necessary to sufficiently reduce detrimental potential fluctuations.

  8. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-03-01

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.

  9. The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Gollhofer, Albert; Kramer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of different whole body vibration (WBV) determinants on the electromyographic (EMG) activity during WBV in order to identify those training conditions that cause highest neuromuscular responses and therefore provide optimal training conditions. In a randomized cross-over study, the EMG activity of six leg muscles was analyzed in 18 subjects with respect to the following determinants: (1) vibration type (side-alternating vibration (SV) vs. synchronous vibration (SyV), (2) frequency (5-10-15-20-25-30 Hz), (3) knee flexion angle (10°-30°-60°), (4) stance condition (forefoot vs. normal stance) and (5) load variation (no extra load vs. additional load equal to one-third of the body weight). The results are: (1) neuromuscular activity during SV was enhanced compared to SyV (P < 0.05); (2) a progressive increase in frequency caused a progressive increase in EMG activity (P < 0.05); (3) the EMG activity was highest for the knee extensors when the knee joint was 60° flexed (P < 0.05); (4) for the plantar flexors in the forefoot stance condition (P < 0.05); and (5) additional load caused an increase in neuromuscular activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, large variations of the EMG activation could be observed across conditions. However, with an appropriate adjustment of specific WBV determinants, high EMG activations and therefore high activation intensities could be achieved in the selected muscles. The combination of high vibration frequencies with additional load on an SV platform led to highest EMG activities. Regarding the body position, a knee flexion of 60° and forefoot stance appear to be beneficial for the knee extensors and the plantar flexors, respectively.

  10. Multicolor in situ hybridization and linkage analysis order Charcot-Marie-Tooth type I (CMTIA) gene-region markers

    SciTech Connect

    Lebo, R.V.; Lynch, E.D.; Golbus, M.S. ); Bird, T.D. ); Barker, D.F.; O'Connell, P.; Chance, P.F. )

    1992-01-01

    This study demonstrates a clear and current role for multicolor in situ hybridization in expediting positional cloning studies of unknown disease genes. Nine polymorphic DNA cosmids have been mapped to eight ordered locations spanning the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1A) disease gene region in distal band 17p11.2, by multicolor in situ hybridization. When used with linkage analysis, these methods have generated a fine physical map and have firmly assigned the CMT1A gene to distal band 17p11.2. Linkage analysis with four CMT1A pedigrees mapped the CMT1A gene with respect to two flanking markers. Additional loci were physically mapped and ordered by in situ hybridization and analysis of phase-known recombinants in CMT1A pedigrees. These data demonstrate the ability of in situ hybridization to resolve loci within 0.5 Mb on early-metaphase chromosomes. Multicolor in situ hybridization also excluded the possibility of pericentric inversions in two unrelated patients with CMT1 and neurofibromatosis type 1. When used with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multicolor in situ hybridization can establish physical location, order, and distance in closely spaced chromosome loci.

  11. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2014-04-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  13. Pinning synchronization of fractional-order complex networks with Lipschitz-type nonlinear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junwei; Ma, Qinghua; Chen, Aimin; Liang, Zhipeng

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with pinning synchronization problem of fractional-order complex networks with Lipschitz-type nonlinear nodes and directed communication topology. We first reformulate the problem as a global asymptotic stability problem by describing network evolution in terms of error dynamics. Then, a novel frequency domain approach is developed by using Laplace transform, algebraic graph theory and generalized Gronwall inequality. We show that pinning synchronization can be ensured if the extended network topology contains a spanning tree and the coupling strength is large enough. Furthermore, we provide an easily testable criterion for global pinning synchronization depending on fractional-order, network topology, oscillator dynamics and state feedback. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  14. Choice of order and extrapolation method in Aarseth-type N-body algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, William H.; Spergel, David N.

    1988-02-01

    The force-versus-time history of a typical particle in a 50-body King model is taken as input data, and its 'extrapolatability' is measured. Extrapolatability means how far the force can be extrapolated, measured in units of a locally defined rate-of-change time scale, and still be within a specified fractional accuracy of the true values. Greater extrapolatability means larger step size, hence greater efficiency, in an Aarseth-type N-body code. Extrapolatability is found to depend systematically on the order of the extrapolation method, but it goes to a finite limit in the limit of large order. A formula for choosing the optimal (most efficient) order for any desired accuracy is given; higher orders than are presently in use are indicated. Neither rational function extrapolation nor a somewhat vector-regularized polynomial method is found to be systematically better than component-wise polynomial extrapolation, indicating that extrapolatability can be viewed as an intrinsic property of the underlying N-body forces, independent of the extrapolation method.

  15. Implications of reactor type and conditions on first-order hydrolysis rate assessment of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Pabón Pereira, C P; Zeeman, G; Zhao, J; Ekmekci, B; van Lier, J B

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradability and first-order hydrolysis coefficient of maize silage have been assessed from batch experiments using different types of inoculum and substrate to inocula (S/I) ratios, and from CSTRs working at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). In the batch experiments, the assessed maximum biodegradability of the maize silage was 68 (+/-2.7)% and 73(+/-2.9)% while the first order hydrolysis was 0.26 (+/-0.01) and 0.27(+/-0.02) d(-1), using granular and a mixture of granular and suspended inoculum, respectively. In the CSTR experiment biodegradability ranged from 41-65% depending on the HRT applied whereas the calculated first order hydrolysis coefficient was 0.32 d(-1). It is concluded that batch experiments can be used to assess first order hydrolysis constants and biodegradability provided that a well balanced inoculum is guaranteed. Further, it is shown that CSTR reactors digesting maize silage and operating at HRTs as low as 20 days can attain 88% of maximum biodegradability as long as pH fluctuations are minimized. 2 mmol NaHCO3 per gram maize silage was calculated to suffice for the purpose.

  16. Relationship between Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy and Orbital Magnetic Moment in L10-Type Ordered and Disordered Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Yohei; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2012-08-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy and orbital magnetic moment in L10-type transition metal alloys such as FePt, FePd, FeNi, CoPt, CoPd, and MnAl are evaluated while continuously varying the degree of order. The electronic structure with spin--orbit interaction is calculated by employing the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method based on the local spin-density approximation. To control the degree of order, we consider a substitutional disorder and then adopt the coherent potential approximation. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy Δ E is roughly proportional to the power of the long-range order parameter S, i.e., Δ E \\propto Sn (n ˜ 1.6{--}2.4). We also discuss the relationship between the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy and the orbital magnetic moment. In the same compositional system with different degrees of order, the difference between the orbital magnetic moment in the magnetic easy axis and that in the hard one is proportional to Δ E. However, the coefficient corresponding to the effective spin--orbit coupling is inconsistent with the intrinsic one in some cases.

  17. Volterra-type Lyapunov functions for fractional-order epidemic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-De-León, Cruz

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we prove an elementary lemma which estimates fractional derivatives of Volterra-type Lyapunov functions in the sense Caputo when α ∈ (0, 1) . Moreover, by using this result, we study the uniform asymptotic stability of some Caputo-type epidemic systems with a pair of fractional-order differential equations. These epidemic systems are the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS), Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) models and Ross-Macdonald model for vector-borne diseases. We show that the unique endemic equilibrium is uniformly asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number is greater than one. We illustrate our theoretical results with numerical simulations using the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton scheme implemented in the fde12 Matlab function.

  18. Structural transitions of ordered kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiopoulos, I.; Ritscher, A.; Lerch, M.; Speziale, S.; Pakhomova, A. S.; Liermann, H. P.; Koch-Müller, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the high-pressure structural and vibrational behavior of the ordered kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 compound. Our investigations have revealed two structural transitions: a kesterite-to-disordered kesterite transition was observed between 7 and 9 GPa, which involves a Zn/Cu disorder within the respective cationic sublattice, whereas a rocksalt-type structure was realized at ˜15 GPa. The latter transition is accompanied by a cationic coordination increase from fourfold-to-sixfold with respect to the sulfur anions. The predicted kesterite-to-stannite transition was not detected. Furthermore, our high-pressure Raman studies have shown that the aforementioned Zn/Cu cationic disorder will always be present in Cu2ZnSnS4 under relatively moderate compression.

  19. Relation between electric phase and magnetic ordering of Y-type Hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Woo-Suk; Jang, H.; Ko, K.-T.; Park, J.-H.; Chun, S. H.; Kim, K. H.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, J.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    Y-type hexaferrite Ba 0.5 Sr 1.5 Zn 2 Fe 12 O22 (BSZFO), one of multiferroic materials, we could acquire magnetic field-induced commensurate phase, changing of magnetic phase of BSZFO and Ba 0.5 Sr 1.5 Zn 2 (Fe 1-x Al x)12 O22 (x = 0.08)(BSZFAO) using resonant soft X-ray scattering(RSXS) experiment. Also we could confirm that magnetic ordering changing has some relation with electric phase transition, q=1.5 at ferroelectric phase not only BSZFO but also BSZFAO. This research results were acquired by using 2A EPU beamline at PAL.

  20. Advanced Fuel Development and Fuel Combustion Delivery Order 0007: Abatement of Soot from Military Gas Turbine Engines via Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    studies with liquid fuels were undertaken. In addition to ethanol and DME, cyclohexanone was studied because it was a component in a commercial... cyclohexanone appeared to have the potential to remove six carbons from pathways to soot formation. It was studied in the various experimental test rigs to...effective in reducing soot was determined to be composed to nitro-alkanes, cyclohexanone , toluene, and dichloroethane. The latter two compounds are

  1. New type of incommensurate magnetic ordering in Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, S.A.; Nordblad, P.; Mathieu, R.; Tellgren, R.; Ritter, C.; Golubko, N.V.; Politova, E.D.; Weil, M.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} has a corundum related structure and orders magnetically below 23 K. {yields} The magnetic structure consists of several types of Mn-chains. {yields} The unique Mn site is split into two magnetically different orbits. {yields} One orbit forms a perfect helix with the spiral axis along the c-axis. {yields} The other orbit has a sine wave character along the c-axis. -- Abstract: The complex metal oxide Mn{sub 3}TeO{sub 6} exhibits a corundum related structure and has been prepared both in forms of single crystals by chemical transport reactions and of polycrystalline powders by a solid state reaction route. The crystal structure and magnetic properties have been investigated using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, electron microscopy, calorimetric and magnetic measurements. At room temperature this compound adopts a trigonal structure, space group R3{sup -bar} with a = 8.8679(1) A, c = 10.6727(2) A. A long-range magnetically ordered state is identified below 23 K. An unexpected feature of this magnetic structure is several types of Mn-chains. Under the action of the incommensurate magnetic propagation vector k = [0, 0, 0.4302(1)] the unique Mn site is split into two magnetically different orbits. One orbit forms a perfect helix with the spiral axis along the c-axis while the other orbit has a sine wave character along the c-axis.

  2. Surface Modified Particles By Multi-Step Michael-Type Addition And Process For The Preparation Thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Elliott, Brian John; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew

    2005-05-03

    A new class of surface modified particles and a multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process for the preparation of the same is provided. The multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process involves two or more reactions to compatibilize particles with various host systems and/or to provide the particles with particular chemical reactivities. The initial step comprises the attachment of a small organic compound to the surface of the inorganic particle. The subsequent steps attach additional compounds to the previously attached organic compounds through reactive organic linking groups. Specifically, these reactive groups are activated carbon—carbon pi bonds and carbon and non-carbon nucleophiles that react via Michael or Michael-type additions.

  3. Informing cancer patient in relation to his type of personality: the controlling-orderly (obsessive) patient.

    PubMed

    Kallergis, G

    2010-01-01

    The questions "Do you tell the diagnosis or not? How much information do you reveal? Who do you inform about the diagnosis and/or what do you tell" are very frequent during scientific discussions. Must the patients know or do they also have the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how? Is it possible individualizing the informing of a cancer patient according to his character or type of personality? The aim of this paper was to describe the Controlling- Orderly (C-O) character, so any therapist can build up an information strategy to cancer patients. This study took place within the framework of Consulting- Liaison (C-L) psychiatry and included: 1) Training groups in which doctors and nurses participated. 2) The section of C-L Psychiatry of the Psychiatry Department. 3) The training activity in the framework of C-L Psychiatry. 4) The annual seminars of psychooncology for health professionals. How a doctor could use the characteristics of a C-O patient for an empathetic approach and correctly inform him. And how to approach his denial and family in order to tailor the information strategy. Understanding the personality type of C-O patient, his denial mechanisms and the dynamics within his family maximizes the therapist's empathetic approach towards the cancer patient. The therapist can respond at "what, when and how" about to break bad news. A therapist must take into account the main C-O patient characteristics (control and order), as well as the attributes or cognitions: the tendency to use reason, the mechanism of rationalization by which he exercises mental control that leads to doubt. The denial degree is small to minimal, while the degree of information is large to very large.

  4. Implicit high-order discontinuous Galerkin method with HWENO type limiters for steady viscous flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.

  5. Second-order quadrupolar line shapes under molecular dynamics: An additional transition in the extremely fast regime.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Wu, Gang; Gan, Zhehong

    2016-12-10

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing molecular dynamics. For the classic case of two-site exchange, NMR spectra go through the transition from exchange broadening through coalescence and then motional narrowing as the exchange rate increases passing through the difference between the resonance frequencies of the two sites. For central-transition spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in solids, line shape change due to molecular dynamics occurs in two stages. The first stage occurs when the exchange rate is comparable to the second-order quadrupolar interaction. The second spectral transition comes at a faster exchange rate which approaches the Larmor frequency and generally reduces the isotropic quadrupolar shift. Such a two-stage transition phenomenon is unique to half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. A quantum mechanical formalism in full Liouville space is presented to explain the physical origin of the two-stage phenomenon and for use in spectral simulations. Variable-temperature (17)O NMR of solid NaNO3 in which the NO3(-) ion undergoes 3-fold jumps confirms the two-stage transition process. The spectra of NaNO3 acquired in the temperature range of 173-413K agree well with simulations using the quantum mechanical formalism. The rate constants for the 3-fold NO3(-) ion jumps span eight orders of magnitude (10(2)-10(10)s(-1)) covering both transitions of the dynamic (17)O line shape.

  6. PITCH ANGLE RESTRICTIONS IN LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES BASED ON CHAOTIC AND ORDERED ORBITAL BEHAVIOR

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Villegas, A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.; Velazquez, H. M.

    2012-01-20

    We built models for low bulge mass spiral galaxies (late type as defined by the Hubble classification) using a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for spiral arms, and analyzed the orbital dynamics as a function of pitch angle, ranging from 10 Degree-Sign to 60 Degree-Sign . Indirectly testing orbital self-consistency, we search for the main periodic orbits and studied the density response. For pitch angles up to approximately {approx}20 Degree-Sign , the response closely supports the potential readily permitting the presence of long-lasting spiral structures. The density response tends to 'avoid' larger pitch angles in the potential by keeping smaller pitch angles in the corresponding response. Spiral arms with pitch angles larger than {approx}20 Degree-Sign would not be long-lasting structures but would rather be transient. On the other hand, from an extensive orbital study in phase space, we also find that for late-type galaxies with pitch angles larger than {approx}50 Degree-Sign , chaos becomes pervasive, destroying the ordered phase space surrounding the main stable periodic orbits and even destroying them. This result is in good agreement with observations of late-type galaxies, where the maximum observed pitch angle is {approx}50 Degree-Sign .

  7. CaCu/sub 5/-type samarium-iron phase stabilized by zirconium addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.; Sun, Y.; Lou, Z.

    1988-04-15

    Light rare-earth metals are not assumed to form compounds of the CaCu/sub 5/-type structure with iron. When zirconium was not added, the Th/sub 2/Zn/sub 17/-type rhombohedral structure existed in the samples of nominal composition SmFe/sub 5/ and SmFe/sub 7/. Samples of nominal composition (Sm/sub 1-//sub x/Zr/sub x/)Fe/sub 5/ and (Sm/sub 0.65/Zr/sub 0.35/)Fe/sub y/ were studied by x-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic analyses showed the existence of a new phase besides Sm/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the new phase has a CaCu/sub 5/-type structure. Lattice parameters and Curie temperatures of these samples were measured.

  8. A CaCu5-type samarium-iron phase stabilized by zirconium addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin; Sun, Yun-Xi; Lou, Zheng-Hua

    1988-04-01

    Light rare-earth metals are not assumed to form compounds of the CaCu5-type structure with iron. When zirconium was not added, the Th2Zn17-type rhombohedral structure existed in the samples of nominal composition SmFe5 and SmFe7. Samples of nominal composition (Sm1-xZrx)Fe5 and (Sm0.65Zr0.35)Fey were studied by x-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic analyses showed the existence of a new phase besides Sm2Fe17. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the new phase has a CaCu5-type structure. Lattice parameters and Curie temperatures of these samples were measured.

  9. Prevalence of type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives in operating room staff with glove-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miri, Sara; Pourpak, Zahra; Zarinara, Alireza; Zarinara, Alam; Heidarzade, Marzieh; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Kardar, Gholamali; Firooz, Alireza; Moin, Athar

    2007-01-01

    There is lack of data on the prevalence of latex allergy in the health care setting in Iran. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of type I latex allergy and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives among the operating room staff with glove-related symptoms in 13 general hospitals in Tehran. Skin-prick tests with commercial latex extract, patch tests with latex and 25 rubber additive series, and total and latex-specific IgE detection were performed on the operating room staff who reported latex glove-related symptoms. Five hundred twelve self-administered questionnaires (100%) were completed by all operating room staff and latex glove-related symptoms were reported by 59 (11.5%) employees. Among all symptomatic operating room staff tested, the prevalence of type I latex allergy was 30.5% and the prevalence rates of type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives were 16.7 and 14.6%, respectively. The most positive patch test result with rubber additives was related to tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (38.5%). The risk factors for type I latex allergy were female sex (p = 0.009) and positive patch test with rubber additives (p = 0.012). Subjects who had positive patch test with latex were significantly more likely to have positive patch test with rubber additives (p < 0.0001). Our results showed a high prevalence of type I latex allergy and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives. Based on this study, we recommend eliminating powdered latex gloves from the operating rooms of the 13 studied general hospitals and support the substitution of powder-free latex gloves.

  10. Hierarchical random additive process and logarithmic scaling of generalized high order, two-point correlations in turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. I. A.; Marusic, I.; Meneveau, C.

    2016-06-01

    Townsend [Townsend, The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1976)] hypothesized that the logarithmic region in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows consists of space-filling, self-similar attached eddies. Invoking this hypothesis, we express streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial layer in high-Reynolds-number wall-bounded flows as a hierarchical random additive process (HRAP): uz+=∑i=1Nzai . Here u is the streamwise velocity fluctuation, + indicates normalization in wall units, z is the wall normal distance, and ai's are independently, identically distributed random additives, each of which is associated with an attached eddy in the wall-attached hierarchy. The number of random additives is Nz˜ln(δ /z ) where δ is the boundary layer thickness and ln is natural log. Due to its simplified structure, such a process leads to predictions of the scaling behaviors for various turbulence statistics in the logarithmic layer. Besides reproducing known logarithmic scaling of moments, structure functions, and correlation function [" close="]3/2 uz(x ) uz(x +r ) >, new logarithmic laws in two-point statistics such as uz4(x ) > 1 /2, 1/3, etc. can be derived using the HRAP formalism. Supporting empirical evidence for the logarithmic scaling in such statistics is found from the Melbourne High Reynolds Number Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel measurements. We also show that, at high Reynolds numbers, the above mentioned new logarithmic laws can be derived by assuming the arrival of an attached eddy at a generic point in the flow field to be a Poisson process [Woodcock and Marusic, Phys. Fluids 27, 015104 (2015), 10.1063/1.4905301]. Taken together, the results provide new evidence supporting the essential ingredients of the attached eddy hypothesis to describe streamwise velocity fluctuations of large, momentum transporting eddies in wall-bounded turbulence, while

  11. One-range addition theorems for derivatives of Slater-type orbitals.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2004-06-01

    Using addition theorems for STOs introduced by the author with the help of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (Guseinov II (2003) J Mol Model 9:190-194), where alpha=1, 0, -1, -2, ..., a large number of one-range addition theorems for first and second derivatives of STOs are established. These addition theorems are especially useful for computation of multicenter-multielectron integrals over STOs that arise in the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan approximation and also in the Hylleraas function method, which play a significant role for the study of electronic structure and electron-nuclei interaction properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. The relationships obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of STOs.

  12. Effect of Greens and Soil Type, Sulfur Addition and Lithium Level on Leaf Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  13. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  14. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  15. 14 CFR 61.31 - Type rating requirements, additional training, and authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... holder is already qualified. (k) Additional training required for night vision goggle operations. (1... aircraft using night vision goggles only if that person receives and logs ground training from an...: (i) Applicable portions of this chapter that relate to night vision goggle limitations and...

  16. Numerical simulation of second-order hyperbolic telegraph type equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Sapna; Kumar, Manoj; Tiwari, Surabhi

    2015-02-01

    In this article, the authors proposed a numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme and Haar wavelets to find numerical solutions of different types of second order hyperbolic telegraph equations (i.e. telegraph equation with constant coefficients, with variable coefficients, and singular telegraph equation). This work is an extension of the scheme by Jiwari (2012) for hyperbolic equations. The use of Haar basis function is made with multiresolution analysis to get the fast and accurate results on collocation points. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved by doing its error analysis. Four test examples are considered to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the scheme. The scheme is easy and very suitable for computer implementation and provides numerical solutions close to the exact solutions and available in the literature.

  17. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  18. Recurrence of achondrogenesis type 2 in sibs: Additional evidence for germline mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Jessica M; Putnam, Angelica R; Sangle, Nikhil; Lowichik, Amy; Rose, Nancy C; Opitz, John M

    2010-07-01

    Achondrogenesis Type II (ACG2) is a lethal skeletal disorder caused by a dominant mutation in the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Familial cases have been reported, suggesting both germline and somatic mosaicism. We report on two pregnancies from the same couple with gross, radiologic, and microscopic findings of ACG2. Molecular analysis of the second infant demonstrated heterozygosity for a c.2303G > A transition (p.Gly768Asp) in exon 33 of the COL2A1 gene. Although this mutation could not be proven by molecular studies in the first infant, identical findings in two affected pregnancies support germline mosaicism as the cause of ACG2 in this family.

  19. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  20. The Equivalence between (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger] and Other Mixed-Type Reverse-Order Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Yongge

    2006-01-01

    The standard reverse-order law for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix product is (AB)[dagger] = B[dagger]A[dagger]. The purpose of this article is to give a set of equivalences of this reverse-order law and other mixed-type reverse-order laws for the Moore-Penrose inverse of matrix products.

  1. "Addition" and "Subtraction": Selectivity Design for Type II Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Giraldes, John; Sprague, Elizabeth R; Shakya, Subarna; Chen, Zhuoliang; Wang, Yaping; Joud, Carol; Mathieu, Simon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Straub, Christopher; Duca, Jose; Hurov, Kristen; Yuan, Yanqiu; Shao, Wenlin; Touré, B Barry

    2017-03-09

    While adding the structural features that are more favored by on-target activity is the more common strategy in selectivity optimization, the opposite strategy of subtracting the structural features that contribute more to off-target activity can also be very effective. Reported here is our successful effort of improving the kinase selectivity of type II maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitors by applying these two complementary approaches together, which clearly demonstrates the powerful synergy between them.

  2. Surface-segregated monolayers: a new type of ordered monolayer for surface modification of organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingshuo; Tajima, Keisuke; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-12-09

    We report a new type of ordered monolayer for the surface modification of organic semiconductors. Fullerene derivatives with fluorocarbon chains ([6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-buryric acid 1H,1H-perfluoro-1-alkyl ester or FC(n)) spontaneously segregated as a monolayer on the surface of a [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film during a spin-coating process from the mixture solutions, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) showed the shift of ionization potentials (IPs) depending on the fluorocarbon chain length, indicating the formation of surface dipole moments. Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) revealed the ordered molecular orientations of the C(60) moiety in the surface FC(n) layers. The intensity of the SFG signals from FC(n) on the surface showed a clear odd-even effect when the length of the fluorocarbon chain was changed. This new concept of the surface-segregated monolayer provides a facile and versatile approach to modifying the surface of organic semiconductors and is applicable to various organic optoelectronic devices.

  3. Chaos-order transition in Bianchi type I non-Abelian Born-Infeld cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyadichev, Vladimir V.; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Moniz, Paulo Vargas

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the Bianchi I cosmology with the homogeneous SU(2) Yang-Mills field governed by the non-Abelian Born-Infeld action. A similar system with the standard Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) action is known to exhibit chaotic behavior induced by the Yang-Mills field. When the action is replaced by the Born-Infeld type non-Abelian action (NBI), the chaos-order transition is observed in the high-energy region. This is interpreted as a smothering effect due to (nonperturbative in α') string corrections to the classical EYM action. We give numerical evidence for the chaos-order transition and present an analytical proof of regularity of color oscillations in the limit of strong Born-Infeld nonlinearity. We also perform a general analysis of the Bianchi I NBI cosmology and derive an exact solution in the case of only the U(1) component excited. Our new exact solution generalizes the Rosen solution of the Bianchi I Einstein-Maxwell cosmology to the U(1) Einstein-Born-Infeld theory.

  4. Stereochemical Control of Enzymatic Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Michael-Type Additions by "Substrate Engineering".

    PubMed

    Miao, Yufeng; Tepper, Pieter G; Geertsema, Edzard M; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2016-11-01

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4-OT-catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)- and (S)-γ-nitroaldehydes and 4-substituted chroman-2-ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate. Stereochemical control of these enzymatic Michael-type additions by "substrate engineering" allowed the enantioselective synthesis of valuable γ-aminobutyric acid precursors. In addition, the results suggest a novel enzymatic synthesis route towards precursors for chromans and derivatives, which are valuable scaffolds for preparing biologically active natural products.

  5. Effect of incision types for Artisan phakic intraocular lens implantation on ocular higher order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Min; Choi, Bong Joon; Lee, Jong Soo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of incision types for Artisan phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) implantation on ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs). METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of the patients who had undergone Artisan PIOL implantation for the correction of myopia and followed up for at least 6mo. Patients are classified into 2 groups considering the incision type: cornea group with patients undergone clear corneal incision; sclera group with patients undergone sclera tunnel incision. All patients with postoperative astigmatism of under 1 diopter (D) were included to minimize the effect of residual astigmatism on postoperative HOAs. Visual acuity, special equivalents, astigmatism, predictability (±1 D from target refraction), HOAs (coma, trefoil, spherical aberration), and corneal endothelial counts were analyzed preoperatively and 6mo postoperatively. RESULTS At the postoperative 6mo, all patients of both groups achieved uncorrected visual acuity of 16/20 or better, and significantly decreased the spherical equivalents compared with preoperative values. The predictability of refractive correction was 96% in the former, and 94% in the latter. Unlike the sclera group, preoperative astigmatism decreased significantly in cornea group at postoperative 6mo. The HOAs increased significantly at postoperative 6mo compared to the preoperative values in both groups, and the root mean square (RMS) total and trefoil wavefront aberration of cornea group were significantly higher than those of sclera group. CONCLUSION Although corneal incision significantly reduces preexisting astigmatism, the postoperative 6mo of total RMS and trefoil aberration change may deteriorate the visual quality after Artisan PIOL implantation. PMID:28003980

  6. Power-Law Type Solutions of Fourth-Order Gravity for Multidimensional Bianchi i Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprasse, H.; Demaret, J.; Gatermann, K.; Melenk, H.

    This paper is devoted to the application of computer algebra to the study of solutions of the field equations derived from a non-linear Lagrangian, as suggested by recently proposed unified theories. More precisely, we restrict ourselves to the most general quadratic Lagrangian, i.e. containing quadratic contributions in the different curvature tensors exclusively. The corresponding field equations are then fourth-order in the metric tensor components. The cosmological models studied are the simplest ones in the class of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic models, i.e. Bianchi I models. For these models, we consider only power-law type solutions of the field equations. All the solutions of the associated system of algebraic equations are found, using computer algebra, from a search of its Groebner bases. While, in space dimension d=3, the Einsteinian-Kasner metric is still the most general power-law type solution, for d>3, no solution, other than the Minkowski space-time, is common to the three systems of equations corresponding to the three contributions to the Lagrangian density. In the case of a pure Riemann-squared contribution to the Lagrangian (suggested by a recent calculation of the effective action for the heterotic string), the possibility exists to realize a splitting of the d-dimensional space into a (d-3)-dimensional internal space and a physical 3-dimensional space, the latter expanding in time as a power bigger than 2 (about 4.5 when d=9).

  7. The effects of different types of nano-silicon dioxide additives on the properties of sludge ash mortar.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huan-Lin; Chang, Wei-Che; Lin, Deng-Fong

    2009-04-01

    To improve the drawbacks caused by the sludge ash replacement in mortar, the previous studies have shown that the early strength and durability of sludge ash/cement mortar are improved by adding nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) to mortar. In this article, three types of nano-SiO2--SS, HS, and SP (manufacturer code names)--were applied to sludge ash/cement mixture to make paste or mortar specimens. The object is to further extend the recycle of the sludge ash by determining the better type of nano-SiO2 additive to improve properties of sludge ash/ cement paste or mortar. The cement was replaced by 0, 10, 20, and 30% of sludge ash, and 0 and 2% of nano-SiO2 additives were added to the sludge ash paste or mortar specimens. Tests such as setting time, compressive strength, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis were performed in this study. Test results show that nano-SiO2 additives can not only effectively increase the hydration product (calcium silicate hydrate [C-S-H] gel), but also make the crystal structure denser. Among the three types of nano-SiO2 additive, the SS type can best improve the properties of sludge ash/cement paste or mortar, followed by the SP and HS types.

  8. A Fluorescent Molecular Probe for the Detection of Hydrogen Based on Oxidative Addition Reactions with Crabtree-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kos, Pavlo; Plenio, Herbert

    2015-11-02

    A Crabtree-type Ir(I) complex tagged with a fluorescent dye (bodipy) was synthesized. The oxidative addition of H2 converts the weakly fluorescent Ir(I) complex (Φ=0.038) into a highly fluorescent Ir(III) species (Φ=0.51). This fluorogenic reaction can be utilized for the detection of H2 and to probe the oxidative addition step in the catalytic hydrogenation of olefins.

  9. Differential responses of needle and branch order-based root decay to nitrogen addition: dominant effects of acid-unhydrolyzable residue and microbial enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liang; Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Xinyu; Gao, Wenlong; Yang, Hao; Li, Dandan; Li, Shenggong

    2016-04-01

    Both chemical differences between foliage and different orders of fine roots and their contrasting decomposing microenvironments may affect their decomposition. However, little is known about how foliage and branch order-based root decomposition responds to increased N availability and the response mechanisms behind. The effects of different doses of N addition on the decomposition of needles and order-based roots of Pinus elliottii (slash pine) were monitored using the litterbag method for 524 days in a subtropical slash pine plantation in south China. The acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and microbial extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA) in decomposing needles and roots were also determined. Our results indicate that the responses of needle and order-based root decomposition were N-dose-specific. The decomposition of both needles and lower-order roots was inhibited under the high N dose rate. The retarded decomposition of lower-order roots could be explained more by the increased binding of AUR to inorganic N ions, while the retarded decomposition of needles could be explained more by the reduced microbial EEA. Further, in contrast to lower-order roots, N addition had no effect on the decomposition of higher-order roots. We conclude that the decomposition of foliage and fine roots may fail to mirror each other at ambient conditions or in response to N deposition due to their contrasting decomposition microenvironments and tissue chemistry. Given the differential effects of N addition on order-based roots, our findings highlight the need to consider the tissue chemistry heterogeneity within branching fine root systems when predicting the responses of root decomposition to N loading.

  10. Situational Discrimination in Repressor-type and Sensitizer-type Approval Seekers and the Birth Order by Subject Sex Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gilbert

    1970-01-01

    Five experiments are reported. One conclusion in that repressor-type high need-for-approval subjects made the discrimination and permitted less favorable self-description, but sensitizer-type high need-for-approval subjects did not. (DB)

  11. Catalytic Direct-type 1,4-Addition Reactions of Alkylazaarenes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Igarashi, Ryo; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2017-04-10

    1,4-addition reactions of alkylazaarenes catalyzed by strong Brønsted bases have been developed for the first time. The desired reactions with α,β-unsaturated amides proceeded under mild reaction conditions to give the 1,4-adducts in high yields. Both ortho- and para-substituted azaarenes afforded the desired adducts in high yields. Regioselective reactions of di- or trimethylpyridine were found to be possible depending on the acidity of the α-hydrogen atoms. Furthermore, a candidate of allosteric protein kinase modulators was synthesized in two steps. An asymmetric variant of this reaction was also found to be feasible.

  12. Addition theorem of Slater type orbitals: a numerical evaluation of Barnett Coulson/Löwdin functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouferguene, Ahmed

    2005-04-01

    When using the one-centre two-range expansion method to evaluate multicentre integrals over Slater type orbitals (STOs), it may become necessary to compute numerical values of the corresponding Fourier coefficients, also known as Barnett-Coulson/Löwdin Functions (BCLFs) (Bouferguene and Jones 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 5718). To carry out this task, it is crucial to not only have a stable numerical procedure but also a fast algorithm. In previous work (Bouferguene and Rinaldi 1994 Int. J. Quantum Chem. 50 21), BCLFs were represented by a double integral which led to a numerically stable algorithm but this turned out to be disappointingly time consuming. The present work aims at exploring another path in which BCLFs are represented either by an infinite series involving modified Bessel functions {\\bf K}_{\

  13. Adherence to guidelines in people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes, ADDITION, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Lise; Sandbaek, Annelli; Foldspang, Anders; Frydenberg, Morten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Objective In people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes in primary care, (1) to assess adherence to guidelines, recommending consultation with the GP every three months and treatment initiation with an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist when systolic BP was > 120 mmHg and/or diastolic BP was > 80 mmHg, and (2) to identify predictors for adherence. Design Prospective follow-up of a fixed cohort of patients. Setting Fifty-four Danish general practices. Subjects and main outcome measures A total of 361 people with screen-detected type 2 diabetes were followed up for 410 days to assess planned consultations with their GP and recording of BP. Some 226 people, with BP recorded above guideline threshold(s) and where treatment was not already initiated, were followed for up to 410 days to monitor prescription redemption. Results At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months 80%, 77%, 74%, and 73% of the cohort attended a consultation. A total of 89% of the cohort attended two of the four planned consultations. The probability of redeemed prescriptions for an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist according to the guideline during the first year following diagnosis was 51%. High initial BP was associated with prescription redemption. No other analysed individual or organisational characteristics were found to be associated with treatment initiation. Conclusion The consultation attendance was reasonably high, and treatment initiation with an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist according to the guideline was found in half of the cases. High initial BP increased the probability of treatment initiation. PMID:19929182

  14. Suppression of Grain Growth by Additive in Nanostructured P-type Bismuth Antimony Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, S.; Liu, W S; Lukas, K; Yan, X; Wang, H; Wang, D.; Opeil, C; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    Grain growth is a major issue in the preparation of nanostructured bismuth-antimony-tellurides during hot pressing the nanopowders into dense bulk samples. To prevent grain agglomeration during ball milling and growth during hot pressing, organic agent (Oleic Acid, OA) as additive was added into the materials at the beginning of the ball milling process. With different concentrations of OA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt%), grains with different sizes are obtained. Structural analysis clearly shows that it is the particle size of the nanopowders that determines the final grain size in the densely compacted bulk samples. A combination of small grains ~200–500 nm and nanopores leads to effective phonon scattering, which results in the decrease of lattice thermal conductivity, and ZT of ~1.3 at 373 K for the sample with 2.0 wt% OA.

  15. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  16. Heinrich-type glacial surges in a low-order dynamical climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Verbitsky, M.; Saltzman, B.

    1994-07-01

    Recent studies suggest the occurrence of sporadic episodes during which the ice streams that discharge ice sheets become enormously active, producing large numbers of icebergs (reflected in North Atlantic sea cores as {open_quotes}Heinrich events{close_quotes}) and possibly causing the partial collapse of the ice sheets. To simulate the mechanism of implied internal thermo-hydrodynamical instability in the context of a more general paleoclimate dynamics model (PDM), a new sliding-catastrophe function that can account for ice-sheet surges in terms of the thickness, density, viscosity, heat-capacity. and heat-conductivity of ice is introduced. Analysis suggests these events might be of three possible kinds: the first occurs in periods of glacial maximum when temperature conditions on the ice surface are extremely cold, but internal friction within bottom boundary layer is also at its maximum and is strong enough to melt ice and cause its surge. The second may happen during an interglacial, when the ice thickness is small but relatively warm climate conditions on the upper surface of ice can be easily advected with the flow of ice to the bottom where even a small additional heating due to friction may cause melting. The third and, perhaps, most interesting type is one that may occur during ice sheet growth: in this period particles of ice reaching the bottom {open_quotes}remember{close_quotes} the warm temperature conditions of the previous interglacial and additional heating due to increasing friction associated with the growing ice sheet may again cause melting. This third introduces the interesting possibility that earlier CO{sub 2} concentrations may be as important for the present-day climate as its current value. According to our model the climate system seems more vulnerable to surges during the penultimate interglacial period than in present one contributing to an explanation of the recent results of the Greenland Ice Core Project. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Yafet-Kittel-type magnetic order in Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkaya, R.; Baykal, A.; Demir, A.

    2013-01-01

    = 0.0) under consideration in this work. From the computation of Y-K angles for the TREG-coated Zn x Co1- x Fe2O4 NPs, it can be concluded that all the zinc-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (for x > 0.0) have a Y-K-type magnetic order, while the pure cobalt ferrite nanoparticles ( x = 0.0) have a Néel-type magnetic order. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) measurement results further verify that the samples with 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 have superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, which shows weak interaction between magnetic particles. The blocking temperatures obtained from ZFC-FC curves decrease as a function of Zn concentration. It was found that the effective magnetic anisotropy, the coercivity, and remanence magnetization continuously decrease with increasing Zn concentration. Lower reduced remanent magnetization ( M r/ M s) values (<0.5) suggest that all the samples have uniaxial anisotropy. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement shows that the FMR spectra of all the samples have broad linewidth because of the magnetic nanoparticles with randomly distributed anisotropy axes, and the decrease in the internal field conversely leads to the increase in the resonance field with respect to increasing Zn concentration.

  18. Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fries, Elke; Dekiff, Jens H; Willmeyer, Jana; Nuelle, Marie-Theres; Ebert, Martin; Remy, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Any assessment of plastic contamination in the marine environment requires knowledge of the polymer type and the additive content of microplastics. Sequential pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS) was applied to simultaneously identify polymer types of microplastic particles and associated organic plastic additives (OPAs). In addition, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyser was used to identify the inorganic plastic additives (IPAs) contained in these particles. A total of ten particles, which were optically identified as potentially being plastics, were extracted from two sediment samples collected from Norderney, a North Sea island, by density separation in sodium chloride. The weights of these blue, white and transparent fragments varied between 10 and 350 μg. Polymer types were identified by comparing the resulting pyrograms with those obtained from the pyrolysis of selected standard polymers. The particles consisted of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamide, chlorinated PE and chlorosulfonated PE. The polymers contained diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, benzaldehyde and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Sequential Py-GC/MS was found to be an appropriate tool for identifying marine microplastics for polymer types and OPAs. The IPAs identified were titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), barium, sulphur and zinc. When polymer-TiO2 composites are degraded in the marine environment, TiO2-NPs are probably released. Thus, marine microplastics may act as a TiO2-NP source, which has not yet been considered.

  19. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part VIII: additional types of questions during an executive interview.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2014-03-01

    The applicant for an administrative position may be asked situational and stress questions on an interview. Some possible questions and answers for these types of queries are included in this article. In addition, the candidate may be required to answer some odd or unusual questions to test his/her ability to be creative or respond to an unexpected question. Some suggestions regarding those queries are also given in this article.

  20. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  1. Stereochemical Control of Enzymatic Carbon–Carbon Bond‐Forming Michael‐Type Additions by “Substrate Engineering”

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yufeng; Tepper, Pieter G.; Geertsema, Edzard M.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme 4‐oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4‐OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael‐type addition of acetaldehyde to β‐nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ‐nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ‐aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4‐OT‐catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)‐ and (S)‐γ‐nitroaldehydes and 4‐substituted chroman‐2‐ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate. Stereochemical control of these enzymatic Michael‐type additions by “substrate engineering” allowed the enantioselective synthesis of valuable γ‐aminobutyric acid precursors. In addition, the results suggest a novel enzymatic synthesis route towards precursors for chromans and derivatives, which are valuable scaffolds for preparing biologically active natural products. PMID:27917069

  2. The effects of a liquid dispersing agent and a microcrystalline additive on the physical properties of type IV gypsum.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M R; Johnston, W M; Reisbick, M H; Campagni, W V

    1988-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a liquid dispersing agent (LDA) and a microcrystalline additive (MCA) on selected physical properties of type IV gypsum. Working consistency, setting time, setting expansion, and compressive strength (1 hour and 7 days) were determined, following ADA Specification No. 25, on a standard, LDA (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mL), MCA (21.1, 24.1, and 27.1 gm), and combination (LDA 0.75 mL + MCA 12.05 gm) mixes per 300 gm of gypsum. Results indicate that the additives affect the consistency of the mix, but consistency can be kept close to that of the standard by lowering the water/powder ratio. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the additives significantly affected the setting time, setting expansion, and both the 1-hour and the 7-day compressive strengths. SEM examination of fractured surfaces of test mixes indicated improved crystal packing. The properties of type IV gypsum can be improved by optimizing the amount of LDA and MCA additives.

  3. A new synthetic route to a family of non-classical addition-type thermoplastics. I - Concept and demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis scheme was developed for a host of nonclassical addition-type thermoplastics (ATT) that can be cured by an addition reaction, leading to a linear polymer structure. The synthesis involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated prepolymer with either a bismaleimide (BMI) or a biscitraconimide. A new polymer, designated LaRC-RP80, synthesized using this scheme, was found to exhibit several significantly improved properties over the commercial BMI, Kerimid 601, including an eight-fold increase in toughness while maintaining a high Tg, a higher (by 167 C) heat stability, and a 50-percent increase in moisture resistance. In addition, LaRC-RP80 has good hot/wet lap shear strength and processes easily at 288 C without voids in the finished product.

  4. Effects of Ag addition on FePt L1{sub 0} ordering transition: A direct observation of ordering transition and Ag segregation in FePtAg alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Youxing; Gao, Tenghua

    2015-12-21

    FePt and (FePt){sub 91.2}Ag{sub 8.8} alloy films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The average coercivity of (FePt){sub 91.2}Ag{sub 8.8} films reaches 8.51 × 10{sup 5} A/m, which is 0.63 × 10{sup 5} A/m higher than that of the corresponding FePt films. Ag addition effectively promotes the FePt L1{sub 0} ordering transition at a relatively low annealing temperature of 400 °C. The promotion mechanism was investigated by using in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and ex situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The concurrence of ordering transition and Ag segregation in FePtAg alloy films was first observed by using in situ heating HRTEM. The time-resolved evolution reveals more details on the role of Ag addition in FePt low-temperature ordering. Ex situ XAFS results further confirm that Ag replaces Fe sites in the as-deposited films and segregates from FePt-Ag solid solution phase through annealing at elevated temperatures. The segregation of Ag atoms leaves vacancies in the grain. The vacancy formation is believed to accelerate the diffusion of Fe and Pt atoms, which is critical for the L1{sub 0} ordering transition.

  5. Lazarevicite-type short-range ordering in ternary III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnedler, M.; Lefebvre, I.; Xu, T.; Portz, V.; Patriarche, G.; Nys, J.-P.; Plissard, S. R.; Caroff, P.; Berthe, M.; Eisele, H.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.; Grandidier, B.

    2016-11-01

    Stabilizing ordering instead of randomness in alloy semiconductor materials is a powerful means to change their physical properties. We used scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopies to reveal the existence of an unrecognized ordering in ternary III-V materials. The lazarevicite short-range order, found in the shell of InAs1 -xSbx nanowires, is driven by the strong Sb-Sb repulsion along <110 > atomic chains during their incorporation on unreconstructed {110 } sidewalls. Its spontaneous formation under group-III-rich conditions of growth offers the prospect to broaden the limited classes of ordered structures occurring in III-V semiconductor alloys.

  6. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer.

  7. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  8. Impacts of calcium addition and different oil types and levels on in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gülşen, Nurettin; Umucalilar, Huzur Derya; Inal, Fatma; Hayirli, Armagan

    2006-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the effects of calcium addition to substrates differing in source and level of oil on fermentation, gas production, and digestibility parameters. Substrates were made from basal mixtures containing three levels of calcium salt (0, 1, and 2% CaCl2) to contain three levels (3, 6, and 9%) of two types (sunflower and soy) of oil. After collecting from two Holstein bulls and mixing with buffer, rumen fluid was used to incubate the resulting 18 mixtures in duplicate. Ionizable calcium, pH and NH3-N concentration were measured during incubation. Gas production was measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after incubation. Kinetics parameters of gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were calculated from regression coefficients of an exponential equation and a linear equation, respectively. Data were analysed using 3-way ANOVA with repeated measure option in which the parameter time was a subplot. Oil type did not affect pH and ionizable calcium concentration. There were linear increases and decreases in pH and ionizable calcium concentration in response to increasing oil and calcium levels, respectively. However, with increasing oil levels there were no interactions between calcium addition and oil level on pH and ionizable calcium concentration. None of the treatments affected NH3-N concentration. The amount of gas produced from substrates containing sunflower oil was greater than soy oil (41.7 vs. 40.5 ml). Cumulative gas production and amount of gas production from insoluble but slowly fermentable portion of the supplemental mixtures linearly decreased and linearly increased as oil and calcium levels increased in the substrates, respectively. However, interactions of calcium addition and oil level on gas production and kinetics of gas production were lacking. Oil type did not affect IVDMD. Despite lacking main effects, interaction of calcium addition and oil level indicated that increasing calcium level

  9. Order and randomness in Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-type phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanfoni, M.; Persichetti, L.; Tomellini, M.

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of points on a 2D domain influences the kinetics of its coverage when a growth law is attached at each point. This implies that the kinetics of space filling can be adopted as a descriptor of the degree of order of the initial point distribution. In this paper, the degree of order of an initial array of points has been changed following two paths: (i) from a regular square lattice, through increasing displacement assigned to each point, towards Poissonian disorder; (ii) from a Poissonian distribution, by introducing a hard core potential with increasing correlation lengths, towards a more ordered lattice. A linear growth law has been attached to the points of the initial array and the kinetics X(Xe), where Xe is the extended coverage as defined in the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, has been monitored. The quantitative analysis has been performed by fitting the kinetics to an equation which we propose for the first time and which has proved to be, in fact, highly suitable for the purpose. The results demonstrate that the gross of variation from order to disorder is obtained for point displacements, u, of the order of a, the latter being the constant of a square lattice. Vice versa, the introduction of a correlation distance in a random distribution provokes at most an order limited to the first neighbors and no real order can ever be reached. Others descriptors have been investigated, all confirming our results. We also developed an analytical description based on the use of the f-functions, as have been defined by Van Kampen, up to the second order terms. Such a description has been shown to work well for u/a < 1 within an interval ΔXe which depends on the ɛ value.

  10. Sandwich-type polymer nanofiber structure of poly(furfuryl alcohol): an effective template for ordered porous films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Lu, Qingyi; Pang, Huan; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-09-17

    A brand new sandwich-type poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanostructure as well as ordered PFA nanofiber arrays has been successfully obtained through a novel two-step polymerization method by using a porous alumina membrane as the template. This novel structure is made up of ordered PFA nanopillars supported by two PFA films on the top and bottom. The thickness of the PFA films on both sides could be adjusted from several micrometers to tens of micrometers, and the flexibility of the membrane could be controlled in a certain range. This sandwich-type polymer nanostructure can be used as an effective template for constructing other ordered porous films resembling the structure of the parent alumina membrane, and in this study, ordered porous titania membrane has been successfully obtained. Theoretically, many other novel porous (or meso- and macro-mixed porous) materials could be synthesized through this novel template.

  11. Effect of a laboratory surfactant on compatibility of type IV dental stones with addition-cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Nesbit, Michael; Butta, Rajeev; Moles, David R

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of a surfactant on surface detail reproduction between combinations of addition-cured silicone impression materials and type IV stones. Six hundred impressions were made of a ruled test block using; Examix-NDS, Doric-Es Flo-Light, Panasil Contact Plus, Extrude Wash and President Plus Jet. Half of the impressions were treated with a surfactant (Aurofilm). Impressions were poured with type IV dental stones; Silky Rock, Fuji Rock, Suprastone and Vel-Mix and the 20 mu line was scored. A laboratory surfactant (Aurofilm) significantly reduced (P<0.01) compatibility with; (i) Examix-NDS and Suprastone, (ii) Examix-NDS and Velmix, (iii) Extrude Wash and Fuji Rock.

  12. Michael-type addition reactions for the in situ formation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Paradossi, Gaio

    2007-01-01

    Michael-type addition reactions offer the possibility to obtain in situ formation of polymeric hydrogels in the absence of a radical mechanism for the networking process. We explored such a synthetic route for obtaining a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based hydrogel as a potential biomaterial for applications in vitro-retinal replacement surgery. The presence of radicals in the reaction medium can represent a risk for in situ surgical treatment. To circumvent this problem we have applied nucleophilic addition to ad hoc modified PVA macromers. The gel formation has been studied with respect to the timing required in this surgery and in terms of the structural characteristics of the obtained network.

  13. Calculation of multicenter electric field gradient integrals over Slater-type orbitals using unsymmetrical one-range addition theorems.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil I; Görgün, Nurşen Seçkin

    2011-06-01

    The electric field induced within a molecule by its electrons determines a whole series of important physical properties of the molecule. In particular, the values of the gradient of this field at the nuclei determine the interaction of their quadrupole moments with the electrons. Using unsymmetrical one-range addition theorems introduced by one of the authors, the sets of series expansion relations for multicenter electric field gradient integrals over Slater-type orbitals in terms of multicenter charge density expansion coefficients and two-center basic integrals are presented. The convergence of the series is tested by calculating concrete cases for different values of quantum numbers, parameters and locations of orbitals.

  14. Additional New Cytotoxic Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids Chondrosterins K–M from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Lan, Wen-Jian; Deng, Rong; Feng, Gong-Kan; Xu, Qing-Yan; Hu, Zhi-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    By the method of 1H NMR prescreening and tracing the diagnostic proton signals of the methyl groups, three additional new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids—chondrosterins K–M (1–3) and the known sesquiterpenoid anhydroarthrosporone (4)—were isolated from the marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Chondrosterin K is a rare hirsutane sesquiterpenoid, in which a methyl group was migrated from C-2 to C-6 and has a double bond between C-2 and C-3. Compounds 1–3 showed significant cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines in vitro. PMID:27571085

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  16. On the energetics of cation ordering in tungsten-bronze-type oxides.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gerhard Henning; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Grande, Tor

    2015-11-11

    Oxides with the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure are well-known ferroelectrics that show a large flexibility both with respect to chemical composition and cation ordering. Two of the simplest compounds in this family are lead metaniobate (PbNb2O6 or PN) and strontium barium niobate (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 or SBN). While PN is a classical ferroelectric, SBN goes from ferroelectric to relaxor-like with increasing Sr content, with a polar direction different from that in PN. The partially occupied sublattices in both systems give the possibility for cation order-disorder phenomena, but it is not known if or how this influences the polarization and ferroelectricity. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate how cation and cation vacancy ordering influences the energetics of these compounds, by comparing both the energy differences and the barriers for transition between different cation configurations. We extend the thermodynamic model of O'Neill and Navrotsky, originally developed for cation interchange in spinels, to describe the order-disorder phenomenology in TTB oxides. The influence of order-disorder processes on the functional properties of PN and SBN is discussed.

  17. Partial order among the 14 Bravais types of lattices: basics and applications

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Neither International Tables for Crystallography (ITC) nor available crystallography textbooks state explicitly which of the 14 Bravais types of lattices are special cases of others, although ITC contains the information necessary to derive the result in two ways, considering either the symmetry or metric properties of the lattices. The first approach is presented here for the first time, the second has been given by Michael Klemm in 1982. Metric relations between conventional bases of special and general lattice types are tabulated and applied to continuous equi-translation phase transitions. PMID:25727862

  18. On types of the resolvent of a complete second order differential operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Kordan Nauryzkhanovich

    2015-09-18

    In this work we consider the complete second order differential operator, the intermediate coefficient of which is growing rapidly. We find the conditions when its resolvent is compact or belongs to Schatten class, in particular, it is a nuclear operator. The most accurate results are obtained when the coefficient oscillates weakly. In this case we shown that the operator is separable.

  19. Thiazolidinedione addition reduces the serum retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin and sulfonylurea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Der; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wang, Chiao-Ling; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Li, Tzu-Hui; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-06-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been found to induce insulin resistance and to be increased in type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can improve insulin sensitivity through the activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and have been suggested as an adjunct to metformin (MF) and sulfonylurea (SU) in type 2 diabetes in a consensus statement from the ADA and EASD. Therefore, we investigated whether TZD could affect serum RBP4 level in type 2 diabetes already treated with MF and/or SU. Eighty-one type 2 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) TZD group (n = 55): Pioglitazone 30 mg/day was given as an add-on medication; (2) SU group (n = 26): Gliclazide MR 30-120 mg or glimepiride 2-8 mg/day was prescribed. The average period of study was 97.1 days. Serum RBP4 and adiponectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The addition of pioglitazone (TZD group) markedly decreased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.021) compared with the SU group (P = 0.688). The change of RBP4 in the TZD group (-3.87 +/- 11.27 microg/mL) significantly differed from that in the SU group (2.52 +/- 8.24 microg/mL, P < 0.012). The increase of adiponectin in the TZD group (11.49 +/- 7.85 microg/mL) was apparently higher than that in the SU group (1.54 +/- 5.62 microg/mL, P < 0.001). Despite the change of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) did not differ (-0.77 +/- 1.3 vs -0.50 +/- 1.7, P = 0.446), the addition of pioglitazone could significantly lower serum RBP4 and HOMA-IR values, whereas an increased dosage of sulfonylurea agents did not alter HOMA-IR, RBP4, or adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients who had been treated with metformin and/or sulfonylurea.

  20. Order-N Electronic Structure Calculation of n-TYPE GaAs Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, S.; Iitaka, T.

    2008-10-01

    A linear scale method for calculating electronic properties of large and complex systems is introduced within a local density approximation. The method is based on the Chebyshev polynomial expansion and the time-dependent method, which is tested in calculating the electronic structure of a model n-type GaAs quantum dot.

  1. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  2. Ordering Power of Separate versus Grouped True-False Tests: Interaction of Type of Test with Knowledge Levels of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the relative ordering power of separate and grouped-items true-false tests indicated that neither type of test was uniformly superior to the other across all levels of knowledge of examinees. Grouped-item tests were found superior for examinees with low levels of knowledge. (Author/CTM)

  3. Nuclear resonance reflection of synchrotron radiation from thin dysprosium films with different types of magnetic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, M. A.; Antropov, N. O.; Baulin, R. A.; Kravtsov, E. A.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Yakunina, E. M.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    Epitaxial thin films of dysprosium have been successfully synthesized by the method of high-vacuum magnetron sputtering and their structure and magnetic properties have been investigated. The opportunity of the nuclear resonance scattering for the investigation of nanostructures containing 161Dy has been considered; the specific features of the spectra of nuclear resonance reflectivity from the films have been analyzed on the energy and time scales at different orientations of the magnetic hyperfine field. The simulation of the angular dependences of nuclear resonance reflectivity for the case of spiral ordering in periodic structures containing 161Dy has been carried out. It has been shown that these dependences make it possible to uniquely determine the period of magnetic ordering.

  4. Controlling Chaos for Fractional Order Loss Type of Coupled Dynamos Systems via Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianhong; Xiong, Xueyan; Bin, Hong; Sun, Nayan

    This paper studies the problem of chaos control for the fractional order modified coupled dynamos system that involves mechanical damping loss. Based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion generalized to the fractional order stability theory, the stability conditions of the controlled system are discussed. We adopt a simple single-variable linear feedback method to suppress chaos to the unstable equilibrium point and limit cycle. Then, a modified feedback control method is developed in light of the sliding mode variable structure, namely exerting the controller only when the system trajectory is close to the target orbit. This method not only maintains the dynamics of the system, but provides the optimal control time and adjustable limit cycles radius. Numerical simulation proves the validity of this method.

  5. A second-order Budkyo-type parameterization of landsurface hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreou, S. A.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A simple, second order parameterization of the water fluxes at a land surface for use as the appropriate boundary condition in general circulation models of the global atmosphere was developed. The derived parameterization incorporates the high nonlinearities in the relationship between the near surface soil moisture and the evaporation, runoff and percolation fluxes. Based on the one dimensional statistical dynamic derivation of the annual water balance, it makes the transition to short term prediction of the moisture fluxes, through a Taylor expansion around the average annual soil moisture. A comparison of the suggested parameterization is made with other existing techniques and available measurements. A thermodynamic coupling is applied in order to obtain estimations of the surface ground temperature.

  6. B-spline soliton solution of the fifth order KdV type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, W. K.; Ouf, W. A.; El-Azab, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a numerical solution based on sextic B-spline collocation method for solving the generalized fifth-order nonlinear evolution equations. Applying Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed technique is shown to be unconditionally stable. The accuracy of the presented method is demonstrated by a test problem. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution.

  7. Order within a mosaic distribution of mitochondrial c-type cytochrome biogenesis systems?

    PubMed

    Allen, James W A; Jackson, Andrew P; Rigden, Daniel J; Willis, Antony C; Ferguson, Stuart J; Ginger, Michael L

    2008-05-01

    Mitochondrial cytochromes c and c(1) are present in all eukaryotes that use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor in the respiratory chain. Maturation of c-type cytochromes requires covalent attachment of the heme cofactor to the protein, and there are at least five distinct biogenesis systems that catalyze this post-translational modification in different organisms and organelles. In this study, we use biochemical data, comparative genomic and structural bioinformatics investigations to provide a holistic view of mitochondrial c-type cytochrome biogenesis and its evolution. There are three pathways for mitochondrial c-type cytochrome maturation, only one of which is present in prokaryotes. We analyze the evolutionary distribution of these biogenesis systems, which include the Ccm system (System I) and the enzyme heme lyase (System III). We conclude that heme lyase evolved once and, in many lineages, replaced the multicomponent Ccm system (present in the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont), probably as a consequence of lateral gene transfer. We find no evidence of a System III precursor in prokaryotes, and argue that System III is incompatible with multi-heme cytochromes common to bacteria, but absent from eukaryotes. The evolution of the eukaryotic-specific protein heme lyase is strikingly unusual, given that this protein provides a function (thioether bond formation) that is also ubiquitous in prokaryotes. The absence of any known c-type cytochrome biogenesis system from the sequenced genomes of various trypanosome species indicates the presence of a third distinct mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, this system attaches heme to mitochondrial cytochromes c that contain only one cysteine residue, rather than the usual two, within the heme-binding motif. The isolation of single-cysteine-containing mitochondrial cytochromes c from free-living kinetoplastids, Euglena and the marine flagellate Diplonema papillatum suggests that this unique form of heme attachment

  8. Sobolev type equations of time-fractional order with periodical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plekhanova, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The existence of a unique local solution for a class of time-fractional Sobolev type partial differential equations endowed by the Cauchy initial conditions and periodical with respect to every spatial variable boundary conditions on a parallelepiped is proved. General results are applied to study of the unique solvability for the initial boundary value problem to Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers and Allair partial differential equations.

  9. A Type-Theoretic Approach to Higher-Order Modules with Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    be easily restricted to " second -class" modules found in ML-like languages. 7? .:.!. . . - . . . U MInC QUALITY IS ZTJ3 r L a!1.,j1 Oris t HI aSe idl 1...If run-time selection is not used, modules behave exactly as they would in a more familiar "’ second -class’ module system such as is found in SML...on Girard’s F, [14] in much the same way that many systems are based on the second - order lambda calculus (F𔃼 ). That is to say, our system can be

  10. Some procedures for the construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods of explicit type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, J. M.; Gómez, I.

    2013-04-01

    The construction of high-order exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström (EFRKN) methods of explicit type for the numerical solution of oscillatory differential systems is analyzed. Based on two basic symmetric and symplectic EFRKN methods of reference we present two procedures for constructing high-order explicit methods. The first procedure is based on composition methods and it allows the construction of high-order explicit EFRKN methods which are symmetric and symplectic. The second procedure is based on combining different EFRKN methods in order to construct embedded pairs of explicit parallel EFRKN methods which can be implemented in variable-step codes without additional cost. The numerical experiments carried out show the qualitative behavior and the efficiency of the new EFRKN methods when they are compared with some standard methods proposed in the scientific literature for solving second-order nonstiff differential systems. Catalogue identifier: AEOO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2527 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 107433 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Standard PC. Operating system: Windows. It might work with others. Successfully tested by CPC on Linux. RAM: For the test problems used less than 1 MB. Classification: 4.3, 4.12, 16.3, 17.17. Nature of problem: Some models in astronomy and astrophysics, quantum mechanics and nuclear physics lead to second-order oscillatory differential systems. The solution of these oscillatory models requires accurate and efficient numerical methods. The codes SVI-IIEXPOreferee.for and SVI-IIvarreferee.for were developed for this purpose. Solution method: We propose high-order exponentially fitted Runge

  11. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  12. A Survey of the High Order Multiplicity of Nearby Solar-type Binary Stars with Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 103.5 to 105 days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 106 to 107.5 days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  13. Comment on: "Traveling wave solutions for fifth-order KdV type equations with time-dependent coefficients" [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 19 (2014) 404-408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tanmay

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that previously reported traveling wave solutions for the fifth order KdV type equations with time dependent coefficients (Triki and Wazwaz, 2014) are incorrect. We present the corrected traveling wave solutions for fifth order KdV type equations using sine-cosine method. In addition, we provide traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation and Kaup-Kupershmidt equation as an application.

  14. G -type antiferromagnetic order in the metallic oxide LaC u3C r4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takashi; Zhang, Shoubao; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Manuel, Pascal; Attfield, J. Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The A -site-ordered cubic perovskite LaC u3C r4O12 , where a partial Cu-Cr intersite charge transfer transition occurs at TCT=220 K , was found to be an unconventional metallic and G -type antiferromagnetic oxide. Neutron powder diffraction revealed a G -type antiferromagnetic ordering at the Cr sites and no ordered moments at the Cu sites. Ab initio electronic structure calculations revealed that the narrowing of the Cr-O-Cr bands due to heavy tilting of the Cr O6 octahedra and the strong hybridization of the Cu -3 d ,Cr -3 d , and O - 2 p orbitals near the Fermi level give an unusual electronic structure in the vicinity of a localized-electron regime. The G -type magnetic structure is primarily stabilized by nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions of the near-localized Cr spins. The ferromagnetic {1 1 1 } layers of the G -type antiferromagnetic Cr-spin sublattice allow the spin-polarized electron transfer through the strongly hybridized Cu orbitals.

  15. Low loss NiZn spinel ferrite-W-type hexaferrite composites from BaM addition for antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zongliang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Xiao, John Q.; Yang, Qinghui; Jia, Lijun

    2014-03-01

    A series of NiZn ferrite composites with various BaFe12O19 hexaferrite (BaM) additions (x) were successfully synthesized by the solid-state reaction method for their potential application as magneto-dielectric antenna substrate materials. XRD and energy-dispersive spectrum analyses reveal that a W-type hexagonal phase is formed when the mixture of NiZn ferrite and BaM are sintered at 1200 °C, and diphase composite ferrite that consists of NiZn spinel ferrite and BaW hexaferrite is finally obtained. The composites display much smaller grain size and a refined microstructure. With the increasing x, the initial permeability decreases from ˜84.5 to ˜15.5, while the cut-off frequency is dramatically improved from 75 to 570 MHz. BaM addition significantly inhibits the frequency dispersion of permittivity spectrum and stable permittivity ɛ‧ around 15 is observed for the doped samples from 1 MHz to 1 GHz, which is proved to be closely related to the refined grains according to Koops' theory. Besides, compared with the undoped NiZn ferrite, both the magnetic loss and dielectric loss are found to be reduced in the doped samples. Almost equal values of μ‧ and ɛ‧ is obtained in the sample with x = 30 wt%. Related magnetic and dielectric mechanisms are also discussed.

  16. Effect of ionic liquids on the different hierarchical order of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ami; Rao, J Raghava; Fathima, Nishter Nishad

    2014-05-01

    The effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on proteins has been gaining huge interest due to easy tunability of cation and anion for generating the desired effect. This study explores the effect of alkyl imidazolium chloride ILs on collagen at molecular, inter-fibrillar and skin matrix level. Circular dichroic studies reveal that at the molecular level, the secondary structure of collagen was not affected by imidazolium ILs and there was no change in thermal stability as well. However, collagen at the inter-fibrillar level behaved differently. With increase in concentration of ILs, remarkable decrease in thermal stability of rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen fibers with marginal swelling effect was seen. SEM micrographs of skin matrix treated with IL show opening up of pores. This kind of exquisite behavior of ILs at different hierarchal order of collagen indicates that ILs are endowed with potential lyotropic action, which can be judiciously employed for biomedical applications.

  17. Effects of addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator in in vitro fertilization medium on bovine embryo development and quality.

    PubMed

    Krania, F; Dovolou, E; Rekkas, C A; Theodosiadou, E K; Pappas, I; Amiridis, G S

    2015-02-01

    Plasminogen activators/Plasmin system plays pivotal role in regulating reproductive functions of mammals. Here, we examined the effects of modification of in vitro fertilization medium (IVF medium) with the addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), on bovine embryo development and quality, assessed by quantification of expression of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation and apoptosis. In addition, plasminogen activator activity (PAA) and plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) were measured in the spent media. After conventional IVM, 2016 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups with modified composition of the IVF medium containing t-PA and/or its inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (control, t-PA, t-PA+ε-ACA, ε-ACA). Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 8 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium; gene expression studies were carried out on morulae and blastocysts. t-PA alone significantly suppressed cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, but this effect was neutralized by the addition of ε-ACA. PAA in the treated group was significantly reduced by ε-ACA, but without total elimination. Significant differences were detected in the expression of genes related to apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest (BAX, BCL2L1, KAT2B) between embryos produced in t-PA-modified media and controls, giving an overall notion that the inferior developmental competence of treated embryos may be attributed to apoptotic phenomena induced by t-PA. In conclusion, it appears that excessive t-PA content in the IVF media, suppresses blastocyst formation rate, possibly due to induction of apoptotic phenomena.

  18. New type of second-order high- Tc SQUID planar gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, P. L.; Zheng, D. N.; Zhang, M. J.; Chen, K.; Qi, H. H.; Zhao, Z. X.

    2004-09-01

    We have proposed a novel type of high- Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) planar gradiometer that could measure the mixed partial derivative of magnetic fields ∂2Bz/ ∂x ∂y . The device consists of two parts, one is the signal pickup antenna formed by four square pickup loops, and another one is a SQUID directly coupled to the common line which separates the antenna loops. The four pickup loops were arranged to a two-dimensional array. The loops in the diagonal direction are connected in series. The total current in the common line in this configuration is directly proportional to the mixed partial derivative of the magnetic field. We have made a device of such design on a STO bicrystal substrate and tested the device in gradient field.

  19. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  20. Magnetic order and crystal structure study of YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jinlei; Isnard, O.; Morozkin, A.V.; Ivanova, T.I.; Koshkid'ko, Yu.S.; Bogdanov, A.E.; Nikitin, S.A.; Suski, W.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction investigation of the magnetic structure of the orthorhombic YNi{sub 4}Si-type (space group Cmmm) NdNi{sub 4}Si compound are presented. The magnetocaloric effect of NdNi{sub 4}Si is calculated in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of –3.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near T{sub C}=12 K. Below ∼12 K, NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits a commensurate b-axis collinear ferromagnetic ordering with the Cmm′m magnetic space group in a zero magnetic field. At 1.5 K, the neodymium atoms have the magnetic moment of 2.37(5) μ{sub B}. The orthorhombic crystal structure and its thermal evolution are discussed in comparison with the CaCu{sub 5}-type compound. - Graphical abstract: The NdNi{sub 4}Si supplement the series of the orthorhombic derivative of the CaCu{sub 5}-type, namely the YNi{sub 4}Si-type, RNi{sub 4}Si compounds (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Ho). Below ∼12 K in a zero applied magnetic field, NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits a commensurate b-axis collinear ferromagnetic ordering with the Cmm′m magnetic space group. Compared to the CaCu{sub 5}-type NdNi{sub 4}Si compound, the YNi{sub 4}Si-type counterpart has the relatively high ferromagnetic ordering temperature (9.2 K vs. 12 K), the small magnetocaloric effect (–7.3 J/kg K vs. –3.3 J/kg K for ∆H=50 kOe), and the large magnetic anisotropy at low temperatures. In contrast with CaCu{sub 5}-type NdNi{sub 4}Si, YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si shows distinct hysteresis loop at 2 K.We suggest that orthorhombic distortion may be used as a prospective route for optimization of permanent magnetic properties in the family of CaCu{sub 5}-type rare earth materials. - Highlights: • Below ∼12 K the YNi{sub 4}Si-type NdNi{sub 4}Si shows a ferromagnetic ordering. • MCE of NdNi{sub 4}Si reaches value of –3.3 J/kg K in 0–50 kOe near Curie point. • NdNi{sub 4}Si exhibits b-axis ferromagnetic order with the Cmm′m magnetic space

  1. Computation of the modified Bessel function of the third kind of imaginary orders: uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Amparo; Segura, Javier; Temme, Nico M.

    2003-04-01

    The use of a uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansion for the computation of the modified Bessel functions of the third kind of imaginary orders (Kia(x)) near the transition point x=a, is discussed. In A. Gil et al., Evaluation of the modified Bessel functions of the third kind of imaginary orders, J. Comput. Phys. 17 (2002) 398-411, an algorithm for the evaluation of Kia(x) was presented, which made use of series, a continued fraction method and nonoscillating integral representations. The range of validity of the algorithm was limited by the singularity of the steepest descent paths near the transition point. We show how uniform Airy-type asymptotic expansions fill the gap left by the steepest descent method.

  2. Structural refinement of Pbnm-type perovskite films from analysis of half-order diffraction peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, M.; Choquette, A. K.; Smith, C. R.; Engel-Herbert, R.; May, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Engineering structural modifications of epitaxial perovskite thin films is an effective route to induce new functionalities or enhance existing properties due to the close relation of the electronic ground state to the local bonding environment. As such, there is a necessity to systematically refine and precisely quantify these structural displacements, particularly those of the oxygen octahedra, which is a challenge due to the weak scattering factor of oxygen and the small diffraction volume of thin films. Here, we present an optimized algorithm to refine the octahedral rotation angles using specific unit-cell-doubling half-order diffraction peaks for the a-a-c+ Pbnm structure. The oxygen and A-site positions can be obtained by minimizing the squared-error between calculated and experimentally determined peak intensities using the (1/2 1/2 3/2) and (1/2 1/2 5/2) reflections to determine the rotation angle α about in-plane axes and the (1/2 5/2 1), (1/2 3/2 1), and (1/2 3/2 2) reflections to determine the rotation angle γ about the out-of-plane axis, whereas the convoluting A-site displacements associated with the octahedral rotation pattern can be determined using (1 1 1/2) and (1/2 1/2 1/2) reflections to independently determine A-site positions. The validity of the approach is confirmed by applying the refinement procedure to determine the A-site and oxygen displacements in a NdGaO3 single crystal. The ability to refine both the oxygen and A-site displacements relative to the undistorted perovskite structure enables a deeper understanding of how structural modifications alter functionality properties in epitaxial films exhibiting this commonly occurring crystal structure.

  3. Effects of the addition of acarbose to insulin and non-insulin regimens in veterans with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wettergreen, Sara A.; Sheth, Shaila; Malveaux, Janeca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess the mean change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) when acarbose was added to insulin and non-insulin regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Secondary objectives were to evaluate the discontinuation rate of acarbose, and to assess the number of patients who were placed on insulin despite the addition of acarbose. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on veterans with T2DM initiated on acarbose between October 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013. To be included, patients must have had a refill history indicating at least 3 months of acarbose use and HbA1c readings within 6 months prior to initiation and after at least 3 months of use. Excluded patients were those with type 1 diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL at acarbose initiation, or a diagnosis based on ICD-9 codes for an existing gastrointestinal condition or liver cirrhosis. The two-tailed, paired t-test was used for analysis of the primary objective and descriptive statistics were used for all other outcomes. Results: Of the 146 patients screened, 102 patients were included in the study. Exclusions were primarily due to patients not being on acarbose for at least 3 months (n=43). The average HbA1c before and after acarbose initiation was 9.08% (SD=1.74) and 8.43% (SD=1.74) respectively, with an average HbA1c reduction of 0.65% (n=102, p=0.0005). Forty patients (39.2%) discontinued acarbose after at least 3 months of use. Of the 73 patients not on insulin at the time of acarbose initiation, 19 (26%) were started on insulin therapy despite addition of acarbose. Conclusion: Acarbose can be considered in patients who may reach their HbA1c goal with minimal HbA1c reduction. However, adverse effects are a limitation to use. Potential risks and benefits should be assessed and discussed with the patient prior to prescribing acarbose. PMID:28042355

  4. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  5. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  6. Indium-mediated asymmetric Barbier-type propargylations: additions to aldehydes and ketones and mechanistic investigation of the organoindium reagents.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Terra D; Hirayama, Lacie C; Buckley, Jannise J; Singaram, Bakthan

    2012-01-20

    We report a simple, efficient, and general method for the indium-mediated enantioselective propargylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes under Barbier-type conditions in a one-pot synthesis affording the corresponding chiral alcohol products in very good yield (up to 90%) and enantiomeric excess (up to 95%). The extension of this methodology to ketones demonstrated the need for electrophilic ketones more reactive than acetophenone as the reaction would not proceed with just acetophenone. Using the Lewis acid indium triflate [In(OTf)(3)] induced regioselective formation of the corresponding homoallenic alcohol product from acetophenone. However, this methodology demonstrated excellent chemoselectivity in formation of only the corresponding secondary homopropargylic alcohol product in the presence of a ketone functionality. Investigation of the organoindium intermediates under our reaction conditions shows the formation of allenylindium species, and we suggest that these species contain an indium(III) center. In addition, we have observed the presence of a shiny, indium(0) nugget throughout the reaction, irrespective of the stoichiometry, indicating disproportionation of indium halide byproduct formed during the reaction.

  7. In situ forming poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels via thiol-maleimide Michael-type addition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2011-08-01

    The incorporation of cells and sensitive compounds can be better facilitated without the presence of UV or other energy sources that are common in the formation of biomedical hydrogels such as poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels. The formation of hydrogels by the step-growth polymerization of maleimide- and thiol-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) macromers via Michael-type addition is described. The effects of macromer concentration, pH, temperature, and the presence of biomolecule gelatin on gel formation were investigated. Reaction kinetics between maleimide and thiol functional groups were found to be rapid. Molecular weight increase over time was characterized via gel permeation chromatography during step-growth polymerization. Swelling and degradation results showed incorporating gelatin enhanced swelling and accelerated degradation. Increasing gelatin content resulted in the decreased storage modulus (G'). The in vitro release kinetics of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran from the resulting matrices demonstrated the potential in the development of novel in situ gel-forming drug delivery systems. Moreover, the resulting networks were minimally adhesive to primary human monocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes thus providing an ideal platform for further biofunctionalizations to direct specific biological response.

  8. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  9. Three Additional Linkage Groups That Repress Transcription and Meiotic Recombination in the Mating-Type Region of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    PubMed Central

    Thon, G.; Cohen, A.; Klar, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The mating-type genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are found at three locations in the same chromosomal region. These genes are in an active configuration at the mat1 locus and in an inactive configuration at the mat2 and mat3 loci. The mechanism that represses transcription of mat2 and mat3 also inactivates other promoters introduced nearby and is accompanied by a block to meiotic recombination in the mat2-mat3 interval, suggesting that this mechanism involves a particular chromatin structure. We present evidence that the transcription and recombination blocks require three newly defined trans-acting loci, clr2, clr3 and clr4, in addition to the previously identified clr1, rik1 and swi6 loci. We also investigated the role of mat2 cis-acting sequences in silencing. Four cis-acting elements that repress mat2 in a plasmid context were previously identified. Deletion of two of these elements proved to have little effect in a chromosomal context. However, when combined with mutations in trans-acting genes, deletion of the same two elements greatly enhanced mat2 expression. The observed cumulative effects suggest a redundancy in the silencing mechanism. PMID:8001791

  10. Insights on the Application of the Retro Michael-Type Addition on Maleimide-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Biology and Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Max R; Winger, Kathleen T; Ghiassian, Sara; Gobbo, Pierangelo; Workentin, Mark S

    2016-03-16

    The glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction is demonstrated to take place at the interface of small water-soluble maleimide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Maleimide-AuNP). The retro Michael-type addition reaction can be blocked by hydrolyzing the Michael addition thioether adduct at the nanoparticle's interface under reaction conditions that do not cause AuNP decomposition. This procedure "locks" the molecule of interest onto the Maleimide-AuNP template for potential uses in medical imaging and bioconjugation, ensuring no loss of the molecular cargo from the nanocarrier. On the other hand, the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction can be exploited for delivering a molecular payload. As a proof of concept, a fluorogenic molecular cargo was incorporated onto a Maleimide-AuNP and delivered via the glutathione-mediated retro Michael-type addition reaction.

  11. Design of phosphonium-type zwitterion as an additive to improve saturated water content of phase-separated ionic liquid from aqueous phase toward reversible extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-05

    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

  12. [Assessment of efficiency of dietotherapy with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].

    PubMed

    Lapik, I A; Sokol'nikov, A A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of diet inclusion of vitamin and mineral complex (VMC), potassium and magnesium in the form of asparaginate on micronutrient status, body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has been investigated. 120 female patients with DM2 and obesity of I-III degree (mean age - 58 +/- 6 years) have been included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: main group (n = 60) and control group (n = 60). For 3 weeks patients of both groups received a low-calorie diet (1600 kcal/day). Patients of the main group received VMC, providing an additional intake of vitamins C and E (100-120% RDA), beta-carotene (40% RDA), nicotinamide (38% RDA), pantothenic acid and biotin (60% RDA), vitamins B12, B2 and folic acid (75-83% RDA), vitamins B1 and B6 (160-300% RDA), zinc (100% RDA) and chromium (400% RDA), and also received magnesium (17.7% RDA) and potassium (9.4% RDA) in the form of asparaginate. Body composition, biochemical parameters and micronutrient status (blood serum level of vitamins C, D, B6, B12, folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus) were evaluated in all patients before and after the 3-week course of diet therapy. After the low-calorie diet therapy average body weight reduction was 4.2 +/- 0.2 kg in the main group, and 4.4 +/- 0.1 kg in the control group, without statistically significant differences between groups. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in blood serum was registered in both groups. It should be noted that in the control group glycemia decreased on 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, while the main group showed a decrease on 1.8 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.05) to normal values (5.4 +/- 0.1 mmol/l). Initial assessment of vitamin and mineral status revealed that most patients were optimal supplied with vitamins and minerals. After the dietotherapy significant increase of vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12

  13. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  14. Effect of Zn addition on non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of the Cu-doped germano-silicate optical glass fiber.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was manufactured by using the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and solution doping process. To investigate the reduction effect of Zn addition on Cu metal formation in the core of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, the optical absorption property and the non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity were measured. Absorption peaks at 435 nm and 469 nm in the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber were contributed to Cu metal particles and ZnO semiconductor particles, respectively. The effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was measured to be 1.5097 W(-1) x km(-1) by using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. The gamma of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was about four times larger than that of the reference germano-silicate optical glass fiber without any dopants. The increase of the effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, can be attributed to the enhanced nonlinear polarization due to incorporated ZnO semiconductor particles and Cu metal ions in the glass network. The Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber showed high nonlinearity and low transmission loss at the optical communication wavelength, which makes it suitable for high-speed-high-capacity optical communication systems.

  15. Magnetic order and crystal structure study of YNi4Si-type NdNi4Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jinlei; Isnard, O.; Morozkin, A. V.; Ivanova, T. I.; Koshkid`ko, Yu. S.; Bogdanov, A. E.; Nikitin, S. A.; Suski, W.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction investigation of the magnetic structure of the orthorhombic YNi4Si-type (space group Cmmm) NdNi4Si compound are presented. The magnetocaloric effect of NdNi4Si is calculated in terms of the isothermal magnetic entropy change and it reaches the maximum value of -3.3 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe near TC=12 K. Below ~12 K, NdNi4Si exhibits a commensurate b-axis collinear ferromagnetic ordering with the Cmm‧m magnetic space group in a zero magnetic field. At 1.5 K, the neodymium atoms have the magnetic moment of 2.37(5) μB. The orthorhombic crystal structure and its thermal evolution are discussed in comparison with the CaCu5-type compound.

  16. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  17. Nature of transport gap and magnetic order in zircon and scheelite type DyCrO4 from first principles.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avijeet; Maitra, Tulika

    2015-03-18

    Our first principles density functional theory calculations within GGA + U approximation reveal that the nature of transport gaps in the zircon and scheelite phases of DyCrO(4) are quite different. While in the scheelite phase the origin of the gap is more like that of the Mott-Hubbard systems, in the zircon phase the origin is not strictly a Mott-Hubbard or a charge transfer type. In the framework of the Zaanen-Sawatsky-Allen phase diagram, the DyCrO(4) in its zircon phase could be placed in the intermediate regime between the charge transfer and Mott-Hubbard insulators. On the issue of ground state magnetic order in these two phases, where no consensus exists so far from experimental observations, we have performed GGA and GGA + U calculations on various possible magnetic configurations. We clearly establish from our theoretical calculations that the ferrimagnetic order, where ferromagnetic Dy and Cr sublattice are aligned antiparallel to each other, is the ground state in the zircon phase, while in the scheelite phase competing long-range antiferromagnetic orders are observed. Our estimation of various superexchange interactions indicate that competing ferro- and antiferro-magnetic interactions exist which would explain the experimental observation of metamagnetic transitions on application of a small external magnetic field in these systems.

  18. A clock steering method: using a third-order type 3 DPLL equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiwei; Gong, Hang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ou, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new clock steering method, which uses a third-order type 3 digital phase locked loop (DPLL) which is equivalent to a Kalman filter with a delay. A general overview of the theoretical framework is described in detail including the transfer functions, the structure and control values, the specifications, and the approach to choosing a parameter. Simulations show that the performance of the time and frequency steering errors and the frequency stability are quite desirable. Comparing with traditional clock steering methods, it is easier to work with just one parameter. The DPLL method satisfies the requirements of generating a local representation of universal time coordinated and the system time of a global navigation satellite system.

  19. On the Fourth Order of Accuracy Difference Scheme for the Bitsadze-Samarskii Type Nonlocal Boundary Value Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Ozturk, Elif

    2011-09-01

    The Bitsadze-Samarskii type nonlocal boundary value problem {-d2u(t)/dt2+Au(t) = f(t), 0u(0) = φ, u(1) = ∑ j = 1Jαju(λj)+ψ, ∑ j = 1J|αj|≤1,0<λ1<λ2<⋯<λJ<1 for the differential equation in a Hilbert space H with the self-adjoint positive definite operator A is considered. The fourth order of accuracy difference scheme for approximate solution of the problem is presented. The well posedness of this difference scheme in difference analogue of Hölder spaces is established.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/Heck- and cyclization/conjugate-addition-type sequences in the preparation of polysubstituted furans.

    PubMed

    Aurrecoechea, José M; Durana, Aritz; Pérez, Elena

    2008-05-02

    Palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization-coupling sequences have been developed starting from buta-1,2,3-trienyl carbinols and electron-deficient alkenes. Polysubstituted furans are formed where the heterocyclic ring originates from the elements of the butatrienyl carbinol while the electron-deficient olefin is incorporated as a C-3 substituent. In most cases, the reaction proceeds via a Heck-type pathway leading to the efficient formation of 3-vinylfurans. However, couplings with methyl vinyl ketone display a divergent behavior to afford selectively either Heck- or hydroarylation-type products depending on reaction conditions.

  1. Ferro-type order of magneto-electric quadrupoles as an order-parameter for the pseudo-gap phase of a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Lovesey, S W; Khalyavin, D D; Staub, U

    2015-07-29

    There is general agreement within the community of researchers that investigate high-Tc materials that it is most important to understand the pseudo-gap phase. To this end, many experiments on various cuprates have been reported. Two prominent investigations-Kerr effect and neutron Bragg diffraction-imply that underdoped YBCO samples possess long-range magnetic order of an unusual kind. However, other measurements do not support the existence of magnetic order. Here we show that the Kerr effect and magnetic Bragg diffraction data are individual manifestations of ordered magneto-electric quadrupoles at Cu sites. While the use of magneto-electric multipoles is new in studies of the electronic properties of cuprates, they are not unknown in other materials, including an investigation with x-rays of the parent compound CuO. We exploit the recent prediction that neutrons are deflected by magneto-electric multipoles. The outcome of our study is a theory for the order-parameter of the pseudo-gap phase without the aforementioned conflict with other measurements, and the first experimental evidence that neutrons interact with multipoles belonging to a state of magnetic charge.

  2. Addition theorems for Slater-type orbitals and their application to multicenter multielectron integrals of central and noncentral interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2003-06-01

    By the use of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (alpha=1, 0, m1, m2,...) introduced by the author, new addition theorems are derived for STOs and arbitrary central and noncentral interaction potentials (CIPs and NCIPs). The expansion coefficients in these addition theorems are expressed through the Gaunt and Gegenbauer coefficients. Using the addition theorems obtained for STOs and potentials, general formulae in terms of three-center overlap integrals are established for the multicenter t-electron integrals of CIPs and NCIPs that arise in the solution of the N-electron atomic and molecular problem (2hthN) when a Hylleraas approximation in Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory is employed. With the help of expansion formulae for translation of STOs, the three-center overlap integrals are expressed through the two-center overlap integrals. The formulae obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of orbitals.

  3. Coexistence of multiple attractors and crisis route to chaos in autonomous third order Duffing-Holmes type chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, J.; Njitacke Tabekoueng, Z.; Fotsin, H. B.

    2016-07-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of a system consisting of an autonomous third order Duffing-Holmes type chaotic oscillator recently introduced by Tamasevicius et al. (2009). In this type of oscillators, the symmetrical characteristics of the nonlinear component necessary for generating chaotic oscillations is synthesized by using a pair of semiconductor diodes connected in anti-parallel. Based on the Shockley diode equation and a judicious choice of state variables, we derive a smooth mathematical model (involving hyperbolic sine and cosine functions) for a better description of both the regular and chaotic dynamics of the oscillator. The bifurcation analysis shows that chaos is achieved via the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios. More interestingly, some regions of the parameter space corresponding to the coexistence of multiple attractors (e.g. coexistence of four different attractors for the same values of system parameters) are discovered. This striking phenomenon is unique and has not yet been reported previously in an electrical circuit (the universal Chua's circuit included, in spite the immense amount of related research work), and thus represents a meaningful contribution to the understanding of the behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems in general. Some PSpice simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis.

  4. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  6. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  7. Progression from high insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes does not entail additional visceral adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Barbarroja, Nuria; Lopez-Pedrera, Chary; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Mayas, Maria Dolores; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Bernal-Lopez, Maria Rosa; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet β-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO) patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR) degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NFκB. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity.

  8. Progression from High Insulin Resistance to Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Entail Additional Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Barbarroja, Nuria; Lopez-Pedrera, Chary; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Mayas, Maria Dolores; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Bernal-Lopez, Maria Rosa; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet β-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO) patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR) degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NFκB. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity. PMID:23110196

  9. Control of L-type ferrimagnetism by the Ce/vacancy ordering in the A-site-ordered perovskite Ce(1/2)Cu3Ti4O12.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takashi; Yamada, Ryuta; Ritter, Clemens; Senn, Mark S; Attfield, J Paul; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2014-02-03

    A-site-ordered perovskite Ce1/2Cu3Ti4O12 has been found to crystallize in two different forms, one with random and the other with ordered Ce/vacancy distribution at the A site of the prototype AA'3B4O12 structure. The random phase is isostructural with CaCu3Ti4O12, and the ordered phase is a new ordered derivative of the AA'3B4O12-type perovskite with two crystallographically distinct Cu sites. Although both phases form a G-type antiferromagnetic arrangement of Cu(2+) spins below 24 K, their magnetisms are quite different. A typical antiferromagnetic transition is observed in the random phase, whereas a small ferromagnetic moment appears below 24 K in the ordered phase, which rapidly decreases upon further cooling. A mean-field approximation approach revealed that this unusual behavior in the ordered phase is an L-type ferrimagnetism driven by the nonequivalent magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic Cu(2+) spin sublattices in the G-type spin structure. This unusual ferrimagnetism is a direct consequence of the Ce/vacancy ordering.

  10. Effect of BST additive on the complex permeability and permittivity of Z-type hexaferrite in the range of 1 MHz-1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P.; Deng, L. J.; Xie, J. X.; Liang, D. F.; Chen, L.

    2004-04-01

    Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3(Co 0.4Zn 0.6) 2Fe 23.4O 41) with BST(Ba 0.5Sr 0.5TiO 3) additive was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. We have investigated the effects of BST additive on the complex permeability, permittivity and microwave absorption in the range of 1 MHz-1 GHz. The results from XRD and SEM indicate that as the amount of BST increases, the major phase changes to Z-phase, simultaneously M-phase and perovskite phase appear, and grain size increases. When the weight percent of BST additive in Z-type hexaferrite varied from 0% to 1.5%, the BST additive not only improved complex permeability and complex permittivity, but also provided broadband reflectivity characteristics. Meanwhile the minimum reflection point shifts to lower frequency with increase of BST content.

  11. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: equilateral triangle and collinear configurations.

    PubMed

    Salam, A

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R(-11) dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R(-13) behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R(-1) in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  12. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R{sup −11} dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R{sup −13} behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R{sup −1} in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  13. Scattering effect of the well-ordered MgB4 impurity phase in two-step sintered polycrystalline MgB2 with glycine addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qi; Liu, Yongchang; Guo, Qianying; Ma, Zongqing

    2017-04-01

    Glycine-doped MgB2 bulk was prepared by two-step sintering in this study, first at 750 °C and then 900 °C. The MgB4 particles are induced to precipitate where the dislocations concentrated after C substitution or along the steps of screw dislocation during crystal growth, forming ordered MgB4 arrays throughout the MgB2 grain. By means of atomic force microscope, the detected magnetic domains are arranged in agreement with the ordered MgB4 particles after the measurement of magnetic hysteresis loop, which supported that the nano-scale MgB4 domain structure brought strong scattering effects and indicated that atomic force microscopy could test the role of the impurities. As a result, the extrapolating upper critical field H c2(0 K) is enhanced to 22.8 T for the sample with ordered MgB4, while only 18.1 T for the un-doped sample underwent the same sintering program. Besides, carbon substitution contributed to the enhancement of H c2 as well.

  14. Ordered processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 GagPol precursor is influenced by the context of the embedded viral protease.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Steven C; Clemente, Jose C; Jeung, Jennifer A; Dunn, Ben M; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2005-08-01

    Ordered and accurate processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) GagPol polyprotein precursor by a virally encoded protease is an indispensable step in the appropriate assembly of infectious viral particles. The HIV-1 protease (PR) is a 99-amino-acid enzyme that is translated as part of the GagPol precursor. Previously, we have demonstrated that the initial events in precursor processing are accomplished by the PR domain within GagPol in cis, before it is released from the polyprotein. Despite the critical role that ordered processing of the precursor plays in viral replication, the forces that define the order of cleavage remain poorly understood. Using an in vitro assay in which the full-length HIV-1 GagPol is processed by the embedded PR, we examined the effect of PR context (embedded within GagPol versus the mature 99-amino-acid enzyme) on precursor processing. Our data demonstrate that the PR domain within GagPol is constrained in its ability to cleave some of the processing sites in the precursor. Further, we find that this constraint is dependent upon the presence of a proline as the initial amino acid in the embedded PR; substitution of an alanine at this position produces enhanced cleavage at additional sites when the precursor is processed by the embedded, but not the mature, PR. Overall, our data support a model in which the selection of processing sites and the order of precursor processing are defined, at least in part, by the structure of GagPol itself.

  15. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, Saif Ullah E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com; Hasanain, S. K.; Anjum, D. H.; Awan, M. S.; Shah, Saqlain A.

    2014-10-28

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1−y}Li{sub y}O(0.00≤y≤0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4 × 10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5 kV/cm (0.11 μC/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8 kV/cm (0.15 μC/cm{sup 2}) for y = 0.08 and y = 0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ≥5.3 × 10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  16. Magnetic ordering of YPd2Si-type HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Isnard, O.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic properties of YPd2Si-type HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si were investigated via neutron diffraction and magnetisation measurements. HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si show ferromagnetic-like ordering at TC of 9 K and 7 K, respectively. The paramagnetic Weiss temperatures are 9 K and 11 K and the effective magnetic moments are 10.76 μB/fu and 9.79 μB/fu for HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si compounds, respectively. The HoNi2Si and ErNi2Si are soft ferromagnets with saturation magnetization of 8.1 μB/fu and 7.5 μB/fu, respectively at 2 K and in field of 140 kOe. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, has a maximum value of -15.6 J/kg·K at 10 K for HoNi2Si and -13.9 J/kg·K at 6 K for ErNi2Si for a field change of 50 kOe. Neutron diffraction study in zero applied field shows mixed ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic ordering of HoNi2Si at 9 K and its magnetic structure is a sum of a-axis ferromagnetic Fa, b-axis antiferromagnetic AFb and c-axis antiferrromagnetic AFc components of Pn‧a21‧={1, mx‧/[1/2, 1/2, 1/2], 2y‧/[0, 1/2, 0], mz/[1/2, 0, 1/2]} magnetic space group and propagation vector K0=[0, 0, 0]. The holmium magnetic moment reaches a value of 9.23(9) μB at 1.5 K and the unit cell of HoNi2Si undergoes isotropic contraction around the temperature of magnetic transition.

  17. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant.

  18. Applicability and limitations of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of soil organic phosphorus across a range of soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Doolette, Ashlea; Smernik, Ronald; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2014-05-01

    Solution 31P NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterisation and quantification of organic P classes in soil. Potential limitations are due to costs, equipment accessibility and the requirement of relatively large amounts of sample. A recent alternative approach for the quantification of specific organic P classes is the use of substrate-specific phosphohydrolase enzymes which cleave the inorganic orthophosphate from the organic moiety. The released orthophosphate is detectable by colorimetry. Conclusions about the hydrolysed class of organic P can be made based on the comparison of inorganic P concentrations in enzymatically treated and untreated samples. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of organic P classes on a) NaOH-EDTA extracts, b) soil:water filtrates (0.2 μm) and c) soil:water suspensions. The organic P classes in NaOH-EDTA extracts were also determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy, enabling a comparison between methods. Ten topsoil samples from four continents (five cambisols, two ferralsols, two luvisols and one lixisol) with varying total P content (83 - 1,1560 mg kg-1), pHH2O (4.2 - 8.0) and land management (grassland or cropped land) were analysed. Four different classes of organic P were determined by the enzyme addition assay: 1) monoester like-P (by an acid phosphatase known to hydrolyse simple monoesters, pyrophosphate and ATP), 2) DNA-like P (by a nuclease in combination with an acid phosphatase), 3) inositol phosphate-like P (by a phytase known to hydrolyse all monoester like-P plus myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and scyllo-inositol hexakisphosphate) and 4) enzyme stable-P (enzymatically not hydrolysed organic P forms). In the ten topsoil samples, NaOH-EDTA-extractable organic P ranged from 6 - 1,115 mg P kg-1 soil. Of this, 33 - 92 % was enzyme labile, with inositol phosphate-like P being the largest organic P class in most soils (15 - 51%), followed by monoester

  19. Tautomer-selective derivatives of enolate, ketone and enaminone by addition reaction of picolyl-type anions with nitriles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianliang; Wang, Peng; Cao, Wei; Chen, Xia

    2017-01-01

    We describe an efficient for the synthesis of compounds of tautomeric β-pyridyl/quinolyl-enol, -ketone, -enaminone, which were finally characterized by standard methods like NMR, IR or SCXRD. The addition reaction of lithiated intermediates of picoline, 2-ethylpyridine and 2-methylquinoline, respectively, with nitriles followed by acid hydrolysis afforded the corresponding tautomeric compounds of enol, ketone and emaminone. Interestingly, treatment of 2-methylpyridine or 2-ethylpyridine with nitriles, respectively, yielded mostly β-pyridyl ketone and enol tautomers without enaminones, while 2-methylquinoline with nitriles gave β-quinolyl ketone and enaminone tautomers without enols. The reaction of 2-benzylpyridine with nitriles was not available under the same conditions.

  20. Analysis of local bond-orientational order for liquid gallium at ambient pressure: Two types of cluster structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin-Yuan; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2016-07-01

    In terms of the local bond-orientational order (LBOO) parameters, a cluster approach to analyze local structures of simple liquids was developed. In this approach, a cluster is defined as a combination of neighboring seeds having at least nb local-orientational bonds and their nearest neighbors, and a cluster ensemble is a collection of clusters with a specified nb and number of seeds ns. This cluster analysis was applied to investigate the microscopic structures of liquid Ga at ambient pressure (AP). The liquid structures studied were generated through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By scrutinizing the static structure factors (SSFs) of cluster ensembles with different combinations of nb and ns, we found that liquid Ga at AP contained two types of cluster structures, one characterized by sixfold orientational symmetry and the other showing fourfold orientational symmetry. The SSFs of cluster structures with sixfold orientational symmetry were akin to the SSF of a hard-sphere fluid. On the contrary, the SSFs of cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry behaved similarly as the anomalous SSF of liquid Ga at AP, which is well known for exhibiting a high-q shoulder. The local structures of a highly LBOO cluster whose SSF displayed a high-q shoulder were found to be more similar to the structure of β-Ga than those of other solid phases of Ga. More generally, the cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry have an inclination to resemble more to β-Ga.

  1. Highly ordered sandwich-type (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium double-decker nanotubes and room temperature NO2 sensitive properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peihua; Wang, Yucheng; Ma, Pan; Song, Feifei; Han, Xinyu; Yao, Shuncheng; Yang, Cheng

    2017-01-31

    A sandwich-type (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium double-decker complex Eu(TPyP){Pc-(OC8H17)8} [TPyP = meso-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin; Pc-(OC8H17)8 = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)phthalocyanine] (2) was designed and prepared. For comparative studies, Eu(TPyP)(Pc) (1) was also prepared. Highly ordered nanotubes of complexes 1 and 2 were successfully fabricated by using an anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template method. The nanotubes were comparatively investigated by electronic absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Both nanotubes of complexes 1 and 2 showed good conductivities and presented an efficient gas sensing platform for the ultrasensitive detection of NO2 at room temperature. In particular, the detection limit and response/recovery times for the proposed sensors based on complex 2 were lower and faster than those of complex 1, indicating the significant effect of a molecular packing mode on tuning the gas sensing performance of organic semiconductors.

  2. Application of Gaussian-type geminals in local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polly, Robert; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Dahle, Pa˚L.; Taylor, Peter R.

    2006-06-01

    In this work Gaussian-type Geminals (GTGs) are applied in local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory to improve the basis set convergence. Our implementation is based on the weak orthogonality functional of Szalewicz et al., [Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 169 (1982); J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1420 (1983)] and a newly developed program for calculating the necessary many-electron integrals. The local approximations together with GTGs in the treatment of the correlation energy are introduced and tested. First results for correlation energies of H2O, CH4, CO, C2H2, C2H4, H2CO, and N2H4 as well as some reaction and activation energies are presented. More than 97% of the valence-shell correlation energy is recovered using aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets and six GTGs per electron pair. The results are compared with conventional calculations using correlation-consistent basis sets as well as with MP2-R12 results.

  3. Analysis of local bond-orientational order for liquid gallium at ambient pressure: Two types of cluster structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Yuan; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2016-07-14

    In terms of the local bond-orientational order (LBOO) parameters, a cluster approach to analyze local structures of simple liquids was developed. In this approach, a cluster is defined as a combination of neighboring seeds having at least nb local-orientational bonds and their nearest neighbors, and a cluster ensemble is a collection of clusters with a specified nb and number of seeds ns. This cluster analysis was applied to investigate the microscopic structures of liquid Ga at ambient pressure (AP). The liquid structures studied were generated through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By scrutinizing the static structure factors (SSFs) of cluster ensembles with different combinations of nb and ns, we found that liquid Ga at AP contained two types of cluster structures, one characterized by sixfold orientational symmetry and the other showing fourfold orientational symmetry. The SSFs of cluster structures with sixfold orientational symmetry were akin to the SSF of a hard-sphere fluid. On the contrary, the SSFs of cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry behaved similarly as the anomalous SSF of liquid Ga at AP, which is well known for exhibiting a high-q shoulder. The local structures of a highly LBOO cluster whose SSF displayed a high-q shoulder were found to be more similar to the structure of β-Ga than those of other solid phases of Ga. More generally, the cluster structures showing fourfold orientational symmetry have an inclination to resemble more to β-Ga.

  4. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results. PMID:26284169

  5. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.; Hu, J.-Y.

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  6. LUT Reveals an Algol-type Eclipsing Binary With Three Additional Stellar Companions in a Multiple System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Hu, J.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H.

    2016-04-01

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson-Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O-C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i‧ ˜ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M⊙. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  7. Direct observation of stacking faults and pore connections in ordered cage-type mesoporous silica FDU-12 by electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Ersen, Ovidiu; Parmentier, Julien; Solovyov, Leonid A; Drillon, Marc; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Werckmann, Jacques; Schultz, Patrick

    2008-12-10

    The porous structure and the periodic array of cavities in ordered mesoporous materials with large, three-dimensionally arranged and interconnected pores is thoroughly described by combining electron tomography, small-angle X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen sorption techniques. We used the ability of the electron tomography to provide local three-dimensional information of a nano-object and compared the results to those of the other characterization techniques which furnish global information. We showed thus that the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure usually assigned to the FDU-12 materials is in fact an intergrowth of cubic and hexagonal close-packing structures. This agrees with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) modeling, but for the first time a direct visualization of these stacking faults was achieved. Three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM) provides also a direct and unique evidence of peculiar stacking defects ("z-shifted [111] areas"), as well as an estimate of their density, which have never been reported elsewhere. In addition, interstitial cavities were also observed, revealing the complex defective structure of this material. A direct observation of the nature of the connecting pores was also achieved for the first time, with a resolution limit of 2 nm. Finally, the characteristics of the porous network evidenced by 3D-TEM are used to explain and validate the results obtained by nitrogen sorption experiments.

  8. Impact of feed counterion addition and cyclone type on aerodynamic behavior of alginic-atenolol microparticles produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica; Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica; Smyth, Hugh David Charles

    2016-12-01

    The inhalatory route has emerged as an interesting non-invasive alternative for drug delivery. This allows both pulmonary (local) and systemic treatments (via alveolar absorption). Further advantages in terms of stability, dose and patient preference have often lead researchers to focus on dry powder inhaler delivery systems. Atenolol is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability and gastrointestinal side effects. Because atenolol possesses adequate permeation across human epithelial membranes, it has been proposed as a good candidate for inhalatory administration. In a previous work, atenolol was combined with alginic acid (AA) and microparticles were developed using spray-drying (SD) technology. Different AA/atenolol ratios, total feed solid content and operative variables were previously explored. In order to improve particle quality for inhalatory administration and the SD yield, in this work the AA acid groups not neutralized by atenolol were kept either free or neutralized to pH∼7 and two different SD cyclones were used. Particle morphology, flow properties, moisture uptake and in vitro aerosolization behavior at different pressure drops were studied. When the AA acid groups were neutralized, particle size decreased as a consequence of the lower feed viscosity. The SD yield and in vitro particle deposition significantly increased when a high performance cyclone was employed, and even when lactose carrier particles were not used. Although the in vitro particle deposition decreased when the storage relative humidity increased, the developed SD powders showed adequate characteristics to be administered by inhalatory route up to storage relative humidities of about 60%.

  9. Data in support of crystal structures of highly-ordered long-period stacking-ordered phases with 18R, 14H and 10H-type stacking sequences in the Mg-Zn-Y system.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kyosuke; Nagai, Kaito; Matsumoto, Akihide; Inui, Haruyuki

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of highly-ordered Mg-Zn-Y long-period stacking-ordered (LPSO) phases with the 18R, 14H and 10H-type stacking sequences have been investigated by atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (Kishida et al., 2015) [1]. This data article provides supporting materials for the crystal structure analysis based on the crystallographic theory of the order-disorder (OD) structure and the crystallographic information obtained through the structural optimization for various simple polytypes of the highly-ordered Mg-Zn-Y LPSO phases with the 18R, 14H and 10H-type stacking sequences by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  10. Additional approaches to DNA typing of skeletal remains: the search for "missing" persons killed during the last dictatorship in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corach, D; Sala, A; Penacino, G; Iannucci, N; Bernardi, P; Doretti, M; Fondebrider, L; Ginarte, A; Inchaurregui, A; Somigliana, C; Turner, S; Hagelberg, E

    1997-08-01

    DNA typing techniques are among the most advanced tools for human identification and can contribute to the identification of poorly preserved skeletal remains. Ten thousand people are thought to have been killed during the last dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983) and there are few official records on the identity of the victims or the location of burials. A mass grave containing 340 skeletons was excavated using archeological methods. A small number of individuals was identified by traditional forensic methods and one family group by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Due to the lack of antemortem physical information on many of the victims, the application of molecular methods is imperative to speed up the identification process. We have tested two molecular screening methods, Y chromosome-specific short tandem repeats (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) and amplification of autosomal microsatellites using nested primers. These methods can complement solely matrilineal mtDNA sequence data in the identification of "missing" persons.

  11. An Additional Regulatory Gene for Actinorhodin Production in Streptomyces lividans Involves a LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Costa, Oscar H.; Martín-Triana, Angel J.; Martínez, Eduardo; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Malpartida, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    The sequence of a 4.8-kbp DNA fragment adjacent to the right-hand end of the actinorhodin biosynthetic (act) cluster downstream of actVB-orf6 from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) reveals six complete open reading frames, named orf7 to orf12. The deduced amino acid sequences from orf7, orf10, and orf11 show significant similarities with the following products in the databases: a putative protein from the S. coelicolor SCP3 plasmid, LysR-type transcriptional regulators, and proteins belonging to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, respectively. The deduced product of orf8 reveals low similarities with several methyltransferases from different sources, while orf9 and orf12 products show no similarities with other known proteins. Disruptions of orf10 and orf11 genes in S. coelicolor appear to have no significant effect on the production of actinorhodin. Nevertheless, disruption or deletion of orf10 in Streptomyces lividans causes actinorhodin overproduction. The introduction of extra copies of orf10 and orf11 genes in an S. coelicolor actIII mutant restores the ability to produce actinorhodin. Transcriptional analysis and DNA footprinting indicate that Orf10 represses its own transcription and regulates orf11 transcription, expression of which might require the presence of an unknown inducer. No DNA target for Orf10 protein was found within the act cluster. PMID:10400594

  12. The addition of decision support into computerized physician order entry reduces red blood cell transfusion resource utilization in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, Evans R; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-07-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has the potential for cost containment in critically ill patients through practice standardization and elimination of unnecessary interventions. Previous study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of adding a decision support for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion into the hospital CPOE. We evaluated the effect of such intervention on RBC resource utilization during the two-year study period. From the institutional APACHE III database we identified 2,200 patients with anemia, but no active bleeding on admission: 1,100 during a year before and 1,100 during a year after the intervention. The mean number of RBC transfusions per patient decreased from 1.5 +/- 1.9 units to 1.3 +/- 1.8 units after the intervention (P = 0.045). RBC transfusion cost decreased from $616,442 to $556,226 after the intervention. Hospital length of stay and adjusted hospital mortality did not differ before and after protocol implementation. In conclusion, the implementation of an evidenced-based decision support system through a CPOE can decrease RBC transfusion resource utilization in critically ill patients.

  13. COX-2-Derived Prostanoids and Oxidative Stress Additionally Reduce Endothelium-Mediated Relaxation in Old Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vessières, Emilie; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Toutain, Bertrand; Maquigneau, Maud; Fassot, Céline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries alters end organ perfusion in type 2 diabetes. Superoxides and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derivatives have been shown separately to alter endothelium-mediated relaxation in aging and diabetes but their role in the alteration of vascular tone in old diabetic subjects is not clear, especially in resistance arteries. Consequently, we investigated the role of superoxide and COX-2-derivatives on endothelium-dependent relaxation in 3 and 12 month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and lean (LZ) rats. Mesenteric resistance arteries were isolated and vascular tone was investigated using wire-myography. Endothelium (acetylcholine)-dependent relaxation was lower in ZDF than in LZ rats (60 versus 84% maximal relaxation in young rats and 41 versus 69% in old rats). Blocking NO production with L-NAME was less efficient in old than in young rats. L-NAME had no effect in old ZDF rats although eNOS expression level in old ZDF rats was similar to that in old LZ rats. Superoxide level and NADPH-oxidase subunits (p67phox and gp91phox) expression level were greater in ZDF than in LZ rats and were further increased by aging in ZDF rats. In young ZDF rats reducing superoxide level with tempol restored acetylcholine-dependent relaxation to the level of LZ rats. In old ZDF rats tempol improved acetylcholine-dependent relaxation without increasing it to the level of LZ rats. COX-2 (immunolabelling and Western-blot) was present in arteries of ZDF rats and absent in LZ rats. In old ZDF rats arterial COX-2 level was higher than in young ZDF rats. COX-2 blockade with NS398 restored in part acetylcholine-dependent relaxation in arteries of old ZDF rats and the combination of tempol and NS398 fully restored relaxation in control (LZ rats) level. Accordingly, superoxide production and COX-2 derivatives together reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in old ZDF rats whereas superoxides alone attenuated relaxation in young ZDF or old LZ rats. PMID

  14. The Effect of Transition-Metal Addition on the Non-Equilibrium E.M.F.-TYPE SnO2 Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Jong Hoon; Choi, Gyeong Man

    Solid-oxide electrolytes develop electrical potential when their two opposite electrodes are exposed to the different oxygen potential. When an electrolyte is exposed to the same ambient gas, a potential may develop due to the different catalytic behavior of two electrodes to ambient gas. Such a sensor is called as a non-equilibrium e.m.f.-type sensor or mixed potential sensor. In this study, to improve the sensitivity of the sensor to reducing gases (CO, H2), transition metal oxide (T.M.O.) was added to one of two SnO2 electrodes of the sensor. T.M.O. addition was expected to change the catalytic behavior of the electrode and to change e.m.f. values. The Co addition increased the e.m.f. of working electrode (T.M.O.-added SnO2) in air, implying the enhanced oxygen adsorption. Fe addition showed the reverse effect. The addition of T.M.O. to SnO2 was also effective in changing the e.m.f. values in H2 balanced by air. Fe and Ni addition exhibited decreased e.m.f. in H2 from that in air. Thus, Fe and Ni addition improved the catalytic activity for H2 oxidation. On the other hand, the catalytic activity for H2 oxidation was suppressed by Co addition. However, no appreciable change in CO sensitivity was obtained with the T.M.O. addition.

  15. Shedding new light on ZnCl2-mediated addition reactions of Grignard reagents to ketones: structural authentication of key intermediates and diffusion-ordered NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Alvarez, Pablo; McCall, Matthew D; Nuttall, Lorraine; Kennedy, Alan R; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-04-11

    Building on recent advances in synthesis showing that the addition of inorganic salts to Grignard reagents can greatly enhance their performance in alkylation reactions to ketones, this study explores the reactions of EtMgCl with benzophenone in the presence of stoichiometric or catalytic amounts of ZnCl(2) with the aim of furthering the understanding of the role and constitution of the organometallic species involved in these transformations. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of three molar equivalents of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) led to the isolation and characterisation (X-ray crystallography and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy) of novel magnesium "zinc-rich" zincate [{(THF)(6)Mg(2)Cl(3)}(+){Zn(2)Et(5)}(-)] (1), whose complicated constitution in THF solutions was assessed by variable-temperature (1)H DOSY NMR studies. Compound 1 reacted with one equivalent of benzophenone to yield magnesium magnesiate [{(THF)(6)Mg(2)Cl(3)}(+){Mg(2)(OC(Et)Ph(2))(2)Cl(3)(THF)}(-)] (3), whose structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. (1)H NMR monitoring of this reaction showed two equivalents of ZnEt(2) formed as a co-product, which together with the "magnesium only constitution" of 3 provides experimental insights into how zinc can be efficiently recycled in these reactions, and therefore used catalytically. The chemoselectivity of this reaction can be rationalised in terms of the synergic effect of magnesium and zinc and contrasts with the results obtained when benzophenone was allowed to react with EtMgCl in the absence of ZnCl(2), where the reduction of the ketone takes place preferentially. The reduction product [{(THF)(5)Mg(3)Cl(4){OC(H)Ph(CF(3))}(2)] (4) obtained from the reaction of EtMgCl with 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone was established by X-ray crystallography and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C and (19)F) NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibit new structural motifs in magnesium chemistry having MgCl(2) integrated within their constitution, which highlights

  16. Thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 with addition of nano-ZnO:Al particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaowei; Wang, Jueling; Xu, Bo; Lei, Xiaobo; Jiang, Hongchuan; Jin, Yingrong; Zhang, Qinyong; Ren, Zhifeng

    2014-09-01

    Nano Al-doped ZnO (AZO) particles were added into n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 alloys by ball milling and hot pressing method. The power factor was improved by ˜22% with addition of nano-AZO particles, accompanied with a ˜40% decrease of lattice thermal conductivity, leading to peak ZT of ˜0.85 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.7Se0.3(AZO)0.005 sample. The effects of the addition of AZO nanoparticles on the microstructure and thermoelectric transport properties are discussed.

  17. Effect of Co Substitution on the Crystal and Magnetic Structure of SrFeO2.75-δ: Stabilization of the "314-Type" Oxygen Vacancy Ordered Structure without A-Site Ordering.

    PubMed

    Marik, Sourav; Chennabasappa, Madhu; Fernández-Sanjulián, Javier; Petit, Emmanuel; Toulemonde, Olivier

    2016-10-03

    A study of the structure-composition-properties correlation is reported for the oxygen-deficient SrFe1-xCoxO2.75-δ (x = 0.1-0.85) materials. The introduction of Co in the parent SrFeO2.75 (Sr4Fe4O11) structure revealed an interesting structural transformation. At room temperature (RT), an orthorhombic (space group Cmmm, 2√2ap × 2ap × √2ap type, ap = lattice parameter of the cubic perovskite) → tetragonal (space group P4/mmm, ap × ap × 2ap type) → tetragonal (space group I4/mmm, 2ap × 2ap × 4ap type) structural transformation is observed in parallel with increasing Co content and decreasing oxygen content in the structure. At the same time, a rich variation in the magnetic properties is explored. The samples with x = 0.25, 0.3 show temperature-induced magnetization reversal. With increasing Co content in the structure, magnetic interactions start to weaken due to the random distribution of Fe and Co in the structure; the x = 0.5 sample shows frustration in the magnetic behavior with much smaller magnetization value. With a further increase in the Co content in the structure, RT ferrimagnetic-type behavior is observed for the sample with x = 0.85. The nuclear and magnetic structure refinements using RT and low-temperature neutron powder diffraction (NPD, 10 K) patterns confirm the formation of a "314-type" novel oxygen vacancy ordered phase for the sample with x = 0.85, which is the first case of "314-type" novel oxygen vacancy ordering without A-site (ABO3-δ type perovskite) ordering. The magnetic structure is G-type antiferromagnetic starting at room temperature. Further, the stabilization of the "314-type" complex superstructure is related to the ordering of oxygen vacancies in the oxygen-deficient Co-O layers, and the same assists in building a network of Co ions with different coordination environments, each with different spin states, and forms the spin-state ordering.

  18. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  19. Influence of chlorinated paraffin/titanium additives on burning and radiance performances of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton(MTV) foil-type composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Guan, Hua; Song, Dong-ming; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The influence of chlorinated paraffin/titanium (C24H29Cl21/Ti) additives on burning and radiance performances of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton™ (MTV) foil-type was investigated via a high-speed camera, high-temperature differential thermobalance, far-infrared thermal imager and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) remote-sensing spectrometer. We found that the burning temperature, radiance brightness, radiance area and radiance intensity after addition of C24H29Cl21/Ti are improved by 124-196 °C (8-13%), 300-475 W·m-2·sr-1 (12-19%), 943-1422 mm2 (67-101%) and 3.17-4.99 W·sr-1 (88-138%), respectively, and are maximized at the addition ratio of 10%. The substances formed by adding C24H29Cl21/Ti could improve the middle and far infrared radiation.

  20. Neutron Diffraction Study of Parasitic Nd-Moment Order in the Checkerboard-Type Phase Nd1.3Sr0.7NiO4

    DOE PAGES

    Kobayashi, Riki; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Matsuda, Masaaki; ...

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, the Nd-moment order in the layered nickelate Nd2-xSrxNiO4 (x = 0.7) has been investigated by performing a neutron diffraction experiment using a single crystal sample. First, the checkerboard (CB)-type charge order was confirmed by observing the temperature dependence of the nuclear superlattice peak at Q=(5,0,0) between 1.9 and 300 K, which indicates that the transition temperature of the CB-type charge order is above 300 K. Magnetic superlattice peaks with the propagation vector k=(1-ε,0,1) appear below 67 K, and the value of ε was determined to be 0.455 in good agreement with previous studies. The intensity of themore » magnetic superlattice peaks appearing below 67 K shows a sharp increase below ≈20 K. This behavior indicates that the Nd moments freeze under the influence of the Ni ordering. The CB-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) Ni order in the NiO2 layers is stacked antiferromagnetically in the c-axis direction, while the Nd moments in the Nd/SrO2 layers are coupled antiferromagnetically with the Ni moments. Finally, the Nd moments are parallel to the c-axis, while the Ni moments are canted towards the c-axis direction from the basal ab-plane at low temperatures where the Nd moments are well ordered.« less

  1. Neutron Diffraction Study of Parasitic Nd-Moment Order in the Checkerboard-Type Phase Nd1.3Sr0.7NiO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Riki; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Matsuda, Masaaki; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Ishizaka, Kyoko; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    The Nd-moment order in the layered nickelate Nd2-xSrxNiO4 (x = 0.7) has been investigated by performing a neutron diffraction experiment using a single crystal sample. First, the checkerboard (CB)-type charge order was confirmed by observing the temperature dependence of the nuclear superlattice peak at Q = (5,0,0) between 1.9 and 300 K, which indicates that the transition temperature of the CB-type charge order is above 300 K. Magnetic superlattice peaks with the propagation vector k = (1 - ɛ ,0,1) appear below 67 K, and the value of ɛ was determined to be 0.455 in good agreement with previous studies. The intensity of the magnetic superlattice peaks appearing below 67 K shows a sharp increase below ≈20 K. This behavior indicates that the Nd moments freeze under the influence of the Ni ordering. The CB-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) Ni order in the NiO2 layers is stacked antiferromagnetically in the c-axis direction, while the Nd moments in the Nd/SrO2 layers are coupled antiferromagnetically with the Ni moments. The Nd moments are parallel to the c-axis, while the Ni moments are canted towards the c-axis direction from the basal ab-plane at low temperatures where the Nd moments are well ordered.

  2. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate.

  3. Observation of Two Types of Behaviors of Financial Bubbles and the Related Higher-Order Potential Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Takayasu, H.; Takayasu, M.

    Market prices are known to be well described by the random walk modelin a time-dependent potential force whose center is given by the trace of the random walker [Physica A 370 (2006), 91]. We analytically show that the higher-order potential force determines the dynamic price behaviors of the single-exponential growth and the double exponential growth. We confirm the existence of such price behaviors in real financial data and we observe the higher-order potential forces in some periods.

  4. Experimental evidence for pressure-induced first order transition in cerium nitride from B1 to B10 structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Morten B.; Ceresoli, Davide; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Bremholm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of CeN was investigated up to pressures of 82 GPa, using diamond anvil cell powder X-ray diffraction in two experiments with He and Si-oil as the pressure transmitting media. In contrast to previous reports, we do not observe the B2 (CsCl type) structure at high pressure. Instead, the structural phase transition, starting at 65 GPa, from the ambient rock salt B1 structure results in a distorted CsCl-like B10 structure, irrespective of the pressure medium. Our result unambiguously confirms two recent density functional theory (DFT) studies predicting the B10 phase to be stable at these pressures, rather than the B2 (CsCl type) phase previously reported. The B10 structure appears to approach the B2 structure as pressure is increased further, but DFT calculations indicate that an L10 structure (AuCu type) is energetically favored.

  5. ROSGREN STREAM TYPES AS A TOOL FOR PREDICTING BEDLOAD AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT EXPORT IN LOW-ORDER LAKE SUPERIOR WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedload samples were collected from 48 second and third order Lake Superior tributaries during snowmelt in 1998 and 1999. Suspended sediment samples were collected over a three-year period during baseflow, rain events, and snowmelt. This work was part of a comparative watershed...

  6. Clinical effect of addition of beraprost sodium to pioglitazone treatment on the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Kusunoki, M; Sato, D; Tsutsui, H; Nakamura, T; Miyata, T; Oshida, Y

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance has continued to increase in Japan. Insulin resistance is considered to be closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic diseases, represented by arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Therefore, improvement of insulin resistance is one of the important strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present, α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-related drugs, and thiazolidinediones are among the most important oral hypoglycemic drugs used to improve insulin resistance. In this study, the effect of beraprost sodium, a prostaglandin I2 derivative, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. In type 2 diabetic patients with ASO who were under treatment with pioglitazone, additional treatment with beraprost sodium exerted a significant synergistic effect in reducing the serum HbA1c levels as compared to treatment with pioglitazone alone. This result indicates that concomitant administration of pioglitazone and beraprost sodium may be useful in the treatment of diabetes -mellitus.

  7. Determining the Effects That the Order of Abstraction and Type of Reflection Have on Content Knowledge When Teaching Experientially: An Exploratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marshall A.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of order of abstraction and type of reflection on student knowledge acquisition. Students were assigned randomly to one of four treatment combinations in the completely randomized 2 x 2 design which included either abstraction prior to or directly after an experience, and either…

  8. Second-order multivariate models for the processing of standard-addition synchronous fluorescence-pH data. Application to the analysis of salicylic acid and its major metabolite in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Ariana P; Ibañez, Gabriela A

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we describe the determination of salicylic acid and its major metabolite, salicyluric acid, in spiked human urine samples, using synchronous fluorescence spectra measured in a flow-injection system with a double pH gradient. Because the fluorescent urine background constitutes a potentially interfering signal, it becomes necessary to achieve the second-order advantage. Moreover, due to significant changes in the signal of the analytes in the presence of the urine matrix, mainly for salicyluric acid, standard addition was required in order to obtain appropriate quantifications. Several second-order multivariate calibration models were evaluated for this purpose: PARAFAC and MCR-ALS in two different modes, and PLS/RBL.

  9. Sexual assault and other types of intimate partner violence in women with protection orders in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual assault in the context of intimate partner violence in a sample of women receiving a protection order in South Africa. In all, 268 women (18 years of age and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe District in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Results indicate that from the total sample, 40.7% reported sexual assault, one or more times, during the relationship in the past 3 months; 58.2% reported stalking by the intimate partner; and almost all reported some form of psychological abuse (94.0%), physical violence (93.7%), and danger (99.3%). In all, 37% reported psychological, physical, and sexual violence. In multivariate regression psychological abuse, physical violence and stalking were found to be associated with sexual assault.

  10. Cross-type orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, A. A.; Hu, Z.; Kuo, C. Y.; Haverkort, M. W.; Pi, T. W.; Onggo, D.; Valldor, M.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and the underlying type of orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4 by using ac-magnetic susceptibility and polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Cu-L2 and Cu-L3 edges. We have established that the compound has a long-range ferromagnetic ordering both in plane and out of plane and we found from the analysis of the absorption spectra that the orbital ordering of the Cu2 + holes involves the cross-type dx2-z2/dy2-z2 arrangement which is different from the dx2-y2 arrangement found in the parent compounds of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  11. Effects of two probiotic additives containing Bacillus spores on carcass characteristics, blood lipids and cecal volatile fatty acids in meat type chickens.

    PubMed

    Novak, R; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Terčič, D; Cervek, M; Gorjanc, G; Holcman, A; Levart, A; Rogelj, I

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two commercially available probiotic additives, containing Bacillus spores, on carcass and meat characteristics, serum lipids and concentration of cecal volatile fatty acids of meat type chickens. Birds were fed regular corn-soy meal based feed (control), supplemented with additive A, containing 1.6 × 10(6) spores per gram of feed of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (group A) or additive B, containing the same concentration of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi spores (group B). One hundred and twenty birds (20 per replicate) were slaughtered at the age of 55 days. Results showed that birds in group B had higher (p < 0.05) final body weight compared to birds from group A and higher carcass weights and yield percentages compared with control. Breasts and whole legs were also heavier in group B, compared to control, but not the yield. Group A had higher yield of wings and lower abdominal fat weight compared to group B (p< 0.05), but not compared with control. Total cholesterol was not affected by the dietary treatment, on contrary both probiotics elevated the LDL (p < 0.05) and lowered HDL cholesterol, thus unfavourably changed animal's blood serum cholesterol profile. Both probiotics influenced the cecal fermentation, which was observed as decrease in cecal concentrations of propionic, butyric, n-butyric and n-valeric acids, but the differences compared to control group were statistically significant for group A only. It was established that probiotic additive B was more effective regarding carcass and meat part weights than additive A, however the animals from group B also had more abdominal fat and their meat had significantly higher conductivity than control group, which is not considered as beneficial.

  12. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary

  13. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  14. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for temporary ventricular support. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-06-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump (NRP) devices for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) for NRP devices for temporary ventricular support. FDA is also revising the title and identification of the regulation for NRP devices in this order.

  15. Control of Subthreshold Characteristics of Narrow-Channel Silicon-on-Insulator n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor with Additional Side Gate Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Sunami, Hideo

    2007-04-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor with additional side gate electrodes is fabricated and its subthreshold characteristics are discussed. Since its device structure provides independent biasing to gates, flexible device-characteristic control for the respective device is expected. The key fabrication process is the formation of transistor gates. Additional side gate electrodes are formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) with a SiO2-covered top gate as an etching mask. Subthreshold characteristics are improved by negative side-gate biasing. In addition, the side-gate voltage VSG required to decrease off-leakage current by one decade is around 100 mV. Since the sidewall oxide thickness is chosen to be 5 nm, which is the same as the top-oxide thickness, rather sensitive subthreshold-characteristic control compared with that of biasing through a thick buried-oxide layer is achieved in response to performance requirement. In the viewpoint of stand-by-power suppression, these provide a certain controllability to a circuit operation.

  16. The effect of Sb-surfactant on GaInP CuPtB type ordering: assessment through dark field TEM and aberration corrected HAADF imaging.

    PubMed

    Coll, C; Barrigón, E; López-Conesa, L; Rebled, J; Barrutia, L; Rey-Stolle, I; Estradé, S; Algora, C; Peiró, F

    2017-04-03

    We report on the effect of Sb on the microstructure of GaInP layers grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). These layers exhibit a CuPtB single variant ordering due to the intentional misorientation of the substrate (Ge(001) substrates with 6° misorientation towards the nearest [111] axis). The use of Sb as a surfactant during the GaInP growth does not modify the type of ordering, but it is found that the order parameter (η) decreases with increasing Sb flux. Dark field microscopy reveals a variation of the angle of the antiphase boundaries (APBs) with Sb amount. The microstructure is assessed through high angle annular dark field (HAADF) experiments and image simulation revealing Z-contrast loss in APBs due to the superposition of ordered domains.

  17. Subband higher-order statistics and cross-correlation for heartbeat type recognition based on two-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sung-Nien; Liu, Fan-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Regular electrocardiogram beat classification system usually based on single lead ECG signal. This study designated to add a second lead of ECG signal to the system and apply higher-order statistics and inter-lead cross-correlation features to study the influence of the second lead to the recognition rates and noise-tolerance of the classifier. Discrete wavelet transformation is employed to decompose the ECG signals into different subband components and higher order statistics is recruited to characterize the ECG signals as an attempt to elevate the accuracy and noise-resistibility of heartbeat discrimination. A feed-forward back-propagation neural network (FFBNN) is employed as classifier. When compared with the system that uses only one lead, the second lead raises the recognition rate from 97.74% to 98.25%. We also study the ability of the two-lead system in resisting different levels of white Gaussian noise. More than 97.8% accuracy can be retained with the two-lead system even when the SNR decreases to 10 dB.

  18. G -type magnetic order in ferropnictide C uxF e1 -yAs induced by hole doping on As sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, T.; Lee, C. C.; Tian, W.; Cao, H. B.; Zhu, M.; Qian, B.; dela Cruz, C. R.; Ku, W.; Mao, Z. Q.; Ke, X.

    2017-02-01

    Strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlation has long been postulated to be closely related to the occurrence of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity observed in the cuprates, heavy fermions, and organic superconductors. The recently discovered Fe-based superconductors add another interesting member to the list. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the versatile nature of the magnetic correlation in these materials: some showing stripe (C -type) order, others double stripe (E -type) or block AFM order instead, implying potentially richer structures of the superconducting order. Here we report the observation of yet another AFM correlation in the family: a G -type AFM order as seen in the high-Tc cuprates, in C uxF e1 -yAs compounds isostructural to the LiFeAs superconductor. This study not only sheds light on the underlying mechanism of the rich magnetic correlations in the Fe-based superconductors, but also suggests the possibility of realizing a distinct pairing symmetry upon chemical doping or applying pressure.

  19. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  20. Combined intensive blood pressure and glycemic control does not produce an additive benefit on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Craven, Timothy E; O'Connor, Patrick J; Karl, Diane; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hramiak, Irene; Genuth, Saul; Cushman, William C; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Katz, Lois; Schubart, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    A reduction of either blood pressure or glycemia decreases some microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, and we studied here their combined effects. In total, 4733 older adults with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension were randomly assigned to intensive (systolic blood pressure less than 120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg) blood pressure control, and separately to intensive (HbA1c less than 0.060) or standard (HbA1c 0.070-0.079) glycemic control. Prespecified microvascular outcomes were a composite of renal failure and retinopathy and nine single outcomes. Proportional hazard regression models were used without correction for type I error due to multiple tests. During a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 11.4% of intensive and 10.9% of standard blood pressure patients (hazard ratio 1.08), and in 11.1% of intensive and 11.2% of standard glycemia control patients. Intensive blood pressure control only reduced the incidence of microalbuminuria (hazard ratio 0.84), and intensive glycemic control reduced the incidence of macroalbuminuria and a few other microvascular outcomes. There was no interaction between blood pressure and glycemic control, and neither treatment prevented renal failure. Thus, in older patients with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension, intensive blood pressure control improved only 1 of 10 prespecified microvascular outcomes. None of the outcomes were significantly reduced by simultaneous intensive treatment of glycemia and blood pressure, signifying the lack of an additional beneficial effect from combined treatment.

  1. Impact of elevated CO₂ and N addition on bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh ecosystem with various types of plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Ding, Weixing; Kang, Hojeong

    2015-06-01

    The individual effects of either elevated CO2 or N deposition on soil microbial communities have been widely studied, but limited information is available regarding the responses of the bacteria, fungi, and archaea communities to both elevated CO2 and N in wetland ecosystems with different types of plants. Using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR), we compared communities of bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh microcosm with one of seven macrophytes, Typha latifolia, Phragmites japonica, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Scirpus lacustris, Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, or Zizania latifolia, after exposing them to eCO2 and/or amended N for 110 days. Overall, our results showed that the elevated CO2 and N may affect the bacterial and archaeal communities, while they may not affect the fungal community in terms of both diversity and abundance. The effects of elevated CO2 and N on microbial community vary depending on the plant types, and each microbial community shows different responses to the elevated CO2 and N. In particular, elevated CO2 might force a shift in the archaeal community irrespective of the plant type, and the effect of elevated CO2 was enhanced when combined with the N effect. This study indicates that elevated CO2 and N addition could lead to changes in the community structures of bacteria and archaea. Our results also suggest that the fungal group is less sensitive to external changes, while the bacterial and archaeal groups are more sensitive to them. Finally, the characteristics of the plant type and relevant physicochemical factors induced by the elevated CO2 and N may be important key factors structuring the microbial community's response to environmental change, which implies the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the pattern of the wetland response to climate change.

  2. Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking and Consequent Physical Responses Induced by All-In-All-Out Type Magnetic Order on the Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Taka-Hisa

    2014-03-01

    Pyrochlore-type 5d transition-metal oxide compounds Cd2Os2O7 and R2Ir2O7 (R =rare earth) undergo a metal-insulator transition accompanied by a magnetic transition. Recently, the magnetic structures of Cd2Os2O7 and Eu2Ir2O7 were investigated by means of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering. The x-ray data indicated the all-in/all-out type magnetic order. The all-in/all-out order breaks the time-reversal symmetry, while the spontaneous magnetization is essentially absent. The magnetic order can be viewed as ferroic magnetic octupolar order. The magnetic order is expected to provide several unique physical properties like quadratic magnetization. linear magneto-capacitance, linear magneto-resistance, linear magneto-mechanical coupling and so on. The symmetry breaking results in two non-equivalent domains, ``all-in/all-out'' and ``all-out/all-in.'' Interestingly, some theoretical works predict that a peculiar metallic state would appear on the domain wall. The observation and control of the domain distribution are essential for studying verious exotic physical responses. We have developed an x-ray technique for domain imaging and started studying the effects of external stimuli on the domain distribution. This work was performed in collaboration with S. Tardif, S. Takeshita, H. Ohsumi, D. Uematsu, H. Sagayama, J. J. Ishikawa, S. Nakatsuji, J. Yamaura, and Z. Hiroi.

  3. Is CE-type orbital order the true ground state for LaSr2Mn2O7?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, Helmut; Li, Qing'an; Zheng, Hong; Gray, Kenneth; Kausen, Stine; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Osborn, Ray; Mitchell, John

    2006-03-01

    Previous scattering and conductivity data for La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (x=0.5) indicate the CE phase, predicted by Goodenough 50 years ago, is only stable between ˜100 and 200 K and below ˜100 K an A-type antiferromagnet is the ground state. We present scattering, magnetization and transport evidence that the CE phase is the ground state, but only in a very narrow composition range, presumably at exactly x=0.5. The vitally important roles of crystal homogeneity and methodology of transport measurements will be demonstrated for this conclusion as well as for the field of layered manganites in general.

  4. Consequences of Stimulus Type on Higher-Order Processing in Single-Sided Deaf Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mareike; Sandmann, Pascale; Bönitz, Hanna; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Single-sided deaf subjects with a cochlear implant (CI) provide the unique opportunity to compare central auditory processing of the electrical input (CI ear) and the acoustic input (normal-hearing, NH, ear) within the same individual. In these individuals, sensory processing differs between their two ears, while cognitive abilities are the same irrespectively of the sensory input. To better understand perceptual-cognitive factors modulating speech intelligibility with a CI, this electroencephalography study examined the central-auditory processing of words, the cognitive abilities, and the speech intelligibility in 10 postlingually single-sided deaf CI users. We found lower hit rates and prolonged response times for word classification during an oddball task for the CI ear when compared with the NH ear. Also, event-related potentials reflecting sensory (N1) and higher-order processing (N2/N4) were prolonged for word classification (targets versus nontargets) with the CI ear compared with the NH ear. Our results suggest that speech processing via the CI ear and the NH ear differs both at sensory (N1) and cognitive (N2/N4) processing stages, thereby affecting the behavioral performance for speech discrimination. These results provide objective evidence for cognition to be a key factor for speech perception under adverse listening conditions, such as the degraded speech signal provided from the CI.

  5. Applying Capacitive Energy Storage for In Situ Manipulation of Magnetization in Ordered Mesoporous Perovskite-Type LSMO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Christian; Wang, Di; Stoeckel, Daniela; Beck, Andre; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Hahn, Horst; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-04-03

    Mesostructured non-silicate materials, particularly mixed-metal oxides, are receiving much attention in recent years due to their potential for numerous applications. Via polymer-templating method, perovskite-type lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (La1-xSrxMnO3, LSMO, with x ≈ 0.15 to 0.30) with a continuous 3D cubic network of 23 nm pores is prepared in thin film form for the first time. Characterization results from grazing incidence X-ray scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy and tomography show that the dip-coated sol-gel-derived films are of high quality in terms of composition and morphology, and that they are stable to over 700 °C. Magnetic and magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that the material with the highest strontium concentration is ferromagnetic at room temperature and exhibits metallic resistivity behavior below 270 K. Besides, it behaves differently from epitaxial layers (e.g., enhanced low-field magnetoresistance effect). It is also shown that carriers (electrons and holes) can be induced into the polymer-templated mesostructured LSMO films via capacitive double-layer charging. This kind of electrostatic doping utilizing ionic liquid gating causes large relative changes in magnetic susceptibility at room temperature and is a viable technique to tune the magnetic phase diagram in situ.

  6. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Chithiika Ruby, V.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.; Chandrasekar, V. K.

    2015-01-15

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  7. Joint analysis of additive, dominant and first-order epistatic effects of four genes (IGF2, MC4R, PRKAG3 and LEPR) with known effects on fat content and fat distribution in pigs.

    PubMed

    López-Buesa, P; Burgos, C; Galve, A; Varona, L

    2014-02-01

    LEPR, MC4R, IGF2 and PRKAG3 are genes with known effects on fat content and distribution in pig carcass and pork. In a study performed with Duroc × Landrace/Large White pigs, we have found that IGF2 has strong additive effects on several carcass conformational traits and on fatty acid composition in several anatomical locations. MC4R shows additive effects on saturated fatty acid content in several muscles. On the other side, almost no additive effect has been found for PRKAG3 and very few for LEPR. In this work, no dominant effect has been found for any of the four genes. Using a Bayesian Lasso approach, we have been able now to find first-order epistatic (mainly dominant-additive) effects between LEPR and PRKAG3 for intramuscular fat content and for saturated fatty acid content in L. dorsii, B. femoralis, Ps. major and whole ham. The presence of interactions between genes in the shaping of traits of such importance as intramuscular fat content and composition highlights the complexity of heritable traits and the difficulty of gene-assisted selection for such traits.

  8. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Junhua; Yin, Yuyang; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-04-06

    Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P < 0.05), while linearly increasing the ratio of acetate to propionate, pH value and, the ammonia-nitrogen level (P < 0.05). Applying Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the ACE (abundance-based coverage estimator) value, Chao 1 value, and Shannon index increased significantly (P < 0.05), while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the relative abundance of Tenericutes as well as Proteobacteria after adding acarbose compared to the control. On the other hand, when beet pulp was used as the substrate, acarbose addition had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate.

  9. C-type related order in the defective fluorites La2Ce2O7 and Nd2Ce2O7 studied by neutron scattering and ab initio MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalland, Liv-Elisif; Norberg, Stefan T; Kyrklund, Jakob; Hull, Stephen; Eriksson, Sten G; Norby, Truls; Mohn, Chris E; Knee, Christopher S

    2016-09-14

    This work presents a structural investigation of La2-xNdxCe2O7 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) using X-ray powder diffraction and total scattering neutron powder diffraction, analysed using Rietveld and the reverse Monte Carlo method (RMC). Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) modelling is also performed for further investigations of the local order. The main intensities in the neutron diffraction data for the La2-xNdxCe2O7 series correspond to the fluorite structure. However, additional C-type superlattice peaks are visible for x > 0 and increase in intensity with increasing x. The Nd-containing compositions (x > 0) are best fitted with Rietveld analysis by using a combination of oxygen deficient fluorite and oxygen excess C-type structures. No indications of cation order are found in the RMC or Rietveld analysis, and the absence of cation order is supported by the MD modelling. We argue that the superlattice peaks originate from oxygen vacancy ordering and associated shift in the cation position away from the ideal fluorite site similar to that in the C-type structure, which is seen from the Rietveld refinements and the observed ordering in the MD modelling. The vacancies favour alignments in the 〈110〉, 〈111〉 and especially the 〈210〉 direction. Moreover, we find that such ordering might also be found to a small extent in La2Ce2O7, explaining the discernible modulated background between the fluorite peaks. The observed overlap of the main Bragg peaks between the fluorite and C-type phase supports the co-existence of vacancy ordered and more disordered domains. This is further supported by the observed similarity of the radial distribution functions as modelled with MD. The increase in long range oxygen vacancy order with increasing Nd-content in La2-xNdxCe2O7 corresponds well with the lower oxide ion conductivity in Nd2Ce2O7 compared to La2Ce2O7 reported earlier.

  10. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  11. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 612 specimens bearing names of 604 species-group taxa of Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May 2016. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising 582 holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes (15 specimens); and 1 neotype. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Schantz’s 1942 “Catalog of the Type Specimens of Mammals in the United States National Museum, Including the Biological Surveys Collection” (Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 178). One of these, Lutra iowa Goldman, 1941, was transferred to the National Museum’s Paleobiology Department collection and is mentioned only briefly in this work. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder’s 2005 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, third edition, volume 1; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically, and within each currently recognized genus, species and subspecies accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum

  12. Effect of boron additions on phase formation and magnetic properties of TbCu7-type melt spun SmFe ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chuanjiang; Yu, Dunbo; Li, Kuoshe; Luo, Yang; Jin, Jinling; Lu, Shuo; Li, Hongwei; Mao, Yongjun; Quan, Ningtao

    2016-08-01

    Melt spun ribbons of a series of SmFe12Bx (x=0.0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5) have been prepared by the melt spinning technique. Sm-Fe-B melt spun ribbons with single phase TbCu7-type structure were prepared from the SmFe12Bx (x=0.5, 0.75, and 1.0) alloys at the surface velocity around 40 m/s. The addition of boron not only inhibits the appearance of soft magnetic phase α-Fe, but also enhances the ability of amorphous formation for melt spun Sm-Fe ribbons. The concentration of boron atoms, however, exceeds the limit of the solubility (x>1.0) of Sm-Fe alloys, which does not impede the appearance of α-Fe but accelerates the formation of metastable phase Sm2Fe23B3 that is unfavorable to their magnetic properties. Moreover, it is found that the addition of boron whose concentration is 0.0≤x≤0.75 can stabilize the metastable TbCu7-type structure because of the increase of the lattice parameter ratio c/a. The magnetic properties of as-annealed SmFe12B1.0 melt spun ribbons with an energy product of 2.19MGOe, a coercivity of 2.36 kOe and a remanence of 4.8 kGs have been achieved. The microstructural characteristics of as-annealed melt spun SmFe12 and SmFe12B1.0 ribbons have been discussed as well. The following sequence of the hyperfine field H(6l)

  13. An investigation on the effect of second-order additional thickness distributions to the upper surface of an NACA 64 sub 1-212 airfoil. [using flow equations and a CDC 7600 digital computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a CDC 7600 digital computer to determine the effects of additional thickness distributions to the upper surface of an NACA 64 sub 1 - 212 airfoil. Additional thickness distributions employed were in the form of two second-order polynomial arcs which have a specified thickness at a given chordwise location. The forward arc disappears at the airfoil leading edge, the aft arc disappears at the airfoil trailing edge. At the juncture of the two arcs, x = x, continuity of slope is maintained. The effect of varying the maximum additional thickness and its chordwise location on airfoil lift coefficient, pitching moment, and pressure distribution was investigated. Results were obtained at a Mach number of 0.2 with an angle-of-attack of 6 degrees on the basic NACA 64 sub 1 - 212 airfoil, and all calculations employ the full potential flow equations for two dimensional flow. The relaxation method of Jameson was employed for solution of the potential flow equations.

  14. An investigation on the effect of second-order additional thickness distributions to the upper surface of an NACA 64-206 airfoil. [using flow equations and a CDC 7600 digital computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merz, A. W.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a CDC 7600 digital computer to determine the effects of additional thickness distributions to the upper surface of an NACA 64-206 airfoil. Additional thickness distributions employed were in the form of two second-order polynomial arcs which have a specified thickness at a given chordwise location. The forward arc disappears at the airfoil leading edge, the aft arc disappears at the airfoil trailing edge. At the juncture of the two arcs, x = x, continuity of slope is maintained. The effect of varying the maximum additional thickness and its chordwise location on airfoil lift coefficient, pitching moment, and pressure distribution was investigated. Results were obtained at a Mach number of 0.2 with an angle-of-attack of 6 degrees on the basic NACA 64-206 airfoil, and all calculations employ the full potential flow equations for two dimensional flow. The relaxation method of Jameson was employed for solution of the potential flow equations.

  15. An Introduction to the Avian Gut Microbiota and the Effects of Yeast-Based Prebiotic-Type Compounds as Potential Feed Additives.

    PubMed

    Roto, Stephanie M; Rubinelli, Peter M; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short-chain fatty acids, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota.

  16. Additive Interaction of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Polymorphisms with Being Overweight/Obesity on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xueyuan; Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Li, Yongfang; He, Miao; Wang, Da; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Although both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions with being overweight/obesity on T2D risk remain unclear. To evaluate the associations of the two polymorphisms with T2D and their interactions with being overweight/obesity on T2D risk, a case-control study of 180 T2D patients and 350 healthy controls was conducted in northern China. Additive interaction was estimated using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S). After adjustments for age and gender, borderline significant associations of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with T2D were observed under recessive (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.98–2.10) and dominant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00–2.06) models, respectively. There was a significant interaction between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and being overweight/obesity on T2D risk (AP = 0.404, 95% CI: 0.047–0.761), in addition to the MTRR 66AG/GG genotypes (RERI = 1.703, 95% CI: 0.401–3.004; AP = 0.528, 95% CI: 0.223–0.834). Our findings suggest that individuals with the MTHFR 677TT or MTRR 66AG/GG genotypes are more susceptible to the detrimental effect of being overweight/obesity on T2D. Further large-scale studies are still needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27983710

  17. An Introduction to the Avian Gut Microbiota and the Effects of Yeast-Based Prebiotic-Type Compounds as Potential Feed Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roto, Stephanie M.; Rubinelli, Peter M.; Ricke, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short-chain fatty acids, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota. PMID:26664957

  18. Crystallographic and magnetic structure of the perovskite-type compound BaFeO2.5: unrivaled complexity in oxygen vacancy ordering.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Oliver; Gröting, Melanie; Witte, Ralf; Perez-Mato, J Manuel; Loho, Christoph; Berry, Frank J; Kruk, Robert; Knight, Kevin S; Wright, Adrian J; Hahn, Horst; Slater, Peter R

    2014-06-16

    We report here on the characterization of the vacancy-ordered perovskite-type structure of BaFeO2.5 by means of combined Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c [a = 6.9753(1) Å, b = 11.7281(2) Å, c = 23.4507(4) Å, β = 98.813(1)°, and Z = 28] containing seven crystallographically different iron atoms. The coordination scheme is determined to be Ba7(FeO4/2)1(FeO3/2O1/1)3(FeO5/2)2(FeO6/2)1 = Ba7Fe([6])1Fe([5])2Fe([4])4O17.5 and is in agreement with the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra and density functional theory based calculations. To our knowledge, the structure of BaFeO2.5 is the most complicated perovskite-type superstructure reported so far (largest primitive cell, number of ABX2.5 units per unit cell, and number of different crystallographic sites). The magnetic structure was determined from the powder neutron diffraction data and can be understood in terms of "G-type" antiferromagnetic ordering between connected iron-containing polyhedra, in agreement with field-sweep and zero-field-cooled/field-cooled measurements.

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Scott, Laura J.; Saxena, Richa; Voight, Benjamin F.; Marchini, Jonathan L; Hu, Tainle; de Bakker, Paul IW; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Almgren, Peter; Andersen, Gitte; Ardlie, Kristin; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bergman, Richard N; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Burtt, Noël P; Chen, Hong; Chines, Peter S; Daly, Mark J; Deodhar, Parimal; Ding, Charles; Doney, Alex S F; Duren, William L; Elliott, Katherine S; Erdos, Michael R; Frayling, Timothy M; Freathy, Rachel M; Gianniny, Lauren; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hansen, Torben; Herder, Christian; Hitman, Graham A; Hughes, Thomas E; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jørgensen, Torben; Kong, Augustine; Kubalanza, Kari; Kuruvilla, Finny G; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Lango, Hana; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Yun; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marvelle, Amanda F; Meisinger, Christa; Midthjell, Kristian; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Morris, Andrew D; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin NA; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John RB; Pettersen, Elin; Platou, Carl; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Qin, Li; Rayner, Nigel W; Rees, Matthew; Roix, Jeffrey J; Sandbæk, Anelli; Shields, Beverley; Sjögren, Marketa; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Illig, Thomas; Hveem, Kristian; Hu, Frank B; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Hattersley, Andrew T; Collins, Francis S; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple new genomic loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)1-11. Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to discover loci at which common alleles have modest effects, we performed meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans encompassing 10,128 individuals of European-descent and ~2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed). Replication testing was performed in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. At least six new loci with robust evidence for association were detected, including the JAZF1 (p=5.0×10−14), CDC123/CAMK1D (p=1.2×10−10), TSPAN8/LGR5 (p=1.1×10−9), THADA (p=1.1×10−9), ADAMTS9 (p=1.2×10−8), and NOTCH2 (p=4.1×10−8) gene regions. The large number of loci with relatively small effects indicates the value of large discovery and follow-up samples in identifying additional clues about the inherited basis of T2D. PMID:18372903

  20. Stretching human mesenchymal stromal cells on stiffness-customized collagen type I generates a smooth muscle marker profile without growth factor addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothdiener, Miriam; Hegemann, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Walters, Brandan; Papugy, Piruntha; Nguyen, Phong; Claus, Valentin; Seeger, Tanja; Stoeckle, Ulrich; Boehme, Karen A.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Hart, Melanie L.; Kurz, Bodo; Klein, Gerd; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation. Further characterization revealed viscoelasticity and stable biomechanical properties under cyclic stretch with >99% viable adherent human MSC. MSCs on collagen sheets demonstrated a significantly increased mRNA but not protein expression of SMC markers, compared to on culture flasks. However, cyclic stretch of MSCs on collagen sheets significantly increased both mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transgelin, and calponin versus plastic and non-stretched sheets. Thus, lineage-specific stiffness and cyclic stretch can be applied together for inducing MSC differentiation towards SMCs without the addition of recombinant growth factors or other soluble factors. This represents a novel stimulation method for modulating the phenotype of MSCs towards SMCs that could easily be incorporated into currently available methodologies to obtain a more targeted control of MSC phenotype.

  1. Stretching human mesenchymal stromal cells on stiffness-customized collagen type I generates a smooth muscle marker profile without growth factor addition

    PubMed Central

    Rothdiener, Miriam; Hegemann, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Walters, Brandan; Papugy, Piruntha; Nguyen, Phong; Claus, Valentin; Seeger, Tanja; Stoeckle, Ulrich; Boehme, Karen A.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Hart, Melanie L.; Kurz, Bodo; Klein, Gerd; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation. Further characterization revealed viscoelasticity and stable biomechanical properties under cyclic stretch with >99% viable adherent human MSC. MSCs on collagen sheets demonstrated a significantly increased mRNA but not protein expression of SMC markers, compared to on culture flasks. However, cyclic stretch of MSCs on collagen sheets significantly increased both mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transgelin, and calponin versus plastic and non-stretched sheets. Thus, lineage-specific stiffness and cyclic stretch can be applied together for inducing MSC differentiation towards SMCs without the addition of recombinant growth factors or other soluble factors. This represents a novel stimulation method for modulating the phenotype of MSCs towards SMCs that could easily be incorporated into currently available methodologies to obtain a more targeted control of MSC phenotype. PMID:27775041

  2. Charge density wave excitations in stripe-type charge ordered Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Rakesh; Rana, D. S.; Mavani, K. R.; Kawayama, I.; Murakami, H.; Tonouchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We show that a charge-density wave mode submerged in large conductivity of the stripe-type charge-ordered (CO) crystal of Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 (PSMO) can be extracted by exciting selective crystallographic planes using polarized terahertz field. Low energy (1-7 meV) dynamics have been explored in the (100), (110), and (111) epitaxial films of PSMO manganite. Of (110) and (111) films representing bulk-like CO, the former exhibits a peak in the conductivity-energy spectrum with attributes of charge-density wave mode along a specific in-plane axis. On the contrary, the CO (111) and the phase-separated (100) films lack this low energy mode but exhibit a Drude-like spectral behavior in the metallic regime. These studies reveal a variety in isothermal charge dynamics originating from the anisotropic nature of the stripe charge-order.

  3. Modulation of electronic properties from stacking orders and spin-orbit coupling for 3R-type MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, W. T.; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Singh, David J.; Sun, C.Q.; Zhu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional crystals stacked by van der Waals coupling, such as twisted graphene and coupled graphene-BN layers with unusual phenomena have been a focus of research recently. As a typical representative, with the modulation of structural symmetry, stacking orders and spin-orbit coupling, transitional metal dichalcogenides have shown a lot of fascinating properties. Here we reveal the effect of stacking orders with spin-orbit coupling on the electronic properties of few-layer 3R-type MoS2 by first principles methods. We analyze the splitting of states at the top of valence band and the bottom of conduction band, following the change of stacking order. We find that regardless of stacking orders and layers’ number, the spin-up and spin-down channels are evidently separated and can be as a basis for the valley dependent spin polarization. With a model Hamiltonian about the layer’s coupling, the band splitting can be effectively analyzed by the coupling parameters. It is found that the stacking sequences, such as abc and abca, have the stronger nearest-neighbor coupling which imply the popular of periodic abc stacking sequence in natural growth of MoS2. PMID:27053462

  4. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for fourth-order elliptic equations of Kirchhoff type with critical growth in ℝN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sihua; Zhang, Jihui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we deal with the existence and multiplicity of solutions for fourth-order elliptic equations of Kirchhoff type with critical nonlinearity: -ε4 Δ2 u + ε4 a + b ∫ ℝN |∇ u|)2 d x Δ u + V ( x ) u = |u| 2* * - 2 u + h ( x , u ) , (t, x) ∈ ℝ × ℝN. By using Lions' second concentration-compactness principle and concentration-compactness principle at infinity to prove that (PS) condition holds locally and by variational method, we prove that it has at least one solution and for any m ∈ ℕ, it has at least m pairs of solutions.

  5. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  6. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in pollen grains in order to characterize plant functional groups and photosynthetic pathway types.

    PubMed

    Descolas-Gros, Chantal; Schölzel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of delta(13)C, delta(15)N and C : N ratios on modern pollen grains from temperate plants, including whole grains as well as extracted sporopollenin, were analysed in order to characterize physiological plant types at the pollen level and to determine the variation of these parameters in modern pollen grains of the same climatic area. Measurements are presented for 95 batches of whole modern pollen from 58 temperate species and on the stable fraction of modern pollen grains, chemically extracted sporopollenin, for two modern species. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) sporopollenin spectra were conducted in parallel. C(3) and C(4) plants can be separated by delta(13)C measurements based on pollen. Probabilistic assignments to plant functional groups (herbaceous, deciduous woody, evergreen woody) of C(3) plants by the means of a discriminant analysis can be made for C : N ratios and for delta(13)C. The results are related to other studies on sporopollenin in order to use this method in future work on fossil samples. Stable isotope measurements on pollen allow improved pollen diagrams, including forms that cannot be differentiated at species level, increasing the accuracy and resolution of plant physiological type distribution in quaternary and older fossil sediments.

  7. Anisotropy-induced crossover from Drude conductivity to charge-density-wave excitations in a stripe-type charge-ordered manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Rakesh; Pandey, Parul; Rana, D. S.; Mavani, K. R.; Kawayama, I.; Murakami, H.; Tonouchi, M.

    2013-06-01

    The half-doped Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 (PSMO) manganite represents a unique stripe type of charge orbital order that induces transport and magnetic anisotropy. Low-energy charge dynamics in PSMO (110) epitaxial film were investigated along and across two dissimilar in-plane orthogonal axes, [1-10] and [001], by recording the complex refractive index in the energy range of 1-7 meV. We report a novel observation of a gradual crossover from Drude-like metallic conductivity to charge-density-wave (CDW)-like collective excitations as the polarized terahertz excitation field is swept across the orthogonal in-plane axes. This is a rare manifestation of a CDW mode in a highly conducting stripe-type charge-ordered (CO) system, which is fundamentally different from the CDW modes of checkerboard CO. Interestingly, the contrasting charge dynamics along orthogonal in-plane axes form an intrinsic electronic switch, apparently a consequence of the unique CO of PSMO.

  8. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  9. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  10. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  11. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  12. RNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} (R=Gd,Tb): Novel ternary ordered derivatives of the BaCd{sub 11} type

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, M.; Morozkin, A.V.; Yapaskurt, V.O.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S.K.

    2016-01-15

    The title compounds have been synthesized and characterized both from the structural and magnetic point of view. Both crystallize in a new monoclinic structure strictly related to the tetragonal BaCd{sub 11} type. The structure was solved by means of X-ray single-crystal techniques for GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} and confirmed for TbNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} on powder data; the corresponding lattice parameters (obtained from Guinier powder patterns) are a=6.3259(2), b=13.7245(5), c=7.4949(3) Å, β=113.522(3)°, V{sub cell}=596.64(3) Å{sup 3} and a=6.3200(2), b=13.6987(4), c=7.4923(2) Å, β=113.494(2)°, V{sub cell}=594.88(2) Å{sup 3}. The symmetry relationship between the tI48-I4{sub 1}/amd BaCd{sub 11} aristotype and the new ordered mS48-C2/c GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} derivative is described via the Bärnighausen formalism within the group theory. The large Gd–Gd (Tb–Tb) distances, mediated via Ni–Si network, likely lead to weak magnetic interactions. Low-field magnetization vs temperature measurements indicate weak and field-sensitive antiferromagnetic ground state, with ordering temperatures of 3 K in GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} and about 2–3 K in TbNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3}. On the other hand, the isothermal field-dependent magnetization data show the presence of competing interactions in both compounds, with a field-induced ferromagnetic behavior for GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} and a ferrimagnetic-like behavior in TbNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} at the ordering temperature T{sub C/N} of about (or slightly higher than) 3K. The magnetocaloric effect, quantified in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub m}, has the maximum values of –19.8 J(kg K){sup −1} (at 4 K for 140 kOe field change) and −12.1 J(kg K){sup −1} (at 12 K for 140 kOe field change) in GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} and TbNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3}, respectively. - Graphical abstract: GdNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} and TbNi{sub 8}Si{sub 3} compounds are isostructural, and crystallize in a new monoclinic type strictly related to the tetragonal

  13. Coexistence of spin ordering on ladders and spin dimer formation in a new-structure-type compound Sr2Co3S2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwing To; Valldor, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We report on the syntheses and characterizations of single crystalline and polycrystalline Sr2Co3S2O3 with a novel crystal structure type. It contains Co–O 2-leg rectangular ladders and necklace ladders. The two ladders share common legs and construct a hybrid spin ladder. A rare meridional heteroleptic octahedral coordination is found for the Co2+ ions in the 2-leg ladder. Within the necklace ladders, the Co2+ ions are in trans-octahedral coordination. An antiferromagnetic order is observed at TN ~ 267 K, while a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility is found below TN. This relatively high ordering temperature among Co-based ladder compounds is related to the highly anisotropic mer-coordination of the Co2+ ions. The trans-octahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions, on the other hand, corresponds to the possible short-range magnetic correlations through dimers with an effective . This results in a rare situation that spin ordering and spin dimers coexist down to 2 K.

  14. Coexistence of spin ordering on ladders and spin dimer formation in a new-structure-type compound Sr2Co3S2O3

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwing To; Valldor, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We report on the syntheses and characterizations of single crystalline and polycrystalline Sr2Co3S2O3 with a novel crystal structure type. It contains Co–O 2-leg rectangular ladders and necklace ladders. The two ladders share common legs and construct a hybrid spin ladder. A rare meridional heteroleptic octahedral coordination is found for the Co2+ ions in the 2-leg ladder. Within the necklace ladders, the Co2+ ions are in trans-octahedral coordination. An antiferromagnetic order is observed at TN ~ 267 K, while a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility is found below TN. This relatively high ordering temperature among Co-based ladder compounds is related to the highly anisotropic mer-coordination of the Co2+ ions. The trans-octahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions, on the other hand, corresponds to the possible short-range magnetic correlations through dimers with an effective . This results in a rare situation that spin ordering and spin dimers coexist down to 2 K. PMID:28256576

  15. On the evaluation of a certain class of Feynman diagrams in x-space: Sunrise-type topologies at any loop order

    SciTech Connect

    Groote, S. Koerner, J.G.; Pivovarov, A.A.

    2007-10-15

    We review recently developed new powerful techniques to compute a class of Feynman diagrams at any loop order, known as sunrise-type diagrams. These sunrise-type topologies have many important applications in many different fields of physics and we believe it to be timely to discuss their evaluation from a unified point of view. The method is based on the analysis of the diagrams directly in configuration space which, in the case of the sunrise-type diagrams and diagrams related to them, leads to enormous simplifications as compared to the traditional evaluation of loops in momentum space. We present explicit formulae for their analytical evaluation for arbitrary mass configurations and arbitrary dimensions at any loop order. We discuss several limiting cases in their kinematical regimes which are e.g. relevant for applications in HQET and NRQCD. We completely solve the problem of renormalization using simple formulae for the counterterms within dimensional regularization. An important application is the computation of the multi-particle phase space in D-dimensional space-time which we discuss. We present some examples of their numerical evaluation in the general case of D-dimensional space-time as well as in integer dimensions D = D{sub 0} for different values of dimensions including the most important practical cases D{sub 0} = 2, 3, 4. Substantial simplifications occur for odd integer space-time dimensions where the final results can be expressed in closed form through elementary functions. We discuss the use of recurrence relations naturally emerging in configuration space for the calculation of special series of integrals of the sunrise topology. We finally report on results for the computation of an extension of the basic sunrise topology, namely the spectacle topology and the topology where an irreducible loop is added.

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  17. Recovery of genomic DNA from archived PCR product mixes for subsequent multiplex amplification and typing of additional loci: forensic significance for older unsolved criminal cases.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Kylie L; Cox, Ken J; Burns, Dennis M

    2002-07-01

    A method for genomic DNA recovery from different types of PCR product mixes suitable for multiplex amplification and typing using the Profiler Plus STR typing system has been investigated. The application of this method is of significance in cases where the original DNA samples have been exhausted due to repeated typing analyses in an effort to maximize their evidentiary value. Such cases typically involve samples analyzed using the available DNA typing systems of the time which gave a markedly lower power of discrimination, either alone or in combination, compared to that of modern multiplex STR typing systems. It was found that an effective method for recovering genomic DNA from HLA-DQA1 +PM and CTT triplex amplification mixes, suitable for reproducible achievement of the complete Profiler Plus profile, involved the use of Amicon Microcon-100 microconcentrators. Interestingly, this method was not required to achieve the complete nine STR profile using D1S80 amplification mixes.

  18. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    PubMed

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  19. Dot arrays of L1{sub 0}-type FePt ordered alloy perpendicular films fabricated using low-temperature sputter film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shimatsu, T.; Aoi, H.; Inaba, Y.; Kataoka, H.; Sayama, J.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2011-04-01

    Using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition, we fabricated L1{sub 0}-type Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} ordered alloy perpendicular films on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates and 2.5 in. glass disks at low substrate temperatures of 200-350 deg. C. Then we examined the magnetic properties of the dot arrays made from these films. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} for L1{sub 0}-type FePt films (10 nm in thickness) deposited with a Pd underlayer on MgO(001) substrates reached about 2 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at the substrate temperature T{sub s} of 200 deg. C, and 3 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at T{sub s} = 250 deg. C. The order parameter S was about 0.46 at T{sub s} = 300 deg. C. Moreover, K{sub u} for L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated on glass disks using MgO/Cr underlayers shows 3.4 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at T{sub s} = 300 deg. C, which was almost equal to that for FePt single-crystal films deposited on Pd/MgO(001). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} for dot arrays made from L1{sub 0}-FePt film [5 nm in thickness, on Pd/MgO(001) at T{sub s} = 250 deg. C] was small; {sigma}/H{sub c}= 0.11 for a dot diameter of 15 nm. This value was smaller than that of hcp-Co{sub 75}Pt{sub 25} dot arrays ({sigma}/H{sub c} = 0.18). The difference was mainly attributable to the degree of the easy axis distribution. This result demonstrates the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 0}-type ordered structure in the FePt layers.

  20. Fluoro-Substituted n-Type Conjugated Polymers for Additive-Free All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Power Conversion Efficiency of 6.71.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Woong; Jo, Jea Woong; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Liu, Feng; Jo, Won Ho; Russell, Thomas P; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2015-06-03

    Fluorinated n-type conjugated polymers are used as efficient electron acceptor to demonstrate high-performance all-polymer solar cells. The exciton generation, dissociation, and charge-transporting properties of blend films are improved by using these fluorinated n-type polymers to result in enhanced photocurrent and suppressed charge recombination.

  1. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  2. The Generalized Breit Operator of a Long-Range Type in the Framework of the Second-Order Effects of Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazur, V. Yu.; Myhalyna, S. I.; Reity, O. K.

    The problem of interaction of two quasimolecular electrons located at an arbitrary distance from each other and near different atoms (nuclei) is solved. The interaction is considered as a second-order effect of quantum electrodynamics in the coordinate representation. It is shown that a consistent account for the natural condition of the interaction symmetry with respect to both electrons leads to an additional contribution to the relativistic interaction of the two quasimolecular electrons compared with both the standard Breit operator and the generalized Breit operator known previously. The generalized Breit-Pauli operator and the operator of electric dipole-dipole interaction of two quasimolecular electrons located at an arbitrary distance from each other are obtained. Modern methods of accounting for the relativistic and correlative effects in the problem of ion-atom interactions are discussed.

  3. Structural, magnetic and electronic state characterization of L1 0-type ordered FeNi alloy extracted from a natural meteorite.

    PubMed

    Kotsugi, M; Maruyama, H; Ishimatsu, N; Kawamura, N; Suzuki, M; Mizumaki, M; Osaka, K; Matsumoto, T; Ohkochi, T; Ohtsuki, T

    2014-02-12

    To understand the hard magnetism of L10-type ordered FeNi alloy, we extracted the L10-FeNi phase from a natural meteorite, and evaluated its fundamental solid-state properties: sample composition, magnetic hysteresis, crystal structure and electronic structure. We executed multidirectional analyses using scanning electron microscopy with an electron probe micro-analyzer (SEM-EPMA), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). As a result, we found that the composition was Fe: 50.47 ± 1.98 at.%, Ni: 49.60 ± 1.49 at.%, and an obvious superlattice peak is confirmed. The estimated degree of order was 0.608, with lattice constants a = b = 3.582 Å and c = 3.607 Å. The obtained coercivity was more than 500 Oe. MCD analysis using the K absorption edge suggests that the magnetic anisotropy could originate from the orbital magnetic moment of 3d electrons in Fe; this result is consistent with that in a previous report obtained with synthetic L10-FeNi.

  4. Structure and physical properties of SrNiR u5O11 single crystals: An R -type ferrite based on ordered kagome nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyk, L.; De Long, L. E.; Niewa, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of the R -type ferrite SrNiR u5O11 were grown from a chloride flux. The hexagonal crystal structure contains ruthenium located on distorted kagome nets. The low-temperature dc magnetic susceptibilities (χ⊥ and χ∥, perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, respectively) diverge as T-0.3, and do not exhibit any indication of long-range magnetic order down to 4.5 K. The electrical resistivity varies as T1.6 below 40 K, which is typical of non-Fermi liquids, and may originate from a competition between residual magnetic interactions among N i2 + (S =1 ) spins and geometrical frustration on the two-dimensional kagome lattice of R u3 + (S =½ ) spins. The transverse magnetoresistivity ρx y at constant temperature T =5 K for current (J ) -magnetic field (H ) configurations, J ⊥ H ∥c axis and J ∥H ⊥ c axis, reveals no anomalous contribution, which is consistent with the absence of magnetic order. Fits of the specific heat data below 10 K require a dominant, but unusual electronic term of the form Ce l=γ T1.2 , which is expected for massless Dirac fermion states in topological insulators, or spin-liquid phases.

  5. Fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gheysens, J.L.G.

    1990-11-27

    This patent describes a composition for the improvement of hydrocarbon fuels exhibiting a boiling range of gasoline being suitable for use in spark ignition-type engines. It comprises an aromatic amine; a polyaminated detergent; a catalyst comprising a colloidal suspension or amine salt of transition/alkali/alkaline earth metal organic coordinations having at least one metal oxidehydroxide linked to an alkyl chain via a carboxyl group; and a solvent comprising an alkanol-aliphatic ether oxygenated hydrocarbon.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of NaNiF3·3H2O: an unusual ordered variant of the ReO3 type.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Elena C; Sanjuán, María Luisa; Hoelzel, Markus; Azcondo, M Teresa; Amador, Ulises; Sobrados, Isabel; Sanz, Jesús; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Kuhn, Alois

    2015-04-06

    A new hydrated sodium nickel fluoride with nominal composition NaNiF3·3H2O was synthesized using an aqueous solution route. Its structure was solved by means of ab initio methods from powder X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction data. NaNiF3·3H2O crystallizes in the cubic crystal system, space group Pn3̅ with a = 7.91968(4) Å. The framework, derived from the ReO3 structure type, is built from NaX6 and NiX6 (X = O, F) corner-shared octahedra, in which F and O atoms are randomly distributed on a single anion site. The 2a × 2a × 2a superstructure arises from the strict alternate three-dimensional linking of NaX6 and NiX6 octahedra together with the simultaneous tilts of the octahedra from the cube axis (φ = 31.1°), with a significant participation of hydrogen bonding. NaNiF3·3H2O corresponds to a fully cation-ordered variant of the In(OH)3 structure, easily recognizable when formulated as NaNi(XH)6 (X = O, F). It constitutes one of the rare examples for the a(+)a(+)a(+) tilting scheme with 1:1 cation ordering in perovskite-related compounds. The Curie-like magnetic behavior well-reflects the isolated paramagnetic Ni(2+) centers without worth mentioning interactions. While X-ray and neutron diffraction data evidence Na/Ni order in combination with O/F disorder as a main feature of this fluoride, results from Raman and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopies support the existence of specific anion arrangements in isolated square windows identified in structural refinements. In particular, formation of water molecules derives from unfavorable FH bond formation.

  7. Field-induced transition of the magnetic ground state from A-type antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order in CsCo2Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Grundmann, Henrik; Guguchia, Zurab; Schnick, Wolfgang; Schilling, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of CsCo2Se2 with ThCr2Si2 structure, which we have characterized through a series of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. We find that CsCo2Se2 undergoes a phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state with a Néel temperature of {{T}\\text{N}}≈ 66 K. The nearest neighbour interactions are ferromagnetic as observed by the positive Curie-Weiss temperature of \\Theta≈ 51.0 K. We find that the magnetic structure of CsCo2Se2 consists of ferromagnetic sheets, which are stacked antiferromagnetically along the tetragonal c-axis, generally referred to as A-type antiferromagnetic order. The observed magnitude of the ordered magnetic moment at T  =  1.5 K is found to be only 0.20(1){μ\\text{Bohr}}  / Co. Already in comparably small magnetic fields of {μ0}H{{}\\text{MM}}(5~K)≈ 0.3 T, we observe a metamagnetic transition that can be attributed to spin-rearrangements of CsCo2Se2, with the moments fully ferromagnetically saturated in a magnetic field of {μ0}{{H}\\text{FM}}(5~K)≈ 6.4 T. We discuss the entire experimentally deduced magnetic phase diagram for CsCo2Se2 with respect to its unconventionally weak magnetic coupling. Our study characterizes CsCo2Se2, which is chemically and electronically posed closely to the A x Fe2-y Se2 superconductors, as a host of versatile magnetic interactions.

  8. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations. PMID:25482386

  9. The Wyckoff positional order and polyhedral intergrowth in the M3B2- and M5B3-type boride precipitated in the Ni-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. B.; Zhu, Y. L.; Sheng, N. C.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ni-based single superalloys play a crucial role in the hottest parts of jet engines. However, due to the complex geometry and macro-segregation during the solidification process, the cast defect such as stray grains is inevitable. Therefore, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding which can join several small single crystalline castings together is gradually believed to be an effective method for improving the yields of production of the complex components. The melting point depressant element B is always added into the interlayer filler material. Consequently, borides including the M3B2 and M5B3 phase usually precipitate during the TLP bonding process. So a comprehensive knowledge of the fine structural characteristics of the borides is very critical for an accurate evaluation of the TLP bonding process. In this work, by means of the aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, we show, at an atomic scale, the Wyckoff positional order phenomenon of the metal atoms in the unit cell of M3B2- and M5B3-type boride. Meanwhile, the defect along the (001) plane of the above two types of boride are determined to be the polyhedral intergrowth with complex configurations.

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  12. Loss of Internal Backbone Carbonyls: Additional Evidence for Sequence-Scrambling in Collision-Induced Dissociation of y-Type Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Brett; Miladi, Mahsan; Solouki, Touradj

    2014-10-01

    It is shown that y-type ions, after losing C-terminal H2O or NH3, can lose an internal backbone carbonyl (CO) from different peptide positions and yield structurally different product fragment ions upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). Such CO losses from internal peptide backbones of y-fragment ions are not unique to a single peptide and were observed in four of five model peptides studied herein. Experimental details on examples of CO losses from y-type fragment ions for an isotopically labeled AAAAH AA-NH2 heptapeptide and des-acetylated-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (dα-MSH) (SYSMEHFRWGKPV-NH2) are reported. Results from isotope labeling, tandem mass spectrometry (MSn), and ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) confirm that CO losses from different amino acids of m/ z-isolated y-type ions yield structurally different ions. It is shown that losses of internal backbone carbonyls (as CID products of m/ z-isolated y-type ions) are among intermediate steps towards formation of rearranged or permutated product fragment ions. Possible mechanisms for generation of the observed sequence-scrambled a-"like" ions, as intermediates in sequence-scrambling pathways of y-type ions, are proposed and discussed.

  13. Stereoselectivity of Michael Addition of P(X)-H-Type Nucleophiles to Cyclohexen-1-ylphosphine Oxide: The Case of Base-Selective Transformation.

    PubMed

    Jaklińska, Magdalena; Cordier, Marie; Stankevič, Marek

    2016-02-19

    Michael addition of phosphorus nucleophiles to the unsymmetrically substituted tert-butyl(1,4-cyclohexadien-3-yl)phosphine oxide and its derivatives has been described. The addition proceeds with the formation of the mixture of two isomeric products with good yield and diastereoselectivity. The reaction of tert-butyl(cyclohexen-1-yl)methylphosphine oxide with phosphorus nucleophiles is base sensitive and might afford two epimers which differ at one chirality center. The absolute configuration of the products has been assigned on the basis of conformational and (1)H NMR analysis, and the mechanism of the reaction has been discussed. The Michael addition of phosphorus nucleophiles is postulated to proceed with or without consecutive epimerization of two α-carbanions.

  14. Performance comparison of three types of high-speed counter-current chromatographs for the separation of components of hydrophilic and hydrophobic color additives.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-09-09

    The performance of three types of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) instruments was assessed for their use in separating components in hydrophilic and hydrophobic dye mixtures. The HSCCC instruments compared were: (i) a J-type coil planet centrifuge (CPC) system with a conventional multilayer-coil column, (ii) a J-type CPC system with a spiral-tube assembly-coil column, and (iii) a cross-axis CPC system with a multilayer-coil column. The hydrophilic dye mixture consisted of a sample of FD&C Blue No. 2 that contained mainly two isomeric components, 5,5'- and 5,7'-disulfonated indigo, in the ratio of ∼7:1. The hydrophobic dye mixture consisted of a sample of D&C Red No. 17 (mainly Sudan III) and Sudan II in the ratio of ∼4:1. The two-phase solvent systems used for these separations were 1-butanol/1.3M HCl and hexane/acetonitrile. Each of the three instruments was used in two experiments for the hydrophilic dye mixture and two for the hydrophobic dye mixture, for a total of 12 experiments. In one set of experiments, the lower phase was used as the mobile phase, and in the second set of experiments, the upper phase was used as the mobile phase. The results suggest that: (a) use of a J-type instrument with either a multilayer-coil column or a spiral-tube assembly column, applying the lower phase as the mobile phase, is preferable for separating the hydrophilic components of FD&C Blue No. 2; and (b) use of a J-type instrument with multilayer-coil column, while applying either the upper phase or the lower phase as the mobile phase, is preferable for separating the hydrophobic dye mixture of D&C Red No. 17 and Sudan II.

  15. Alternative Agents in Type 1 Diabetes in Addition to Insulin Therapy: Metformin, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors, Pioglitazone, GLP-1 Agonists, DPP-IV Inhibitors, and SGLT-2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeGeeter, Michelle; Williamson, Bobbie

    2016-04-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of current treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Due to increasing insulin resistance, insulin doses are often continually increased, which may result in weight gain for patients. Medications currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes offer varying mechanisms of action that can help to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or deter weight gain. A MEDLINE search was conducted to review literature evaluating the use of metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, in patients with T1DM. Varying results were found with some benefits including reductions in hemoglobin A1c, decreased insulin doses, and favorable effects on weight. Of significance, a common fear of utilizing multiple therapies for diabetes treatment is the risk of hypoglycemia, and this review displayed limited evidence of hypoglycemia with multiple agents.

  16. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  17. Magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Isnard, O.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds (space group Cmcm, oC32) was investigated via magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction study in a zero-applied field. {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 exhibit field sensitive complex antiferromagnetic orderings with TN=51 K, Tm=10 K for Sm3Co2Ge3, TN=34 K, Tm=13 K for Tb3Co2Ge3, TN=7 K for Er3Co2Ge3 and TN=11 K for Ho3Ni2Ge3. At 2 K and above the critical field of 5 kOe, 20 kOe, 4 kOe and 7 kOe for Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3, respectively, saturation magnetizations per rare-earth atom are 6.5 μB for Tb3Co2Ge3, 7.0 μB for Er3Co2Ge3 and 8.0 μB for Ho3Ni2Ge3 in the field of 140 kOe, whereas magnetization of Sm3Co2Ge3 has an antiferromagnetic behaviour. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, indicates a field-induced ferromagnetic ordering in Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 with a maximal ΔSm value of -10.9 J/kg K for Ho3Ni2Ge3 at 11 K for a field change of 50 kOe. In a zero-applied magnetic field, below TN=33 K and down to TmND=15 K Tb3Ni2Ge3 shows an ac-antiferromagnetic ordering with the C2‧/c magnetic space group, a K0=[0, 0, 0] propagation vector and a aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×cTb3Ni2Ge3 magnetic unit cell. Below TmND=15 K, its magnetic structure is a sum of the ac-antiferromagnetic component with the C2‧/c magnetic space group of the K0 vector and a sine-modulated a-antiferromagnetic component of the K1=[0, 0, ±1/3] propagation vector (the magnetic unit cell is aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×3cTb3Ni2Ge3). The magnetic structure is made from the 'Tb2 - 2Tb1‧ clusters of the Tb1 8f and Tb2 4c sublattices with a dominant role of the Tb2 sublattices in the magnetic ordering of Tb3Ni2Ge3.

  18. N-type crystalline silicon films free of amorphous silicon deposited on glass by HCl addition using hot wire chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yung-Bin; Park, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Song, Jean-Ho; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2011-09-01

    Since n-type crystalline silicon films have the electric property much better than those of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films, they can enhance the performance of advanced electronic devices such as solar cells and thin film transistors (TFTs). Since the formation of amorphous silicon is unavoidable in the low temperature deposition of microcrystalline silicon on a glass substrate at temperatures less than 550 degrees C in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition and hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD), crystalline silicon films have not been deposited directly on a glass substrate but fabricated by the post treatment of amorphous silicon films. In this work, by adding the HCl gas, amorphous silicon-free n-type crystalline silicon films could be deposited directly on a glass substrate by HWCVD. The resistivity of the n-type crystalline silicon film for the flow rate ratio of [HCl]/[SiH4] = 7.5 and [PH3]/[SiH4] = 0.042 was 5.31 x 10(-4) ohms cm, which is comparable to the resistivity 1.23 x 10(-3) ohms cm of films prepared by thermal annealing of amorphous silicon films. The absence of amorphous silicon in the film could be confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Theoretical elucidation on the functional role of pyrrolidine-type ionic liquids in inducing stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Dongju

    2011-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to elucidate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition of cyclohexanone with trans-β-nitrostyrene, induced by a chiral ionic liquid (CIL) pyrrolidine-imidazolium bromide. By comparison of the C-C bond forming processes in the absence and presence of Br(-) anion, we found that intermolecular H-bonds between the imidazolium cation and the nitro group of trans-β-nitrostyrene and the steric hindrance of the imidazolium cation moiety on the Si-face of enamine dominate the stereoselectivity of the Michael addition. The presence of Br(-) anion obviously reduces the barrier by increasing the polarity of the C4=C5 bond of enamine. The theoretical results rationalize well the early experimental finding, and reveal a valuable clue for the further CIL design with high catalytic efficiency.

  20. Experimental investigations of a partial Ru-O bond during the metal-ligand bifunctional addition in Noyori-type enantioselective ketone hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Satoshi; Dabral, Nupur; Miskolzie, Mark; Bergens, Steven H

    2011-06-29

    The transition state for the metal-ligand bifunctional addition step in Noyori's enantioselective ketone hydrogenation was investigated using intramolecular trapping experiments. The bifunctional addition between the Ru dihydride trans-[Ru((R)-BINAP)(H)(2)((R,R)-dpen)] and the hydroxy ketone 4-HOCH(2)C(6)H(4)(CO)CH(3) at -80 °C exclusively formed the corresponding secondary ruthenium alkoxide trans-[Ru((R)-BINAP)(H)(4-HOCH(2)C(6)H(4)CH(CH(3))O)((R,R)-dpen)]. Combined with the results of control experiments, this observation provides strong evidence for the formation of a partial Ru-O bond in the transition state.

  1. Mud and silk in the dark: A new type of millipede moulting chamber and first observations on the maturation moult in the order Callipodida.

    PubMed

    Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S; Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlike the typical silk cocoon reported for other callipodidans, this species builds a new type of solid moulting chamber, using the available substrate reinforced by a silken web. We present the detailed ultrastructure of the moulting chamber and silk. It takes five days to build the moulting chamber and between 29 (female) and 35 (male) days to shed the exuviae. The male maturation moult is preceded by an evagination of a gonopodal sac between the 6th and 7th body rings, in which the gonopods are developed. Females evaginated completely their vulval sacs, retracting them after shedding the exuviae. Vulval sac size seems to increase with the progressive reduction of the second pair of legs.

  2. Temporal Differences in the Appearance of NEP-B78 and an LBR-like Protein during Xenopus Nuclear Envelope Reassembly Reflect the Ordered Recruitment of Functionally Discrete Vesicle Types

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Sheona; Ferrigno, Paul; Lyon, Carol; Murphy, Jackie; Goldberg, Martin; Allen, Terry; Smythe, Carl; Hutchison, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we have used novel mAbs against two proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and outer nuclear membrane, termed NEP-B78 and p65, in addition to a polyclonal antibody against the inner nuclear membrane protein LBR (lamin B receptor), to study the order and dynamics of NE reassembly in the Xenopus cell-free system. Using these reagents, we demonstrate differences in the timing of recruitment of their cognate membrane proteins to the surface of decondensing chromatin in both the cell-free system and XLK-2 cells. We show unequivocally that, in the cell-free system, two functionally and biochemically distinct vesicle types are necessary for NE assembly. We find that the process of distinct vesicle recruitment to chromatin is an ordered one and that NEP-B78 defines a vesicle population involved in the earliest events of reassembly in this system. Finally, we present evidence that NEP-B78 may be required for the targeting of these vesicles to the surface of decondensing chromatin in this system. The results have important implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of nuclear envelope disassembly and reassembly during mitosis and for the development of systems to identify novel molecules that control these processes. PMID:9922450

  3. Delay-Induced Triple-Zero Bifurcation in a Delayed Leslie-Type Predator-Prey Model with Additive Allee Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli; Yu, Pei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a Leslie-type predator-prey model with ratio-dependent functional response and Allee effect on prey is considered. We first study the existence of the multiple positive equilibria and their stability. Then we investigate the effect of delay on the distribution of the roots of characteristic equation and obtain the conditions for the occurrence of simple-zero, double-zero and triple-zero singularities. The formulations for calculating the normal form of the triple-zero bifurcation of the delay differential equations are derived. We show that, under certain conditions on the parameters, the system exhibits homoclinic orbit, heteroclinic orbit and periodic orbit.

  4. Formation of Langmuir Monolayers of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at Air/Aqueous Interfaces by the Addition of Ions to the Subphase: Effect of Ion Concentration and Type.

    PubMed

    Iwafuji, Yuya; McNamee, Cathy E

    2015-09-17

    A Langmuir monolayer of bare, hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles (diameter = 75 nm) was formed at an air/pH 5.8 aqueous interface by adding salt to the subphase. The effect of the concentration and type of salt in the subphase on the surface pressure-area per particle isotherms was determined. Increasing the concentration of NaCl from 0 to 3.8 M increased the maximum surface pressure (Πmax) and shifted the isotherms to a larger area per particle. The ion type also affected the area at which the close packing commenced and the value of Πmax. The presence of salt in the subphase also stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles, suggesting that the ions in the subphase interacted with the dioxide groups on the particles. The combination of structure making or borderline ions with structure breaking ions (LiCl, MgCl2, NaCl, and CaCl2) appeared to stabilize the particulate monolayers more than the combination of structure breaking ions (KBr and KCl). These results suggested that the particles were stabilized by a hydrogen bond network between the particles or the formation of a salt bridge between the particles. Attractions between particles at the air/aqueous interface caused the particles to aggregate, resulting in the particles becoming more stable at the air/aqueous interface.

  5. Highly efficient Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrenes by whole resting cells of Escherichia coli expressing 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Narancic, Tanja; Radivojevic, Jelena; Jovanovic, Predrag; Francuski, Djordje; Bigovic, Miljan; Maslak, Veselin; Savic, Vladimir; Vasiljevic, Branka; O'Connor, Kevin E; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2013-08-01

    A novel whole cell system based on recombinantly expressed 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) was developed and shown to be an effective biocatalyst for the asymmetric Michael addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrenes. Optimal ratio of substrates (2mM β-nitrostyrenes and 20mM acetaldehyde) and biocatalyst of 5 g of cell dry weight of biocatalyst per liter was determined. Through further bioprocess improvement by sequential addition of substrate 10mM nitrostyrene biotransformation was achieved within 150 min. Excellent enantioselectivity (>99% ee) and product yields of up to 60% were obtained with β-nitrostyrene substrate. The biotransformation product, 4-nitro-3-phenyl-butanal, was isolated from aqueous media and further transformed into the corresponding amino alcohol. The biocatalyst exhibited lower reaction rates with p-Cl-, o-Cl- and p-F-β-nitrostyrenes with product yields of 38%, 51%, 31% and ee values of 84%, 88% and 94% respectively. The importance of the terminal proline of 4-OT was confirmed by two proline enriched variants and homology modeling.

  6. TEM studies of the effects of Zr additions on some HDDR-processed, high boron, NdFeB-type powders and hot-pressed magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, G.; Chapman, J. N.; Brown, D. N.; Harris, I. R.

    2000-10-01

    The transmission electron microscope has been used to study the physical and magnetic microstructures of two HDDR-processed NdFeB-type alloys, one without Zr and the other containing 1.1 at% Zr. Studies were made of the as-produced powders and the solids produced following hot-pressing at 900°C. In the HDDR powders, the principal effects of adding Zr were to reduce the average grain size by ≈ {1}/{3} and made the grain size distribution more uniform. In the hot-pressed samples, the effect of Zr was more dramatic in that grain growth was very significantly reduced. Zr-containing phases were identified and a simple model, due to Zener, used to provide a plausible explanation of how the small amount of Zr present could stabilise the grain size to ≈0.5 μm. The microstructural results correlated well with measured magnetic properties.

  7. World Trade Center Health Program; addition of certain types of cancer to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-12

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. In accordance with WTC Health Program regulations, which establish procedures for adding a new condition to the list of covered health conditions, this final rule adds to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions the types of cancer proposed for inclusion by the notice of proposed rulemaking.

  8. Contraction behaviors of Vorticella sp. stalk investigated using high-speed video camera. II: Viscosity effect of several types of polymer additives.

    PubMed

    Kamiguri, Junko; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Hidema, Ruri; Yatabe, Zenji; Shoji, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Pansu, Robert Bernard; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    The contraction process of living Vorticella sp. in polymer solutions with various viscosities has been investigated by image processing using a high-speed video camera. The viscosity of the external fluid ranges from 1 to 5mPa·s for different polymer additives such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide, and Ficoll. The temporal change in the contraction length of Vorticella sp. in various macromolecular solutions is fitted well by a stretched exponential function based on the nucleation and growth model. The maximum speed of the contractile process monotonically decreases with an increase in the external viscosity, in accordance with power law behavior. The index values approximate to 0.5 and this suggests that the viscous energy dissipated by the contraction of Vorticella sp. is constant in a macromolecular environment.

  9. Contraction behaviors of Vorticella sp. stalk investigated using high-speed video camera. II: Viscosity effect of several types of polymer additives

    PubMed Central

    Kamiguri, Junko; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Hidema, Ruri; Yatabe, Zenji; Shoji, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Pansu, Robert Bernard; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2012-01-01

    The contraction process of living Vorticella sp. in polymer solutions with various viscosities has been investigated by image processing using a high-speed video camera. The viscosity of the external fluid ranges from 1 to 5mPa·s for different polymer additives such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide, and Ficoll. The temporal change in the contraction length of Vorticella sp. in various macromolecular solutions is fitted well by a stretched exponential function based on the nucleation and growth model. The maximum speed of the contractile process monotonically decreases with an increase in the external viscosity, in accordance with power law behavior. The index values approximate to 0.5 and this suggests that the viscous energy dissipated by the contraction of Vorticella sp. is constant in a macromolecular environment. PMID:27857603

  10. Effect of the addition of cattle slurry plus different types of livestock litter to an acid soil and on the production of grass and corn crops.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez Rodríguez, Esperanza; Corti, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how the addition of cattle slurry (S), cattle slurry mixed with sawdust and lime (SL) or cattle slurry mixed with sawdust and crushed (2-4 mm) mussel shells (SM), coming from livestock litter affected the chemical properties of an acid soil and the production in a grass/corn rotation. Bulk and rhizospheric soil were analysed. With respect to the not-treated soil, all the treatments increased pH, exchangeable cations and ECEC, and decreased total N, organic C and exchangeable Al. The lowest variations were observed in S treated plots, while considerable variations occurred in the corn plots treated with SM. In this case, the soil pH reached values up to 6.7, in contrast with the S treated plots that reached pH 5.9. An increase in the concentrations of Ca, Mg and K was also observed. These effects were more evident in the rhizosphere than in the bulk. The addition of both lime and crushed shells increased production and quality of the yield. In SL and SM treated plots the total production of grass was 3.5 to 4-fold the production obtained in S plots. The total production of corn increased by 1095 kg ha(-1) in the SL-treated plots and 2559 kg ha(-1) in SM plots; almost all these increments of production were due to the augmented production of cob. We concluded that the use of crushed mussel shells can be recommended as livestock litter suitable to be distributed in acid soils.

  11. Complete reversal of muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia: Additive effects of activin type II receptor inhibition and β-2 agonist.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Penna, Fabio; Zhou, Xiaolan; Marmonti, Enrica; Betancourt, Angelica; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Han, H Q; Argilés, Josep M

    2016-04-15

    Formoterol is a highly potent β2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, which is a muscle growth promoter in many animal species. Myostatin/activin inhibition reverses skeletal muscle loss and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a combination of the soluble myostatin receptor ActRIIB (sActRIIB) and the β2-agonist formoterol in the cachectic Lewis lung carcinoma model. The combination of formoterol and sActRIIB was extremely effective in reversing muscle wasting associated with experimental cancer cachexia in mice. Muscle weights from tumor-bearing animals were completely recovered following treatment and this was also reflected in the measured grip strength. This combination increased food intake in both control and tumor-bearing animals. The double treatment also prolonged survival significantly without affecting the weight and growth of the primary tumor. In addition, it significantly reduced the number of metastasis. Concerning the mechanisms for the preservation of muscle mass during cachexia, the effects of formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be additive, since formoterol reduced the rate of protein degradation (as measured in vitro as tyrosine release, using incubated isolated individual muscles) while sActRIIB only affected protein synthesis (as measured in vivo using tritiated phenylalanine). Formoterol also increased the rate of protein synthesis and this seemed to be favored by the presence of sActRIIB. Combining formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be a very promising treatment for experimental cancer cachexia. Further studies in human patients are necessary and may lead to a highly effective treatment option for muscle wasting associated with cancer.

  12. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  13. Structure and Physical Properties of SrNiRu5O11 Single Crystals: A New Frustrated R-type Ferrite Based on Ordered Kagome Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Long, Lance; Shlyk, Larysa; Niewa, Rainer

    Single crystals of the R-type ferrite SrNiRu5O11 were grown from a chloride flux. The hexagonal crystal structure contains ruthenium located on Kagome nets, distorted due to formation of Ru-Ru dumbbells via metal-metal bonding. SrNiRu5O11 does not show long-range magnetic order down to 4.5 K. The low-temperature magnetic susceptibilities, χ⊥ and χ/ / c-axis, diverge as T-0.3, and the electric resistivity varies as T1.6 below 40 K, which is typical of non-Fermi liquid materials. This anomalous behavior might originate from the competition between residual magnetic interactions among Ni2+ (S = 1) spins and geometrical frustration on the two-dimensional Kagome lattice of Ru3+ (S = 1/2) spins. The transverse magnetoresistivity ρxy, of a SrNiRu5OSUB11 single crystal at constant temperature T = 5 K for current-magnetic-field configurations, J ⊥H || c-axis and J || H ⊥ c-axis, reveals no anomalous contribution, which is typical for non-magnetic materials. Fits of the heat capacity data below 10 K require a dominant, but unusual electronic term of the form Cel = γT1.2, which is expected for massless Dirac fermion states in topological insulators or spin liquid phases. Research at University of Kentucky supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER-45653.

  14. PHASE EQUILIBRIA INVESTIGATIONS OF BINARY, TERNARY, AND HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS. PART 2. EFFECT OF RHENIUM AND ALUMINUM ADDITIONS ON THE METAL-RICH EQUILIBRIA IN THE TITANIUM-MOLYBDENIUM-CARBON AND TITANIUM-NIOBIUM-CARBON SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The solid state phase equilibria of the metal-rich regions of the Titanium-Molybdenum-Carbon and Titanium-Niobium-Carbon systems with up to 12 At...Rhenium and 10 At.% Aluminum additions, respectively, have been determined on hot pressed, heat treated, and in part arc melted alloys. The phase ... equilibria in the metal-rich regions, with these additions, is practically unchanged over that of the ternary Titanium-Molybdenum-Carbon and Titanium

  15. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Rutten, Guy EHM; Sandbæk, Annelli; Sharp, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; van den Donk, Maureen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intensive treatment of multiple cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of early multifactorial treatment after diagnosis by screening. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel-group trial done in Denmark, the Netherlands, and the UK, 343 general practices were randomly assigned screening of registered patients aged 40–69 years without known diabetes followed by routine care of diabetes or screening followed by intensive treatment of multiple risk factors. The primary endpoint was first cardiovascular event, including cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, revascularisation, and non-traumatic amputation within 5 years. Patients and staff assessing outcomes were unaware of the practice's study group assignment. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00237549. Findings Primary endpoint data were available for 3055 (99·9%) of 3057 screen-detected patients. The mean age was 60·3 (SD 6·9) years and the mean duration of follow-up was 5·3 (SD 1·6) years. Improvements in cardiovascular risk factors (HbA1c and cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure) were slightly but significantly better in the intensive treatment group. The incidence of first cardiovascular event was 7·2% (13·5 per 1000 person-years) in the intensive treatment group and 8·5% (15·9 per 1000 person-years) in the routine care group (hazard ratio 0·83, 95% CI 0·65–1·05), and of all-cause mortality 6·2% (11·6 per 1000 person-years) and 6·7% (12·5 per 1000 person-years; 0·91, 0·69–1·21), respectively. Interpretation An intervention to promote early intensive management of patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with a small, non-significant reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events and death. Funding National Health Service Denmark, Danish Council for Strategic Research, Danish Research

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Scott, Laura J; Saxena, Richa; Voight, Benjamin F; Marchini, Jonathan L; Hu, Tianle; de Bakker, Paul I W; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Almgren, Peter; Andersen, Gitte; Ardlie, Kristin; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Bergman, Richard N; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Burtt, Noël P; Chen, Hong; Chines, Peter S; Daly, Mark J; Deodhar, Parimal; Ding, Chia-Jen; Doney, Alex S F; Duren, William L; Elliott, Katherine S; Erdos, Michael R; Frayling, Timothy M; Freathy, Rachel M; Gianniny, Lauren; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hansen, Torben; Herder, Christian; Hitman, Graham A; Hughes, Thomas E; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jørgensen, Torben; Kong, Augustine; Kubalanza, Kari; Kuruvilla, Finny G; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Lango, Hana; Lauritzen, Torsten; Li, Yun; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Marvelle, Amanda F; Meisinger, Christa; Midthjell, Kristian; Mohlke, Karen L; Morken, Mario A; Morris, Andrew D; Narisu, Narisu; Nilsson, Peter; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John R B; Pettersen, Elin; Platou, Carl; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Qin, Li; Rayner, Nigel W; Rees, Matthew; Roix, Jeffrey J; Sandbaek, Anelli; Shields, Beverley; Sjögren, Marketa; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Walker, Mark; Watanabe, Richard M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Illig, Thomas; Hveem, Kristian; Hu, Frank B; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Hattersley, Andrew T; Collins, Francis S; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David

    2008-05-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to identify variants with modest effects, we carried out meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans comprising 10,128 individuals of European descent and approximately 2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed), followed by replication testing in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. We detected at least six previously unknown loci with robust evidence for association, including the JAZF1 (P = 5.0 x 10(-14)), CDC123-CAMK1D (P = 1.2 x 10(-10)), TSPAN8-LGR5 (P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), THADA (P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P = 1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P = 4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D.

  17. Catalogue of the Primary Types of Cerylonidae, Endomychidae and Latridiidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidae) deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, with additional notes and clarification of the status of several types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A checklist with critical data is provided for all primary types of the families Cerylonidae, Endomychidae and Latridiidae deposited in the National Museum of Natural History: 48 in all. Of those, there are 43 holotypes, 3 lectotypes, and 2 neotypes. This tally includes a newly designated lectotyp...

  18. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  19. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  20. The Internet- and Digital Signature-Based Prescription Order Communication System Using Synchronized Smart Cards in the 2-Way Type Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    smart card tinder the network- and...and using their individually master smart cards are applied to all contents of the prescription stored on a patient’s slave smart card at the synchronized status in the 2-way type

  1. Neutron Diffraction Study of Parasitic Nd-Moment Order in the Checkerboard-Type Phase Nd1.3Sr0.7NiO4

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Riki; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Matsuda, Masaaki; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Ishizaka, Kyoko; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, the Nd-moment order in the layered nickelate Nd2-xSrxNiO4 (x = 0.7) has been investigated by performing a neutron diffraction experiment using a single crystal sample. First, the checkerboard (CB)-type charge order was confirmed by observing the temperature dependence of the nuclear superlattice peak at Q=(5,0,0) between 1.9 and 300 K, which indicates that the transition temperature of the CB-type charge order is above 300 K. Magnetic superlattice peaks with the propagation vector k=(1-ε,0,1) appear below 67 K, and the value of ε was determined to be 0.455 in good agreement with previous studies. The intensity of the magnetic superlattice peaks appearing below 67 K shows a sharp increase below ≈20 K. This behavior indicates that the Nd moments freeze under the influence of the Ni ordering. The CB-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) Ni order in the NiO2 layers is stacked antiferromagnetically in the c-axis direction, while the Nd moments in the Nd/SrO2 layers are coupled antiferromagnetically with the Ni moments. Finally, the Nd moments are parallel to the c-axis, while the Ni moments are canted towards the c-axis direction from the basal ab-plane at low temperatures where the Nd moments are well ordered.

  2. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  4. Evaluation report for toggle switches: Texas Instruments, Inc., Apollo-type, and Daven Measurements part number 45000-XXX, job order 32-139

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labberton, D.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental capabilities was undertaken on toggle switches and on Apollo-type toggle switches. The purpose of this evaluation was to take a first look at their tested capabilities for the purpose of determining whether the candidate hardware appears to have a good chance of successfully completing a detailed envrionmental qualification test program.

  5. Order-disorder phenomena in myelinated nerve sheaths: V. Effects of temperature on rat sciatic and optic nerves, and structural differences between the two types of nerve.

    PubMed

    Mateu, L; Luzzati, V; Vonasek, E; Mateu, E; Villegas, G M; Vargas, R

    1995-01-13

    We describe in this work X-ray scattering and electron microscope studies of rat sciatic and optic nerves as a function of temperature. The scattering experiments were analyzed as described in the previous papers of this series: a variety of parameters were determined, some of which characterize the lattice disorder, others the structure of the motif. The main results are the following. All the parameters determined by the X-ray scattering study vary with temperature and the temperature-dependence is specific for the type of nerve (sciatic or optic). Most of the disorder-related parameters display a minimum or a maximum in the vicinity of physiological temperature (38 degrees C in rat); this observation, strongly supported by the electron microscope study, shows that the degree of organization of myelin is highest near physiological temperature. The structure of the motif, as revealed by the electron density profile, is fairly different in the two types of nerves (in contrast with the assumption made by previous workers); the structure also varies with temperature and the temperature-induced alterations are nerve-type specific. In the two types of nerve the thickness of the lipid bilayer varies with temperature as expected for a lipid-containing system with hydrocarbon chains in the disordered conformation. In sciatic nerve the thickness of the (thinner) cytoplasmic polar layer, which is also the layer most affected by lattice disorder in this type of nerve, decreases dramatically with increasing temperature. In optic nerve, in which lattice disorder predominantly affects the extracellular layer, the thickness of both the cytoplasmic and the extracellular layer is barely affected by temperature.

  6. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  7. The 2nd order focusing sector field type TOF mass analyzer with an orthogonal ion acceleration for LC-IMS-MS.

    PubMed

    Poteshin, S S; Zarakovsky, A I

    2017-03-15

    Original orthogonal acceleration (OA) electrostatic sector time of flight (TOF) mass analyzer is proposed those allows the second order focusing of time of flight by initial ions position. Resolving power aberration limit exceeding 80,000 FW (full width mass peak) was shown to be obtainable for mass analyzer with the total length of flight L=133.2cm, the average ion energy 3700V and the ion energy spread of 2.5% on the entrance of sector field.

  8. Tandem Esterification/1,4-Addition-Type Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of Phenols/Naphthols with Olefinic Thioazlactones: Access to Functionalized 1,2-Dihydrobenzo[f]chromen-3-ones and 3,4-Dihydrochromen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products.

  9. In situ formation of the first proteinogenically functionalized [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– structure reveals unprecedented chemical and geometrical features of the Anderson-type cluster† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental details and additional figures are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc07004c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Bijelic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The chemistry of polyoxometalates (POMs) in a protein environment is an almost unexplored but highly relevant research field as important biological and pharmacological attributes of certain POMs are based on their interactions with proteins. We report on the A-type Anderson–Evans polyoxotungstate, [TeW6O24]6– (TEW), mediated crystallization of Coreopsis grandiflora aurone synthase (cgAUS1) using ∼0.24 mM protein and 1.0 mM TEW. The 1.78 Å crystal structure reveals the covalent binding of TEW to the protein under the formation of an unprecedented polyoxotungstate cluster, [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– (GluTEW). The polyoxotungstate–protein complex exhibits the first covalent bond between a protein and the A-type Anderson–Evans cluster, an archetype where up to now no hybrid structures exist. The polyoxotungstate is modified at two of its six addenda tungsten atoms, which covalently bind to the carboxylic oxygen atoms of glutamic acid (Glu157), leading to W–O distances of ∼2.35 Å. This ligand substitution reaction is accompanied by a reduction of the coordination number of two μ3 polyoxotungstate oxygen atoms. This is so far unique since all known hybridizations of the Anderson–Evans POM with organic units have been obtained via the functionalization of the B-type Anderson–Evans structure through its bridging oxygen atoms. The structure reported here proves the reactivity of this POM archetype's addenda atoms as it has been administered into the protein solution as a pre-assembled cluster. Moreover, the novel cluster [TeW6O24O2(Glu)]7– displays the great versatility of the Anderson–Evans POM class. PMID:27722437

  10. Structural characterization of a new vacancy ordered perovskite modification found for Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F (BaFeO{sub 2.333}F{sub 0.333}): Towards understanding of vacancy ordering for different perovskite-type ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Oliver

    2015-05-15

    The new vacancy ordered perovskite-type compound Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F (BaFeO{sub 2.33}F{sub 0.33}) was prepared by topochemical low-temperature fluorination of Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} (BaFeO{sub 2.5}) using stoichiometric amounts of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). The vacancy order was found to be unique so far for perovskite compounds, and the connectivity pattern can be explained by the formula Ba{sub 3}(FeX{sub 6/2}) (FeX{sub 5/2}) (FeX{sub 3/2}X{sub 1/1}), with X=O/F. Mössbauer measurements were used to confirm the structural analysis and agree with the presence of Fe{sup 3+} in the above mentioned coordination environments. Group–subgroup relationships were used to build a starting model for the structure solution and to understand the relationship to the cubic perovskite structure. Furthermore, a comparison of a variety of vacancy-ordered iron-containing perovskite-type structures is given, highlighting the factors which favour one structure type over the other depending on the composition. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F in comparison to other perovskite type ferrites. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F in comparison to other perovskite type ferrites. • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F was synthesized by low temperature fluorination of Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F shows a unique vacancy order not found for other perovskite type compounds. • The structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F was solved using group–subgroup relationships. • A systematic comparison to other ferrite type compounds reveals structural similarities and differences. • The A-site coordination of the cation is shown to play an important role for the type of vacancy order found.

  11. Dimensional changes in stone models simulating full crown preparations with adjacent teeth resulting from long-term immersion of medium-viscosity addition-type silicone rubber impressions in disinfectant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Iwasaki, Yukiko; Iwasaki, Eriko; Kikuchi, Hisaji; Hirose, Hideharu; Yoneyama, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    If impression materials could be immersed in disinfectant solutions for a longer period, then this form of disinfection would be easier to incorporate into dental preparation procedures. This study investigated the dimensional changes in stone models resulting from immersion of medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impression material in disinfectant solutions for 30 min and 24 h. Impressions of a master die designed to simulate a full crown preparation with adjacent teeth were immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde solutions. The dimensional changes in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions in the stone models were then measured using a three-dimensional coordinate system. It was found that the dimensional changes in the stone models caused by immersion of the impression materials were less than 15 μm. Immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde for 24 h was as clinically acceptable for medium-viscosity hydrophilic addition-type silicone rubber impressions as immersion for 30 min.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the ferroelastic phase transition of order-disorder type in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Kim, Min Soo; Lim, Kye-Young

    2016-08-01

    This study uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine the detailed changes in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4 around its phase transition at the temperature TC = 284 K. The chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame (T1ρ) were determined from 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectra. The two sets of inequivalent 1H and 13C nuclei in CH3 and CH2 were distinguished. A ferroelastic phase transition was observed at TC, without structural symmetry change. The phase transition is mainly attributed to the orientational ordering of the [N(C2H5)4]+ cations, and the spectral splitting at low temperature is associated with different ferroelastic domains.

  13. Pancreatic islet cell therapy for type I diabetes: understanding the effects of glucose stimulation on islets in order to produce better islets for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiaqiang; Jin, Ping; Wang, Ena; Liu, Eric; Harlan, David M; Li, Xin; Stroncek, David F

    2007-01-03

    While insulin replacement remains the cornerstone treatment for type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans has the potential to become an important alternative. And yet, islet transplant therapy is limited by several factors, including far too few donor pancreases. Attempts to expand mature islets or to produce islets from stem cells are far from clinical application. The production and expansion of the insulin-producing cells within the islet (so called beta cells), or even creating cells that secrete insulin under appropriate physiological control, has proven difficult. The difficulty is explained, in part, because insulin synthesis and release is complex, unique, and not entirely characterized. Understanding beta-cell function at the molecular level will likely facilitate the development of techniques to manufacture beta-cells from stem cells. We will review islet transplantation, as well as the mechanisms underlying insulin transcription, translation and glucose stimulated insulin release.

  14. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  15. Thin layer of ordered boron-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated in a novel type of electrolyte and characterized by remarkably improved photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Ryl, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method of boron doped titania nanotube arrays preparation by electrochemical anodization in electrolyte containing boron precursor - boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 C4H10O), simultaneously acting as an anodizing agent. A pure, ordered TiO2 nanotubes array, as a reference sample, was also prepared in solution containing a standard etching compound: ammonium fluoride. The doped and pure titania were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and by means of electrochemical methods. The B-doping decidedly shifts the absorption edge of TiO2 nanotubes towards the visible light region and significantly inhibits the radiative recombination processes. Despite the fact that the doped sample is characterized by 4.6 lower real surface area when compared to pure titania, it leads to the decomposition of methylene blue in 93%, that is over 2.3 times higher than the degradation efficiency exhibited by the undoped material. The formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) upon illumination significantly favours boron doped titania as a photocatalytic material. Moreover, the simple doping of TiO2 nanotubes array results in the enhancement of generated photocurrent from 120 μA/cm2 to 350 μA/cm2 registered for undoped and doped electrode, respectively.

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  17. Merging IceSAT GLAS and Terra MODIS Data in Order to Derive Forest Type Specific Tree Heights in the Central Siberian Boreal Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Kimes, Daniel; Kovacs, Katalin; Kharuk, Viatscheslav

    2006-01-01

    Mapping of boreal forest's type, biomass, and other structural parameters are critical for understanding of the boreal forest's significance in the carbon cycle, its response to and impact on global climate change. We believe the nature of the forest structure information available from MISR and GLAS can be used to help identify forest type, age class, and estimate above ground biomass levels beyond that now possible with MODIS alone. The ground measurements will be used to develop relationships between remote sensing observables and forest characteristics and provide new information for understanding forest changes with respect to environmental change. Lidar is a laser altimeter that determines the distance from the instrument to the physical surface by measuring the time elapsed between the pulse emission and the reflected return. Other studies have shown that the returned signal may identify multiple returns originating from trees, building and other objects and permits the calculation of their height. Studies using field data have shown that lidar data can provide estimates of structural parameters such as biomass, stand volume and leaf area index and allows remarkable differentiation between primary and secondary forest. NASA's IceSAT Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was launched in January 2003 and collected data during February and September of that year. This study used data acquired over our study sites in central Siberia to examine the GLAS signal as a source of forest height and other structural characteristics. The purpose of our Siberia project is to improve forest cover maps and produce above-ground biomass maps of the boreal forest in Northern Eurasia from MODIS by incorporating structural information inherent in the Terra MISR and ICESAT Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instruments. A number of forest cover classifications exist for the boreal forest. We believe the limiting factor in these products is the lack of structural

  18. 1D Current Source Density (CSD) Estimation in Inverse Theory: A Unified Framework for Higher-Order Spectral Regularization of Quadrature and Expansion-Type CSD Methods.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Pascal; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Estimation of current source density (CSD) from the low-frequency part of extracellular electric potential recordings is an unstable linear inverse problem. To make the estimation possible in an experimental setting where recordings are contaminated with noise, it is necessary to stabilize the inversion. Here we present a unified framework for zero- and higher-order singular-value-decomposition (SVD)-based spectral regularization of 1D (linear) CSD estimation from local field potentials. The framework is based on two general approaches commonly employed for solving inverse problems: quadrature and basis function expansion. We first show that both inverse CSD (iCSD) and kernel CSD (kCSD) fall into the category of basis function expansion methods. We then use these general categories to introduce two new estimation methods, quadrature CSD (qCSD), based on discretizing the CSD integral equation with a chosen quadrature rule, and representer CSD (rCSD), an even-determined basis function expansion method that uses the problem's data kernels (representers) as basis functions. To determine the best candidate methods to use in the analysis of experimental data, we compared the different methods on simulations under three regularization schemes (Tikhonov, tSVD, and dSVD), three regularization parameter selection methods (NCP, L-curve, and GCV), and seven different a priori spatial smoothness constraints on the CSD distribution. This resulted in a comparison of 531 estimation schemes. We evaluated the estimation schemes according to their source reconstruction accuracy by testing them using different simulated noise levels, lateral source diameters, and CSD depth profiles. We found that ranking schemes according to the average error over all tested conditions results in a reproducible ranking, where the top schemes are found to perform well in the majority of tested conditions. However, there is no single best estimation scheme that outperforms all others under all tested

  19. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  20. New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure: RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd–Yb)

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Provino, A.; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Morozkin, A.V.; Knotko, A.V.; Garshev, A.V.; Yapaskurt, V.O.; Isnard, O.

    2014-02-15

    Novel RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure for R=La–Ce (tP52, space group P4/nbm N 125-1) and new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure for R=Y, Sm, Gd–Yb (tP52, space group P4{sup ¯}b2N 117) that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn{sub 13}-type structure, like LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type. The CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, GdNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} and HoNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 5 K. However, the inverse paramagnetic susceptibility of LaNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} does not follow Curie–Weiss law. The DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} shows ferromagnetic-like saturation behaviour at 5 K in applied fields of 50 kOe, giving rise to a magnetic moment value of 6.5 μ{sub B}/f.u. in 50 kOe. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. - Graphical abstract: Novel (La, Ce)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure and (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb) adopt the new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure that are tetragonal derivative of NaZn{sub 13}-type structure, like LaCo{sub 9}Si{sub 4}-type. The CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, GdNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}, DyNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} and HoNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds are Curie–Weiss paramagnets down to ∼30 K, and do not order magnetically down to 4.2 K. The powder neutron diffraction study in zero applied filed indicates square modulated the c-collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of TbNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} with K=[±1/4, ±1/4, 0] wave vector below ∼10 K. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The new (La, Ce)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new CeNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure. • The new (Y, Sm, Gd–Yb)Ni{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds adopt the new YNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6}-type structure. • TbNi{sub 6}Si

  1. Ab initio molecular orbital study of substituent effects in vaska type complexes (trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X): Electron affinities, ionization potentials, carbonyl stretch frequencies, and the thermodynamics of H{sub 2} dissociative addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hasanayn, F.; Goldman, A.S.; Krogh-Jespersen, K.

    1994-10-26

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to study substituent effects in Vaska-type complexes, trans-IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (1-X) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, H, CH{sub 3}, SiH{sub 3}, OH, and SH; L = PH{sub 3}). Both the electron affinity and the ionization potential of 1-X are computed to increase upon descending the halogen series of complexes, which indicates, surprisingly, that the complexes with more electronegative halogens are more difficult to reduce and easier to oxidize. The computed electron affinity trend is consistent with the half-wave reduction potential trend known for 1-X (L = PPh{sub 3}; X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Computed carbonyl stretch frequencies for 1-X are greater than experimental values (L = PPh{sub 3}), but observed trends are well reproduced. The redox and spectroscopic trends are discussed in terms of the substituent effects on the electronic structure of 1-X, particularly as revealed in the molecular orbital energy level diagrams of these complexes. The reaction energy for H{sub 2} addition to 1-X, leading to the cis,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X (2-X) product, has been computed. After electron correlation effects are included (MP4(SDTQ)), the reaction enthalpy computed for 1-CI is {minus}18.4 kcal/mol (L = PH{sub 3}) as compared to a reported experimental value of {minus}14 kcal/mol (L = PPh{sub 3}). Compared with available experimental data, the electronic effects of L(L = PH{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, or AsH{sub 3}) and X on the thermodynamics of the H{sub 2} addition reaction are accurately reproduced by the model calculations at all levels of theory (HF and MPn). Formation of the hypothetical products cis,trans- and trans,trans-(H){sub 2}IrL{sub 2}(CO)X(2-X and 3-X) (X = BH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}, and PH{sub 2}) is used to demonstrate that {pi}-acceptor substituents promote the H{sub 2} addition reaction to 1-X while {pi}-donor substituents disfavor addition.

  2. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  5. A statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provides additional information to models analyzing single dietary factors in relation to type 2 diabetes in danish adults: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Faerch, Kristine; Lau, Cathrine; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-05-01

    Most studies analyzing diet-disease relations focus on single dietary factors rather than combining different nutrients into the same statistical model. The objective of this study was to identify dietary factors associated with the probability of having diabetes identified by screening (SDM) in Danish men and women aged 30-60 y. A specific objective was to examine whether an alternative statistical approach could provide additional information to already existing statistical approaches used in nutritional epidemiology. Baseline data from the Danish population-based Inter99 study were used. The dietary intake of 262 individuals with SDM was compared with that of 4627 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) using 2 different types of multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The first model included single dietary factors, whereas the second model was based on substitution of macronutrients. In the models with single dietary factors, high intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and coffee were inversely associated with SDM (P < 0.01), whereas high intakes of total fat and saturated fat were positively associated with SDM (P < 0.05). A modest U-shaped association was found between alcohol consumption and SDM (P = 0.10) [corrected] Results from the substitution model showed that when 3% of energy (En%) as carbohydrate replaced 3 En% fat or alcohol, the probability of having SDM decreased by 9 and 10%, respectively (P < 0.01) [corrected] No other macronutrient substitutions resulted in significant associations. Hence, the statistical approach based on substitution of macronutrients provided additional information to the model analyzing single dietary factors.

  6. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  7. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  8. Computational study of the transition state for H[sub 2] addition to Vaska-type complexes (trans-Ir(L)[sub 2](CO)X). Substituent effects on the energy barrier and the origin of the small H[sub 2]/D[sub 2] kinetic isotope effect

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hasanayn, F.; Goldman, A.S.; Krogh-Jespersen, K. )

    1993-06-03

    Ab initio molecular orbital methods have been used to study transition state properties for the concerted addition reaction of H[sub 2] to Vaska-type complexes, trans-Ir(L)[sub 2](CO)X, 1 (L = PH[sub 3] and X = F, Cl, Br, I, CN, or H; L = NH[sub 3] and X = Cl). Stationary points on the reaction path retaining the trans-L[sub 2] arrangement were located at the Hartree-Fock level using relativistic effective core potentials and valence basis sets of double-[zeta] quality. The identities of the stationary points were confirmed by normal mode analysis. Activation energy barriers were calculated with electron correlation effects included via Moller-Plesset perturbation theory carried fully through fourth order, MP4(SDTQ). The more reactive complexes feature structurally earlier transition states and larger reaction exothermicities, in accord with the Hammond postulate. The experimentally observed increase in reactivity of Ir(PPh[sub 3])[sub 2](CO)X complexes toward H[sub 2] addition upon going from X = F to X = I is reproduced well by the calculations and is interpreted to be a consequence of diminished halide-to-Ir [pi]-donation by the heavier halogens. Computed activation barriers (L = PH[sub 3]) range from 6.1 kcal/mol (X = H) to 21.4 kcal/mol (X = F). Replacing PH[sub 3] by NH[sub 3] when X = Cl increases the barrier from 14.1 to 19.9 kcal/mol. Using conventional transition state theory, the kinetic isotope effects for H[sub 2]/D[sub 2] addition are computed to lie between 1.1 and 1.7 with larger values corresponding to earlier transition states. Judging from the computational data presented here, tunneling appears to be unimportant for H[sub 2] addition to these iridium complexes. 51 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  10. Multi-agent-based Order Book Model of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, T.; Golke, S.; Paul, W.; Schneider, J. J.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a simple model for simulating financial markets, based on an order book, in which several agents trade one asset at a virtual exchange continuously. For a stationary market the structure of the model, the order flow rates of the different kinds of order types and the used price time priority matching algorithm produce only a diffusive price behavior. We show that a market trend, i.e. an asymmetric order flow of any type, leads to a non-trivial Hurst exponent for the price development, but not to "fat-tailed" return distributions. When one additionally couples the order entry depth to the prevailing trend, also the stylized empirical fact of "fat tails" can be reproduced by our Order Book Model.

  11. Patient-centred care, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk factor levels in people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: 5-year follow-up of the ADDITION-Plus trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dambha-Miller, Hajira; Cooper, Andrew J M; Simmons, Rebecca K; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Griffin, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between the experience of patient-centred care (PCC), health behaviours and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels among people with type 2 diabetes. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting 34 general practices in East Anglia, UK, delivering organised diabetes care. Participants 478 patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged between 40 and 69 years enrolled in the ADDITION-Plus trial. Main outcome measures Self-reported and objectively measured health behaviours (diet, physical activity, smoking status), CVD risk factor levels (blood pressure, lipid levels, glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, waist circumference) and modelled 10-year CVD risk. Results Better experiences of PCC early in the course of living with diabetes were not associated with meaningful differences in self-reported physical activity levels including total activity energy expenditure (β-coefficient: 0.080 MET h/day (95% CI 0.017 to 0.143; p=0.01)), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β-coefficient: 5.328 min/day (95% CI 0.796 to 9.859; p=0.01)) and reduced sedentary time (β-coefficient: −1.633 min/day (95% CI −2.897 to −0.368; p=0.01)). PCC was not associated with clinically meaningful differences in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β-coefficient: 0.002 mmol/L (95% CI 0.001 to 0.004; p=0.03)), systolic blood pressure (β-coefficient: −0.561 mm Hg (95% CI −0.653 to −0.468; p=0.01)) or diastolic blood pressure (β-coefficient: −0.565 mm Hg (95% CI −0.654 to −0.476; p=0.01)). Over an extended follow-up of 5 years, we observed no clear evidence that PCC was associated with self-reported, clinical or biochemical outcomes, except for waist circumference (β-coefficient: 0.085 cm (95% CI 0.015 to 0.155; p=0.02)). Conclusions We found little evidence that experience of PCC early in the course of diabetes was associated with clinically important changes in health

  12. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  13. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305(T)), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Mwirichia, Romano; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448(T), were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  14. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    DOE PAGES

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J.; Lu, Megan; ...

    2014-12-08

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448 T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published andmore » the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. We study phylogenomic analyses that indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. Lastly, in addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the

  15. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  16. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  17. The usage of velocity deviation log (VDL) in order to recognize porosity types and trends in permeability of the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units in the KHESHT oil field (Kazeroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshedi Pour, Amin; Lotfpour, Masoud; Enayati, Aliasghar

    2010-05-01

    Porosity value is one of the most important factors which determine the oil volume and also basis of economical or uneconomical calculation of a distinct oil field. By combining the logs, nowadays, very detailed and precise issues could be recognized, for instance we could point examining of porosity types and trends in permeability by using the velocity deviation log (VDL). Velocity devotion log which is calculated by combination sonic log with the Norton porosity or density log provides tool to obtain down hole information on the predominate pore type in carbonates the log can be use to trace the down hole distribution of digenetic processes and to estimate trends in permeability. Generally speaking, porosity and velocity have inverted relationship; nevertheless the type of porosity changes this relationship. In order to establish the velocity deviation log at first; by using the Wyllie equation, porosity log was exchanged to synthetic velocity log, acquired real velocity difference from sonic log and the acquired synthetic velocity from the porosity log is expressed as velocity deviation log. With log being deviated to left and right, the type of porosity would be identified .this method is applied for the Asmari and Jahrum reservoirs units of the Khesht oil field in Kazeroon (Fars),And in one of the wells. This log approves the boundary of Formations which is along with unconformities and even zoning whether is based on porosity value or change of lithology, and also the results which are gotten from the log have close similarities with the results of thin section studies in terms of porosity. Drawing of log and calculation of petrophysic parameters are done by Geolog software.

  18. Charge Order Induced in an Orbital Density-Wave State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent angle resolved photoemission measurements [D. V. Evtushinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 147201 (2010)] and evidence of the density-wave state for the charge and orbital ordering [J. García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107202 (2012)] in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the issue of charge and orbital ordering in a two-orbital tight-binding model for layered manganite near half doping is revisited. We find that the charge order with the ordering wavevector 2{Q} = (π ,π ) is induced by the orbital order of d-/d+-type having B1g representation with a different ordering wavevector Q, where the orbital order as the primary order results from the strong Fermi-surface nesting. It is shown that the induced charge order parameter develops according to TCO - T by decreasing the temperature below the orbital ordering temperature TCO, in addition to the usual mean-field behavior of the orbital order parameter. Moreover, the same orbital order is found to stabilize the CE-type spin arrangement observed experimentally below TCE < TCO.

  19. Addition of a single E2 binding site to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 long control region enhances killing of HPV positive cells via HPV E2 protein-regulated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-mediated suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachna; Palefsky, Joel M

    2010-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is associated with the development of anogenital cancers and their precursor lesions, intraepithelial neoplasia. Treatment strategies against HPV-induced intraepithelial neoplasia are not HPV specific and mostly consist of physical removal or ablation of lesions. We had previously designed an HPV-specific approach to kill HPV-infected cells by the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene driven by HPV E2 binding to E2-binding sites (E2BS) in the native HPV16 long control region. E2-induced TK expression renders the cells sensitive to the prodrug ganciclovir. To optimize this therapeutic approach, we modified the native long control region by adding variable numbers of E2BS adjacent to E2BS4, resulting in greatly increased cell death in HPV-positive cell lines with variable levels of E2 protein expression and no reduction in HPV specificity. Our results showed maximum increase in TK expression and cell killing when one additional E2BS was added adjacent to E2BS. As HPV-infected patients also exhibit variable E2 expression across lesions and within a lesion, this approach may potentiate the clinical utility of the herpes simplex virus type 1 TK/ganciclovir therapeutic approach.

  20. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Higher-order uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, A.

    2006-07-01

    Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

  4. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  5. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  6. Sensitivity improvement of a sandwich-type ELISA immunosensor for the detection of different prostate-specific antigen isoforms in human serum using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, Gabriela Guadalupe; Hernández-López, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    A gold millielectrode (GME) functionalized with a mixed (16-MHA + EG3SH) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used to fabricate an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunosensor for the sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker, in human serum samples. To address and minimize the issue of non-specific protein adsorption, an organic matrix (amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin) was assembled on the previously functionalized electrode surface to build up an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture: Au/16-MHA/EG3SH/amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin. The electrode was then exposed to serum samples at different concentrations of a sandwich-type immunocomplex molecule ((Btn)Ab-AgPSA-(HRP)Ab), and its interfacial properties were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Calibration curves for polarization resistance (RP) and capacitance (1/C) vs. total and free PSA concentrations were obtained and their analytical quality parameters were determined. This approach was compared with results obtained from a commercially available ELISA immunosensor. The results obtained in this work showed that the proposed immunosensor can be successfully applied to analyze serum samples of patients representative of the Mexican population.

  7. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  8. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  9. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  10. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  16. Evolution of mitochondrial gene orders in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Perseke, Marleen; Fritzsch, Guido; Ramsch, Kai; Bernt, Matthias; Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Bernhard, Detlef; Stadler, Peter F; Schlegel, Martin

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial gene orders of all previously published and two novel Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea) and Ophiura albida (Ophiuroidea) complete echinoderm mitochondrial genomes shows that all major types of rearrangement operations are necessary to explain the evolution of mitochondrial genomes. In addition to protein coding genes we include all tRNA genes as well as the control region in our analysis. Surprisingly, 7 of the 16 genomes published in the GenBank database contain misannotations, mostly unannotated tRNAs and/or mistakes in the orientation of tRNAs, which we have corrected here. Although the gene orders of mt genomes appear very different, only 8 events are necessary to explain the evolutionary history of echinoderms with the exception of the ophiuroids. Only two of these rearrangements are inversions, while we identify three tandem-duplication-random-loss events and three transpositions.

  17. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  18. Magnetic ordering in Sc2CoSi2-type R2FeSi2 (R=Gd, Tb) and R2CoSi2 (R=Y, Gd-Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Pani, M.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Sc2CoSi2-type R2TSi2 (R=Gd-Er, T=Fe, Co) compounds have been studied using magnetization data. These indicate the presence of mixed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in these compounds. One observes a ferromagnetic transition followed by an antiferromagnetic order and a further possible spin-reorientation transition at low temperatures. Compared to Gd2{Fe, Co}Si2, the Tb2FeSi2 and {Tb-Er}2CoSi2 compounds exhibit remarkable hysteresis (for e.g. Tb2FeSi2 shows residual magnetization Mres/Tb=2.45 μB, coercive field Hcoer=14.9 kOe, and critical field Hcrit 5 kOe at 5 K) possibly due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the rare earth. The R2{Fe, Co}Si2 show relatively small magnetocaloric effect (i.e. isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm) around the magnetic transition temperature: the maximal value of MCE is demonstrated by Ho2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-8.1 J/kg K at 72 K and ΔSm=-9.4 J/kg K at 23 K in field change of 50 kOe) and Er2CoSi2 (ΔSm=-13.6 J/kg K at 32 K and ΔSm=-8.4 J/kg K at 12 K in field change of 50 kOe).

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  20. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  1. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  7. Children's understanding of addition and subtraction concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K

    2009-08-01

    After the onset of formal schooling, little is known about the development of children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity. On problems of the form a+b-b (e.g., 3+26-26), if children understand the inversion concept (i.e., that addition and subtraction are inverse operations), then no calculations are needed to solve the problem. On problems of the form a+b-c (e.g., 3+27-23), if children understand the associativity concept (i.e., that the addition and subtraction can be solved in any order), then the second part of the problem can be solved first. Children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 solved both types of problems and then were given a demonstration of how to apply both concepts. Approval of each concept and preference of a conceptual approach versus an algorithmic approach were measured. Few grade differences were found on either task. Conceptual understanding was greater for inversion than for associativity on both tasks. Clusters of participants in all grades showed that some had strong understanding of both concepts, some had strong understanding of the inversion concept only, and others had weak understanding of both concepts. The findings highlight the lack of developmental increases and the large individual differences in conceptual understanding on two arithmetic concepts during the early school years.

  8. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  11. The Addition of Liquid Fructose to a Western-Type Diet in LDL-R(-/-) Mice Induces Liver Inflammation and Fibrogenesis Markers without Disrupting Insulin Receptor Signalling after an Insulin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Sangüesa, Gemma; Baena, Miguel; Hutter, Natalia; Montañés, José Carlos; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2017-03-15

    A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and liquid fructose supplementation, alone and combined, on insulin signalling and inflammation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice (LDL-R(-/-)). LDL-R(-/-) mice were fed chow or Western diet ±15% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin, and the expression of genes related to inflammation in the liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), were analysed. V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) activation was measured in the liver of the mice after a single injection of saline or insulin. None of the dietary interventions caused inflammation in vWAT, whereas the Western diet induced hepatic inflammation, which was further enhanced by liquid fructose, leading also to a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers. However, there was no change in plasma glucose or insulin, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis markers induced by a Western diet supplemented with liquid fructose in LDL-R(-/-) mice are not associated with a significant impairment of hepatic insulin signalling.

  12. The Addition of Liquid Fructose to a Western-Type Diet in LDL-R−/− Mice Induces Liver Inflammation and Fibrogenesis Markers without Disrupting Insulin Receptor Signalling after an Insulin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sangüesa, Gemma; Baena, Miguel; Hutter, Natalia; Montañés, José Carlos; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2017-01-01

    A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and liquid fructose supplementation, alone and combined, on insulin signalling and inflammation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice (LDL-R−/−). LDL-R−/− mice were fed chow or Western diet ±15% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin, and the expression of genes related to inflammation in the liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), were analysed. V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) activation was measured in the liver of the mice after a single injection of saline or insulin. None of the dietary interventions caused inflammation in vWAT, whereas the Western diet induced hepatic inflammation, which was further enhanced by liquid fructose, leading also to a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers. However, there was no change in plasma glucose or insulin, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis markers induced by a Western diet supplemented with liquid fructose in LDL-R−/− mice are not associated with a significant impairment of hepatic insulin signalling. PMID:28294959

  13. Accelerating procelain formation by incorporating a complex additive

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Dubovitskii, S.A.; Moroz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    The authors studied the influence of a complex additive consisting of oxides of calcium, zinc, and magnesium on the formaton of porcelain. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of the complex additive in the porcelain body it was incorporated in the form of water soluble salts-nitrates, which ensured comparability of results and excluded the effect of the different types of anions. The study of the main parameters of sintering (porosity, shrinkage, and mechanical strength) for the test bodies showed that they sinter at lower temperatures and attain zero porosity, maximum shrinkage, and mechanical strength. The most typical bodies indentified in this way were investigated by methods of complex differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction. Thus, the introduction of complex additives consisting of calcium, zinc, and magnesium oxides contributes to the earlier formation of porcelain. With the reduction of firing temperatures by 100/sup 0/C the authors observe an improvement in the basic properties of porcelain.

  14. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  15. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  16. 75 FR 81235 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Attendant, Pease Air National Guard Base, Newington, NH. Comments on the proposed addition were received... added to the Procurement List: Service Service Type/Location: Food Service Attendant, Pease Air...

  17. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  18. Cross-Over Study Comparing Postprandial Glycemic Increase After Addition of a Fixed-Dose Mitiglinide/Voglibose Combination or a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor to Basal Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of combination therapy consisting of basal insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) has been shown, which OHAs are the most efficient remains unclear. Material/Methods Five patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and treated with insulin degludec and metformin as a basal therapy. The patients were randomized in a cross-over fashion to receive a combination of mitiglinide (10 mg) and voglibose (0.2 mg) (M+V) 3 times daily or linagliptin (5 mg) (L) once daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 2 kinds of meal tolerance tests were performed as breakfast on 2 consecutive days. The first breakfast contained 460 kcal (carbohydrates, 49.1%; protein, 15.7%; fat, 35.2%), while the second contained 462 kcal (carbohydrates, 37.2%; protein, 19.6%; fat, 43.2%). Self-monitoring blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the meal tests, and the increase in the postprandial area under the curve (AUC)0–120 min was determined. The HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) levels were measured, and continuous glucose monitoring was performed. Results The increase in the postprandial AUC0–120 min was significantly smaller in the M+V group than in the L group after both meals. The 24-h average, 24-h standard deviations, 24-h AUC, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were similar for both groups and after both meals. The change in 1,5-AG was higher in the M+V group than in the L group. Conclusions The combination of M+V with basal therapy improved postprandial glucose excursion more effectively than L in T2DM patients. PMID:28242866

  19. Multiple additions of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60}. Preferential crystallization of the {open_quotes}para{close_quotes} double addition products C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(Pet{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, A.L.; Lee, Joong, W.; Noll, B.C.

    1994-11-09

    The authors investigated addition of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60} fullerene. Two products were observed and characterized: C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. These compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. It is suggested that many isomers of the adducts are present in the reaction liquor, but low solubility of the observed products drives the observed distribution of solid products.

  20. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  1. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  2. Are changes in glycaemic control associated with diabetes-specific quality of life and health status in screen-detected type 2 diabetes patients? Four-year follow up of the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, L; Long, G H; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions that improve HbA1c levels do not necessarily improve health-related quality of life (QoL). This issue may be particularly relevant in asymptomatic diabetes patients detected earlier in the course of the disease. Methods HbA1c, diabetes-specific QoL (ADDQoL) and health status were measured in 510 screen-detected diabetes patients from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial at 1 and 5 years post diagnosis. Multivariable logistic/linear regression was used to quantify the longitudinal association between change in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years and ADDQoL and health status at 5 years, adjusting for age, sex, education and trial group; alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, plasma vitamin C, HbA1c, ADDQoL or health status at 1 year, and glucose-lowering medication at 5 years. Results From 1 to 5 years, median HbA1c interquartile range increased from 6.3% (5.9–6.8) to 6.8% (6.4–7.4); the median ADDQoL score and mean health status physical health summary score decreased from -0.4 (-1 to -0.08) to -0.5 (-1.08 to -0.09) (suggesting an adverse impact of diabetes on QoL) and by -0.79 (8.94) points, respectively. Increases in HbA1c were independently associated with reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.85) but not with the health status summary scores. Conclusions Increases in HbA1c from 1 to 5 years post-diagnosis were independently associated with increased odds of reporting a negative impact of diabetes on QoL. While our results suggest that efforts to reduce HbA1c do not adversely affect health-related QoL, large numbers of participants still report a negative impact of diabetes on their QoL 5 years post-diagnosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817063

  3. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  4. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  5. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6865 for an additional 20-year period....

  6. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7766; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6856; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6856 for an additional 20-year period....

  7. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6947 for an additional 20-year period....

  8. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6912 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  9. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6881 for an additional 20-year period....

  10. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This Order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6928 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  11. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6886 for an additional 20-year period....

  12. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6861 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  13. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6857 for an additional 20-year period....

  14. 78 FR 22281 - Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7810; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6963; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6963, as amended, for an additional...

  15. 77 FR 47665 - Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7794; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6941; Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6941 for an additional 20-year period....

  16. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7808; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6965; AK AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order (PLO) No. 6965 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  17. 76 FR 12131 - Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7759; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6833; Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6833 for an additional 20-year period....

  18. 75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6797 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  19. 76 FR 59736 - Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7778; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6876; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6876 for an additional 20-year period....

  20. 75 FR 63856 - Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7753; Extension of Public Land Order No. 7464; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order further extends the duration of the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 7464 for an additional...

  1. 75 FR 77658 - Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7754; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6818, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends the withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6818 for an additional 20-year period. This extension...

  2. 75 FR 443 - Public Land Order No. 7738; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6760, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-50818; 10-08807; MO:4500011433; TAS:14X1109] Public Land Order No. 7738; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6760, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public land order. SUMMARY: This order extends a withdrawal created by Public Land Order No. 6760 for an additional 20-year...

  3. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  4. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  5. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  6. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  7. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  8. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 316.505 Ordering. (b)(5) The HHS...

  9. 48 CFR 916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ordering. 916.505 Section 916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.505 Ordering. (b)(6)(i) The Director,...

  10. 48 CFR 916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ordering. 916.505 Section 916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.505 Ordering. (b)(6)(i) The Director,...

  11. 48 CFR 916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ordering. 916.505 Section 916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.505 Ordering. (b)(6)(i) The Director,...

  12. 48 CFR 916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ordering. 916.505 Section 916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.505 Ordering. (b)(6)(i) The Director,...

  13. 48 CFR 916.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ordering. 916.505 Section 916.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.505 Ordering. (b)(6)(i) The Director,...

  14. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  16. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  17. Preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous perovskite-type lanthanum-iron-oxide LaFeO{sub 3} with tunable pore diameters: High porosity and photonic property

    SciTech Connect

    Sadakane, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Kato, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Keisuke; Ueda, Wataru

    2010-06-15

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) lanthanum-iron-oxide (LaFeO{sub 3}) with different pore diameters was prepared using a colloidal crystal of polymer spheres with different diameters as templates. Ethylene glycol-methanol mixed solution of metal nitrates was infiltrated into the void of the colloidal crystal template of a monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sphere. Heating of this PMMA-metal salt-ethylene glycol composite produced the desired well-ordered 3DOM LaFeO{sub 3} with a high pore fraction, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mercury (Hg) porosimetry, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra. 3DOM LaFeO{sub 3} with pore diameters of 281 and 321 nm shows opalescent colors because of photonic stop band properties. Catalytic activity of the 3DOM LaFeO{sub 3} for combustion of carbon particles was enhanced by a potassium cation, which was involved from K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} used as a polymerization initiator. - Graphical abstract: Well-ordered three-dimensionally ordered macroporous LaFeO{sub 3} materials with pore sizes ranging from 127 to 321 nm were obtained in a high pore fraction.

  18. Development of autoclave moldable addition-type polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Zakrzewski, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chemistry and processing modifications of the poly(Diels Alder) polyimide (PDA) resin were performed to obtain structural composites suitable for 589 K (600 F) service. This work demonstrated that the PDA resin formulation is suitable for service at 589 K (600 F) for up to 125 hours when used in combination with Hercules HTS graphite fiber. Sandwich panels were autoclave molded using PDA/HTS skins and polyimide/glass honeycomb core. Excellent adhesion between honeycomb core and the facing skins was demonstrated. Fabrication ease was demonstrated by autoclave molding three-quarter scale YF-12 wing panels.

  19. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  20. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  1. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  2. 76 FR 12971 - Anastasios Pappas: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    .... Pappas placed three orders for a total of six vials of botulinum toxin type A (TRI-toxin) from Toxin... for conduct relating to the regulation of a drug product under the FD&C Act and that the type of... regulation of drug products under the FD&C Act and if FDA finds that the type of conduct that served as...

  3. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  4. ASDC Ordering Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-08

    ... Ordering requires login , searching does not. Projects by science discipline: Aerosols | Clouds | Radiation Budget ... Tropospheric Composition | Field Campaigns All projects Details:  ASDC Ordering Tool ...

  5. Quantum mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics: an insight gleaned from magnetic hysteresis in the first order phase transition of an isolated mesoscopic-size type I superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Peter D.

    2012-11-01

    J Bardeen proposed that the adiabatic phase transition of mesoscopic-size type I superconductors must be accompanied by magnetic hysteresis in the critical magnetic field of sufficient magnitude to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics, herein referred to as ‘Bardeen Hysteresis’. Bardeen Hysteresis remains speculative in that it has not been reported in the literature. This paper investigates Bardeen Hysteresis as a possible accompaniment to the adiabatic phase transition of isolated mesoscopic-size type I superconductors and its implications with respect to the second law of thermodynamics. A causal mechanism for Bardeen Hysteresis is discussed which contrasts with the long accepted causal mechanism of magnetic hysteresis, as first summarized by Pippard, herein referred to as ‘Pippard Hysteresis’. The paper offers guidance for an experimental verification and comments on how the existence of Bardeen Hysteresis has relation to a quantum mechanical basis for the second law of thermodynamics.

  6. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nycz, Andrzej; Adediran, Adeola I; Noakes, Mark W; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  7. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  8. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  9. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  10. The evolution of perioperative transfusion testing and blood ordering.

    PubMed

    White, Marissa J; Hazard, Sprague W; Frank, Steven M; Boyd, Joan S; Wick, Elizabeth C; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of modern anesthesia and surgical practices has been accompanied by enhanced supportive procedures in blood banking and transfusion medicine. There is increased focus on the preparation and the use of blood components including, but not limited to, preventing unnecessary type and screen/crossmatch orders, decreasing the time required to provide compatible red blood cells (RBCs), and reducing the waste of limited blood and personnel resources. The aim of this review is to help the anesthesiologist and surgical staff identify patients at highest risk for surgical bleeding. In addition, this review examines how anesthesia and transfusion medicine can efficiently and safely allocate blood components for surgical patients who require transfusions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library from January 1970 through March 2014. Subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles were also assessed. Several innovations have drastically changed the procedures by which blood is ordered, inventoried, and the speed in which blood is delivered for patient care. Before entering an operating room, patient blood management provides guidance to clinicians about when and how to treat preoperative anemia and intra- and postoperative strategies to limit the patient's exposure to blood components. Timely updates of the recommendations for blood orders (maximum surgical blood ordering schedule) have enhanced preoperative decision making regarding the appropriateness of the type and screen versus the type and crossmatch order. The updated maximum surgical blood ordering schedule reflects modern practices, such as laparoscopy, improved surgical techniques, and use of hemostatic agents resulting in a more streamlined process for ordering and obtaining RBCs. The electronic (computer) crossmatch and electronic remote blood issue have also dramatically reduced the amount of time required to obtain crossmatch-compatible RBCs

  11. A novel second-order non-linear optical coordination polymer with three-fold interpenetrated CdSO{sub 4}-type network constructed by carboxylate–sulfonate ligands and strontium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Lei; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-15

    A novel strontium carboxylate–sulfonate coordination polymer, [Sr(HSIP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n·}nH{sub 2}O (1) (NaH{sub 2}SIP=5-sulfoisophthalic monosodium salt) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It was characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. Each strontium atom is eight-coordinate with a distorted bicapped trigonal prismatic arrangement. The whole HSIP{sup 2−} ligand acts as a η{sup 5}μ{sup 4} bridge to generate three-fold interpenetrated CdSO{sub 4}-type network structure, which is constructed from the left- and right-handed helixes paralleled to each other bridged by the HSIP{sup 2−} ligands. The luminescence spectrum indicates an emission maximum at 459 nm. Compound 1 shows a second harmonic generation (SHG) response that is 4 times that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The whole HSIP{sup 2−} ligands act as η{sup 5}μ{sup 4} bridges with strontium ions, and the strontium ion is eight-coordinated, showing a distorted bicapped trigonal prism geometry. - Highlights: • A novel coordination polymer with a CdSO{sub 4}-type network structure was synthesized. • It shows a second harmonic generation response that is 4 times that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. • It is constructed from the helixes paralleled to each other.

  12. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  13. Conjugate addition-enantioselective protonation reactions.

    PubMed

    Phelan, James P; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes represents one of the more general and commonly used strategies for the convergent assembly of more complex structures from simple precursors. In this review the addition of diverse protic and organometallic nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes followed by enantioselective protonation is summarized. Reactions are first categorized by the type of electron-deficient alkene and then are further classified according to whether catalysis is achieved with chiral Lewis acids, organocatalysts, or transition metals.

  14. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  15. A novel second-order non-linear optical coordination polymer with three-fold interpenetrated CdSO4-type network constructed by carboxylate-sulfonate ligands and strontium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    A novel strontium carboxylate-sulfonate coordination polymer, [Sr(HSIP)(H2O)3]n·nH2O (1) (NaH2SIP=5-sulfoisophthalic monosodium salt) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It was characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. Each strontium atom is eight-coordinate with a distorted bicapped trigonal prismatic arrangement. The whole HSIP2- ligand acts as a η5μ4 bridge to generate three-fold interpenetrated CdSO4-type network structure, which is constructed from the left- and right-handed helixes paralleled to each other bridged by the HSIP2- ligands. The luminescence spectrum indicates an emission maximum at 459 nm. Compound 1 shows a second harmonic generation (SHG) response that is 4 times that of KH2PO4.

  16. Multiple ordering in magnetite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, J. R.; Callen, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a self-consistent band calculation of the ground-state energy and charge orderings based on a tight-binding scheme in magnetite are presented. They show that below a critical (about 2.2) value of the ratio of interatomic Coulomb energy to bandwidth the lowest energy state has no order. Between this critical value and 2.5, the preferred state is multiply ordered.

  17. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  18. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  19. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional parties. 955.91 Section 955.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 955.91 Section 955.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...